Samuel Tuke (reformer)  

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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.
Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.
For the 17th century playwright of the same name, see Samuel Tuke (playwright).

Samuel Tuke (31 July 1784, York, England – 14 October 1857) was a Quaker philanthropist and mental-health reformer.

He greatly advanced the cause of the amelioration of the condition of the insane, and devoted himself largely to the York Retreat. The methods of treatment pursued there were made more widely known by his Description of the Retreat near York. In this work Samuel Tuke referred to the Retreat's methods as moral treatment, borrowed from the French "traitement moral" being used to describe the work of Pussin and Pinel in France (and in the original French referring more to morale in the sense of the emotions and self-esteem, rather than rights and wrongs). Samuel Tuke also published Practical Hints on the Construction and Economy of Pauper Lunatic Asylums (1815).

Samuel was part of a Quaker family. He was the son of Henry Tuke and the grandson of William Tuke, who founded the York Retreat. Samuel Tuke's two sons James Hack Tuke and Daniel Hack Tuke were also active in humanitarian concerns.

The Retreat still provides mental healthcare for the population of York and the wider community. Samuel Tuke can be found buried in the Quaker cemetery within the hospital grounds.

Unless indicated otherwise, the text in this article is either based on Wikipedia article "Samuel Tuke (reformer)" or another language Wikipedia page thereof used under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License; or on original research by Jahsonic and friends. See Art and Popular Culture's copyright notice.

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