The Epigrams  

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{{Template}} The Epigrams, published in Rome between AD 86 and 103 are a series of epigrams by Latin poet Martial.

Martial's keen curiosity and power of observation are manifested in his epigrams. The enduring literary interest of Martial's epigrams arises as much from their literary quality as from the colorful references to human life that they contain. Martial's epigrams bring to life the spectacle and brutality of daily life in imperial Rome, with which he was intimately connected.

From Martial, for example, we have a glimpse of living conditions in the city of Rome:

"I live in a little cell, with a window that won't even close,
In which Boreas himself would not want to live."
Book VIII, No. 14. 5-6.

As Jo-Ann Shelton has written, "fire was a constant threat in ancient cities because wood was a common building material and people often used open fires and oil lamps. However, some people may have deliberately set fire to their property in order to collect insurance money." Martial makes this accusation in one of his epigrams:

"Tongilianus, you paid two hundred for your house;
An accident much common in this city destroyed it.
You collected ten times more. Doesn't it seem, I pray,
That you set fire to your own house, Tongilianus?"
Book III, No. 52

Martial also pours scorn on the doctors of his day:

"I felt a little ill and called Dr. Symmachus.
Well, you came, Symmachus, but you brought 100 medical students with you.
One hundred ice-cold hands poked and jabbed me.
I didn't have a fever, Symmachus, when I called you –but now I do.
Book V, No. 9

Martial's epigrams also refer to the extreme cruelty shown to slaves in Roman society. Below, he chides a man named Rufus for flogging his cook for a minor mistake:

"You say that the rabbit isn't cooked, and ask for the whip;
Rufus, you prefer to carve up your cook than your rabbit."
Book III, No. 94

Martial's epigrams are also characterized by their biting and often scathing sense of wit as well as for their lewdness; this has earned him a place in literary history as the original insult comic. Below is a sample of his more insulting work:

"You feign youth, Laetinus, with your dyed hair
So suddenly you are a raven, but just now you were a swan.
You do not deceive everyone. Proserpina knows you are grey-haired;
She will remove the mask from your head."
Book III, No. 43
"Rumor tells, Chiona, that you have never been fucked
and that nothing is purer than your cunt.
Nevertheless, you do not bathe with the correct part covered:
if you have the decency, move your panties onto your face."
Book III, No. 87
"'You are a frank man', you are always telling me, Cerylus.
Anyone who speaks against you, Cerylus, is a frank man."
Book I, No. 67
"Eat lettuce and soft apples eat:
For you, Phoebus, have the harsh face of a shitting man."
Book III, No. 89

Full text volume 1[1]




















HOOK IT-- . T 229

BOOK v 293

BOOK vi 357



AN epigram, as its etymology denotes, was originally merely an inscription, such as is put on a statue or a monument, a temple, or a triumphal arch. 1 But in process of time it came to mean ;i short poem dealing with some .person, thing, or incident which the writer thinks worthy of observation and record, and by which he seeks to attract attention in the same way as a passer-by would be attracted by an inscription on a physical object. " It must have," says Professor Mackail, " the compression and conciseness of a real inscription, and in proportion to the smallness of its bulk must be highly finished, evenly balanced, simple, lucid." The comment of the writer on the subject-matter of the epigram is called the point, and this is generally satirical " Dost thou think," says Benedick, 2 " I care fora satire or an epigram ?"- but it is not necessarily so : it may even be pathetic.

Martial has several poems 3 which by reason of their length are not strictly epigrams within the definition.

1 Even as a brand on the forehead of a runaway slave (FUG) : Petr. ciii. - Shak. Much Ado, v. iv. 103.

3 t.g. HI. Iviii. ; x. xxx.


But these are of the nature of epigrams, being written in order to lead up to the point at the end.

Marcus Valerius Martialis, the greatest of epigram- matists, and the father of the epigram as we understand it, was born at Bilbilis, or Augusta l Bilbilis, in Hispania Tarraconensis. The town stood on a rocky height surrounded by the rushing Salo, a confluent of the Ebro, and was a municipium celebrated for the manufacture of iron, to which the cold waters of the Salo gave a peculiar temper. It also produced gold. 2 The year of the poet's birth cannot be fixed with certainty, but it was one of the years A.D. 38 to 41. It has been inferred from one of his epigrams 3 that his parents were named Pronto and Flaccilla. Though they were probably not rich, they gave the future poet a good education, a fact he afterwards acknowledges * some- what bitterly, having regard to its uselessness in that corrupt age as a means of making money. About A.D. 63 or 64 he came to Rome in the last days of Nero, and attached himself to his countrymen Quintilian, Lucan the poet, and the Senecas, who introduced him to the Pisos. The ruin and death of Seneca the philosopher and of Lucan, for partici- pation in the abortive conspiracy of L. Calpurnius

1 cf. x. ciii. 1. 2 xn. xviii. 9.

3 v. xxxiv. 1. 4 In ix. Ixxiii. 7.



Piso in A.I). 65 threw Martial on his own resources. Quintilian seems to have advised him to take up a profession/ perhaps the bar, but Martial preferred, as he says, to make the most of life while he could, a note which he strikes consistently throughout his writings.

Of his life up to A.D. 84 or 85, the date of the publication of Book I. of his epigrams, we know nothing. In A.D. 80, however, the collection known as the Liber Spectaculorum was published to cele- brate the opening of the Colosseum by Titus. On the strength of this book, and the Xenia and Apophoreta (Books XIII. and XIV.) which were issued in A.D. 84 or 85, or of other writings that have not come down to us, Martial by A.D. 85 enjoyed an assured position as a poet, as he himself says, 2 "known all over the world," and equally widely plagiarised.

At Rome he remained continuously for thirty-five years, and here all his books were published except Book III., which was issued from Gallia Cisalpina, whither he had gone in a fit of spleen at the poor rewards of literature. 3 In Book I. he speaks of him- self 4 as living in a garret up three high flights of

1 cf. n. xc. - cf. i. i. 2.

3 cf. in. iv. 8. * cf. i. cxvii. 7.



stairs. Later on, by A.D. 94, he had a house of his own in the same quarter, the Quirinal, and a country villa at Nomentum, 1 which according to his own account was a poor place. Whether these houses were purchased or given to him is unknown. During his thirty-five years' sojourn he led the ordinary life of the needy client dependent on rich patrons, and he never ceases to complain of the weariness of levees to be attended, complimentary duties to be discharged at unreasonable hours and in all weathers- and of the insolence and stinginess of wealthy men. Yet he was not without compensations. Domitian rejected his petition for a sum of money, but he received from Titus the jus trium liberorum, a right confirmed by Domitian, and the tribunatus semestrix, a kind of honorary tribuneship carrying with it the title of a knight. 2 Moreover, he mixed in the best society in the capital, numbering among his friends Quintilian, the poets Silius and Valerius Flaccus, the younger Pliny, and Juvenal. That Martial was capable of a very sincere and lusting friendship is shown by many of his epigrams. It is curious that he never mentions Statius, nor is he mentioned by him. At the end of his thirty-five years' residence in

1 cf. ix. xviih -2.

cf. in. xcv. 9, 10 ; ix. xcvii. 5.


Rome, either as recognizing the fact that the new regime under Nerva or Trajan was not favourable to adulation of emperors, or from that general weariness of City life of which he complains, and a longing to see again the patrii anmes and the saturae xordida rura casae of his native Bilbilis on the rough hill-side, he returned in A.D. 100 to Spain. The means of travel were supplied by Pliny, as Pliny tells us, 1 from friendliness towards the poet, and in recompense for the complimentary verses 2 Martial had written upon him. Three years afterwards Book XII. was sent from Spain. In the meantime a Spanish lady, Marcella, of whom he writes with great affection, 3 and whom some have supposed to be his wife, gave him a country house, where he lived until his death. "She," he says, "alone made a Rome for him." But the delights and the freedom of the country, of which at first he speaks exultingly, began to pall upon him, and this fact and the narrow-minded jealousy 4 of his neighbours made him look back fondly to- wards the fuller life of the Imperial City. But he was destined never to see it again. His death cannot be dated later than A.D. 104.

1 Ep. iii. 21. 2 rf. x. xix.

3 cf. xn. xxi. and xxxi. * cj\ xii. K/iial.



Whether Martial was married is uncertain. In several epigrams l he speaks as if he had a wife, and in two 2 (and those of the foulest) he assumes to address her. Again, a daughter is alluded to in one epigram, and perhaps in two, 3 for the read- ing is uncertain. A writer, however, does not always speak in his own person, and also (as Martial did 4 ) sometimes writes on a subject sub- mitted to him. In other epigrams 5 the poet speaks of a wife as an aspiration of the future, and, as Professor Sellar says, " the general tone of his epi- grams is that of an easy-living bachelor who knew nothing of the cares or consolations of family life." The probability is that he was never married, and it may be said with some degree of certainty that he had no children ; for the poet who touched so tenderly on the deaths of Erotion, Urbicus, and Canace, and who showed so loving a disposition towards the young and the helpless, could not have been silent if he had had children of his own.

Pliny says 6 of him, " I hear that Valerius Martialis is dead, and I am sorry. He was a man of genius,

] cf. iv. xxiii. 2 ; vn. xcv. 7 ; xi. Ixxxiv. 15. - xi. xliii. and civ.

3 cf. vii. xcv. 8; x. Ixv. 11. 4 cf. xi. xlii. 1.

s n. xc. 9 ; ii. xcii. * Ep. iii. 21.


of subtle, quick intelligence, and one who in his writings showed the greatest amount of wit and pungency, and no less of fairness. . . . But it may be said his writings will not last. Perhaps they will not, but he wrote as if they would." The quality of candor which Pliny emphasises agrees with what Martial claimed l for himself. " I spare the person, I denounce the vice." Much of his work is poor, and some of it even stupid, as might have been expected in an author with so large an output. And indeed he says himself that, to con- stitute a book, the good must be mixed with the bad and the indifferent 2 : "the equal book," he says, 3 " is the bad one." But Martial at his best is without a rival. If the highest form of art be to conceal art, then he was a consummate artist. The point, whether dependent on a pun, or an ambiguous phrase, on a new meaning given to a word, or an antithesis, or Trapa TrpovSoKtav, is sharply brought out. And the words fall into their places with a fitness that suggests the solution of a puzzle : the reader feels that no other words could have been employed. He is never turgid or pompous : all he touches with a light hand. A

1 cf. x. xxxiii. 10 ; vu. xii. 2 cf. I. xvi. ; vri.- Ixxxi. 3 cf. vu. xc. 4.


master of terse and pregnant phrase, he has left us lines that linger in the memory, such as perdideril indium vita reversa diem ; vivere bis vifrt est posse priorc fnti ; non est vivere, scd valerc vita ; cineri gloria sera venit ; aestate pueri si valenl, .satis discitnt ; non bene servo servitur amico ; sera minis vita esl crastina, vive. hodie and many others ; and above them all that tender sigh for the shortness of mortality, which has framed a thousand dials, and has from the Temple walls reminded many a generation of lawyers of the fleeting hours, pereunt et imputantnr.

Life was his subject, not outworn mythologies or tragic bombast. 1 And what a medley of detail that life presents ! Fops, fortune-hunters and dinner-touters, dabblers and busybodies, orators and lawyers, school- masters, street hawkers, barbers, cobblers, jockeys, architects, auctioneers, debtors, bores, quidnuncs, doc- tors, plagiarists, hypocritical philosophers, poisoners, jugglers and acrobats, the slave who has become a knight, or the knight without a qualification, per- sonal peculiarities, the faults and vices of fashionable life. He describes a gown or a cup, a picture or a statue, a rich debauchee's banquet, the courses of a dinner, or the produce of a farm, a greenhouse, a triumphal arch, a lion in the amphitheatre, a 1 cf. iv. xlviii. 7, 8 ; x. iv. 7 -12.


suburban or country villa, a private bath, a beauti- ful slave, the noises, duties, and distractions of the town, its topography, the parties, theatres, public games, exercise grounds, the baths and the Satur- nalia. He gives us a birthday or a marriage poem, the eulogy of a friend or of a Roman matron, the praise of conjugal or of fraternal love, or of a life well spent, the elements of a happy life, the death of a good man, epitaphs, verses on the eruption of Vesuvius, on a fragment of the Argo, or on an insect embedded in amber. The list might be indefinitely prolonged.

No account of the work of Martial would be com- plete without two features being touched upon which have darkened his fame, namely his indecency, and his adulation of Domitian. With regard to the first, however, of the 1171 epigrams in the first twelve books, those open to objection do not exceed a fourth, and if the 350 epigrams in Books XIII. and XIV. be included, the proportion is still smaller. On the other hand, of the objectionable epigrams the greater part are indescribably foul. But it should not be inferred that Martial was a peculiarly immoral man. " My page is wanton," he says, 1 " my life is good." And borrowing the excuse made by 1 cf. i, iv. 8.




his master Catullus, he says l that jocosa carmina cannot please without prurience. That was as much a feature of sportive epigrams as the nudity of the performers at the Festival of Flora, and to \vrite licentious verse was, as Pliny tells us, 2 fashionable with summi et gramssimi viri. A notable example of the outspoken indecency in which even Augustus indulged is to be found in xi. xx. 3 As an epigram- matist Martial had to adapt himself to the manners of his age or starve.

The poet's adulation of Domitian sounds to modern ears shameless and disgusting. But it must be re- membered that the title " deus " was an official one, and it would have been dangerous in those critical times to omit it. Moreover, Martial had to live ; the patronage of the Emperor and of his suite was essential, and Martial had to pay the price of recognition. A modern scholar, Professor Verrall, has sought 4 to exculpate him on the ground that " the worship of the Emperor was the best and truest form which religion took in that ' inter-religious ' period . . . When [the provincials] called the Emperor 'deus' they took the simplest way of saying that the Empire

1 cf. I. xxxv. 11 ; following Cat. xvi. 9.

  • Ep. iv. xiv. 4. He gives a long list of such authors in v. iii.

1 All epigrams possible of translation by the use of dashes or paraphrases have been rendered in English, the wholly impossible ones only in Italian. 4 Literary Estaya, 8.


deserved from them, as human beings, gratitude and veneration. And so it did." But Martial, unfor- tunately for his future fame, has deprived himself of this excuse. His changed tone after the accession of Nerva and Trajan l shows that his previous flattery of Domitian was insincere. In fact, inferentially he admits it.

The terseness and vividness of Martial's style makes the interpretation of particular words in readable English at times peculiarly difficult. To explain a phrase is easy, to translate it is often hard. And the commentators, even the most noted of them, often fail to bring out the point. Two instances only may be given. In an epigram 2 which Pliny possibly had in his mind when he summed up Martial's style in a passage already quoted the poet, criticising another poet, says that his rival's epigrams were cerussata candidiora cute. Here the epithet candidiora has to do service, not only in comparison with the physical feature of a white-leaded skin, but also in comparison with the style of epigram, which should contain wit and gall. Again, in another epigram 3 he speaks of the viva quies ponti. This, conversely put, is exactly Tennyson's " such a tide as moving seems

1 cf. x. Ixxii. ; XI. iv. and v.

2 vii. xxv. 3 x. xxx. 12.


asleep." But Tennyson has used seven words, Martial only three.

Of the poet's personal appearance we know- nothing beyond the slight sketch he has himself drawn, 1 where, comparing himself with an effeminate fop, he alludes to his " stiff Spanish hair/ ' and his " hairy legs and cheeks."

The dust of Martial has mingled this many a year with the soil of his native land, and over it has passed unregarding the life of the centuries, the Visigoth, the Moor, and the Spaniard ; and of the stones of Bilbilis none survive save in the structure of a Moorish city. 2 The written word, as he has told us, 3 is the only memorial that cannot die. His writings have lived, as he prophesied, when the stones of Messalla have been sundered by the wild fig, 4 the towering marble of Licinus has fallen in dust, 5 the work of Apelles has perished. 6 And they will continue to live so long as the finest literary art shall be held worthy to be had in remembrance, and the classics be read and loved.

7 FIG TREE COURT, TEMPLE. April 22, 1919.

1 cf. x. Ixv. 7, 9.

2 Calatayud (Job's Castle) two miles E.

3 cf. x. ii. 12. * cf. x. ii. 9 ; viu. iii. 5. 5 cf. viu. iii. 6. 8 cf. vii. Ixxxiv. 8.




THE acknowledgment of the translator is due to Messrs. George Bell & Sons for kind permission to use the text of Martial as published in their Corpus Poetarum Latinomm (1905). According to the learned editor of this text the MSS. of Martial may be divided into three families :

The first is represented by H in the Vienna Library ; R in the Leyden Library, both of the 9th century ; and T (a transcript of H, and supplementing it) of the 9th-10th century in the Paris Library.

The agreement of T and R is in the following pages denoted by the letter o.

The second family is represented by L (13th century), discovered at Lucca, and now at Berlin ; by P (15th century) at the Vatican ; by Q (loth century) in the British Museum ; and by f (15th century) in the Laurentian Library at Florence. These MSS. contain the text as emended by Torquatus Gennadius, A.D. 401. The agreement of these codices is denoted by /8.

The third family is represented by E (10th century) in the Advocates' Library at Edinburgh; by X (10th century) in the Paris Library ; by A (llth century) at Leyden ; and by V (10th century) at the Vatican. These are the four best, their agreement being denoted by 7.

Of the same family are B (12th century) at Leyden ; C (14th century) also at Leyden ; and G (12th century) at Wolfenblittel.

Recent codices, not dependent on old recensions, but often giving true emendations, are denoted by $-.


Among the editions are the following. A fuller list will be found in Brunet's Manuel du Libraire (Paris, 1862) :

1. The Variorum Edition with the notes of T. Farnabius and others, edited by Corn. Schrevelius, Lugd. Bat. 1661.


2. The Delphin Edition by Vine. Collesso, with a para- phrase and variorum notes, Paris, 1680, 1823. Published by command of Louis XIV.

3. An edition, containing old and new notes and occasional Greek versions, by five Professors of the French Academy, Lemaire, Paris, 1825.

4. An edition by F. G. Schneidewin, Grimae, 1842

5. Select Epigrams of Martial, with English notes by F. A. Paley and W. H. Stone ("Grammar School Classics"), Whittaker & Co. and George Bell, 1868. A useful and handy edition.

6. The Epigrams of Martial, with explanatory notes by L. Friedlander, Leips. 1886, 2 vols. A standard edition.

7. Selected Epigrams of Martial, edited, with introduction, notes, and appendices, by Rev. H. M. Stephenson, Mac- millan, 1880-1895.

8. Select Epigrams of Martial, edited according to the text of Prof. Lindsay, by R. T Bridge and E. D. C. Lake, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1908, 2 vols.

There is a good introduction by Prof. Sellar in Extracts from Martial, Edinburgh, 1884 ; and a valuable discussion of the epigrams in Lessing's Prose Works.


An English prose translation (the obscene epigrams being, however, in Graglia's Italian) is published in Bonn's "Classical Library." The versions are not unsatisfactory as regards correctness, but the style in the case of the more serious epigrams often falls below the dignity of the subject. A selection of 150 epigrams has also been translated, with an introduction and notes, by Alfred S. West ( Wit and Wisdom from Martial, Hampstead Priory Press, 1912).

Among verse translations are : a MS. of the age of Eliza- beth ; Thomas May, poet and playwright, 1629 ; R. Fletcher, J656 ; Anon. 1695 ; J. Hughes, 1737 ; William Hay, M.P. for Seaford, 1755 ; Wright, 1763; E. B. Greene, 1774. Specimens of the preceding and of many others will be found in the Bohn Martial. Other translators are W. F. Shaw (Juvenal, Persius, Martial and Catullus, an experiment in translation, 1882), forty-three epigrams in unrhymed trochaics, a close ren- dering, the metre being, however, sometimes rugged ; Goldwin


Smith (Bay Leaves, Toronto, 1890), anonymously ; W. T. Courthope (Selections Translated or Imitated in English Verse, Murray, 1914) ; both excellent. The most satisfactory of the translations as a whole are Hay's, but his versions are often imitations only.

Of foreign translations in prose we have in French : Marolles, 1655; Volland, 1807; Verger, Dubois, and Man- geart, 18345 (with a memoir of the author supposed to have been written by himself) ; since reissued by the Librairie Gamier Freres, Paris ; Nisard, 1842 ; J. B. (order re- arranged, with notes and commentaries), Paris, 1842-3 ; the obscene epigrams forming the 3rd vol.; and in Italian, Giuspanio Graglia (London, 1782 and 1791), whose versions of the obscene epigrams have been utilized in the following work. In German is the version of K. W. Ramler, Leipzig, 1787-91.

Foreign translators in verse areMarolles, Paris, 1655, 1671, 1675 ; Volland, 1807 ; E. T. Simon and P. R. Auguis, 1819 ; Constant Dubois (with an essay on Martial's life and works by Jules Janin), Paris, 1841 ; in German, Zimmermann, Frankfort, 1783 ; and Willemann, Cologne, 1825 ; the latter being expurgated.

Imitations in French verse are by Ant. P. (Antoine Pericaud), L'an de Rome 2569 (A.D. 1816) ; and by C. B. D. L. (Claude Breghot du Lut), L'an de Rome 2569 ; and by E. T. Simon, supra.

If a " bad eminence " confer any title to fame, James Elphinston (1721-1809) deserves special notice. He was the son of an Episcopalian clergyman, and was educated at the High School and at the University of Edinburgh. In 1750 he superintended the issue of a Scotch edition of Johnson's Rambler, supplying English translations of the mottoes, for which he was thanked by Johnson. From 1752 to 1776 he was successively a schoolmaster at Brompton and at Kensington. He published in 1778 a Specimen of the Translations of Epigrams of Martial, with a preface informing the public that he awaited subscriptions to enable him to publish a version of Martial's works complete. With regard to this work, it is recorded by Boswell under date of April 9, 1778 that Garrick, being consulted, told Elphinston frankly that he was no epigrammatist, and advised him against publishing ; that Johnson's advice was not asked, and was not forced upon the translator ; and that Elphinston's


own brother-in-law, Strahan, the printer, in sending him a subscription of fifty pounds, promised him fifty more if he would abandon his project.

The offer was not accepted, and in 1782 the whole work appeared in a handsome quarto. It was received with derision, the poet Beattie saying, "It is truly an unique the specimens formerly published did very well to laugh at, but a whole quarto of nonsense and gibberish is too much." And Mrs. Piozzi records that "of a modern Martial, when it came out, Dr. Johnson said ' there are in these verses too much folly for madness, I think, and too much madness for folly.'" And the unhappy author was gibbeted in the following epigram by Robert Burns :

" O thou whom Poesy abhors, Whom Prose has turned out of doors ! Heardst thou that groan ? Proceed no further : 'Twas laurell'd Martial roaring ' Murther !' "





BARBARA pyramidum sileat miracula Memphis,

Assyrius l iactet nee Babylona labor ; nee Triviae templo molles laudentur lones, 2

dissimulet Delon cornibus ara frequens ; acre nee vacuo pendentia Mausolea

laudibus inmodicis Cares in astra ferant. omnis Caesareo cedit labor Amphitheatre ;

unum pro cunctis fama loquetur opus.


Hit: ubi sidereus propius videt astra colossus et crescunt media pegmata celsa via,

invidiosa feri radiabant atria regis

unaque iam tota stabat in urbe domus.

hie ubi conspicui venerabilis Amphitheatri erigitur moles, stagna Neronis erant.

1 Assy r iiin Alciatus, awiduu* T.

  • lones Scaliger, honor en T.

1 The Temple of Diana at Ephesus.

2 Constructed by Apollo of the horns of the beasts slain by his sister Diana.



LET not barbaric Memphis tell of the wonder of her Pyramids, nor Assyrian toil vaunt its Babylon ; let not the soft lonians be extolled for Trivia's fane x ; let the altar wrought of many hoi-ns 2 keep hid its Delos ; let not Carians exalt to the skies with boundless praise the Mausoleum 3 poised on empty air. All labour yields to Caesar's Amphitheatre : one work in place of all shall Fame rehearse.


HERE where, rayed with stars, the Colossus 4 views heaven anear, and in the middle way tall scaffolds 6 rise, hatefully gleamed the palace of a savage king, and but a single house now stood in all the City. Here, where the far-seen Amphitheatre lifts its mass august, was Nero's mere. Here, where we admire

3 The tomb of Mausolus, king of Caria, constructed by his wife Artemisia.

4 A statue of Nero, afterwards turned by Vespasian into a statue of the Sun with rays surrounding the head : cf. i. Ixx. 7.

6 Either the scaffolding of the new works, or movable cranes (pegmata) which could lengthen or contract, open or shut, and were used at shows as part of the appointments.

B 2


hie ubi miramur, velocia munera, thermas, abstulerat miseris tecta superbus ager.

Claudia diffusas ubi porticus explicat umbras,

ultima pars aulae deficientis erat. 10

reddita Roma sibi est et sunt te praeside, Caesar, deliciae populi, quae fuerant domini.


QUAE tarn seposita est, quae gens tarn barbara, Caesar,

ex qua spectator non sit in urbe tua ? venit ab Orpheo cultor Rhodopeius Haemo,

venit et epoto Sarmata pastus equo, et qui prima bibit deprensi flumina Nili, 5

et quern supremae Tethyos unda ferit ; festinavit Arabs, festinavere Sabaei,

et Cilices nimbis hie maduere suis. crinibus in nodum tortis venere Sugambri,

atque aliter tortis crinibus Aethiopes. 10

vox diversa sonat populorum, turn tamen una est,

cum verus patriae diceris esse pater.


TURBA gravis paci placidaeque inimiea qviieti, quae semper miseras sollicitabat opes,

traducta est, ingens l nee cepit harena nocentis : et delator habet quod dabat exilium.

1 ingens Housman, getitH* T. 1 The Baths of Titus. 2 Nero's Golden House.


the warm-baths., 1 a gift swiftly wrought, a proud domain 2 had robbed their dwellings from the poor. Where the Claudian Colonnade extends its outspread shade the Palace ended in its furthest part. Rome has been restored to herself, and under thy govern- ance, Caesar, that is now the delight of a people which was once a master's.


WHAT race is set so far, what race so barbarous, Caesar, wherefrom a spectator is not in thy city ? There has come the farmer of Rhodope from Orphic Haemus, there has come too the Sarmatian fed on draughts of horses' blood, and he who quaffs at its spring the stream of first-found Nile, and he 3 whose shore the wave of farthest Tethys beats ; the Arab has sped, Sabaeans have sped, and Cilicians have here been drenched in their own saffron dew. 4 With hair twined in a knot have come Sygambrians, and, with locks twined elsewise, Aethiopians. Diverse sounds the speech of the peoples, yet then is it one when thou art acclaimed thy country's Father true.


A CROWD dangerous to peace and a foe to tranquil rest, that ever vexed unhappy riches, has been paraded, nor could the huge Arena hold the guilty ; and the informer has the exile he once bestowed. 5

3 Probably the Briton.

4 With which the stage was sprinkled : rf. v. xxv. 7 ; vm. xxxiii. 4.

5 This epigram is sometimes joined to the following.



EXULAT Ausonia profugus delator ab urbe : [5]

haec licet inpensis principis adnumeres.

IUNCTAM Pasiphaen Dictaeo credite tauro : vidimus, accepit fabula prisca fidem.

nee se miretur, Caesar, longaeva vetustas : quidquid fama canit, praestat harena tibi.


BELLIGER invictis quod Mars tibi servit in armis, non satis est, Caesar ; servit et ipsa Venus.


PROSTRATUM vasta Nemees in valle leonem uobile et Herculeum fama canebat opus.

prisca fides taceat : nam post tua munera, Caesar, hoc iam femineo l


QUALITER in Scythica religatus rupe Prometheus

adsiduam nimio pectore pavit avem, nuda Caledonio sic viscera praebuit urso

non falsa pendens in cruce Laureolus.

1 Marte fatemur ayi suppl. Buecheler.

1 Because, by suppressing the informers, he lost the con- fiscated estates.

2 Women sometimes fought in the Amphitheatre : Juv. i. 22.




THE informer is an outcast and an exile from the Ausonian City : this may you reckon to our Prince's cost. 1


THAT Pasiphae was mated to the Dictaean bull, believe : we have seen it, the old-time myth has won its warrant. And let not age-long eld, Caesar, marvel at itself : whatever Fame sings of, that the Arena makes real for thee.


THAT warring Mars served thee in arms uncon- quered suffices not, Caesar ; Venus herself too serves. 2


OK the lion laid low in Nemea's vasty vale, a deed renowned and worthy of Hercules, Fame used to sing. Dumb be ancient witness ! for after thy shows, O Caesar, we declare that such things are wrought by woman's prowess now.


As, fettered on a Scythian crag, Prometheus fed the untiring fowl with his too prolific heart, so Laureolus, 3 hanging on no unreal cross, gave up his vitals defenceless to a Caledonian bear. His mangled

3 A condemned criminal representing in the Amphitheatre Laureolus, a robber who had been crucified and torn to pieces by wild beasts, and whose death had been represented in a Mime (fabula, 1. 12) under Caligula {Juv. 8, 187 ; Suet. Gal. 57), but in this case was enacted realistically in the Amphi- theatre.



vivebant laceri membris stillantibus artus 5

inque omni nusquam corpora corpus erat. denique supplicium 1

vel domini iugulum foderat ense nocens, templa vel arcano demens spoliaverat auro,

subdiderat saevas vel tibi, Roma, faces. 10

vicerat antiquae sceleratus crimina famae,

in quo, quae fuerat fabula, poena fuit.


DAEDALE, Lucano cum sic lacereris ab urso, quam cuj)eres pinnas nunc habuisse tuas !


PRAESTITIT exhibitus tota tibi, Caesar, harena

quae non promisit proelia rhinoceros, o quam terribilis exarsit pronus in iras !

quantus erat taurus, cui pila taurus erat !

LAESEIIAT ingrato leo perfidus ore magistrum,

ausus tam notas contemerare manus ; sed dignas tanto persolvit crimine poenas,

et qui non tulerat verbera, tela tulit. quos decet esse hominum tali sub principe mores, 5

qui iubet ingenium mitius esse feris !

1 dignum tulit ; Me parentis suppl. Schneidewiu.


limbs lived, though the parts dripped gore, and in all his body was nowhere a body's shape. A punish- ment deserved at length he won he in his guilt had with his sword pierced his parent's or his master's throat, or in his madness robbed a temple of its close-hidden gold, or had laid by stealth his savage torch to thee, O Rome. Accursed, he had outdone the crimes told of by ancient lore ; in him that which had been a show before was punishment.


DAEDALUS, now thou art being so mangled by a Lucanian boar, how wouldst thou wish thou hadst now thy wings !


SHOWN along thy Arena's floor, O Caesar, a rhino- ceros afforded thee an unpromised fray. Oh, into what dreadful rage fired he with lowered head ! How great was the bull ] to which a bull was as a dummy !


A TREACHEROUS lion had with ungrateful fang wounded his master, daring to violate hands so familiar ; but a penalty fitted to a crime so great he paid ; and he that would not brook stripes brooked the steel. What manners befit men under such a Prince who bids the nature of wild beasts to grow more mild !

1 Probably the rhinoceros was known as bo$ Aethiophis : cf. xiv. liii. As to the dummy (piln), cf. n. xliii. 6 ; x. Ixxxvi. 4.



PRAECEPS sanguinea dum se rotat ursus harena,

inplicitam visco perdidit ille fugam. splendida iam tecto cessent venabula ferro,

nee volet excussa lancea torta manu ; deprendat vacuo venator in acre praedam, 5

si captare feras aucupis arte placet.


INTER Caesareae discrimina saeva Dianae fixisset gravidam cum levis hasta suem, exiluit partus miserae de vulnere matris.

Lucina ferox, hoc peperisse fuit ?

pluribus ilia mori voluisset saucia telis, 5

omnibus ut natis triste pateret iter. quis negat esse satum materno f'unere Bacchum ?

sic genitum iiumen credite : nata fera est.


ICTA gravi telo confossaque vulnere mater sus pariter vitam perdidit atque dedit.

o quam certa fuit librato dextera ferro ! hanc ego Lucinae credo fuisse manum.

experta est numen moriens utriusque Dianae, 5

quaque soluta parens quaque perempta fera est.

1 i.e. What now remains but that beasts should fly if they can be caught like birds ?




WHILE on the bloody sand a bear whirled with lowered head, he lost the escape that bird-lime clogged. Let now the burnished hunting spears, their steel hidden, lie at rest, nor the lance fly hurled from projected arm ; let the hunter take his prey in the empty air, if by the fowler's art one may catch beasts. 1


WHEN, amid the cruel hazards of Caesar's hunt, a light spear had pierced a pregnant sow, there sprang forth one of her offspring from the wound of its unhappy dam. O fell Lucina, was this a birth ? Yet would she, wounded by more darts than one, have welcomed death, that a sad path should open for all her brood. Who gainsays the birth of Bacchus from his mother's death ? 2 Believe ye, thus sprang a deity : thus was born a beast.


SMIT by a fatal spear, and pierced by the wound, the mother sow at once lost life and gave it. Oh, how sure was the hand with its poised steel ! this, I ween, was Lucina's hand. Dying, the beast proved the deity of either Dian of her that delivered the dam, and of her that slew the brute. 3

2 cf. v. Ixxii.

3 Diana, the huntress goddess, was also Lncina, who assisted at child-birth.



Sus fera iam gravior maturi pignore ventris

emisit fetum, vulnere facta parens ; nee iacuit partus, sed matre cadente cucurrit.

quantum est subitis casibus ingenium !


SUMMA tuae, Meleagre, fuit quae gloria famae,

quantast Carpophori portio, fusus aper ! ille et praecipiti venabula condidit urso,

primus in Arctoi qui fuit arce poli, stravit et ignota spectandum mole leonem, 5

Herculeas potuit qui decuisse manus, et volucrem longo porrexit vulnere pardum.

praemia cum laudum ferret, adhuc poterat.


RAPTUS abit media quod ad aethera taurus harena, non fuit hoc artis sed pietatis opus.


VEXEIIAT Europen fraterna per aequora taurus :

at nunc Alciden taurus in astra tulit. Caesaris atque lovis confer nuno, fama, iuvencos :

par onus ut tulerint, altius iste tulit.

1 There is a play here on the two meanings of "fall," to descend or to happen.

2 A celebrated beatiari-us, or hunter of wild beasts, in the Amphitheatre : cf. xxiii. and xxvii. of this Book.

" A passage hopelessly corrupt. MSS. read Pratmia cum laudem ferre adhuc poteram. Buecheler suggested Pr. cui



A WILD sow, now full-heavy with the pledge of her quick womb, gave forth her brood, made by her wound a mother ; nor lay her offspring still-born, but, as its mother fell, it ran. Sudden chances that fall, 1 how ingenious are they !


THAT which was the highest glory of thy renown, Meleager, how small a part is it of Carpophorus' - fame, a stricken boar ! He plunged his hunter's spear also in a headlong-rushing bear, the king of beasts beneath the cope of Arctic skies ; and he laid low a lion, magnificent, of bulk unknown before, one worthy of Hercules' might ; and with a far-dealt wound stretched in death a rushing pard. He won the prize of honour ; yet unbroken still was his strength. 3


A BULL, borne aloft from the Arena's midst mounts to the skies ; this was no work of art, but one of piety. 4


A BULL carried Europa along fraternal seas 5 ; but now a bull has borne Alcides to the stars. 6 Compare now, Fame, the steers of Caesar and of Jove : let the burden be the same, yet CJaesar's bore his more high.

laudem ftrre duo poterant. ? Praemia cum laudem (or cur laudtin ?) ferrea adhnc poterat.

4 A fragment, but sometimes combined with the succeeding.

6 Jupiter, in the guise of a bull, carried off Europa over his brother Neptune's seas.

A bestiarius representing Hercules, or a figure of Her- cules, was tossed by a bull.




QUOD pius et supplex elephas te, Caesar, adorat hie modo qui tauro tarn metuendus erat,

non facit hoc iussus, nulloque docente magistro ; crede mihi, nostrum sentit et ille deum.


LAMBERE securi dextram consueta magistri

tigris, ab Hyrcano gloria rara iugo, saeva ferum rabido laceravit dente leonem :

res nova, non ullis cognita temporibus. ausa est tale nihil, silvis dum vixit in altis : 5

postquam inter nos est, plus feritatis habet.


Qui modo per totam flammis stimulatus h'arenam

sustulerat raptas taurus in astra pilas, occubuit tandem cornuto ardore petitus,

dum facilem tolli sic elephanta putat.


CUM peteret pars haec Myrinum, pars ilia Triumphum, promisit pariter Caesar utraque manu.

non potuit melius litem finire iocosam. o dulce invicti principis ingenium !

1 cf. n. xliii. 6. 14



IN that, loyal and suppliant, the elephant adores thee which here but now was so fearful a foe to a bull, this it does unbidden, at the teaching of no master ; believe me, it too feels the presence of our God!


WONT to lick the hand of its fearless master, a tigress, sprung, their unmatched glory, from Hyr- canian hills, savagely tore a fierce lion with mad- dened fang : strange was the thing, unknown in any age ! She ventured no such deed what time she dwelt in her deep woods : she is in our midst, and shows more fierceness now.


A BULL that but now, goaded by fire through the Arena's length, had seized and flung the dummies l skyward, fell at length, countered by a fiery tusk, 2 while he deemed that with like ease an elephant might be tossed.


WHEN this faction called for Myrinus, that faction for Triumphus, 3 Caesar with either hand uplifted promised both. In no wise better could he end the friendly debate. O pleasant device of an uncon- quered Prince !

2 Buecheler explains flammis de cornibus ; Friedlander reads cornuto ut ab ore.

8 Probably names of popular fighters against beasts.



QUIDQUID in Orpheo Rhodope spectasse theatre

dicitur, exhibuit, Caesar, harena tibi. repserunt scopuli mirandaque silva cucurrit,

quale fuisse nemus creditur Hesperidum. adfuit inmixtum pecori genus omne ferarum, 5

et supra vatem multa pependit avis, ipse sed ingrato iacuit laceratus ab urso.

haec tantum res est facta irap' la-roptav. 1


ORPHEA quod subito tellus emisit hiatu ursam invasuram, venit ab Eurydice. 2


SOLLICITANT pavidi duni rhinocerota magistri

seque diu magnae colligit ira ferae, desperabantur promissi proelia Martis ;

sed tandem rediit cognitus ante furor, namque gravem cornu gemino sic extulit ursum, 5

iactat ut inpositas taurus in astra pilas : 3 Norica tarn certo venabula derigit ictu [XXIII

fortis adhuc teneri dextera Carpophori. ille tulit geminos facili cervice iuvencos,

illi cessit atrox bubalus atque vison : 1

hunc leo cum fugeret, praeceps in tela cucurrit.

i nunc et lentas corripe, turba, moras.

1 The MSS. read haec tamen res t<it facta ita pictoria. The text is as amended by Housman.

2 So Postgate. The MSS. text versam is amur venit is unintelligible. Ursam mersitram (Housman).

a From this point some editors begin a sep.irate epigram on the prowess of Carpophorus.




WHATE'ER Rhodope saw, 'tis said, on the Orphic stage, that the Arena, Caesar, has shown l to thee. Cliffs crept, and a marvellous wood sped swiftly on, one such as was in belief of men the grove of the Hesperides. Every kind of wild beast was there mingled with the flock, and above the minstrel hovered many a bird, but he fell, mangled by an ungrateful 2 bear. This thing alone was done untold by history.


WHEREAS the earth yawned suddenly and sent forth a she-bear to attack Orpheus, the bear came from Eurydice. 3


WHILE in fear the trainers were goading a rhin- oceros, and long was the great beast's wrath gather- ing strength, all despaired of the conflict of the promised war ; yet at length the fury, known ere- while, returned. For a heavy bear he tossed with his double horn, even as a bull hurls dummies heavenward, and with as sure an aim as that where- with the stout right hand of Carpophorus, as yet young, levels the Noric hunting-spear. That beast, agile with pliant neck, stood up against (?) a pair of steers, to him yielded the fierce buffalo and bison ; a lion in flight from him ran headlong upon the spears. Go now, ye rabble, and gird at slow delays !

1 A representation of Orpheus' magic power and death.

2 Giving ill return for the sweetness of O.'s song.

3 The epigram seems to be connected with XXI., and Eurydice sends the bear because she wants Orpheus back.

17 VOL. I. C



Si quis ades longis serus spectator ab oris,

cui lux prima sacri muneris ista fuit, ne te decipiat ratibus navalis Enyo

et par unda fretis, hie modo terra fuit. non credis ? specta, dum lassant aequora Martem : 5

parva mora est, dices " Hie rnodo pontus erat."


QUOD nocturna tibi, Leandre, pepercerit unda desine mirari : Caesaris unda fuit.


CUM peteret dulces audax Leandros amores et fessus tumidis iam premeretur aquis,

sic miser instantes adfatus dicitur undas : " Parcite dum propero, mergite cum redeo."


LUSIT Nereidum docilis chorus aequore toto,

et vario faciles ordine pinxit aquas, fuscina dente minax recto fuit, ancora curvo :

credidimus remum credidimusque ratem,

1 Either as sacred to Neptune, or as having been given by the Emperor.

2 While the sea-fight lasts.

3 Artificially admitted into the Arena.




WHOEVER you are who come from distant shores, a late spectator, for whom this day of the sacred 1 show is your first, that this naval battle with its ships, and the waters that represent seas, may not mislead, I tell you "here but now was land." Be- lieve you not? Look on while the seas weary the God of war. 2 Wait one moment you will say " Here but now was sea."


THAT the nightly wave spared thee, Leander, cease to wonder : it was Caesar's wave. 3


WHILE bold Leander was swimming to his sweet love, and his weary head was now being engulphed by the swelling waters, thus in misery ('tis said) he spake to the on-surging waves : " Spare me while I hasten, o'erwhelm me when I return." 4


A TRAINED bevy of Nereids pla} r ed along the sea, and with their varied marshalling prankt the yielding waters. 5 Threatful with straight tooth, was a trident, with curved tooth an anchor : we deemed an oar, and we deemed a bark was there, and

4 This epigram seems out of place, and, like xiv. clxxxi., to refer to a statue.

  • In a water spectacle, possibly by artificial light, in which

groups of Nereids presented somehow the picture of a boat and rowers.

T9 c 2


et gratum nautis sidus fulgere Laconum, 5

lataque perspicuo vela tumere sinu. quis tantas liquidis artes invenit in undis ?

aut docuit lusus hos Thetis aut didicit.


SAECULA Carpophorum, Caesar, si prisca tulissent,

non Parthaoniam barbara terra feram, non Marathon taurum, Nemee frondosa leoneni,

Areas Maenalium lion timuisset aprum. hoc armante manus hydrae mors una fuisset, 5

huic percussa foret tota Chimaera semel. igniferos possit sine Colchide iungere tauros,

possit utramque feram vincere Pasiphaes. si sit, ut aequorei revocetur fabula monstri,

Hesionem solvet solus et Andromedan. 10

Herculeae laudis numeretur gloria : plus est

bis denas pariter perdomuisse feras.


AUGUSTI labor hie fuerat committere classes

et freta navali sollicitare tuba. Caesaris haec nostri pars est quota ? vidit in undis

et Thetis ignotas et Galatea feras ; vidit in aequoreo ferventes pulvere currus 5

et domini Triton isse putavit equos : dumque parat saevis ratibus fera proelia Nereus,

horruit in liquidis ire pedestris aquis.

1 Castor and Pollux, the Constellation of Gemini.

2 i.e. of the Emperor. 8 cf. Lib. Spect. xv. 2.

4 For every head of the hydra that was cut off two fresh ones grew.


that the Laconians' star l glittered in welcome to the seamen, and sails bellied broad for all to see. Who imagined arts so wondrous in liquid waves ? These pastimes either Thetis taught or herself she learned. 2


IF the ages of old, Caesar, had begotten Carpo- phorus, 3 a barbarous land had not dreaded Parthaon's wild-boar, nor Marathon the bull, leafy Nemea the lion, Arcadia the Maenalian boar. When he armed his hand the hydra had died a single death, 4 all the shapes of Chimaera r> had been stricken by him once. The fire-breathing bulls he might have yoked without the Colchian's aid, 6 he might have van- quished either monster of Pasiphae. Were the story of the sea monster renewed, he alone would loose Hesione and Andromeda. Let the glories of Her- cules' honour be summed : tis more to have quelled twice ten beasts at one time.


IT was Augustus' work here 7 to embattle fleets, and to wake the seas with the trump of naval war. How small a part of our Caesar's task ! Thetis and Galatea both saw on the wave beasts unknown ; Triton saw on that seafloor 8 chariots in hot rivalry, and deemed his Master's 9 steeds had sped ; and Nereus, what time he set abroach fierce battle for the hostile ships, shuddered to tread a-foot amid

5 A fabulous monster, part lion, part goat, and part dragon. Of Medea.

7 In the gardens of Caesar beyond the Tiber.

  • Some commentators translate pulvis as "spray."

9 Neptune's.



quidquid et in Circo spectatur et Amphitheatre, id dives, Caesar, praestitit unda tibi. 10

Fucinus et diri taceantur stagna Neronis : . hanc norint unam saecula naumachiam.


CUM traheret Priscus, traheret certamina Verus,

esset et aequalis Mars utriusque diu, missio saepe viris magno clamore petita est ;

sed Caesar legi paruit ipse suae : lex erat, ad digitum posita concurrere palma ; 1 5

quod licuit, lances donaque saepe dedit. inventus tamen est finis discriminis aequi :

pugnavere pares, succubuere pares, misit utrique rudes et palmas Caesar utrique :

hoc pretium virtus ingeniosa tulit. 10

contigit hoc nullo nisi te sub principe, Caesar :

cum duo pugnarent, victor uterque fuit.


CONCITA veloces fugeret cum damma Molossos

et varia lentas necteret arte moras, Caesaris ante pedes supplex similisque roganti

constitit, et praedam non tetigere canes.

1 p>ilma H, parma Wagner.

1 He found the water sinking, and he was treading on land.



the liquid waters. 1 Whatever is viewed in Circus and in Amphitheatre, that have Caesar's waters, rich in sights, made sure to thee. Let not the Fucine lake 2 and the mere of dreadful Nero 3 be told of : of this sea-fight alone let the ages know !


WHILE Priscus drew out, and Verus drew out the contest, and the prowess of both stood long in balance, oft was discharge for the men claimed with mighty shouts ; but Caesar himself obeyed his own law : that law was, when the prize was set up, to fight until the finger was raised ; what was lawful he did, oft giving dishes and gifts therein. Yet was an end found of that balanced strife : they fought well matched, matched well they together yielded. To each Caesar sent the wooden sword, 4 and rewards to each : this prize dexterous valour won. Under no prince but thee, Caesar, has this chanced : while two fought, each was victor.


WHILE a roused hind was flying from the swift Molossian hounds, and tangled the drawn-out chase by divers wiles, before Caesar's feet, suppliant and as in prayer, she stayed, and the hounds touched not

2 Where the Emperor Claudius had exhibited a sea-fight : Tac. Ann. xn. Ivi.-lvii.

3 Who had also represented a sea-fight : Suet. Nero xii. Rudis, symbolic of discharge from service.




haec intellecto principe dona tulit. numen habet Caesar : sacra est haec, sacra potestas ; credite : mentiri non didicere ferae.


DA veniam subitis : non displicuisse meretur, festinat, Caesar, qui placuisse tibi.


CEDERE maiori virtutis fama secunda est.

ilia gravis palma est, quam minor hostis habet.


Hoc epigramma post lihrum XI V invenies.


their prey .... This boon she won for that she avowed her Prince ! Power divine hath Caesar : sacred, sacred is this puissance. Believe it ye : beasts have not learned to lie.


PARDON my hurried offering. He desei'ves not to displease you, Caesar, who hastes to please you.


To yield to the stronger is valour's second prize. Heavy l is the palm the weaker foeman wins.

1 i.e. painful to the stronger, though defeated, man.




SPERO me secutum in libellis meis tale tempera- mentum ut de illis queri non possit quisquis de se bene senserit, cum salva infimarum quoque persona- rum reverentia ludant ; quae adeo antiquis auctoribus defuit ut nominibus non tantum veris abusi sint sed et magnis. mihi fama vilius constet et probetur in me novissimum ingenium. absit a iocorum nostrorum simplicitate malignus interpres nee epigrammata mea scribat : inprobe facit qui in alieno libro ingeniosus est. lascivam verborum veritatem, id est epigram- maton linguam, excusarem, si meum esset exemplum : sic scribit Catullus, sic Marsus, sic Pedo, sic Gaetu- licus, sic quicumque perlegitur. si quis tamen tarn ambitiose tristis est ut apud ilium in nulla pagina Latine loqui fas sit, potest epistula vel potius titulo contentus esse. epigrammata illis scribuntur qui




I TRUST that I have followed in my little books such a mean that none who forms a right judgment of himself can complain of them, inasmuch as their sprightliness does not violate that respect for persons even of the lowest degree which was so little shown by ancient authors that they maltreated the names, not merely of real persons, but even of great ones. May my fame be bought at lesser cost, and the last thing to be approved in me be cleverness. May the frankness of my jests find no malicious inter- preter, and no such man rewrite my epigrams : it is a shameless business when anyone exercises his ingenuity on another man's book. For the undis- guised freedom of my expressions, that is to say, the language of epigram, I would apologise, if mine were the example set : in this style writes Catullus, in this style Marsus, in this style Pedo, in this style Gaetulicus, in this style every one who is read through. Yet, if there be any man so pre- tentiously prudish that to his mind in no page is it permissible to speak plain Latin, he may content himself with the introductory epistle, or rather with the title. Epigrams are written for those who are



solent spectare Florales. non intret Cato theatrum ineuni aut, si intraverit, spectet. videor mihi meo iure facturus si epistulam versibus clusero :

Nosses iocosae dulce cum sacrum Florae festosque lusus et licentiam volgi, cur in theatrum, Cato severe, venisti ? an ideo tantum veneras, ut exires ?


Hie est quern legis ille, quern requiris,

toto notus in orbe Martialis

argutis epigrammaton libellis :

cui, lector studiose, quod dedisti

viventi decus atque sentienti 5

rari post cineres habent poetae.


Qui tecum cupis esse meos ubicumque libellos

et comites longae quaeris habere viae, hos erne, quos artat brevibus membrana tabellis :

scrinia da magnis, me manus una capit. ne tamen ignores ubi sim venalis et erres 5

urbe vagus tota, me duce certus eris : libertum docti Lucensis quaere Secundum

limina post Pacis Palladiumque forum.

1 The reference is to a story told in Valer. Max. n, x. 8, to the effect that at the Floralia in B.C. 55 Cato left the theatre on finding that his presence checked the licence of the actors.


BOOK I. i-n

accustomed to look on the Games of Flora. Let no Cato l enter my theatre, or if he enters, let him look on.

I think I may justifiably close my epistle in verse :

You knew the rites to jocund Flora dear, The festive quips and licence of the rout ;

Why on our scene, stern Cato, enter here ? Did you then enter only to go out ?


HERE is he whom you read, he whom you ask for, Martial, known throughout the whole world for his witty little books of Epigrams. To him, studious reader, while he lives and feels, you have given the glory that poets win but rarely after they are dust.


You, who wish my poems should be everywhere with you, and look to have them as companions on a long journey, buy these which the parchment confines in small pages. Assign your book-boxes to the great; this copy of me one hand can grasp. Yet, that you may not fail to know where I am for sale, or wander aimlessly all over the town, if you accept my guidance you will be sure. Seek out Secundus, the freedman of learned Lucensis, behind the en- trance to the temple of Peace and the Forum of Pallas. 2

1 The Temple of Peace was dedicated by Vespasian in A.D. 75 after his triumph for the capture of Jerusalem. The Forum of Pallas was the Forum of Nerva, or transitorium, begun by Domitian and completed by Nerva. It contained a temple to Minerva.




ARGILETANAS mavis habitare tabernas,

cum tibi, parve liber, scrinia nostra vacent ? nescis, heu, nescis dominae fastidia Romae :

crede mihi, nimium Martia turba sapit. maiores nusquam rhonchi : iuvenesque senesque 5

et pueri nasum rhinocerotis habent. audieris cum grand e sophos, dum basia iactas,

ibis ab excusso missus in astra sago, sed tu ne totiens domini patiare lituras

neve notet lusus tristis harundo tuos, 10

aetherias, lascive, cupis volitare per auras.

i, fuge ! sed poteras tutior esse domi.


CONTIGERIS nostros, Caesar, si forte libellos,

terrarum dominum pone supercilium. consuevere iocos vestri quoque ferre triumphi,

materiam dictis nee pudet esse ducem. qua Thymelen spectas derisoremque Latinum,

ilia fronte precor carmina nostra legas. innocuos censura potest permittere lusus :

lasciva est nobis pagina, vita proba.

Do tibi naumachiam, tu das epigrammata nobis : vis, puto, cum libro, Marce, natare tuo.

1 Varro. Ling. Lat. v. 157, derives the word from argilla, "clay"; Virgil, Aen. viii. 346, explains, letum docet hovpitis A rqi.

2 It was customary for Roman soldiers, following a triumph,




WOULD you rather dwell in the shops of the Potters' Field 1 although, small volume, my book- case stands empty for you ? You don't know, alas, you don't know the superciliousness of Mistress Rome ; believe me, the crowd of Mars is too clever for you. Nowhere are heard louder sneers ; young men and old, even boys, have noses tilted like a rhinoceros. When you have heard a deep "Bravo," while you are throwing kisses, up you will go, shot heavenward from a jerked blanket. But you, to avoid your master's constant erasures, and the scoring of your playfulness by his critical pen, are eager, wanton one, to flit through the airs of heaven. Go ! fly ! yet you might have been safer at home.


IF perchance, Caesar, you shall come upon my books, lay aside the frown that rules the world. Your triumphs too have been wont to endure jests, and no shame is it to a commander to be matter for wit. 2 With the air that views Thymele and the mime Latinus, therewith I pray you to read my verses. A censor 3 can permit harmless trifling : wanton is my page ; my life is good.


I OFFER you a sea-fight : you offer me epigrams. You wish, I think, Marcus, to swim along with your book. 4

to indulge in scurrile jests against their general. This was <lone possibly to avert the evil eye. See vn. viii. 7.

3 Domitian became censor for life A.D. 85.

4 The Emperor will throw it into the water. For a similar idea cf. ix. Iviii. 8.




AETHERIAS aquila puerum portante per auras inlaesum timidis unguibus haesit onus :

mine sua Caesareos exorat praeda leones, tutus et ingenti ludit in ore lepus.

quae maiora put-as miracula ? summus utrisque 5 auctor adest : haec sunt Caesaris, ilia lovis.


STEI.LAE delicium mei columba,

Verona licet audiente dicam,

vicit, Maxime, passerem Catulli.

tanto Stella meus tuo Catullo

quanto passere maior est columba. 5


QUOD magni Thraseae consummatique Catonis dogmata sic sequeris salvos ut esse velis,

pectore nee nudo strictos incurris in ensis, quod fecisse velim te, Deciane, facis.

nolo virum facili redemit qui sanguine famani ; 5 hunc volo, laudari qui sine morte potest.


BEI.LUS homo et mngnus vis idem, Cotta, videri : sed qui bellus homo est, Cotta, pusillus homo est.

1 Ganymede, the cupbearer of Jove.

1 Stella (see Index) had written a poem on a dove : the word delicium may be a quotation.


BOOK I. vi-iv


WHILE the eagle was bearing the boy 1 through the airs of heaven, its burden clung unscathed to those timorous talons : now their natural prey bewitches Caesar's lions, and safely the hare gambols in their monstrous jaws. Which think you the greater miracle ? To each belongs a supreme Cause : this is Caesar's miracle, that Jove's.


MY Stella's "Dove," that "pretty pet," 2 (I must say it, though Verona hear me !) has surpassed, Maximus, the "Sparrow " of Catullus. 3 So much is my Stella greater than your Catullus as a dove is greater than a sparrow.


IN that you follow the maxims of great Thrasea and of Cato the perfect, and yet are willing to live, and rush not with unarmed breast upon drawn swords, you do, Decianus, what I would have you do. No hero to me is the man who, by easy shed- ding of his blood, purchases his fame ; my hero is he who, without death, can win praise.


A PRETTY 4 fellow you wish to appear, and yet, Cotta, a great man. But a pretty fellow, Cotta, is a puny fellow.

3 Cat. ii. and iii. Catullus was born at Verona.

4 For bcllus cf, n. vii.; in. Ixiii.

35 i) 2



PETIT Gemellus nuptias Maronillae et cupit et instat et precatur et donat. adeone pulchra est ? immo foedius nil est. quid ergo in ilia petitur et placet ? tussit.


CUM data sint equiti bis quina nomismata, quare

bis decies solus, Sextiliane, bibis ? iam defecisset portantis calda ministros,

si non potares, Sextiliane, merum.


ITUR ad Herculeas gelidi qua Tiburis ai-ces

canaque sulpureis Albula fumat aquis, rura nemusque sacrum dilectaque iugera Musis

signat vicina quartus ab urbe lapis, hie rudis aestivas praestabat porticus umbras, 5

lieu quam paene novum porticus ausa nefas ! nam subito conlapsa ruit, cum mole sub ilia

gestatus biiugis Regulus esset equis. nimirum timuit nostras Fortuna querellas,

quae par tarn magnae non erat invidiae. 10

nunc et damna iuvant ; sunt ipsa pericula tanti :

stantia non poterant tecta probare deos.

BOOK I. x-xn


GEMELLUS seeks wedlock with Maronilla ; he de- sires it, he urges her, he implores her, and sends her gifts. Is she so beautiful? Nay, no creature is more disgusting. What then is the bait and charm in her? Her cough.


WHILE twice five wine-tokens 1 are a knight's allowance, why do you, Sextilianus, all to yourself take twice ten drinks ? By this time the warm water would have failed the attendants who bring it, were it not, Sextilianus, that you drank your wine un- mixed.


WHERE runs the road to the heights of cool Tibur, sacred to Hercules, and milky-hued Albula steams with its sulphurous waters, the fourth milestone from the neighbouring city marks a farm and sacred grove, acres dear to the Muses. Here a rustic- portico secured a summer shade ; alas, how did that portico all but dare a crime unheard of ! For sud- denly it fell in ruin when, under that mighty mass, Regulus had but now driven in his two-horse carriage. Assuredly Fortune was fearful of our plaints ; she could not brave odium so great. Now even losses please ; dangers themselves bring repay- ment : a standing roof could not witness to the Gods.

1 Tesserae vinariae entitling to an allowance of wine at a show : ef. i. xxvi. 3.




CASTA suo gladium cum traderet Arria Paeto, quem de visceribus strinxerat ipsa suis,

" Si qua fides, vulnus quod feci non dolet ; " inquit " sed tu quod facies, hoc mihi, Paete, dolet."


DELICIAS, Caesar, lususque iocosque leonum vidimus (hoc etiam praestat harena tibi)

cum prensus blando totiens a dente rediret et per aperta vagus curreret ora lepus.

unde potest avidus captae leo parcere praedae ? 5 sed tamen esse tuus dicitur : ergo potest.


O MIHI post nullos, luli, memorande sodales,

si quid longa fides canaque iura valent, bis iam paene tibi consul tricensimus instat,

et numerat paucos vix tua vita dies, non bene distuleris, videas quae posse negari, 5

et solum hoc ducas, quod fuit, esse tuuni. exspectant curaeque catenatique labores ;

gaudia non remanent, sed fugitiva volant, haec utraque manu conplexuque adsei'e toto :

saepe fluunt imo sic quoque lapsa sinu. 10

non est, crede mihi, sapientis dicere " Vivam " ;

sera nimis vita est crastina : vive hodie.


BOOK I. xii i-xv


WHEN chaste Arria was offering to her Paetus that sword which with her own hand she had drawn from out her breast : " If thou believest me," she said, " the wound I have inflicted has no smart ; but the wound thou shalt inflict this for me, Paetus, lias the smart."


THE tricks, Caesar, the play and pranks of the lions we have seen this tribute, too, the Arena pays thee when the hare was seized, and yet so oft was let loose from the fondling fangs, and ran here and there through the open jaws. Whence inspired can a ravaging lion spare his captured prey ? But he is called thine ; therefore can he spare.


JULIUS, O thou who art to be named second to none of my comrades, if long-continued faith and ancient claims are worth aught, already thy sixtieth consul's year is well-nigh treading on thy heels, yet thy life scarce numbers a few days. Not well shalt thou put off what thou seest may be denied ; and count that only which has been as thine own. Cares and linked l toils await us ; joys abide not, but fugitive they fly. Grasp these with both thy hands, and hold them in thy full embrace ; oft they glide away, even so, slipping out of the inmost bosom. It sorts not, believe me, with wisdom to say "I shall live." Too late is to-morrow's life; live thou to-day. 1 But Friedlamler explains labores quales #unt catenatorum.




SUNT bona, sunt quaedam mediocria, sunt mala plura quae legis hie. aliter non fit, Avite, liber.


COGIT me Titus actitare causas

et dicit mihi saepe " Magna res est."

res magna est, Tite, quam facit colonus.


QUID te, Tucca, iuvat vetulo miscere Falerno

in Vaticanis condita musta cadis ? quid tantum fecere boni tibi pessima vina ?

aut quid fecerunt optima vina mali ? de nobis facile est : scelus est iugulare Falernum 5

et dare Campano toxica saeva mero. convivae meruere tui fortasse perire :

amphora non meruit tarn pretiosa mori.


Si meminij fuerant tibi quattuor, Aelia, denies :

expulit una duos tussis et una duos, iam secura potes totis tussire diebus :

nil istic quod agat tertia tussis habet.

1 Possibly the meaning is : it needs a good farmer to make a good thing of a farm, and a good advocate which I am


BOOK I. xvi-xix


THERE are good things, there are some indifferent, there are more things bad that you read here. Not otherwise, Avitus, is a book produced.


TITUS urges me to plead causes, and often says to me: "There is fine profit." But the "fine profit" of a farm, Titus, is the work of the farmer. 1


WHY do you choose, Tucca, to mix with old Faler nian the must stored in Vatican casks ? 2 What is this great benefit the vilest wines have bestowed on you, or what harm have the best wines caused you ? As to us, 'tis no matter ; it is a crime to murder Falernian, to apply to Campanian wine deadly poison. Your guests perhaps have deserved ex- tinction : a jar so priceless did not deserve to die.


IF I remember right, you had, Aelia, four teeth : one fit of coughing shot out two, and another two more. Now in peace you can cough all day : a third fit has nothing left there to discharge.

not to make a fortune by advocacy. Friedlauder suggests that M. hints that the gift of a farm would suit him Better than advice.

2 Vatican wine was very inferior : cf. vi. xcii.




Die mihi, quis furor est ? turba spectante vocata

solus boletos, Caeciliane, voras. quid dignum tanto tibi ventre gulaque precabor ?

boletum qualem Claudius edit, edas.


CUM peteret regem decepta satellite dextra

ingessit sacris se peritura focis. sed tarn saeva pius miracula 11011 tulit hostis

et raptum flammis iussit abire virum : urere quam potuit contempto Mucius igne, 5

hanc spectare manum Porsena non potuit. maior deceptae fama est et gloria dextrae :

si non errasset, fecerat ilia minus.


QUID non ' saeva fugis placidi, lepus, ora leonis ~' frangere tarn parvas non didicere feras.

servantur magnis isti cervicibus ungues nee gaudet tenui sanguine tanta sitis.

praeda canum lepus est, vastos non implet hiatus : 5 non timeat Dacus Caesaris arma puer.

1 non Dousa, mine codd.

1 The Emperor Claudius was poisoned by a mushroom : cf. Juv. v. 147, where Juvenal probably had this passage in his mind.


BOOK I. xx-xxii


TELL me, what madness is this ? While the throng of invited guests looks on, you, Caecilianus, alone devour the mushrooms ! What prayer shall I make suitable to such a belly and gorge ? May you eat such a mushroom as Claudius 1 ate !


THE right hand which, aimed at the king, was cheated by an attendant,' 2 laid itself, doomed to perish, upon the sacred hearth. But a prodigy so cruel the kindly foe could not brook, and he bade the warrior go rescued from the flame. The hand which, scorning the fire, Mucius, endured to burn, Porsena could not endure to behold. Greater, because it was cheated, is the fame and glory of that right hand ; had it not erred, it had achieved less.


WHY fliest thou, hare, the lion's jaws unstirred to rage ? They have not learned to crunch beasts so small. Those talons are kept for mighty necks ; thirst so great delights not in a draught of blood so meagre. The hare is the prey of dogs, it fills not vasty mouths ; a Dacian boy would not dread Caesar's arms.

2 Mucius Scaevola mistook an attendant for Porsena, the king of Etruria. The story had no doubt been enacted in the theatre. . rf. vm. xxx. on the same subject.




INVITAS nullum nisi cum quo, Cotta, lavaris et dant convivam balnea sola tibi.

mirabar quare numquam me, Cotta, vocasses : iam scio me nudum displicuisse tibi.


ASPICIS incomptis ilium, Deciane, capillis, cuius et ipse times triste supercilium,

qui loquitur Curios adsertoresque Camillos ? nolito fronti credere : nupsit heri.


EDE tuos tandem populo, Faustine, libellos

et cultum docto pectore profer opus, quod nee Cecropiae damnent Pandionis arces

nee sileant nostri praetereantque senes. ante fores stantem dubitas admittere Famam

teque piget curae praemia ferre tuae ? post te victurae per te quoque vivere chartae

incipiant : cineri gloria sera venit.


SEXTILIANE, bibis quantum subsellia quinque solus : aqua totiens ebrius esse potes ;

nee consessorum vicina nomismata tantum, aera sed a cuneis ulteriora petis.


BOOK I. xxin-xxvi


You invite no man to dinner, Cotta, but your bath-companion ; the baths alone provide you with a guest. I was wondering why you had never asked me ; now I understand that when naked I displeased you.


You see that fellow with unkempt hair, Decianus, whose gloomy scowl you too fear, who prates of the Curii, and of the Camilli, champions of liberty ? Don't credit his appearance ; he was a bride yesterday.


GIVE at length to the people, Faustinus, your books, and send forth a work, polished by your learned skill, which Pandion's Cecropian heights would not condemn, 1 nor our sages dismiss in silence and pass by. Do you hesitate to admit Fame that stands before your doors, and shrink from winning the reward of your care ? Let writings that will live after you by your aid also begin to live now ; to the ashes of the dead glory comes too late.


SEXTILIANUS, you drink as much as five rows of benches to your own share ; drinking water so often could make you drunk. It is not only the tokens of those who sit near you, but you ask for the bronze tickets from those in remoter blocks. This vintage 1 i.e. which the Athenians would not despise.



non haec Paelignis agitur vindemia prelis 5

uva nee in Tuscis nascitur ista iugis, .testa seel antiqui felix siccatur Opimi,

egerit et nigros Massica cella cados. a copone tibi faex Laletana petatur,

si plus quam decies, Sextiliane, bibis. 10


HESTERNA tibi nocte dixeramus,

quincunces puto post decera peractos,

cenares hodie, Procille, mecum.

tu f'actam tibi rem statim putasti

et non sobria verba subnotasti 5

exemplo nimium periculoso.

/xicroJ crvyujroTav, Procille.


HESTERNO fetere mere qui credit Acerram, fallitur. in lucem semper Acerra bibit.


FAMA refert nostros te, Fideutine, libellos

non aliter populo quam recitare tuos. si mea vis dici, gratis tibi carmina mittam :

si dici tua vis, hoc erne, ne mea shit.


CHIRURGUS fuerat, mine est vispillo Diaulus. coepit quo poterat clinicus esse modo.

1 Consul B.C. 121, a famous year for wine. Massic was also a choice vintage ; the others mentioned were poor.


BOOK I. xxvi-xxx

is not pressed in Pelignian wine-presses ; nor is that grape of yours born on Tuscan hills ; nay, a choice jar of ancient Opimius l is drained ; 'tis a Massic store-room sends forth its smoked jars. Get from the taverner dregs of Laletanian if you take more than ten drinks, Sextilianus.


LAST night I said to you (I think it was after I had got through ten half- pints) : " Dine with me to- day, Procillus." You at once thought the matter settled for you, and took secret note of my unsober remark a precedent too dangerous ! " I hate a messmate with a memory," Procillus.


HE who fancies that Acerra reeks of yesterday's wine is wrong. Acerra always drinks till daylight.


RUMOUR assei-ts, Fidentinus, that you recite my works to the crowd, just as if they were your own. If you wish they should be called mine, I will send you the poems gratis ; if you wish them to be called yours, buy my disclaimer 2 of them.


DIAUL.US has been a doctor, he is now an under- taker. He begins to put his patients to bed in his old effective way.

2 cf. I. Ixvi. 13.




Hos tibi, Phoebe, vovet totos a vertice crines

Encolpos, domini centurionis amor, grata Pudens meriti tulerit cum praemia pili.

quam primum longas, Phoebe, recide comas, dum nulla teneri sordent lanugine voltus

dumque decent fusae lactea colla iubae ; utque tuis longum dominusque puerque fruantur

muneribus, tonsum fac cito, sero virum.


NON amo te, Sabidi, nee possum dicere quare : hoc tantum possum dicere, non amo te.


AMISSUM non flet cum sola est Gellia patrem, si quis adest, iussae prosiliunt lacrimae.

non luget quisquis laudari, Gellia, quaerit : ille dolet vere qui sine teste dolet.


INCUSTODITIS et apertis, Lesbia, semper liminibus peccas nee tua furta tegis,

et plus spectator quam te delectat adulter nee sunt grata tibi gaudia si qua latent.

at meretrix abigit testem veloque seraque raraque Summoeni l fornice rima patet. 1 submemmi codd.


BOOK I. xxxi-xxxiv


THESE, all the tresses from his head, Encolpos, the darling of his master the centurion, vows, Phoebus, to thee, when Pudens shall bring home the glad guerdon of his merit, a chief centurion's rank. 1 Sever, Phoebus, with all speed these long locks while his soft cheeks are darkened not with any down, and while tumbled curls grace his milk- white neck ; and, so that both master and boy may long enjoy thy gifts, make him soon shorn, but a man late !


I DO not love you, Sabidius ; and I can't say why. This only I can say : I do not love you.


GELI.IA weeps not while she is alone for her lost lather ; if any one be present, her tears leap forth at her bidding. He does not lament who looks, Gellia, for praise ; he truly sorrows who sorrows unseen.


IT is always with doors unguarded and open, Lesbia, you offend, nor do you conceal your intrigues ; and it is the spectator more than the adulterer that pleases you ; no joys are grateful to you if they are hidden. But a harlot repels a witness both by curtain and bolt, and rarely a chink gapes in the

1 cf. v. xlviii. , where the vow was fulfilled.




a Chione saltern vel ab lade disce pudorem : abscondunt spurcas et monumenta lupas.

numquid dura tibi nimium censura videtur ?

deprendi veto te, Lesbia, non futui. 10


VERSUS scribere me parum severos

nee quos praelegat in schola magister,

Corneli, quereris : sed hi libelli,

tamquam coniugibus suis mariti,

non possunt sine mentula placere. 5

quid si me iubeas thalassionem

verbis dicere non thalassionis ?

quis Floralia vestit et stolatum

permittit meretricibus pudorem ?

lex haec carminibus data est iocosis, 10

ne possiiit, nisi pruriant, iuvare.

quare deposita severitate

parcas lusibus et iocis rogamus,

nee castrare velis meos libellos.

Gallo turpius est nihil Priapo. 15


Si, Lucane, tibi vel si tibi, Tulle, darentur

qualia Ledaei fata Lacones habent, nobilis haec esset pietatis rixa duobus,

quod pro fratre mori vellet uterque prior, diceret infernas et qui prior isset ad umbras : 5

" Vive tuo, frater, tempore, vive meo."

1 Summoenium was the name of a street or quarter in a low neighbourhood, and the resort of prostitutes.

2 A reminiscence of Cat. xvi. 7-8.


BOOK I. xxxiv-xxxvi

archway under the walls. 1 From Chione at least, or from las learn modesty : for dirty drabs even tombs are hiding-places. Does my censure appear to you too hard ? I forbid you, Lesbia, to be caught, not to be a strumpet.


THAT I write verses little squeamish, and not such as a schoolmaster would dictate in school, is your complaint, Cornelius ; but these poems cannot please, any more than husbands can please their wives, without amorousness. What if you bade me indite a marriage song not in the words of a marriage song ? Who brings garments into Flora's festival, and permits prostitutes the modesty of the stole ? This is the rule assigned to jocular poems, to be unable to please unless they are prurient. 2 Where- fore lay aside your squeamishness, and spare my pleasantries and my jokes, I beg you, and do not seek to castrate my poems. Than a Priapus as Cybele's priest 8 nothing is more disgusting.


IF, Lucanus, to thee, or if to thee, Tullus, were given the fate of Leda's Spartan sons, 4 now would there be proud rivalry of love betwixt you twain, for each would wish to be the first to die for his brother ; and he who first had passed to the nether shades would say : " Live, brother, thy own share of life, and live thou mine ! "

3 The priests of Cybele were eunuchs.

4 Castor and Pollux, who divided alternately between them life in the shades and in heaven.

5 1 E 2



VENTRIS onus misero, nee te pudet, excipis auro, Basse, bibis vitro, carius ergo cacas.


QUEM recitas meus est, o Fidentine, libellus : sed male cum recitas, incipit esse tuus.


Si quis erit raros inter mnnerandus amicos,

quales prisca fides famaque novit anus, si quis Cecropiae madidus Latiaeque Minervae

artibus et vera simplicitate bonus, si quis erit recti custos, mirator honesti

et nihil arcano qui roget ore deos, si quis erit magnae subnixus robore mentis :

dispeream si non hie Decianus erit.


Qui ducis vultus et non legis ista libenter, omnibus invideas, livide, nemo tibi.


URBANUS tibi, Caecili, videris. non es, crede mihi. quid ergo ? verna, hoc quod Transtiberinus ambulator, qui pallentia sulpurata fractis

5 2



YOUR bowels' load and you are not ashamed you receive in a golden vessel unhappy urn ! Bassus, you drink out of crystal ; therefore your evacuations are the more costly.


THAT book you recite, O Fidentinus, is mine. But your vile recitation begins to make it your OAVH.


IF any shall be found to be counted among rare friends, such as old-time loyalty and aged fame knows; if any shall be found steeped in the accom- plishments of Attic and Latin learning, and good with a true singleness of heart ; if any shall be found the guardian of right, admirer of honour, and not such as will sue the Gods for anything under his breath ; if any shall be found pillared on the strength of a great mind may I perish if Decianus will not be he !


You who make faces, and grudgingly read that eulogy above, may you envy all men, you jaundiced fellow, no man envy you !


A WIT, Caecilius, you fancy yourself. You are none, believe me. What then ? A buffoon. You are just like the tramping hawker from beyond the Tiber who exchanges pale sulphur matches for


permutat vitreis, quod otiosae 5

vendit qui madid um cicer coronae,

quod custos dominusque viperarum,

quod viles pueri salariorum,

quod fumantia qui tomacla raucus

circumfert tepidis cocus popinis, 10

quod non optimus urbicus poeta,

quod de Gadibus inprobus magister,

quod bucca est vetuli dicax cinaedi.

quare desine iam tibi videri,

quod soli tibi, Caecili, videris, 15

qui Gabbam salibus tuis et ipsum

posses vincere Tettium Caballum.

non cuicumque datum est habere nasuni :

ludit qui stolida procacitate,

non est Tettius ille, sed caballus. 20


CONIUGIS audisset fatum cum Porcia Bruti et subtracta sibi quaereret arma dolor,

' Nondum scitis " ait " mortem non posse negari ? credideram fatis hoc docuisse patrem."

dixit et ardentis avido bibit ore favillas. 5

i mine et ferrum, turba molesta, nega.


Bts tibi triceni fuimus, Mancine, vocati

et positum est nobis nil here praeter aprum,

non quae de tardis servantur vitibus uvae dulcibus aut certant quae melimela favis,

A street improvisatore : Friedlander.

A court-fool of Augustus: cf. x. ci.: Juv. xi. 162. So



broken glass ; like him, who sells to the idle ring warm pease-pudding ; like the keeper and owner of vipers ; like the cheap slaves of the saltsellers ; like the pieman, who bawls as he carries round in his warm pans smoking sausages ; like a second-rate street poet l ; like the lewd dance-master from Gades ; like the chaps of an old foul-mouthed de- bauchee. Wherefore cease to fancy yourself to be what you alone, Caecilius, fancy yourself, one who could surpass in wit Gabba, 2 and even Tettius Caballus himself. Not to everyone is given a critic's nose. He who jests with a pointless impudence, is no Tettius, but a dull hack.


WHEN Porcia had learned the fate of her husband Brutus, 3 and grief looked for the weapons that had been stolen from it, "Know ye not yet," she said, " that death cannot be denied ? I had be- lieved my sire by his fate had taught you this ! " She spake, and with greedy throat drank down the glowing embers. Go to now ! officious throng : deny the steel !


TWICE thirty were we, Mancinus, your invited guests, and nothing was served us last night but a boar. There were no grapes such as are left to hang late upon the vine, nor honey-apples that vie

too, probably, was Caballus, a word which also means " horse," on which M. plays. s The assassin of Julius Caesar.



noil pira quae longa pendent religata genesta J

aut imitata brevis Punica grana rosas, rustica lactantis nee misit Sassina metas

nee de Picenis venit oliva cadis, nudus aper, sed et hie minimus qualisque necari

a non armato pumilione potest. 10

et nihil inde datum est ; tantum spectavinufl omnes :

ponere aprum nobis sic et harena solet. ponatur tibi nullus aper post talia facta,

sed tu ponaris cui Charidemus apro.


LASCIVOS leporum cursus lususque leonum quod maior nobis charta minorque geiit

et bis idem facimus, nimium si, Stella, videtur hoc tibi, bis leporem tu quoque pone mihi.


EDITA ne brevibus pereat mihi cura libellis, dicatur potius Tov 8' a7ra/Aiy3o/xevos.


CUM dicis " Propero, fac si facis," Hedyle, languet

protinus et cessat debilitata Venus, expectare iube : velocius ibo retentus.

Hedyle, si properas, die mihi, ne properem.

1 Some criminal who had been exposed to a wild boar in the Arena.

2 Perhaps the single sheets on which some epigrams wire



with luscious combs ; nor pears that hang tied with the pliant broom ; nor pomegranates that copy the transient roses. Rural Sassina sent no cones of cheese ; there came no olive from Picenian jars. A boar, and nothing else ! and this too a tiny one, and such as could be slaughtered by an unarmed dwarf. And nothing after that was provided : all of us merely looked on. Even the Arena serves us up a boar in this style ! May no boar be served up to you after such behaviour, but may you be served up to the same boar as Charidemus ! l


BECAUSE a larger and a lesser page 2 of mine pre- sents the airy gambols of hares, and the lions' play, and twice I do the same thing if this seem to you excessive, Stella, do you in turn serve up to me twice a dish of hare !


THAT my labour be not lost because published in tiny volumes, rather let there be added rw 8' dira- fj.tif36p.evos. 3


WHEN thou sayest " I haste ; now is the time," then, Hedylus, my ardour at once flags and weakens. Bid me wait : more quickly, stayed, shall I speed on. Hedylus, if thou dost haste, tell me not to haste !

circulated before publication. Thus i. vi. and xxii. would take " a lesser," i. civ. " a larger," page.

3 i.e. if the public won't buy a small book, I must stuff it out with repetitions. The Greek words occur many hundreds of times in Homer,




NUPER erat medieus, nunc est vispillo Diaulus : quod vispillo facit, fecerat et medieus.


RICTIBUS his tauros non eripuere magistri,

per quos praeda fugax itque reditque lepus ; quodque magis minim, velocior exit ab hoste

nee nihil a tanta nobilitate refert. tutior in sola non est cum currit harena, 5

nee caveae tanta conditur ille fide, si vitare caiium morsus, lepus-inprobe, quaeris,

ad quae confugias ora leonis habes.


VIK Celtiberis non tacende gentibus

nostraeque laus Hispaniae, videbis altam, Liciniane, Bilbilin,

equis et armis nobilem, senemque Caium 1 nivibus, et fractis 2 sacrum 5

Vadaveronem montibus, et delicati dulce Boterdi nemus,

Pomona quod felix amat. tepidi natabis lene Congedi vadum

mollesque Nympharum lacus, 10

quibus remissum corpus adstringes brevi

Salone, qui ferrum gelat. praestabit illic ipsa figendas prope

Vobesca prandenti feras. aestus serenos aureo franges Tago 15

obscurus umbris arborum ;

1 Caium Vossius, calrum ft, catum y.

2 effractis codd.



LATELY was Diaulus a doctor, now he is an under- taker. What the undertaker now does the doctor too did before.


THE trainers have not torn bulls from these yawn- ing mouths wherethrough, a nimble prey, the hare comes and goes, and greater marvel yet ! issues out of the foe's jaws more agile than before ; some spirit from a beast so noble he wins. No safer is he while he speeds along the lonely sand, nor is he in such ward when shut in a cage. If thou wouldst shun, impudent hare, the bite of dogs, thou hast thy refuge, the lion's mouth.


You, a man worthy to be acclaimed by Celtiberian tribes, and the glory of our Spain, you, Licinianus, will see high-set Bilbilis, renowned for steeds and armour, and Caius x with its aged snows, and sacred Vadavero on the rugged hills, and the pleasant grove of delightful Boterdus which blest Pomona loves. You will swim in the smooth shal- lows of tepid Congedus, and the mild lake of the Nymphs, and brace your limbs, by them relaxed, in shallow Salo that chills iron. There shall Vobesca's self provide her own wild beasts to be speared near by even while you lunch. The cloud- less heat you, by boughs o'ershadowed, will assuage in golden Tagus' stream ; your eager thirst icy Der-

1 Some peak in the Pyrenees.



avidam rigens Dercenna placabit sitim

et Nutha, quae vincit nives. at cum December canus et bruma impotens

Aquilone rauco mugiet, 20

aprica repetes Tarraconis litora

tuamque Laletaniam. ibi inligatas mollibus dammas plagis

mactabis et vernas apros leporemque forti callidum runipes equo, 25

cervos relinques vilico. vicina in ipsum silva descendet focum

infante cinctum sordido ; vocabitur venator et veniet tibi

con viva clamatus prope ; 30

lunata nusquam pellis et nusquam toga

olidaeque vestes murice ; procul horridus Liburnus et querulus cliens,

imperia viduarum procul ; non rumpet altum pallidus somnum reus, 35

sed mane totum dormies. mereatur alius grande et insanum sophos :

miserere tu felicium veroque fruere non superbus gaudio,

duin Sura laudattir tuus. 40

non inpudenter vita quod relicum est petit,

cum fama quod satis est habet.


Si tibi Mistyllos cocus, Aemiliane, vocatur. dicatur quare non Taratalla mihi ?

1 As an advocate : see Index. 60

BOOK I. xi.ix-i,

cenna will allay, and Nutha colder than the snows. But when hoar December and wild winter shall moan with the hoarse northern blast, you will repair to Tarraco's sunny shores and your own Laletania. There will you slay does enmeshed in yielding toils, and home-bred boars, and with your stout steed ride down the cunning hare, to your bailiff resign the stags. To your very hearth, ringed with un- kempt boy-slaves, shall come down the neighbouring- wood ; the hunter will be invited, and he will come as your guest when you shout for him hard by; nowhere will be seen the crescent shoe, nowhere the toga, and clothes smelling strong of purple dye ; far off will be the odious Liburnian messenger, and querulous client ; the haughty commands of widows will be far off; your deep slumber the pale defendant will not break, but all through the morning will you dream. Let another win the loud and frantic " bravo " ; do you pity the " fortunate," and without pride enjoy true happiness, while your Sura earns applause. 1 Not presumptuously doth life seek what remains to it when fame hath its sufficiency.

IF your cook, Aemilianus, is called Mistyllus, 2 why should not Taratalla be the name for mine ?

1 From recollection of the Homeric line, Mtffrv\\6v r' \\a /cot au<' b$t\o'iffiv Hirfiuv.




NON facit ad saevos cervix, nisi prima, leones.

quid fugis hos denies, ambitiose lepus ? scilicet a magnis ad te descendere tauris

et quae non cernuiit frangere colla velis. desperanda tibi est ingentis gloria fati :

non potes hoc tenuis praeda sub hoste mori.


COMMENDO tibi, Quintiane, nostros nostros dicere si tamen libellos possum, quos recitat tuus poeta : si de servitio gravi queruntur, adsertor venias satisque praestes, et, cum se dominum vocabit ille, dicas esse meos manuque missos. hoc si terque quaterque clamitaris, inpones plagiario pudorem.


UN T A est in nostris tua, Fidentine, libellis pagina, sed certa domini signata figura, quae tua traducit manifesto carmina furto. sic interpositus villo contaminat uncto urbica Lingonicus Tyrianthina bardocucullus, sic Arretinae violant crystallina testae, sic niger in ripis errat cum forte Caystri, inter Ledaeos ridetur corvus olores,

1 As asaertor in libertatem, who takes up their claim to freedom, not allowing the plagiarist to claim them when manumitted by M.




No neck, save the chiefest, sorts 'with savage lions. Why fliest thou these fangs, ambitious hare? Thou wouldst forsooth have them come down from huge bulls to thee, and crunch the neck which they can- not see ! Not to be hoped for by thee is the glory of a mighty death : thou canst not, slender quarry, die under such a foe as this.


To your charge I entrust, Quintianus, my works if, after all, I can call those mine which that poet of yours recites. If they complain of their grievous servitude, come forward as their champion l and give bail for them ; and when that fellow calls himself their owner, say that they are mine, sent forth from my hand. 2 If thrice and four times you shout this, you will shame the plagiarist.


THERE is one page of yours, Fidentinus, in a book of mine a page, too, stamped by the distinct like- ness of its master which convicts your poems of palpable theft. So, when set among them, a Lin- gonian cowled cloak defiles with greasy wool the violet-purple robes of town ; so crocks from Arre- tium degrade crystal glass ; so a black raven, per- chance wandering on Cayster's banks, is laughed at among Leda's swans ; so, when a sacred grove is afire

2 " To send forth from the hand" was to make free a slave. So, in another sense, a book on publication is sent forth from the hand.



sic ubi multisona fervet sacer Atthide lucus,

in pro ha Cecropias offendit pica querellas. 10

indice non opus est nostris nee iudice libris ;

stat contra dicitque tibi tua pagina " Fur es."


Si quid, Fusee, vacas adhuc amari

(nam sunt hinc tibi, sunt et hinc amici),

unum, si superest, locum rogamus,

nee me, quod tibi sim novus, recuses :

omnes hoc veteres tui fuerunt. 5

tu tantum inspice qui novus paratur

an possit fieri vetus sodalis.


VOTA tui breviter si vis cognoscere Marci,

clarum militiae, Fronto, togaeque decus, hoc petit, esse sui nee magni ruris arator,

sordidaque in parvis otia rebus amat. quisquam picta colit Spartani frigora saxi 5

et matutinum portat ineptus Have, cui licet exuviis nemoris rurisque beato

ante focum plenas explicuisse plagas et piscem tremula salientem ducere saeta

flavaque de rubro promere mella cado ? 10

pinguis inaequales onerat cui vilica mensas

et sua non emptus praeparat ova cinis ? non amet hanc vitam quisquis me non amat, opto,

vivat et urbanis albus in officiis.


CONTINUIS vexata madet vindemia nimbis : non potes, ut cupias, vendere, copo, merum.



with the varied notes of the Athenian nightingale, an impudent jay jars on those Attic notes of woe. My books need no title or judge to prove them ; your page stares you in the face, and calls you "thief."


IF, Fuscus, you have still any room for love for you have friends on this side, friends on that a single niche, if one remains, I ask. Nor should you reject me because I am a "new" friend; all your old friends were that once. Look only for this in the new friend is he worthy to become an old comrade ?


IF you wish briefly to learn your Marcus' wishes, Fronto, bright ornament of war and of the gown, he seeks this to be tiller of land that is his own, though not large ; and rough ease he delights in amid small means. Does any man court halls gaudy and chill with Spartan stone, and bring with him O fool ! the morning salute, who, blest with spoils of wood and field, can before his hearth open his crowded nets, and draw with trembling line the leaping fish, and bring forth from the red jar his golden honey ? For whom the bailiff's portly dame loads his rickety table, and charcoal unbought cooks his home-laid eggs ? May he, I pray, who loves not me love not this, and live, pale-faced, amid the duties of the town.


THE vineyard drips, lashed by continued rains. Mine host, you can't, though you would, sell undiluted wine.





QUALEM, Flacce, velim quaeris nolimve puellam ?

nolo nimis facilem difficilemque nimis. illud quod medium est atque inter utrumque pro- bamus :

nee volo quod crucial nee volo quod satiat.


MILIA pro puero centum me mango poposcit : risi ego, sed Phoebus protinus ilia dedit.

hoc dolet et queritur de me mea mentula secum laudaturque meam Phoebus in invidiam.

sed sestertiolum donavit mentula Phoebo 5

bis decies : hoc da tu mihi, pluris emam.


DAT Baiana mihi quadrantes sportula centum.

inter delicias quid facit ista fames ? redde Lupi nobis tenebrosaque balnea Grylli :

tarn male cum cenem, cur bene, Flacce, laver ?


INTRES ampla licet torvi lepus ora leonis,

esse tamen vacuo se leo dente putat. quod ruet in tergum vel quos procumbet in armos,

alta iuvencorum volnera figet ubi ? quid frustra nemorum dominum regemque fatigas ? 5

non nisi delecta pascitur ille fera. 66



Do you ask, Flaccus, what sort of girl I like or dislike ? I dislike one too yielding, and one too coy. That middle type between the two I approve : I like not that which racks me, nor like I that which cloys.


THE dealer asked me a hundred thousand for the lad ; I laughed, but Phoebus straightway paid the price. Thereat my grieves and complains about me to itself, and Phoebus is applauded to my de- spite. But his - presented Phoebus with a nice two millions : do you give me as much, and I'll bid higher.


MY dole at Baiae gives me a hundred farthings. What avails that starvation allowance amid luxury? Give me back the gloomy baths of Lupus and of Gryllus. Seeing that so badly I dine, why, Flaccus, sumptuously should I bathe ?


ALBEIT, O hare, you enter the lion's yawning mouth, the lion yet regards his fang as unfleshed. Upon what back, upon what shoulders shall he throw his weight ? The deep wounds that lay low steers where shall he plant them ? Why vainly tease the woodland's lord and king ? 'Tis not save on the beast he has chosen that he feeds.

6? F 2



VERONA docti syllabas amat vatis,

Marone felix Mantua est, censetur Aponi Livio suo tellus

Stellaque nee Flacco minus, Apollodoro plaudit imbrifer Nilus, 5

Nasone Paeligni sonant, duosque Senecas unicumque Lucanum

facunda loquitur Corduba, gaudent iocosae Canio suo Gades,

Emerita Deciano meo : 10

te, Liciniane, gloriabitur nostra

nee me tacebit Bilbilis.


CASTA nee antiquis cedens Laevina Sabinis

et quamvis tetrico tristior ipsa viro dum modo Lucrino, modo se permittit Averno,

et dum Baianis saepe fovetur aquis, incidit in flammas : iuvenemque secuta relicto 5

eoniuge Penelope venit, abit Helene.


UT recitem tibi nostra rogas epigrammata. nolo. non audire, Celer, sed recitare cupis.


BELLA es, novimus, et puella, verum est, et dives, quis enim potest negare ? sed cum te nimium, Fabulla, laudas, nee dives neque bella nee puella es.




VERONA loves the syllables of her learned bard, Mantua is blest in Maro. The land of Aponus is apprised by its Livy, and by Stella, by Flaccus no less ; the flooding Nile applauds Apollodorus ; Pe- lignians are loud in Naso's praise. The two Senecas and matchless Lucan eloquent Corduba proclaims ; laughing Gades delights in her Canius, Emerita in my Decianus. Of you, Licinianus, shall our Bilbilis boast, nor of me shall she be silent.


CHASTE, and not inferior to the old-world Sabines, straiter-laced, too, than her husband in his sternest mood, Laevina, while she entrusted herself, now to the Lucrine lake and now to Avernus, and was oft refreshed by the waters of Baiae, fell into flames. 1 She went after a youth, leaving a husband : she arrived a Penelope and departed a Helen !


You ask me to recite to you my epigrams. I decline. You don't wish to hear them, Celer, but to recite them.


You are beautiful, we know, and young, that is true, and rich for who can deny it ? But while you praise yourself overmuch, Fabulla, you are neither rich, nor beautiful, nor young.

1 The looseness of morals at Baiae, Rome's fashionable watering-place, was notorious.

6 9



CUM dixi ficus, rides quasi barbara verba

et dici ficos, Caeciliane, iubes. dicemus ficus, quas scimus in arbore nasci,

dicemus ficos, Caeciliane, tuos.

LXV 7 1

EKKAS, meorum fur avare librorun),

fieri poetam posse qui putas tanti,

scriptura quanti constet et tomus vilis :

non sex paratur aut decem sophos nummis.

secreta quaere carmina et rudes curas 5

quas novit unus scrinioque signatas

custodit ipse virginis pater chartae,

quae trita duro non inhorruit mento.

inutare dominum non potest liber notus.

sed pumicata fronte si quis est nondum 10

nee umbilicis cultus atque membrana,

mercare : tales habeo ; nee sciet quisquam.

aliena quisquis recitat et petit famam,

non emere librum sed silentium debet.


" LIBER homo es nimium " dicis mihi, Ceryle, semper, in te quis dicit, Ceryle, "liber homo es " ?

1 i.e. piles, or some tumour: cf. iv. li ; vn. Ixxi. ; xiv. Ixxxvi.

2 By being held under the chin while being rolled up (Friedlander) ; or by being kissed in compliment in the recitation room (Paley) : c/. x. xciii. 6.




WHEN I called figs "ficus" you laughed at it as an outlandish word, and you require them, Caecil- ianus, to be called "ficos." We will call those " ficus " which we know grow on a tree ; we will call your figs, 1 Caecilianus, "ficos."


You mistake, you greedy thief of my works, who think you can become a poet at no more than the cost of a transcript and a cheap papyrus roll. Ap- plause is not acquired for six or ten sesterces. Look out for unpublished poems and unfinished studies, which one man only knows of, and which the sire of the virgin sheet not yet grown rough by the contact of hard chins, 2 keeps sealed up in his book-wallet. A well-known book cannot change its author. But if there be one with ends not yet smoothed with pumice, and not yet smart with its bosses and wrapper, buy it : such I possess, and no man shall know. Whoever recites another man's work, and so woos fame, ought not to buy a book, but silence.


" YOU'RE too free a man," you are always saying to me, Cerylus. In your case, Cerylus, who says " you're a free man " ? 3

y Cerylus was a wealthy freed man of Vespasian who changed his name to Laches and pretended to be a free man (ingenmis) ; see Suet. Vesp. xxiii. The emendation of the text est. (or est ?) is due to Wagner and accepted by Friedlander.




QUIDQUID agit Rufus, nihil est nisi Naevia Rufo.

si gaudet, si flet, si tacet, hanc loquitur, cenat, propinat, poscit, negat, innuit : una est

Naevia ; si non sit Naevia, mutus erit. scriberet hesterna patri cum luce salutem,

"Naevia lux," inquit "Naevia lumen, have." haec legit et ridet demisso Naevia voltu.

Naevia non una est : quid, vir inepte, furis ?


COEPIT, Maxime, Pana quae solebat, nunc ostendere Canium Tarentos.


VADE salutatum pro me, liber : ire iuberis

ad Proculi nitidos, officiose, lares, quaeris iter, dicam. vicinum Castora canae

transibis Vestae virgineamque domum. inde sacro veneranda petes Palatia clivo, 5

plurima qua summi fulget imago ducis.

1 i.e. the preceding part of the epigram, which the husband (or lover) thinks must allude to his particular li Naevia "

1 Since he had gone there the City of Tarentum was as proud of his laughing, face (rf. in. xr. 21) as of a famous image of the laughing Pan. Tarentos (fern.) is probably a literary form of Tarentum.




WHATEVER Rufus is doing, Naevia is to Rufus his all in all. If glad, if tearful, if mute, of her he speaks. He dines, drinks healths, asks, denies, or nods : Naevia is everything ; be there no Naevia, he will be dumb. When yesterday he was writing a greeting to his father, " Naevia, light of my eyes," he wrote, " Naevia, my sunbeam, I salute thee."

Naevia reads these lines l with face down-dropt, and laughs. There is more than one Naevia ; why, you silly husband, do you rage ?


TARENTOS, that used, Maximus, to display a statue of Pan, now begins to display Canius. 2


Go forth, my book, to bear my greeting for me ; 'tis to the smart house of Proculus you are bidden to go, a duteous messenger. You ask the way ? I'll tell you. 3 You will pass the temple of Castor near time-honoured Vesta, and the house of the Vestals. Thence by the Sacred Slope you will make for the august Palatine, where gleams many a statue of our

3 M. is sending his book from his house on the Quirinal to Proculus on the Palatine across the Via Sacra and Forum Romanum, and he points out the various temples, etc., on the way. As to the Colossus (formerly a statue of Nero, afterwards of the Sun), cf. Lib. Sped. ii. 1. It stood in M.'s time on the Via Sacra, near the arch of Titus, and was afterwards set by Hadrian near the Flavian Amphitheatre, to which it gave the name of Colosseum.



nee te detineat miri radiata colossi

quae Rhodium moles vincere gaudet opus, flecte vias hac qua madidi sunt tecta Lyaei

et Cybeles picto stat Corybante tholus. 10

protinus a laeva clari tibi fronte Penates

atriaque excelsae sunt adeunda domus. hanc pete : ne metuas fastus limenque superbum.

nulla magis toto iaiiua poste patet, nee propior quam Phoebus amet doctaeque sorores.

si dicet "Quare non tamen ipse venit ? " 16

sic licet excuses " Quia qualiacumque leguntur

ista, salutator scribere non potuit."


LAEVIA sex cyathis, septem lustina bibatur, quinque Lycas, Lyde quattuor, Ida tribus.

omnis ab infuso numeretur arnica Falerno, et quia nulla venit, tu mihi, Somne, veni.


NOSTRIS versibus esse te poetam,

Fidentine, putas cupisque credi ?

sic dentata sibi videtur Aegle

emptis ossibus Indicoque cornu ;

sic quae nigrior est cadente moro, 5

cerussata sibi placet Lycoris.

hac et tu ratione qua poeta es,

calvus cum fueris, eris comatus.

1 Domitian. 74


illustrious Commander. 1 Let not the mass, girt with rays, of the wondrous Colossus that exults to surpass the labour of Rhodes, detain you. Bend round here where is the roof of wine-drenched Lyaeus, and Cybele's dome stands with its painted Corybants. Right before you on the left a dwelling with shining front and the hall of a lofty house invite approach. Make for this ; and, that you may not fear any dis- dain and a proud threshold, know that 110 portal gapes so wide to show its doorposts, nor is there one whereto Phoebus and the learned Sisters draw more near in love. If he shall say, " Yet why did he not come himself? " thus you may excuse me : " Because those poems, whatever their worth, no man could have written who attends levees."


LET Laevia be drunk in six measures, in seven Justina, in five Lycas, Lyde in four, Ida in three.' 2 Let every mistress' name be numbered by outpoured Falernian. And, since none of them comes, do you, Sleep, come to me !


Is it by borrowing my verses, Fidentinus, that you think yourself a poet, and would have it believed ? So Aegle imagines she has teeth when she has pur- chased bone and ivory ; so she who is blacker than a falling mulberry, Lycoris, fancies herself when plastered with white lead. On this principle that makes you too a poet you will be well thatched when you are bald.

2 One cyathus ( = one-twelfth of a sextarius) is to be poured into the cup for each letter of the name : cf. vui. li. 21 ; xi. xxxvi. 7.




NULLUS in urbe fuit tota qui tangere vellet

uxorem gratis, Caeciliane, ttiam, dum licuit : sed nunc positis custodibus ingens

turba fututorum est. ingeniosus homo es.


MOECHUS erat : poteras tamen hoc tu, Paula, negare ecce vir est : numquid, Paula, negare potes ?


DIMIDIUM donare Lino quam credere totum qui mavolt, mavolt perdere dirnidium.


O MIHI curarum pretium non vile mearuni,

Flacce, Antenorei spes et alumne laris, Pierios differ cantus citharamque sororum ;

aes dabit ex istis nulla puella tibi. quid petis a Phoebo ? nummos habet area Minervae ;

haec sapit, haec omnes fenerat una deos. 6

quid possunt hederae Bacchi dare ? Pallados arbor

inclinat varias pondere nigra comas, praeter aquas Helicon et serta lyrasque dearum

nil habet et magnuni sed perinane sophos. 10

1 Divorced or widowed, she has married her lover, and so confesses the charge.




THERE was no one in the whole town willing to touch your wife, Caecilianus, gratis, while he was allowed ; but, now you have set your guards, there is a huge crowd of gallants. You are an ingenious person !


HE was your lover; yet this, Paula, you once could deny. Behold, he is your husband ; 1 can you deny it now ?


HE who prefers to give Linus half rather than trust him with the whole, prefers to lose the half.


O YOU, whose friendship is no cheap reward for my labours, Flaccus, the hope and nursling of An- tenor's settlement, 2 put aside your Pierian lays and the lute of the Sisters ; no maid among them will give you a penny. What seek you from Phoebus ? 'Tis Minerva's box holds the coin ; she is shrewd, she^ alone is usurer to all the gods. 3 What can ivy wreaths of Bacchus give you ? The tree of Pallas bows its varied leafage, and is dark with weight of fruit. Beyond its streams and the chaplets and lyres of the goddesses, Helicon has nought, nought beyond the loud but empty " bravo." What have you to do with

2 Patavium, or Padua: cf. Virg. Aen. i. 246.

3 Friedlander takes deos as = deonim dona, ' ' lends all that the gods can bestow," i.e. wealth, beauty, and the like.



quid tibi cum Cirrha ? quid cum Permesside nuda ?

Romanum propius divitiusque forum est. illie aera sonant : at circum pulpita nostra

et steriles cathedras basia sola crepant.


PULCHRE valet Charinus et tamen pallet.

parce bibit Charinus et tamen pallet.

bene concoquit Charinus et tamen pallet.

sole utitur Charinus et tamen pallet.

tinguit cutem Charinus et tamen pallet. 5

cunnum Charinus lingit et tamen pallet.


INDIGNAS premeret pestis cum tabida fauces

inque ipsos vultus serperet atra lues, siccis ipse genis flentes hortatus amicos

decrevit Stygios Festus adire lacus. nee tamen obscuro pia polluit ora veneno 5

aut torsit lenta tristia fata fame, sanctam Romana vitam sed morte peregit

dimisitque animam nobiliore rogo. 1 hanc mortem fatis magni praeferre Catonis

fama potest : huius Caesar amicus erat. 10


SEMPER agis causas et res agis, Attale, semper : est, non est quod agas, Attale, semper agis.

si res et causae desunt, agis, Attale, mulas. Attale, ne quod agas desit, agas animam.

1 rogo B, vita y, unde via 5-.

1 The nymph of the river Permessus, which rises on Mount Helicon.


Cirrha ? what with naked Permessis ? * Rome's forum is nearer and richer. There is the ring of coin : but around the platforms of us poets and our sterile chairs there is only the chink of kisses.


CHARINUS has good health, and yet he is pale. Charinus drinks moderately, and yet he is pale. Cha- rinus has good digestion, and yet he is pale. Charinus enjoys the sunshine, and yet he is pale. Charinus rouges his skin, and yet he is pale. Charinus in- dulges in every debauchery and yet he is pale. 2


WHEN wasting disease choked his guiltless throat, and o'er his very face crept black contagion, Festus, dry-eyed himself, spake to his weeping friends, and purposed to pass to the lake of Styx. Howbeit he marred not his righteous face with secret poison, nor with slow starvation tortured his sad fate ; but his sacred life he closed by a Roman's death, and set free his soul by a nobler end. This death may Fame prize more than great Cato's doom : Caesar was this man's friend.


You are always doing the pleader and always doing the man of business, Attalus ; whether there is or is not something to do, Attalus, you are always doing something. If business and pleadings fail you, you do the mule-driver, Attalus. Attalus, that some- thing to do may not fail you, do for yourself. 3

2 i.e. does not blush.

3 This epigram cannot satisfactorily be translated : it plays on the meanings of agere, which means (inter alia) "conduct," "do," or " drive.""




SPORTULA, Cane, tibi suprema nocte petita est. occidit puto te, Cane, quod una fuit.


A SERVO scis te genitum blandeque fateris, cum dicis dominum, Sosibiane, patrem.


HAEC quae pulvere dissipata multo

longas porticus explicat ruinas,

en quanto iacet absoluta casu !

tectis nam modo Regulus sub illis

gestatus fuerat recesseratque, 5

victa est pondere cum suo repente,

et postquam domino nihil timebat,

securo ruit incruenta damno.

tantae, Regule, post metum querellae

quis curam neget esse te deorum, 10

propter quern fuit innocens ruina ?


Os et labra tibi lingit, Manneia, catellus : non miror, mei'das si libet esse cani.


UXOREM habendam non putat Quirinalis, cum velit habere filios, et invenit quo possit istud more : futuit ancillas domumque et agros implet equitibus vernis. pater familiae verus est Quirinalis. 5




ON the night you died, Canus, you looked for a dole. What killed you, I think, Canus, was that there was but one.


You know you were begotten by a slave, and you blandly confess it, Sosibianus, when you address your father as "master."


THIS portico which, scattered in clouds of dust, spreads its length of ruin, lo ! of how great a mishap does it lie guiltless ! For under that roof Regulus had but lately driven and had passed out, when, suddenly o'ercome by its own weight, now it felt no misgiving for its lord, it crashed harmless in careless downfall. Now, Regulus, that fear of such heavy complaining is past, who could deny you are the charge of the gods, you, for whose sake ruin wrought no harm ?


You ii face and lips, Manneia, your little dog licks ; I don't wonder that a dog likes to eat filth.


QUIRINALIS does not think he should take a wife, meanwhile he wishes to have sons ; and he has dis- covered how to secure that object : he has relations with maid-servants, and fills his town-house and his country-place with home-born slave-knights. A genuine " father of a family " l is Quirinalis.

1 The meaning of "paterfamilias," i.e. "head of a house- hold," is altered to give a new sense.





VENDERET excultos colles cum praeco facetus

atque suburban! iugera pulchra soli, " Errat " ait " si quis Mario putat esse necesse

vendere : nil debet, fenerat immo magis." " Quae ratio est igitur?" " Servos ibi perdidit omnes 5

et pecus et fructus, non amat inde locum." quis faceret pretium nisi qui sua perdere vellet

omnia ? sic Mario iioxius haeret ager.


V r iciNus meus est manuque tangi

de nostris Novius potest fenestris.

quis non invideat mihi putetque

horis omnibus esse me beatum,

iuncto cui liceat frui sodale ? 5

tarn longe est mihi quam Terentianus,

qui nunc Niliacam regit Syenen.

non convivere, nee videre saltern,

non audire licet, nee urbe tota

quisquam est tarn prope tarn proculque nobis. 10

migrandum est mihi longius vel illi.

vicinus Novio vel inquilinus

sit, si quis Novium videre non volt.


NE gravis hesterno fragres, Fescennia, vino,

pastillos Cosmi luxuriosa voras. ista linunt dentes iantacula, sed nihil opstant,

extremo ructus cum redit a barathro.

1 Used in two senses, unhealthy, or unsaleable. 82



WHEN a humorous auctioneer was selling a well- cultivated hill-estate, and some beautiful acres of land near the town, he said : " He is wrong who thinks that Marius need sell ; he owes nothing, but lends money rather." " What is the reason, then ? " " He has lost there all his slaves, and his flocks, and his crops; hence he does not like the place." Who would make a bid but a man who was willing to lose all his possessions ? So his injurious x land sticks to Marius.


Novius is my neighbour, and can be touched by the hand from my windows. Who would not envy me, and think me every hour of the day happy in being able to enjoy so close a comrade ? He is as far from me as Terentianus who now governs Syene on the Nile. I can't dine with him, nor even see him or hear him, and in all the city there is no man who is so near and yet so far from me. I must shift farther, or he must. You should be Novius's neighbour, or fellow-lodger, if you don't wish to see Novius.


THAT you may not smell strong of yesterday's wine, Fescennia, you devour immoderately Cosmus's pastilles. That snack discolours your teeth, but is no preventive when an eructation returns from your abysmal depths. What if the stench is stronger

83 G 2


quid quod olet gravius mixtum diapasmate virus 5 atque duplex animae longius exit odor ?

notas ergo nimis fraudes deprensaque furta iam tollas et sis ebria simpliciter.


ALCIME, quern raptum domino crescentibus annis

Lavicana levi caespite velat humus, accipe non Pario nutantia pondera saxo,

quae cineri vanus dat ruitura labor, sed faciles buxos et opacas palmitis umbras 5

quaeque virent lacrimis roscida prata meis accipe, care puer, nostri monimenta doloris :

hie tibi perpetuo tempore vivet honor, cum mihi supremos Lachesis perneverit annos,

non aliter cineres mando iacere meos. 10


GARRIS in aurem semper omnibus, Cinna, garrire et illud teste quod licet turba. rides in aurem, quereris, arguis, ploras, cantas in aurem, iudicas, taces, clamas, adeoque penitus sedit hie tibi morbus, 5

ut saepe in aurem, Cinna, Caesarem laudes.


QUOD numquam maribus iunctam te, Bassa, videbam quodque tibi moechum fabula nulla dabat,

omne sed officium circa te semper obibat turba tui sexus, non adeunte viro,

esse videbaris, fateor, Lucretia nobis : 5

at tu, pro facinus, Bassa, fututor eras.



when mixed with drugs, and redoubled the reek of your breath carries farther ? So away with tricks too well known, and detected dodges, and be just simply drunk !


ALCIMUS, whom, snatched from thy master in thy burgeoning years, Lavican earth shrouds with its light turf, take from me, not a nodding weight of Parian stone, the perishable gift which vain toil makes to the dust, but pliant box, and the vine's dense shadow, and grass that grows green, dewy with my tears. Take them, loved boy, as tokens of my sorrow. Here for all time shall thy honour live. When Lachesis shall have spun to their end my latest years, I charge that in none other sort my ashes lie.


You are always chattering in everybody's ear, China, and even what one may chatter with the crowd listening. You laugh in the ear, grumble, make accusations, complain ; you sing in the ear, give opinions, are silent, shout. And so deep-seated is this malady of yours that often 'tis in the ear. Cinna, you speak Caesar's praise.


IN that I never saw you, Bassa, intimate with men, and that no scandal assigned you a lover, but every office a throng of your own sex round you performed without the approach of man you seemed to me, I confess, a Lucretia ; yet, Bassa oh, monstrous !



inter se geminos audes committere cunnos

mentiturque virum prodigiosa Venus, commenta es dignum Thebano aenigmate monstrum,

hie, ubi vir non est, ut sit adulterium. 10


CUM tua non edas, carpis mea carmina, Laeli. carpere vel noli nostra vel ede tua.


SAEPE mihi queritur non siccis Cestos ocellis,

tangi se digito, Mamuriane, tuo. non opus est digito : totum tibi Ceston habeto,

si dest nil aliud, Mamuriane, tibi. sed si nee focus est nee nudi sponda grabati 5

nee curtus Chiones Antiopesve calix, cerea si pendet lumbis et scripta lacerna

dimidiasque nates Gallica paeda tegit, pasceris et nigrae solo nidore culinae

et bibis inmundam cum cane pronus aquam, 10 non culum, neque enim est culus, qui non cacat olim,

sed fodiam digito qui superest oculum : nee me zelotypum nee dixeris esse malignum.

denique pedica, Mamuriane, satur.


FABRICIO iunctus fido requiescit Aquinus, qui prior Elysias gaudet adisse domos.

ara duplex primi testatur munera pili :

plus tamen est, titulo quod breviore legis :

" Iunctus uterque sacro laudatae foedere vitae, 5 famaque quod raro novit, amicus erat."

1 This epigram closely copies Cat. xxi, xxiii, xxiv. In lines 11 and 12 there is a pun on culus and oculua.



you are, it seems, a nondescript. You dare things unspeakable, and your portentous lust imitates man. You have invented a prodigy worthy of the Theban riddle, that here, where no man is, should be adultery !


ALTHOUGH you don't publish your own, you carp at my poems, Laelius. Either do not carp at mine, or publish your own.


OFTEN Cestos complains to me with overflowing eyes that he is pawed by your finger, Mamurianus. No need of a finger : take Cestos altogether to your- self if he, Mamurianus, is all that you lack. But if you possess no fire, nor frame of a bare truckle-bed, nor a broken cup like Chione's and Antiope's ; if a cloak, white with age and threadbare, hangs over your loins, and a Gaulish cape covers but half your buttocks ; and if you batten on the steam only of a sooty kitchen, and on all fours like a dog drink from dirty puddles, I will not prod that latter-end of yours it isn't a latter-end, being unused but I will gouge out your remaining eye. And don't say I am jealous or malicious. In a word, follow your bent, Mamurianus on a full stomach ! l


By the side of leal Fabricius rests Aquinus, who is glad to have passed first to the Elysian abodes. A double altar-tomb attests the rank of first cen- turion, yet more is what you read in the brief inscription : " Both were knit in the sacred bond of a life with honour ; and (what fame but seldom knows) both were friends."




CANTASTI male, dum fututa es, Aegle. iam cantas bene ; basianda non es.


QUOD clamas semper, quod agentibus obstrepis, Aeli, non facis hoc gratis : accipis, ut taceas.


Si non molestum est teque non piget, scazon,

nostro rogamus pauca verba Materno

dicas in aurem sic ut audiat solus.

amator ille tristium lacernarum

et baeticatus atque leucophaeatus, 5

qui coccinatos non putat viros esse

amethystinasque mulierum vocat vestes,

nativa laudet, habeat et licet semper

fuscos colores, galbinos habet mores.

rogabit unde suspicer virum mollem. 10

una lavamur : aspicit nihil sursum,

sed spectat oculis devorantibus draucos

nee otiosis mentulas videt labris.

quaeris quis hie sit ? excidit mihi nomen.


CUM clamant omnes, loqueris tune, Naevole, tantum,

et te patronum causidicumque putas. hac ratione potest nemo non esse disertus.

ecce, tacent omnes : Naevole, die aliquid.

1 Lit. "halting verse," or iambics ending with two long syllables.

2 Garments of this colour were worn by women or effemi- nate men : Juv. ii. 97.


BOOK I. xciv-xcvn


You sang badly while your practices were normal, Aegle. Now you sing well but I won't kiss you.


You are always shouting, always interrupting the pleaders, Aelius. You don't do this for nothing : you take pay to hold your tongue.


IF it is not a burden nor irksome to you, my verse, 1 I beg you speak a few words into Maternus' ear, just so, that he alone may hear. Admirer as he is of sad-coloured cloaks, and clad in Baetic wool and in grey, one who thinks that men in scarlet are not men at all, and styles violet mantles the vesture of women, although he praises native colours and always affects sober hues, grass-green 2 are his morals. He will ask you whence springs my suspicion of his effeminacy. We bathe together ; he never lifts his gaze, but with eyes devouring the catamites he looks on and surveys their members with no untwitching lips. Do you enquire who this man is ? The name has dropped 3 from me.


WHEN everybody is shouting, then only, Naevolus, you speak, and think yourself an advocate and pleader. On this principle there is none but may be eloquent. See, everybody is silent : Naevolus, say something.

3 Used in an ambiguous sense, either as meaning "I let the name out by accident just now," or "I have forgotten the name."




LITIGAT et podagra Diodorus, Flacce, laborat. sed nil patrono porrigit : haec cheragra est.


NON plenum modo viciens habebas,

sed tarn prodigus atque liberalis

et tarn lautus eras, Calene, ut omnes

optarent tibi centies amici.

audit vota deus precesque nostras 5

atque intra, puto, septimas Kalendas

mortes hoc tibi quattuor dederunt.

at tu sic quasi non foret relictum

sed raptum tibi centies, abisti

in tantam miser esuritionem, 10

ut convivia sumptuosiora,

toto quae semel apparas in anno,

nigrae sordibus explices monetae,

et septem veteres tui sodales

constemus tibi plumbea selibra. 15

quid dignum meritis precemur istis ?

optamus tibi milies, Calene.

hoc si contigerit, fame peribis.

MAMMAS atque tatas habet Afra, sed ipsa tatarum dici et mammarum maxima mamma potest.


ILLA manus quondam studiorum fida meorum et felix domino notaque Caesaribus,

1 Friedlander explains selibra as a piece of plate of that 90

BOOK I. xcvin-ci


DIODORUS goes to law, and suffers, Flaccus, from gout in the feet. But he offers his advocate no fee : this is gout in the hand.


LATELY you did not possess a full two millions, and yet so profuse and open-handed, and so large in en- tertainment were you, Calenus, that all your friends wished you ten. The god heard our vows and prayers, and within, I think, seven months, four deaths gave you this sum. But you, just as if nothing had been left you, but rather your two millions robbed from you, came down wretched man ! to such starvation parsimony that those more sumptuous banquets which you provide just once in the whole year you now set out at the squalid expenditure of dirty coppers ; and we, your seven old comrades, cost you only a half-pound of bad silver. 1 What reward for merits like those should we pray for ? We wish you a hundred millions, Calenus. If this sum fall to you, you will die of hunger.

AFKA has "mammas" and "dadas," but she her- self may be called the most immemorial mamma among these dadas and mammas.


ONCE the trusty copyist of my poems, his hand a treasure to his master and to the Caesars known,

weight which he sells to save his money, and plumbea as " trumpery."

9 1


destituit primes viridis Demetrius annos :

quarta tribus lustris addita messis erat. ne tamen ad Stygias famulus descenderet umbras, 5

ureret inplicitum cum scelerata lues, cavimus, et domini ius omne remisimus aegro :

munere dignus erat convaluisse meo. sensit deficiens sua praemia meque patronum

dixit ad infernas liber iturus aquas. 10


Qui pinxit V^enerem tuam, Lycori, blanditus, puto, pictor est Minervae.


" Si dederint superi decies mihi milia centum "

dicebas, nondum, Scaevola, iustus eques, " qualiter o vivam, quam large quamque beate ! "

riserunt faciles et tribuere dei. sordidior multo post hoc toga, paenula peior, 5

calceus est sarta terque quaterque cute : deque decem plures semper servantur olivae,

explicat et cenas unica mensa duas, et Veientani bibitur faex crassa rubelli,

asse cicer tepidum constat et asse Venus. 10

in ius, o fallax atque infitiator, eamus :

aut vive aut decies, Scaevola, redde deis.

BOOK I. ci-ciii

Demetrius in his fresh prime has left behind him years yet young : a fourth summer had been added to three lustres. Yet, that he should not go down to the shades of Styx a slave, when a cursed con- tagion held him fevered in its toils to this I took heed, and to his sickness resigned all a master's rights : worthy was he by my gift to have seen health once more ! He felt with failing strength the boon and called me "patron," now that he was passing down, a free man, to the nether wave.


HE who painted this Venus of yours, Lycoris, was a painter, I think, who paid court to Minerva.


" IF the high gods shall give me a million," you said, Scaevola, when not yet a knight complete, 1 "oh, how I shall live ! how bounteously and how richly! " Easy-going, the gods laughed and gave it you. After this your toga is much dirtier than before, your surtout shabbier, and your shoe has been thrice and four times patched. And out of ten olives the larger number is always put by, and one catering furnishes forth two dinners ; and you drink thick dregs of red Veientan wine ; your pea-soup costs you a penny, and a penny your amours. Let us go into court, you fraudulent trustee ! Either learn to live, or, Scaevola, restore the gods that million !

1 He had not yet the full qualification of 400,000 sesterces.




PICTO quod iuga delicata collo

pardus sustinet inprobaeque tigres

indulgent patientiam flagello,

mordent aurea quod lupata cervi,

quod frenis Libyci domantur ursi 5

et, quantum Calydoii tulisse fertur,

paret purpureis aper capistris,

turpes esseda quod trahunt visontes

et molles dare iussa quod choreas

nigro belua non negat magistro : 10

quis spectacula non putet deorum r

haec transit tamen, ut minora, quisquis

venatus humiles videt leonum,

quos velox leporum timor fatigat.

dimittunt, repetunt, amantque captos, 15

et securior est in ore praeda,

laxos cui dare perviosque rictus

gaudent et timidos tenere dentes,

mollem f range re dum pudet rapinam,

stratis cum modo venerint iuvencis. 20

haec dementia non paratur arte,

sed norunt cui serviant leones.


IN Nomentanis, Ovidi, quod nascitur agris, accepit quotiens tempora longa, merum

exuit annosa mores nomenque senecta ; et quidquid voluit, testa vocatur anus.

1 Nomentan wine, harsh when new, so improves with age 94

BOOK I. civ-cv


THE leopard carries a spangled yoke on its spotted neck, and savage tigers give obedience to the whip ; stags champ jagged golden bits ; Libyan bears are cowed by the i-ein ; a boar, as huge as the Calydo- nian of legend, yields to a purple halter; ugly bisons draw two-wheeled Gallic cars, and the ele- phant, bid lightly to dance, does not say nay to its black master. Who would not think here were sights fit for the gods ? Yet he passes these by as lesser marvels, who sees lions hunting humble quarry and wearied by the timorous speed of the hares. They let them go, they retrieve them and fondle their catch, and the prey is safer in their mouths. To receive it the lions delight to offer their jaws loose and gaping, and to keep their teeth careful not to wound, ashamed as they are to crunch such gentle booty when they have just come from laying low steers. Such mercy is not won by training, but the lions know whom they serve !


THE new wine, Ovidius, that is born in Nomentan fields, oft as it has taken upon it length of days, by hoary age puts off its nature and its name, and when old the jar is called by whatever name it chooses. 1

that J T OU can consider it as good as any brand : cf. xin. cxvii. of Mamertine.




INTERPONIS aquam subinde, Rufe,

et si cogeris a sodale, raram

diluti bibis unciam Falerni.

numquid pollicita est tibi beatam

noctem Naevia sobriasque mavis 5

certae nequitias fututionis ?

suspiras, retices, gemis : negavit.

crebros ergo licet bibas trientes

et durum iugules mero dolorem.

quid parcis tibi, Rufe ? dormiendum est. 10


SAEPE mihi dicis, Luci carissime luli,

" Scribe aliquid magnum : desidiosus homo es." otia da nobis, sed qualia fecerat olim

Maecenas Flacco Vergilioque suo : condere victuras temptem per saecula curas 5

et nomen flammis eripuisse meum. in steriles nolunt campos iuga ferre iuVenci :

pingue solum lassat, sed iuvat ipse labor.


EST tibi (sitque precor multos crescatque per annos) pulchra quidem, verum Transtiberina domus :

at mea Vipsanas spectant cenacula laurus, factus in hac ego sum iam regione senex ;

= ^ sexlarius = 4 cyathi. In 1. 3 uncia = 1 cyathus. 2 In the Campus of Vipsanius Agrippa, the sou-in-law of Augustus. Here stood the Porticus Agrippae. This was on the right bank of the Tiber, and east of the Campus Martius.


BOOK I. cvi-cvin


You often put water in your wine, Rufus, and, if you are pressed by a friend, drink but seldom a twelfth-part measure of diluted Falernian. Is it that Naevia has promised you a night of joy, and you prefer the lecheries by sobriety assured ? You sigh, you are dumb, you groan : she has denied "you. So you may drink full cup l after full cup, and throttle with wine your cruel pain. Why spare yourself, Rufus? Remains but to sleep.


OFT you say to me, dearest Lucius Julius : " Write something great ! You are a lazy man." Give me leisure, and leisure such as once Maecenas provided for Flaccus and his own Virgil ; then would I essay to build up works that should live throughout ages, and to rescue my name from the fire. Into unfruitful fields steers care not to bear the yoke ; a fat soil wearies, but the very labour delights.


You have and may it stand, I pray, and flourish for many years ! a house, beautiful indeed, but beyond the Tiber, whereas my garret looks out on the Vipsanian laurels, 2 and in this region I have already grown old : I must shift my quarters if I am

Beyond the Tiber the population was of a low class (cf. i. xli. 3), but this epigram shows there were some better- class residents.




migrandum est, ut mane domi te, Galle, salutem. 5

est tanti, vel si longius ilia foret. sed tibi non multum est, unum si praesto togatum :

multum est hunc unum si mihi, Galle, nego. ipse salutabo decuma te saepius hora :

mane tibi pro me dicet havere liber. 10


ISSA est passere nequior Catulli,

Issa est purior osculo columbae,

Issa est blandior omnibus puellis,

Issa est carior Indicis lapillis,

Issa est deliciae catella Publi. 5

hanc tu, si queritur, loqui putabis ;

sentit tristitiamque gaudiumque.

collo nixa cubat capitque somnos,

ut suspiria nulla sentiantur ;

et desiderio coacta ventris 10

gutta pallia non fefellit ulla,

sed blando pede suscitat toroque

deponi monet et rogat levari.

castae tantus inest pudor catellae,

ignorat Venerem ; nee invenimus 15

dignum tarn tenera virum puella.

hanc ne lux rapiat suprema totam,

picta Publius exprimit tabella,

in qua tarn similem videbis Issam,

ut sit tarn similis sibi nee ipsa. 20

Issam denique pone cum tabella :

aut utramque putabis esse veram,

aut utramque putabis esse pictam.


BOOK I. cvm-cix

to salute you, Gallus, in the morning at your house. Tis worth my while, even if that house of yours were farther off. But to you 'tis not much my pro- viding one gowned client ; 'tis much if I refuse this one man to myself. 1 In person I will full fre- quently salute you at the tenth hour 2 ; in the morn- ing, on my behalf, my book will bid " good day."


ISSA is naughtier than Catullus' sparrow ; Issa is more pure than kiss of dove ; Issa is more coaxing than any maid ; Issa is more precious than Indian pearls ; Issa is Publius' darling lap-dog. If she whines you think she is speaking ; she feels sadness and joy. Resting on his neck she lies and takes her sleep so softly that her breathings are not heard ; and when o'ercome by nature's longing never did she by a single drop betray the coverlet, but with wheedling paw she rouses you, warns you to put her down from the bed, and asks to be lifted. So great is the modesty of this chaste lap-dog that she knows not of love, nor can we find a mate worthy of a maid so tender. That death should not rob him of her alto- gether, Publius portrays her in a picture, wherein you will see an Issa so like that not even the dog herself is so like herself. In fine, set Issa alongside her picture ; you will think either that each is genuine, or you will think that each is painted.

1 If I rob myself of my leisure.

2 The dinner hour.

99 H 2



SCRIBERE me quereris, Velox, epigrammata longa, ipse nihil scribis. tu breviora facis.


CUM tibi sit sophiae par fama et cura deorum,

ingenio pietas nee minor ipsa tuo : ignorat meritis dare munera, qui tibi librum

et qui miratur, Regule, tura dari.


CUM te non nossenr, dominum regemque vocabam iiunc bene te novi ; iam mihi Priscus eris.


QUAECUMQUE lusi iuvenis et puer quondam

apinasque nostras, quas nee ipse iam novi,

male conlocare si bonas voles horas

et invidebis otio tuo, lector,

a Valeriano Pollio petes Quinto,

per quern perire non licet meis nugis.


Hos tibi vicinos, Faustine, Telesphorus hortos Faenius et breve rus udaque prata tenet.


BOOK I. cx-cxiv


You complain, Velox, that I write long epigrams, you yourself write nothing. Yours are snorter.


SINCE the fame of your scholarship is as great as your allegiance to the gods, your piety no less than your genius, he knows not how to reward merit who wonders that a book, and who wonders, Regulus, that incense is given to you.


WHEN I did not know you, I called you my master and my king. 1 Now I know you well ; henceforth you shall be to me Priscus.


ALL the light verse I penned once as youth and boy, and my worthless efforts which not even I myself now recognise these, if you want to spend good hours badly, and have a grudge against your leisure time, reader, you can get from Pollius Quintus Valerianus. It is through him my trifles are not allowed to perish.


THESE gardens near to thee, Faustinas, arid the narrow field and water-meadows, Telesphorus Faenius

1 i.e. patron. M. has now found that his patron will do nothing for him : cf. II. Ixviii.



condidit hie natae cineres nomenque sacravit quod legis Antullae, dignior ipse legi.

ad Stygias aequum fuerat pater isset ut umbras quod quia non licuit, vivat, ut ossa colat.


QUAEDAM me cupit, (invide, Procille !)

loto candidior puella cycno

argento nive lilio ligustro :

sed quandam volo nocte nigriorem

formica pice graculo cicada.

iam suspendia saeva cogitabas :

si novi bene te, Procille, vives.


Hoc nemus aeterno cinerum sacravit honori Faenius et culti iugera pulchra soli.

hoc tegitur cito rapta suis Antulla sepulchre, hoc erit Antullae mixtus uterque parens.

si cupit hunc aliquis, moneo, ne speret agellum perpetuo dominis serviet iste suis.


OCCURRIS quotiens, Luperce, nobis, " Vis mittam puerum " subinde dicis "cui tradas epigrammaton libellum, lectum quern tibi protinus remittam ? " non est quod puerum, Luperce, vexes, longum est, si velit ad Pirum venire, et scalis habito tribus sed altis. quod quaeris propius petas licebit.


BOOK I. cxiv-cxvn

owns. Here has he buried the ashes of his daughter and made holy the name you read, Antulla, though 'twere fitter his own name were read there ! More justly had the sire passed to the shades of Styx ! But as it could not be, let him live to honour her bones.


ONE I could name desires me (be jealous, Pro- cillus !), a girl whiter than a washed swan, than silver, snow, lily, privet. But I woo one I could name darker than night, than an ant, pitch, a jackdaw, a cicada. Just now you were contem- plating a cruel death by the rope. If I know you well, Procillus, you will keep alive !


THIS grove, and the fair acres of tilled land, Faenius has consecrated to the eternal honour of the dead. In this sepulchre is shut Antulla, snatched too quickly from her own ; in this shall both An- tulla's parents blend their dust. If someone covets this small field, I warn him not to hope : for all time shall it lie subject to its lords.


As often as you run across me, Lupercus, at once you say : " May I send a boy to get from you your book of epigrams ? When I have read it I will at once return it." There is no call, Lupercus, to trouble your boy. It is a long way if he sets out for the Pear-tree, and Ilive up three flights of stairs, and high ones ; you can look for what you want



Argi nempe soles subire Letum :

contra Caesaris est forum taberna 10

scriptis postibus hinc et inde totis,

ornnis ut cito perlegas poetas.

illinc me pete, nee roges Atrectum

(hoc nomen dominus gerit tabernae) :

de primo dabit alterove nido 15

rasum pumice purpuraque cultum

denaris tibi quinque Martialem.

"Tanti non es" ais ? sapis, Luperce.


GUI legisse satis non est epigrammata centum, nil illi satis est, Caediciane, mali.


BOOK I. cxvn-cxviii

nearer. Of course you often go down to the Potter's Field. 1 There is a shop opposite Caesar's Forum with its door-posts from top to bottom bearing advertise- ments, so that you can in a moment read through the list of poets. Look for me in that quarter. No need to ask Atrectus (that is the name of the shopkeeper) : out of the first or second pigeon-hole he will offer you Martial smoothed with pumice and smart with purple, for three shillings. " You're not worth it," you say ? You are wise, Lupercus.


HE who is not glutted with the reading of a hundred epigrams is not glutted, Caecilianus, with any amount of badness.

1 cf. I. iii. 1.




" QUID nobis " inquis "cum epistula ? parum enim tibi praestamus, si legimus epigrammata ? quid hie porro dicturus es quod non possis versib?/* dicere ? video quare tragoedia atque comoedia epistulam ac- cipiant, quibus pro se loqui non licet : epigrammata curione non egent et contenta sunt sua lingua : in quacumque pagina visum est, epistulam faciunt. noli ergo, si tibi videtur, rem facere ridiculam et in toga saltantk 1 inducere personam. denique videris an te delectet contra retiarium ferula, ego inter illos sedeo qui protinus reclamant." puto me hercules, Deciane, verum dicis. quid si scias cum qua et quam longa epistula negotium fueris habiturus ? itaque quod exigis fiat, debebunt tibi si qui in hunc librum inciderint, quod ad primam paginam non lassi per- venient.


TER centena quidem poteras epigrammata ferre, sed quis te ferret perlegeretque, liber ?

1 scdtantis Pontanus, saltanti codd. 108



"WHAT have I to do," you say, "with a letter? Why, am I not bountiful enough if I read epi- grams ? What further are you going to say here that you cannot say in verse ? I see why tragedy and comedy admit of a prefatory epistle, for they cannot speak for themselves. Epigrams need no crier, but are content with their own tongue : in whatever page they choose they constitute an epistle. Do not then, if it please you, do a ridiculous thing and introduce the character of one dancing in a toga. Lastly, consider whether you are inclined to encounter the net-caster with a wand. 1 I sit with those who at once protest." I think, so help me Hercules ! Decianus, you say truly. But if you knew what an epistle, and how long a one, you were about to deal with ! So let what you require be done. It will be owing to you that any persons who come across this book will not be weary before they come to the first page !


You might certainly have borne with you thrice a hundred epigrams, but who would have borne with you, my book, and have read you through ? But now

1 i.e. with such a poor weapon as a prefatory epistle to encounter the critic.



at nunc succinct! quae sint bona disce libelli.

hoc primum est, brevior quod rnihi charta perit ; deinde, quod haec una peragit librarius hora, 5

nee tantum nugis serviet ille nieis ; tertia res haec est, quod si cui forte legeris,

sis licet usque malus, non odiosus eris. te conviva leget mixto quincunce, sed ante

incipiat positus quam tepuisse calix. 10

esse tibi tanta cautus brevitate videris ?

ei mihi, quam multis sic quoque longus eris !


GRETA dedit magnum, maius dedit Africa nomen, Scipio quod victor quodque Metellus habet ;

nobilius domito tribuit Germaiiia Rheno ; et puer hoc dignus nomine, Caesar, eras.

frater Idumaeos meruit cum patre triumphos ; 5

quae datur ex Chattis laurea, tota tua est.


SEXTE, nihil debes, nil debes, Sexte, fatemur. debet enim, si quis solvere, Sexte, potest.


O QUAM blandus es, Ammiane, matri !

quam blanda est tibi mater, Ammiane !

fratrem te vocat et soror vocatur.

cur vos nomina nequiora tangunt ?

quare non iuvat hoc quod estis esse ? 5

1 Presumably he was drinking a hot mixture.

2 He assumed the name Germanicus in 84, after his triumph

BOOK II. i-iv

learn what are the merits of a concise book. This first : less of my paper is wasted ; next, my copyist gets through it in a single hour, and he will not be wholly busied with my trifles ; the third thing is this, that, if you are perhaps read to anyone, bad as you may be all through, you will not be a bore. The guest will read you after his five measures have been mixed, and before the cup he has put aside begins to grow cool. 1 Do you fancy yourself guarded by such brevity ? Alas, to how many even so will you be long !


CRETE gave a great name, Africa gave a greater, the one victorious Scipio, the other Metellus bears; a nobler yet Germany bestowed when the Rhine was subdued ; and of this name thou, Caesar, wert worthy while still a boy ! 2 Along with his sire thy brother 3 won his Idumaean triumph ; the bay given for the Chatti is wholly thine.


SEXTUS, you are no debtor, you are no debtor, Sextus, we allow. For he is a debtor, Sextus, who can pay.


OH, how fondling you are, Ammianus, to your mother ! How fondling is your mother to you, Ammianus ! Brother is what she calls you, and she is called sister. Why do disreputable names attract you ? Why are you not content to be what you are ?

over the Chatti, but he had taken part in an expedition into Germany in A.D. 70.

3 Titus : the reference is to the capture of Jerusalem, A.D. 70.


lusum creditis hoc iocumque ? non est : matrem, quae cupit esse se sororem, nee matrem iuvat esse nee sororem.

NE valeam, si non totis, Deciane, diebus

et tecum totis noctibus esse velim. sed duo sunt quae nos disiungunt milia passum :

quattuor haec fiunt, cum rediturus earn, saepe domi non es; cum sis quoque, saepe negaris; 5

vel tantum causis vel tibi saepe vacas. te tamen ut videam, duo milia non piget ire :

ut te non videam, quattuor ire piget.


1 NUNC, edere me iube libellos.

lectis vix tibi paginis duabus

spectas eschatocollion, Severe,

et longas trahis oscitationes.

haec sunt, quae relegente me solebas 5

rapta exscribere, sed Vitellianis ;

haec sunt, singula quae sinu ferebas

per convivia cuncta, per theatra ;

haec sunt, aut meliora, si qua nescis.

quid prodest mihi tarn macer libellus, 10

nullo crassior ut sit umbilico,

si totus tibi triduo legatur?

numquam deliciae supiniores.

lassus tarn cito deficis viator

et, cum currere debeas Bovillas, 15

interiungere quaeris ad Camenas ?

i nunc, edere me iube libellos.

1 Small, delicate tablets, often used for love-messages : cf. xiv. viii. and ix.


BOOK II. iv-vi

Do you imagine this conduct is play and amusement ? It isn't. A mother who desires that she should be a "sister," is not content to be a mother or a sister either.


MAY I be shot but I should like, Decianus, to be with you all day and all night. But there are two miles that part us ; these become four when I go and have to return. Often you are not at home ; even although you are, often you are denied ; or you have spare time only for clients or for yourself. Yet to see you I do not mind going the two miles ; not to see you and to go four I do mind.


So much for your bidding me publish my poems ! When you have read scarcely two pages, you glance at the last sheet, Severus, and pull interminable yawns ! These are the poems which, when I read them again to you, you used to snatch from me and copy, and on Vitellian tablets a too ! These are they, which, every one, you used to carry in your pocket at all the parties, at the theatres these are they, or others better you don't know of. What advantage to me is a volume so thin that it is not thicker than a roller-stick, if it takes three days to read it all ? Never was dilettante so indolent ! A weary traveller, do you give in so soon, and, although you have to drive to Bovillae, 2 want to change horses at the Camenae ? So much for your bidding me publish my poems !

2 Twelve miles from Rome on the Appian Way ; the fountain and temple of the Camenae weru just outside the Porta Capena.

JI 3 VOL. I. I



DECLAMAS belle, causas agis, Attice, belle,

historias bellas, carmina bella facis. componis belle mimos, epigrammata belle ;

bell us grammaticus, bellus es astrologus ; et belle caiitas et saltas, Attice, belle ; 5

bellus es arte lyrae, bellus es arte pilae. nil bene cum facias, facias tamen omnia belle,

vis dicam quid sis ? magnus es ardalio.


Si qua videbuntur chartis tibi, lector, in istis

sive obscura nimis sive Latina parum, non meus est error : nocuit librarius illis

dum properat versus adnumerare tibi. quod si non ilium sed me peccasse putabis, 5

tune ego te credam cordis habere nihil. " Ista tamen mala sunt." quasi nos manifesta ne- gemus !

haec mala sunt, sed tu non meliora facis.


SCRIPSI ; rescripsit nil Naevia ; non dabit ergo, sed puto quod scripsi legerat : ergo dabit.

BASIA dimidio quod das mihi, Postume, labro, laudo : licet demas hinc quoque dimidium.

vis dare maius adhuc et inenarrabile munus ? hoc tibi habe totum, Postume, dimidium.




You declaim nicely ; you plead causes, Atticus, nicely ; you write nice histories, nice poems. You compose nicely mimes, epigrams nicely ; you are a nice litterateur, a nice astronomer, and you sing nicely and dance nicely, Atticus ; you are a nice performer on the lyre, you are a nice player at ball. Seeing that you do nothing well, yet do everything nicely, would you have me describe you ? You are a great dabbler.


IF any poems in those sheets, reader, seem to you either too obscure or not quite good Latin, not mine is the mistake : the copyist spoiled them in his haste to complete for you his tale of verses. But if you think that not he, but I am at fault, then I will believe that you have no intelligence. " Yet, see, those are bad." As if I denied what is plain ! They are bad, but you don't make better.


I WROTE ; Naevia wrote me no reply ; so she will not receive me. But, I think, she read what I wrote : so she will.


IN that you give me kisses, Postumus, with only half your lips, I thank you ; you may subtract a half even from this half. Will you give me a gift still greater, and one inexpressible ? Keep to yourself the whole of this half, Postumus.

i 2



QUOD fronte Selium nubila vides, Rufe,

quod ambulator porticum terit seram,

lugubre quiddam quod tacet piger voltus,

quod paene terrain nasus indecens tan git,

quod dextra pectus pulsat et comam vellit, 5

non ille amici fata luget aut fratris ;

uterque natus vivit et precor vivat ;

salva est et uxor sarcinaeque servique ;

nihil colonus vilicusque decoxit.

maeroris igitur causa quae ? domi cenat. 10


ESSE quid hoc dicam quod olent tua basia murrain quodque tibi est numquam non alienus odor ?

hoc mihi suspectum est, quod oles bene, Postume,

semper : Postume, non bene olet qui bene semper olet.


ET iudex petit et petit patronus. solvas censeo, Sexte, creditori.


NIL intemptatum Selius, nil linquit inausum, cenandum quotiens iam videt esse domi.

currit ad Europen et te, Pauline, tuosque laudat Achilleos, sed sine fine, pedes.

1 In the Campus Martins. It was built by Vipsania Polla, the sister of Agrippa, and was adorned with paintings of the


BOOK II. xi-xiv


You see, Rufus, how Selius wears a cloudy brow, how he paces up and down the colonnade late ; how his heavy countenance silently bespeaks some me- lancholy thought ; how his ugly nose almost touches the ground ; how with his right hand he beats his breast and plucks his hair. Yet he is not lamenting the death of a friend or of a brother ; each of his sons is living and 1 hope may live ; his wife, too, is safe, and his chattels and his slaves ; neither his tenant nor his steward has made default. His sorrow then what is the cause of it ? He dines at home !


How shall I explain this, that your kisses smell of myrrh, and that there is about you invariably some foreign odour ? This is suspect to me, your being well-scented, Postumus, always. Postumus, he is not well scented who always is well-scented !


THE judge wants his fee, and your counsel wants his. My advice, Sextus, is : pay your creditor.


NOTHING Selius leaves untried, nothing unventured, as often as he perceives at last that he must dine at home. He scurries to Europa's Portico 1 and pours forth praise and interminable praise of you, Pau- linus, and of your feet that vie with Achilles'. If

rape of Europa. As to its connection with running matches, cf. vii. xxxii. 12.



si nihil Europe fecit, tune Saepta petuntur, 5

si quid Phillyrides praestet et Aesonides. hie quoque deceptus Memphitica templa frequentat,

adsidet et cathedris, maesta iuvenca, tuis. inde petit centum pendentia tecta columnis,

illinc Pompei dona nemusque duplex. 10

nee Fortunati spernit nee balnea Fausti

nee Grylli tenebras Aeoliamque Lupi : nam thermis iterum ternis iterumque lavatur.

omnia cum fecit, sed renuente deo, lotus ad Europes tepidae buxeta recurrit, 15

si quis ibi serum carpat amicus iter. per te perque tuarn, vector lascive, puellam,

ad cenam Selium tu, rogo, taure, voca.


QUOD nulli calicem tuum propinas, humane facis, Horme, non superbe.


ZOILUS aegrotat : faciunt hanc stragula febrem.

si fuerit sanus, coccina quid facient ? quid torus a Nilo, quid Sidone tinctus olenti ?

ostendit stultas quid nisi morbus opes ?

1 The Saepta Julia, an enclosure in the Campus Martius, begun by Julius Caesar, and completed by Agrippa. It con- tained shops, and became a fashionable place of resort : cf. li. lix.; ix. lix. Pliny (Nat. Hist, xxxvi. 29) mentions it as containing a group of Chiron (Philyrides) and Achilles. Aesonides ( = Jason) probably refers to the neighbouring Porticus Argonautarwm : cf. in. xx. ; XI. i. 12.


BOOK II. xiv-xvi

Europa has produced nothing, then he makes for the Saepta, 1 to see if the son of Philyras and the son of Aeson will guarantee him anything. Baffled in this quarter, too, he haunts the temple of Isis, 2 and takes his seat beside the chairs, sad heifer, of thy worship- pers. Thence he seeks the roof poised on a hundred columns ; 3 from there Pompey's gift with its double groves. Neither of Fortunatus nor of Faustus does he spurn the bath, nor Gryllus' gloom and Lupus' cave of the winds ; as to the three hot baths 4 he bathes again and again. When he has done every- thing the god still refusing his wishes after his bath he runs again to the box-groves of sun-warmed Europa, in hope that there some friend may be walk- ing late. Wanton carrier, I pray thee by thyself and by thy virgin freight, 5 do thou, O bull, ask Selius to dinner. 6


To no one do you pass your cup to pledge you. This is human feeling. 7 Hormus, not pride.


ZOILUS is ill : it is his bed-trappings cause this fever. Suppose him well ; what will be the use of scarlet coverlets ? What of a mattress from Nile, or of one dipped in strong-smelling purple of Sidon ? What but illness displays such foolish wealth ?

2 Also in the Campus Martius.

3 The so-called Hecatostylon, close to the Portico and Theatre of Pompey.

4 i.e. of Agrippa, Nero, and Titus. 6 Europa.

6 i.e. M. prays that S. should be thrown to a bull in the Arena (Friedlander) : cf. I. xliii. 14. Others explain that M. hopes Jupiter will remove S. from the world.

7 Because his lips polluted the cup (Friedlander).


quid tibi cum medicis ? dimitte Machaonas omnis. 5 vis fieri sanus ? stragula sume mea.


TONSTRIX Suburae faucibus sedet primis,

cruenta pendent qua flagella tortorum

Argique Letum multus obsidet sutor.

sed ista tonstrix, Ammiane, non tondet,

non tondet, inquam. quid igitur facit ? radit. 5


CAPTO tuam, pudet heu, sed capto, Maxime, cenam,

tu captas aliam : iam sumus ergo pares, mane salutatum venio, tu diceris isse

ante salutatum : iam sumus ergo pares, sum comes ipse tuus tumidique anteambulo regis, 5

tu comes alterius : iam sumus ergo pares. esse sat est servum, iam nolo vicarius esse.

qui rex est, regem, Maxime, non habeat.


FELICEM fieri credis me, Zoile, cena ?

felicem cena, Zoile, deinde tua ? debet Aricino conviva recumbere clivo,

quern tua felicem, Zoile, cena facit.

1 cf. I. iii. 1 ; cxvii. 9. z Sensu obsceno. 3 cf. 11. xxxii. I2O

BOOK II. xvi-xix

What do you want with doctors? Dismiss all your physicians. Do you wish to become well ? Take my bed-trappings !


A FEMALE barber sits just at the entrance of the Subura, where the blood-stained scourges of the executioners hang, and many a cobbler faces the Potter's Field. 1 But that female barber, Ammianus, does not crop you ; she does not crop you, I say. What, then, does she do ? She skins you. 2


I FISH for your invitation to dinner ; I am ashamed, alas ! yet, Maximus, I fish for it ; you fish for another man's ; so now we are a pair. In the morning I attend your levee ; you, they tell me, have gone before to another levee ; so now we are a pair. I in person am your attendant, and the escort of a haughty lord ; you are escort of another ; so now we are a pair. To be a slave is enough ; I won't any longer be a slave's slave. He who is a lord, Maxi- mus, should not have his own lord. 3


D'YE think I am made happy, Zoilus, by a dinner ? Happy by a dinner, Zoilus, and above all by yours ? That guest should lie at his meals on Aricia's slope 4 whom your dinner, Zoilus, makes happy.

4 A favourite resort of begears : cf. xii. xxxii. 10 ; Juv. iv. 117.




CARMINA Paulus emit, recital sua carmina Paulus. nam quod emas possis hire vocare tuum.


BASIA das aliis, aliis das, Postume, dextram. dicis " Utrum mavis ? elige." malo manum.


QUID mihi vobiscum est, o Phoebe novemque sorores?

ecce nocet vati Musa iocosa suo. dimidio nobis dare Postumus ante solebat

basia. nunc labro coepit utroque dare.


NON dicam, licet usque me rogetis,

qui sit Postumus in meo libello,

non dicam : quid enim mihi necesse est

has offendere basiationes

quae se tarn bene vindicare possunt ? 5


" Si det iniqua tibi tristem fortuna reatum,

squalidus haerebo pallidiorque reo : si iubeat patria damnatum excedere terra,

per freta, per scopulos exulis ibo comes." Dat tibi divitias : ecquid sunt ista duorum ? 5

das partem? " Multum est." Candide, das aliquid? mecum eris ergo miser : quod si deus ore sereno

adnuerit, felix, Candide, solus eris.

1 cf. n. xv.

BOOK II. xx-xxiv


PAULUS purchases poetry, Paulus recites the poetry as his. For what you purchase you may rightly call your own.


KISSES you give to some ; to others you give, Postumus, your hand. You say, " Which do you prefer ? Choose." I prefer the hand. 1


WHAT do I want with you, O Phoebus, and ye Sisters Nine ? See how the jesting Muse injures her own bard ! Postumus used before to give me kisses with half his lips ; now he begins to give them with both.


I WILL not say, however repeatedly you ask me, who is the Postumus in my little book ; I will not say. For why must I offend those kisses which can so well avenge themselves ?


" SHOULD unkind Fortune give you the sad lot of one accused, in squalid guise will I cling to you, paler than the accused. Should she bid you, a con- demned man, to leave your fatherland, over seas, over rocks will I go, companion of the exile." She gives you wealth ; does that belong to two ? Do you give half? " 'Tis much." Candidus, do you give something ? My comrade then you will be in trouble ; but let the god smile with sunny face, Candidus, your good luck you will enjoy alone.




DAS numquam, semper promittis, Galla, roganti. si semper fallis, iam rogo, Galla, nega.


QUOD querulum spirat, quod acerbum Naevia tussit, inque tuos mittit sputa subinde sinus,

iam te rem factam, Bithynice, credis habere ? erras : blanditur Naevia, non moritur.


LAUDANTEM Selium cenae cum retia tendit

accipe, sive legas sive patronus agas : " Effecte ! graviter ! cito ! nequiter ! euge ! beate ! "

hoc volui : facta est iam tibi cena, tace.


RIDETO multum qui te, Sextille, cinaedum dixerit et digitum porrigito medium.

sed nee pedico es nee tu, Sextille, fututor, ealda Vetustinae nee tibi bucca placet.

ex istis nihil es fateor, Sextille : quid ergo es ? nescio, sed tu scis res superesse duas.


RUFE, vides ilium subsellia prima terentem, cuius et hinc lucet sardonychata manus,

1 cf. i. x. 2 The digitus infamis ; cf. Pers. ii. 33. 124

BOOK II. xxv-xxix


You never grant my prayer, Galla, but are always promising. If you are always false my prayer is now, " Galla, refuse."


BECAUSE Naevia wheezes, because Naevia has a racking cough, and oft flings her spittle into your bosom, do you imagine, Bithynicus, that you have your object already attained ? l You are mistaken. Naevia is wheedling you ; she is not dying.


WHEN Selius is spreading his nets for a dinner, take him with you to applaud, whether you are re- citing or acting as counsel. " A good point ! Weighty that ! How ready ! A hard hit ! Bravo ! That's happy ! " That is what I wanted. You have now earned your dinner ; hold your tongue.


SCOFF much at him who calls you, Sextillus, a ,

and push out your middle finger. 2 Indeed you are

no , nor are you, Sextillus, an adulterer, nor

have Vetustina's hot lips delight for you. None of those things are you, I confess, Sextillus : what then are you ? I don't know ; but you know two things remain.


RUFUS, you see that fellow lolling in the front seats, whose hand even at this distance shines with sardonyx, and whose mantle has so often absorbed all



quaeque Tyron totiens epotavere lacernae

et toga non tactas vincere iussa nives, cuius olet toto pinguis coma Marcelliano 5

et splendent volso bracchia trita pilo. non hesterna sedet lunata lingula planta,

coccina non laesum pingit aluta pedem, et numerosa linunt stellantem splenia frontem.

ignoras quid sit ? splenia tolle, leges. 10


MUTUA viginti sestertia forte rogabam, quae vel donanti non grave munus erat.

quippe rogabatur felixque vetusque sodalis et cuius laxas area flagellat opes.

is mihi " Dives eris, si causas egeris " inquit. 5

quod peto da, Gai : non peto consilium.


SAEPE ego Chrestinam futui. det quam bene quaeris ? supra quod fieri nil, Mariane, potest.


Lis mihi cum Balbo est, tti Balbum ofFendere non vis, Pontice : cum Licino est, hie quoque magnus homo est.

1 South of the Circus Flaminius. Begun by Julius Caesar, and finished by Augustus, who dedicated it B.C. 11 in the name of Marcellus.

  • i.e. brand-new, not twenty-four hours old.


BOOK II. xxix-xxxn

the purple of Tyre, and whose toga has been made to outshine the untrodden snow ; whose greasy hair is smelt all over Marcellus' theatre l ; and whose arms gleam smooth with the hair plucked off. His shoe-latchet, not of yesterday, 2 rests on a crescent- decked 3 shoe ; scarlet leather adorns his ungalled foot; and his brow numerous patches 4 star and plaster. Don't you know what is the reason ? Lift the patches : you will read.


I ASKED, as it chanced, the loan of twenty thousand sesterces, which, even to a giver, would have been no burden. The fact was I asked them of a well- to-do and old friend, and one whose money-chest keeps in control 5 o'erflowing wealth. His answer was : " You will be rich if you plead causes." Give me what I ask, Gaius : I don't ask for advice.


I HAVE often enjoyed Chrestina's favours. Do you ask how generously she grants them ? Beyond them, Marianus, nothing is possible.


I HAVE a lawsuit with Balbus : you don't wish to offend Balbus, Ponticus ; I have one with Licinus :

  • The crescent on the shoe was a mark of senatorial or

patrician rank : Juv. vii. 192.

4 Often used to set off beauty (cf. vni. xxxiii. 22), here to hide the marks of the branding-iron.

5 Others take flayellat as = " urges into activity."



vexat saepe meum Patrobas confinis agellum ;

contra libertum Caesaris ire times, abnegat et retinet nostrum Laronia servum ;

respondes " Orba est, dives, anus, vidua." non bene, crede mihi, servo servitur amico :

sit liber, dominus qui volet esse meus.


CUR non basio te, Philaeni ? calva es. cur non basio te, Philaeni ? rufa es. cur non basio te, Philaeni ? lusca es. haec qui basiat, o Philaeni, fellat.


CUM placeat Phileros tota tibi dote redemptus, tres pateris natos, Galla, perire fame.

praestatur cano tanta indulgentia cunno quern nee casta potest iam decuisse Venus.

perpetuam di te faciant Philerotis amicam, o mater, qua nee Pontia deterior.


CUM sint crura tibi simulent quae cornua lunae, in rhytio poteras, Phoebe, lavare pedes.


FLECTERE te nolim sed nee turbare capillos ; splendida sit nolo, sordida nolo cutis ;


BOOK II. \\.\ii-xxxvi

he, too, is a great man. My next-door neighbour, Patrobas, often trespasses on my small field : you are afraid to oppose Caesar's freed-man. Laronia denies that I lent her my slave, and keeps him : you will answer me, "She is childless, rich, old, a widow." It is useless, believe me, to be the slave of a slave, though he is a friend : let him be free who shall wish to be my lord.


WHY do I not kiss you, Philaenis? You are bald. Why do I not kiss you, Philaenis ? You are carroty. Why do I not kiss you, Philaenis ? You are one-eyed. He who kisses these things, Philaenis, is capable of anything.


WHILE Phileros, whom with your whole dowry you have redeemed from slavery, is your favourite, you allow your three sons, Galla, to perish of hunger. Your hoary carcass is assured such indulgence as this, although riot even chaste love can any longer become it. For ever may the gods make you the mistress of Phileros, O mother, than whom not even Pontia l was viler !


SEEING that your legs resemble the horns of the moon, you could bathe your feet, Phoebus, in a drinking-horn.


I WOULD not have you curl your hair, nor yet ruffle it ; I do not want your skin to be sleek, I do not 1 She poisoned her two sons (.Tuv. vi. 638).

129 VOL. I. K


nee tibi mitrarum nee sit tibi barba reorum : nolo virum nimium, Pannyche, nolo parum.

nunc sunt crura pilis et sunt tibi pectora saetis 5 horrida, sed mens est, Pannyche, volsa tibi.


QUIDQUID ponitur hinc et inde verris,

mammas suminis imbricemque porci

communemque duobus attagenam,

mullum dimidium lupumque totum

muraenaeque latus femurque pulli 5

stillantemque alica sua palumbum.

haec cum condita sunt madente mappa,

traduntur puero domum ferenda :

nos accumbimus otiosa turba.

ullus si pudor est, repone cenam : 10

eras te, Caeciliane, non vocavi.


QUID mihi reddat ager quaeris, Line, Nomentanus ? hoc mihi reddit ager : te, Line, non video.


COCCINA famosae donas et ianthina moechae : vis dare quae meruit munera ? mitte togam.

1 M. is probably thinking of the eunuch and depilated priests of Cybele (Friedlander).


BOOK II, xxxvi xxxix

want it to be dirty ; do not let your beard be that of Orientals l nor yet that of men on trial ; 2 I dp not want one too much a man, Pannychus ; I do not want one too little. As it is, your shanks are shaggy with hair and your chest is with bristles : but it is your mind, Pannychus, that is depilated.


WHATEVER is served you sweep off from this or that part of the table : the teats of a sow's udder and a rib of pork, and a heathcock meant for two, half a mullet, and a bass whole, and the side of a lamprey, and the leg of a fowl, and a pigeon dripping with its white sauce. These dainties, when they have been hidden in your sodden napkin, are handed over to your boy to carry home : we recline at table, an idle crowd. If you have any decency, restore our dinner ; I did not invite you, Caecilianus, to a meal to-morrow.


Do you ask, Linus, what my Nomentan farm returns me ? This my land returns me : 1 don't see you, Linus.


You present a notorious adulteress with scarlet and violet dresses. Do you want to give her the present she has deserved? Send her a toga. 3

2 Who let their beards grow unkempt to excite the jury's compassion.

3 Courtesans, or women in adulterio deprthennae, were compelled by law to wear the toga.


K 2



URI Tongilius male dicitur hemitritaeo.

novi hominis fraudes : esurit atque sitit. subdola tenduntur crassis nunc retia turdis,

hamus et in mullum mittitur atque lupum. Caecuba saccentur quaeque annus coxit Opimi, 5

condantur parco fusca Falerna vitro, omnes Tongilium medici iussere lavari :

o stulti, febrem creditis esse ? gula est.


" RIDE si sapis, o puella, ride "

Paelignus, puto, dixerat poeta.

sed non dixerat omnibus puellis.

verum ut dixerit omnibus puellis,

non dixit tibi : tu puella non es, 5

et tres sunt tibi, Maximina, dentes,

sed plane piceique buxeique.

quare si speculo mihique credis,

debes non aliter timere risum,

quam ventum Spanius manumque Prisons, 10

quam cretata timet Fabulla nimbum,

cerussata timet Sabella solem.

voltus indue tu magis severos

quam coniunx Priami nurusque maior.

mimos ridiculi Philistionis 15

et convivia nequiora vita,

et quidquid lepida procacitate

laxat perspicuo labella risu.

1 Ovid ; but the passage is not found in his extant works. He, however, gives a warning against laughing if the teeth are bad (Art. Am. iii. 279 seqq.).




'Tis a false report that Tongilius is being consumed by a semi-tertian fever. I know the tricks of the man : he is hungry and thirsty. Crafty nets are now being stretched for dull-witted thrushes, and the hook is being let down for the mullet and the bass. Let the Caecuban be strained, and the wines Opimius' year ripened ; let the dark Falernian be poured in small glasses. All his doctors have ordered Tongilius to take baths. O you fools ! Think you this is a fever ? 'Tis gluttony.


" LAUGH, if you are wise, O girl, laugh," the Pe- lignian bard, 1 I think, said. But he did not say it to all girls. However, granted he said it to all girls, he did not say it to you : you are not a girl, and you have three teeth, Maximina, but they are altogether of the hue of pitch or boxwood. So, if you trust your mirror and me, you ought to dread laughing as much as Spanius dreads a breeze, 2 and Priscus the touch of a hand ; as' much as pearl- powdered Fabulla dreads a shower, white-leaded Sabella dreads the sun. Do you put on an aspect more grave than that of Priam's. spouse and of his eldest son's wife. Avoid the mimes of laughter- moving Philistion, and revelries of looser kind, and anything that by witty wantonness unseals the lips

2 i.e. that might disorder the arrangement of his hair that conceals his baldness (cf. x. Ixxxiii.). Priscus is a fop who is afraid a touch might disorder or soil his dress (cf. in. Ixiii. 10).



te maestae decet adsiderc matri

lugentive virum piumve fratrem, 20

et tantum tragicis vacare Musis.

at tu iudicium secuta nostrum

plora, si sapis, o puella, plora.


ZOILE, quid solium subluto podice perdis ? spurcius ut fiatj Zoile, merge caput.


Koti/a <iAa>v haec sunt, haec sunt tua, Candide, Kowd,

quae tu magnilocus iiocte dieque sonas ? te Lacedaemonio velat toga lota Galaeso

vel quam seposito de grege Parma dedit : at me, quae passa est furias et cornua tauri, 5

noluerit dici quam pila prima suam. misit Agenoreas Cadmi tibi terra lacernas :

non vendes nummis coccina nostra tribus. tu Libycos Indis suspendis dentibus orbis :

fulcitur testa fagina mensa mihi. 10

inmodici tibi flava tegunt chrysendeta mulli :

concolor in riostra, cammare, lance rubes. grex tuus Iliaco pbterat certare cinaedo :

at mihi succurrit pro Ganymede manus. ex opibus tantis veteri fidoque sodali 15

das nihil et dicis, Candide, KOIVO.

1 The pila was a dummy figure thrown into the Arena to enrage the bull: cf. Lib. Spect. ix. 4; x. Ixxxvi. The first one thrown would be the worst gored.



in manifest laughter. You should rightly sit by some sorrowing mother, or by one who weeps for her hus- band or loving brother, and you should be free only for the tragic Muse. Nay, follow my advice, and weep, if you are wise, O girl, weep.


ZOILUS, why do you defile the bath by immersing your latter end ? To make it dirtier, Zoilus, plunge in your head.


"FRIENDS have all in common." Is this, is this, Candidus, that "all in common" which you night and day mouth pompously ? A toga dipt in Lacedaemo- nian Galaesus enwraps you, or one which Parma has supplied you out of a choice flock ; as for mine, it is one which has suffered the fury and horns of a bull, one which the first straw-dummy 1 would refuse to have called its own. The land of Cadmus has sent you Tyrian mantles ; my scarlet one you could not sell for sixpence. You poise round Libyan table-tops on legs of Indian ivory ; my beechen table is propped on a tile. Mullets of huge size cover your yellow gold-inlaid dishes ; thou, O crab, 2 matching its hue, dost blush upon my plate. Your train of slaves might have vied with the cup-bearer from Ilium ; but my own hand is Ganymede to serve me. Out of such wealth to your old and trusty comrade do you give nothing, and then say, Candidus, " Friends have all in common " ?

a The cammarus was cheap food (cf. Juv. v. 84), and was served on common red earthenware.




EMI seu puerum togamve pexam

seu tres, ut puta, quattuorve libras,

Sextus protinus ille fenerator,

quern nostis veterem meum sodalem,

ne quid forte petam timet cavetque, 5

et secum, sed ut audiam, susurrat :

" Septem milia debeo Secundo,

Phoebo quattuor, undecim Phil etc,

et quadrans mihi nullus est in area."

o grande ingenium mei sodalis ! 10

durum est, Sexte, negare, cum rogaris,

quanto durius, antequam rogeris !


QUAE tibi rion stabat praecisa est mentula, Glypte. demens, cum ferro quid tibi ? Gallus eras.


FLORIDA per varies ut pingitur Hybla colores,

oum breve Sicaniae ver populantur apes, sic tua subpositis conlucent prela lacernis,

sic micat innumeris arcula synthesibus, atque unam vestire tribum tua Candida possunt, "j

Apula non uno quae grege terra tulit. tu spectas hiemem succincti lentus amici

pro scelus ! et lateris frigora trita tui. 1 quantum erat, infelix, pannis fraudare duobus

quid metuis ? non te, Naevole, sed tineas ? 10

1 tni Friedlander, times codd. 136



SUPPOSE I have bought a slave or a long-napped toga, or three, say, or four pounds of plate ; straight- way Sextus, the money-lender yonder whom you know to be mine ancient comrade, is timorous and careful lest perchance I should ask a loan, and mur- murs to himself, but so that I may hear : " Seven thousand I owe to Secundus, to Phoebus four, eleven to Philetus, and there isn't a farthing in my chest ! " O grand device of my comrade ! It is harsh to refuse, Sextus, when you are asked ; how much harsher before you are asked !


NERVELESS as you are, you have been operated upon, Glyptus. Madman, what use had you for the knife ? You were a Gaul l before.


LIKE the flowers of Hybla painted in varied hues, what time Sicilian bees ravage the brief-lived spring, so shine your presses with mantles laid between, so gleams your chest with countless dinner suits, and a whole tribe might be clothed in the white togas which Apulia's land has brought you out of more flocks than one. You regard without concern your shivering, thin-clad friend what an outrage ! and your escort, threadbare and cold. What sacrifice were it, wretched man, to cheat of a couple of rags why be afraid ? not yourself, Naevolus, but the moths?

1 See note to in. xxiv. 13.




SUBDOLA famosae moneo fuge retia moechae,

levior o conchis, Galle, Cytheriacis. confidis natibus ? non est pedico maritus :

quae facial duo sunt : irrumat aut futuit.


COPONEM laniumque balneumque,

tonsorem tabulamque calculosque

et paucos, sed ut eligam, libellos :

unum non nimium rudem sodalem

et grandem puerum diuque levem 5

et caram puero meo puellam :

haec praesta mihi, Rufe, vel Butuntis,

et thermas tibi habe Neronianas.


UXOREM nolo Telesinam ducere : quare ?

moecha est. sed pueris dat Telesina. volo.


QUOD fellas et aquam potas, nil, Lesbia, peccas. qua tibi parte opus est, Lesbia, sumis aquam.


UNUS saepe tibi tota denarius area

cum sit et hie culo tritior, Hylle, tuo, non tamen hunc pistor, non auferet hunc tibi copo,

sed si quis nimio pene superbus erit. infelix venter spectat convivia culi 5

et semper miser hie esurit, ille vorat.




FLY, Gallus, I warn you, from the crafty toils of the infamous adulteress, smoother though you are than conch-shells of Cytherea. Do you trust in your own charms ? The husband is not of that sort : there are two things he can do, and neither is what you offer.


A TAVERNER, and a butcher and a bath, a barber, and a draught-board and pieces, and a few books but to be chosen by me a single comrade not too unlettered, and a tall boy and not early bearded, and a girl dear to my boy warrant these to me, Rufus, even at Butunti, 1 and keep to yourself Nero's warm baths.


I WILL not take Telesina to wife : why ? she is an adulteress. But Telesina is kindly to boys. I will.


You and drink water : 'tis no error, Lesbia. Just where you need it, Lesbia, you take water.


QUANTUNQUE tutto il tuo danaro sorvente noil con- sista, O Hyllo, che in una sola moneta, e questa piu rimenata del tuo culo ; con tutto ci6 il panatiere non te la tirer& dalle mani, ne tampoco 1'oste ; ma bensi se qualcuno sar baldanzoso per esser bene in mem- bro. Lo sfortunato ventre sta a videre i banchetti del culo, e mentre miserabile, questo ha sempre fame, quello divora.

1 An insignificant town in Calabria : cj\ iv. Iv.




NOVIT loturos Dasius numerare : poposcit mammosam Spatalen pro tribus : ilia dedit.


Vis liber fieri ? mentiris, Maxima, noil vis :

sed fieri si vis, hac ratione potes. liber eris, cenare foris si, Maxime, nolis,

Veientana tuam si domat uva sitim, si ridere potes miseri chrysendeta Cinnae, 5

contentus nostra si potes esse toga, si plebeia Venus gemino tibi iungitur asse,

si tua non rectus tecta subire potes. haec tibi si vis est, si mentis tanta potestas,

liberior Partho vivere rege potes. 10


QUID de te, Line, suspicetur uxor

et qua parte velit pudiciorem,

certis indiciis satis probavit.

custodem tibi quae dedit spadonem.

nil nasutius hac maligniusque. 5


Vis te, Sexte, coli : volebam amare. jiarenduni est tibi ; quod iubes, col ere : sed si te oolo, Sexte, non araabo.


BOOK II. Lit-i.v


DASIUS knows how to count his bathers. He demanded of Spatale, that full-breasted lady, the entrance-moneys of three ; she gave them.


Do you wish to become free ? You lie, Maximus ; you don't wish. But if you do wish, in this way you can become so. You will be free, Maximus, if you refuse to dine abroad, if Veii's grape l quells your thirst, if you can laugh at the gold-inlaid dishes of the wretched Cinna, if you can content yourself with a toga such HS mine, if your plebeian amours are handfasted at the price of twopence, if you can endure to stoop as you enter your dwelling. If this is your strength of mind, if such its power over itself, you can live more free than a Parthian king.


WHAT your wife's suspicion of you is, Linus, and in what particular she wishes you to be more re- spectable, she has sufficiently proved by unmistak- able signs, in setting as watcher over you a eunuch. Nothing is more sagacious and more spiteful than this lady.


You wish to be courted, Sextus ; I wished to love you. I must obey you ; as you demand, you shall be courted. But if I court you, Sextus, I shall not love you.

1 Veientan wine was turbid and inferior : cf. I. eiv. 9 ; in. xlix.




GENTIBUS in Libycis uxor tua, Galle, male audit

inmodicae foedo crimine avaritiae. sed mera narrantur mendacia : non solet ilia

accipere omnino. quid solet ergo ? dare.


Hie quern videtis gressibus vagis lentum, amethystinatus media qui secat Saepta, quern non lacernis Publius meus vincit, non ipse Cordus alpha paenulatorum, quern grex togatus sequitur et capillatus 5

recensque sella linteisque lorisque, oppigneravit modo modo ad Cladi mensam vix octo nummis anulum, unde cenaret.

LVI 1 1

PEXATUS pulchre rides mea, Zoile, trita.

sunt haec trita quidem, Zoile, sed mea sunt.


MICA vocor : quid sim cernis, cenatio parva : ex me Caesareum prospicis ecce tholum.

frange toros, pete vina, rosas cape, tinguere nardo : ipse iubet mortis te meminisse deus.

1 Where Gallus was perhaps governor.

  • See note to IL xiv. 5.
ef. v. xxvi., where M. apologises to Cordus.

4 Generally supposed to refer to a banqueting-hall said to have been built by Domitian, and having a view of the




AMONGST Libyan tribes l your wife, Gallus, has a bad reputation ; they charge her foully with insatiate greed. But these stories are simply lies ; she is not at all in the habit of receiving favours. What, then, is her habit ? To give them.


THIS fellow, whom you observe languidly wander- ing ; who, in an amethystine gown, parts the crowd in the middle of the Saepta ; 2 whom my Publius does not outshine with his mantle, not Cordus him- self, A 1 in cloaks; 3 whom a throng of clients in togas and of long-haired slaves attends, and whose sedan has new blinds and straps this fellow has only just now with difficulty pawned for eighteenpence, at Cladus' counter, a ring to get a dinner !


SMART in a long-napped toga, you laugh, Zoilus, at my threadbare garb. 'Tis threadbare no doubt, Zoilus, but 'tis my own.


" THE Tiny " 4 am I called ; what I am thou seest, a small dining-room ; from me thou lookest, see, upon Caesar's dome. Crush the couches, call for wine, wear roses, anoint thee with nard ; the god 5 himself bids thee to remember death.

Mausoleum August!, which stood about 650 yards S. of the Porta Flamiuia, the N. gate of Rome. Burn, however (Rome and C. p. 223), places the Mica Aurea on the Coelian and identifies " Caesar's dome " as the Palace on the Palatine. s Augustus, buried in the Mausoleum : cf. v. Ixiv. 5.




UXOREM armati futuis, puer Hylle, tribuni, supplicium tantum dum puerile times.

vae tibi ! dum ludis, castrabere. iam mihi dices "Non licet hoc." quid? tu quod facis, Hylle, licet?


CUM tibi vernarent dubia lanugine malae,

lambebat medios inproba lingua viros. postquam triste caput fastidia vispillonum

et miseri meruit taedia carnificis, uteris ore aliter nimiaque aerugine captus 5

adlatras nomen quod tibi cumque datur. haereat inguinibus potius tarn noxia lingua :

nam cum fellaret, purior ilia fuit.


QUOD pectus, quod crura tibi, quod bracchia vellis, quod cincta est brevibus mentula tonsa pilis,

hoc praestas, Labiene, tuae (quis nescit ?) amicae. cui praestas, culum quod, Labiene, pilas?


SOLA tibi fuerant sestertia, Miliche, centum, quae tulit e sacra Leda redempta via.

Miliche, luxuria est si tanti dives amares.

" Non amo " iam dices : haec quoque luxuria est.

1 Domitian forbade castration : cf. vi. 2; Suet. Dom. vii. For supp. puerile, cf. n. xlvii. and xlix.




You have relations, boy Hyllus, with the wife of an armed tribune, and all the time are dreading only a boy's punishment. Alas for you ! in the midst of your enjoyments you will be gelded. You will reply "This is not permitted." J Well ? Is what you are doing, Hyllus, permitted ?


ALLORCHE un'apparente laiiugine spontava su '1 tuo volte, la sozza tua lingua lambiva i centri virili. Dopo che la tua odiata testa si tir6 1'aversione de' beccamorti, e lo schiffo del carnefice, fai altr'uso della tua lingua, ossesso da un'eccessivo livore, la scateni contro chiunque ti viene in mente. Sia la tua esecrabil lingua piu tosto appesa alle pudenda, imperocche essa mentre fellava, era meno impura.


IL perche ti dissetoli il petto, le gambe, le braccia, il perche la rasa tua mentola e cinta di curti peli, chi non sa che tutto questo, O Labieno, prepari per la tua arnica? Per chi, O Labieno, prepari tu il culo che dissetoli ?


ONLY a hundred thousand sesterces was what you possessed, Milichus, and these the purchase of Leda in the Sacred Way made off with. Milichus, 'tis ex- travagance to love at such a price even if you were rich. " I am not in love," you will reply ; that too 2 is extravagance.

2 i.e. all the more.




DUM modo causidicum, dum te modo rhetora fingis

et non decernis, Laure, quid esse velis, Peleos et Priami transit et Nestoris aetas

et fuerat serum iam tibi desinere. incipe, tres uno perierunt rhetores anno, 5

si quid habes animi, si quid in arte vales, si schola damnatur, fora litibus omnia fervent,

ipse potest fieri Marsua causidicus. heia age, rumpe moras : quo te sperabimus usque ?

dum quid sis dubitas, iam potes esse nihil. 10


CUR tristiorem cerniinus Saleianum ? " An causa levis est ? " inquis "extuli uxorem." o grande fati crimen ! o gravem casum ! ilia, ilia dives mortua est Secundilla, centena defies quae tibi dedit dotis ? nollem accidisset hoc tibi, Saleiane.


UNUS de toto peccaverat orbe comarum

anulus, incerta non bene fixus acu. hoc facinus Lalage speculo, quo viderat, ulta est,

et cecidit saevis icta Plecusa comis. desine iam, Lalage, tristes ornare capillos, 5

tangat et insanum nulla puella caput.

1 A statue of Marsyas stood near the Rostra in the Forum Romanum, and was a rendezvous of lawyers : rf. Hor. I. Sat. vi. 120 ; Juv. ix. 2.




WHILE you are shaping yourself, now into a pleader, now into a teacher of rhetoric, and don't decide, Taurus, what you want to be, the age of Peleus and of Priam and of Nestor has passed, and by now 'twere late for you even to be retiring. Begin three rhetoricians have died in a single year if you have any spirit, if any proficiency in your calling. If your vote is against the schools, all the courts are alive with suits : even Marsyas l himself may turn into a pleader. Up, then ! put off delay ; how long shall we be waiting for you ? While you cannot resolve what you are, at last you may be nothing. 2


WHY see we in Saleianus unwonted melancholy ? " Is the reason light? " you answer, " I have buried my wife." O grievous crime of Fate ! O heavy chance ! Is that Secundilla, that rich Secundilla, dead she who brought you as dower a million ? I am sorry this has happened to you, 3 Saleianus !


ONE curl of the whole round of hair had gone astray, badly fixed by an insecure pin. This crime Lalage avenged with the mirror in which she had observed it, and Plecusa, smitten, fell because of those cruel locks. Cease any more, Lalage, to trick out your ill-omened tresses ; and let no maid touch

2 A play on words, i.e. "of no calling," or "dead." 8 Intentionally ambiguous.

M7 L 2


hoc salamandra notet vel saeva novacula nudet, ut digna speculo fiat imago tua.


OCCURRIS quocumque loco mihi, Postume, clamas protinus et prima est haec tua vox " Quid agis ? "

hoc, si me decies una conveneris hora,

dicis : habes puto tu, Postume, nil quod agas.


QUOD te nomine iam tuo saluto,

quem regem et dominum prius vocabam,

ne me dixeris esse contumacem :

totis pillea sarcinis redemi.

reges et dominos habere debet 5

qui se non habet atque concupiscit

quod reges dominique concupiscunt.

servom si potes, Ole, non habere,

et regem potes, Ole, non habere.


INVITUM cenare foris te, Classice, dicis :

si non mentiris, Classice, dispeream. ipse quoque ad cenam gaudebat Apicius ire :

cum cenaret, erat tristior ille, domi. si tamen invitus vadis, cur, Classice, vadis ? 5

"Cogor" ais : verum est; cogitur et Selius. en rogat ad cenam Melior te, Classice, rectam.

grandia verba ubi sunt ? si vir es, ecce, nega.

1 It was supposed that contact with a salamander acted as a depilatory : Plin. N.H. x. 188.



your distempered head. May salamander l mark it, or ruthless razor rasp it bare, that your features may befit your mirror.


IN whatever place you meet me, Postumus, you immediately cry out and this is your first remark " How d'ye do ? " This if you meet me ten times in a single hour you say. You have, 1 think, Postumus, nothing "to do."


BECAUSE I greet you now by your own name whom formerly I used to call "patron" and "master," do not proclaim me insolent : I have bought my cap of liberty at the cost of all my goods and chattels. "Patrons" and "masters" a man should possess who is not possessor of himself, and who eagerly covets what patrons and masters eagerly covet. If you can endure not having a slave, Olus, you can also endure, Olus, not having a patron.


UNWILLINGLY you dine out, you say, Classicus. If you don't lie, Classicus, may I be hanged ! Even Apicius himself was glad to go out to dinner ; when he dined at home he was the more depressed. Yet if you go unwillingly, Classicus, why do you go ? "I am obliged," you say: 'tis true; Selius 52 is also obliged. See, Melior asks you, Classicus, to a grand dinner. Where are your fine professions ? If you are a man, come, refuse !

! Who fishes for invitations : cf. II. xi.




NON vis in solio prius lavari

quemquam, Cotile. causa quae, nisi haec est,

undis ne fovearis irrumatis ?

primus te licet abluas : necesse est

ante hie mentula quam caput lavetur. 5


CANDIDIUS nihil est te, Caeciliaiie. notavi, si quando ex nostris disticha pauca lego,

protinus aut Marsi recitas aut scripta Catulli. hoc mihi das, tamquam deteriora legas,

ut conlata magis placeant mea ? credimus istud. 5 malo tamen recites, Caeciliane, tua.


HESTERNA factum narratur, Postume, cena

quod nollem (quis enim talia facta probet ?) os tibi percisum quanto non ipse Latinus

vilia Panniculi percutit ora sono : quodque magis minim est, auctorem criminis huius 5

Caecilium tota rumor in urbe sonat. esse negas factum : vis hoc me credere ? credo.

quid quod habet testes, Postume, Caecilius?


tQuio faciat volt scire Lyris : quod sobria : fellat.t

1 i.e. you are as great a source of pollution as the others you complain of : cf. n. xlii.



You are unwilling that anyone should wash in the bath before you, Cotilus. What reason is there but this, that you be not touched by polluted waters ? Be first then in the bath, but needs must be that your - - is washed here before your head. 1


You are candour itself, Caecilianus. I have noticed that if I ever read a few distichs of my poems, at once you recite passages either of Marsus or Catullus. Is this your compliment to me, as if you were read- ing what was inferior, that, compared, my own should please me the more ? I believe that. Yet I would rather you recited your own, Caecilianus.


A THING is said to have been done at dinner last night, Postumus, which I should deprecate for who could approve such doings ? it is said that your face was mauled, and by an assault even noisier than when Latinus smacks the beggarly cheeks of Panniculus ; 2 and what is more wonderful it is Caecilius whom as author of this outrage rumour proclaims all over the city. You say this was not done ; do you wish me to believe this ? I believe it. What if Caecilius has witnesses, Postumus ?


LVKIS wishes to know what she is doing. What she does when she is sober. She is .

2 Comic actors, like clown and pantaloon : cf. i. iv. 5 ; v. Ixi. 11.



CINCTUM togatis post et ante Saufeium,

quanta reduci Regulus solet turba,

ad alta tonsum templa cum reum misit,

Materne, cernis ? invidere nolito.

comitatus iste sit precor tuus numquam. 5

hos illi amicos et greges togatorum

Fuficulenus praestat et Faventinus.


VERBERA securi solitus leo ferre magistri

insertamque pati blandus in ora manum dedidicit pacem subito feritate reversa,

quanta nee in Libycis debuit esse iugis. nam duo de tenera puerilia corpora turba, 5

sanguineam rastris quae renovabat humum, saevos et infelix furiali dente peremit.

Martia non vidit maius harena nefas. exclamare libet " Crudelis, perfide, praedo,

a nostra pueris parcere disce lupa ! " 10


ARGENTI libras Marius tibi quinque reliquit. cui nihil ipse dabas, hie tibi verba dedit.


COSCONI, qui longa putas epigrammata nostra, utilis unguendis axibus esse potes.

1 i.e. to return thanks that his advocacy has secured their acquittal. Before trial the accused dressed in dark clothes, and let his hair and beard grow, to excite pity by his un- kempt appearance : cf. Ovid, Met. xv. 38.




SAUFEIUS is surrounded behind and in front with gowned clients, a crowd as big as escorts Regulus home when he has sent the accused with trimmed hair to the temples of the high gods. 1 Do you see him, Maternus ? Don't envy him. May such a com- pany, I pray, never be yours. These friends and troop of gowned clients 'tis Fuficulenus and Faventinus 2 who provide.


A LION, wont to stand the blows of its fearless master, and with gentleness to suffer a hand thrust into its mouth, unlearned its peaceful ways ; a fierce- ness suddenly returned greater than he should have shown even on Libyan hills. For two boys of the youthful band that was smoothing with rakes the bloody sand, the savage, ill-starred beast slew with furious fang ; the sand of Mars never saw a greater crime. One may cry aloud : " Cruel, perfidious, robber, from our Roman wolf learn to spare boys ! "


MARIUS has left you five pounds of silver plate. He, whom you yourself gave nothing, has given you words. 3


COSCONIUS, who think my epigrams long, you would be useful for greasing axles. 4 On this principle you

2 Moneylenders, who supply the means of display.

3 i.e. has cheated you.

4 He is a lump of stupidity, fit only for axle-grease ; cf. the proverb pingui Minerva (of stupid wit).



hac tu credideris longum ratione colosson

et puerum Bruti dixeris esse brevem. disce quod ignoras : Marsi doctique Pedonis 5

saepe duplex unum pagina tractat opus, non sunt longa quibus nihil est quod demere possis,

sed tu, Cosconi, disticha longa facis.


AESTIVO serves ubi piscem tempore, quaeris ? in thermis serva, Caeciliane, tuis.


INVITAS tune me cum scis, Nasica, vocasse. 1 excusatum habeas me rogo : ceno domi.


HOSTEM cum fugeret, se Fannius ipse peremit. hie, rogo, non furor est, ne moriare, mori ?


LAXIOR hexaphoris tua sit lectica licebit :

cum tamen haec tua sit, Zoile, sandapila est.


ABSCISA servom quid figis, Pontice, lingua ? nescis tu populum, quod tacet ille, loqui ? 1 vocatum 7.

1 A statuette admired by Brutus, the assassin of Caesar : ef. ix. li. 5.

2 If vocatum (have an invitation) be read, M. returns an excuse known by N. to be false, as a hint that M. knows N.'s invitation was unreal.


BOOK II. i.xxvii-Lxxxn

would fancy the Colossus to be tall, and would de- scribe Brutus' boy 1 as short. Learn what you are ignorant of: often two pages of Marsus and of learned Pedo treat of a single theme. Things are not long from which you can subtract nothing ; but you, Cosconius, make your distichs long.


Do you ask where to keep your fish in summer ? Keep them, Caecilianus, in your warm bath.


You ask me, Nasica, to dinner just when you know I have guests. 2 I beg you to hold me excused ; I dine at home.


BECAUSE he was flying from an enemy, Fannius 3 slew himself. Is not this, I ask, madness to die to avoid death?


YOUR litter may be roomier than one borne by six ; but, seeing that it is yours, Zoilus, it is a pauper's bier. 4


WHY cut your slave's tongue out and crucify him, Ponticus ? Don't you know that the people speak of what he cannot ?

3 Fannius Caepio, condemned for conspiring against Augus- tus : Suet. Aitff. xix. and Tib. viii.

4 Which was ordinarily borne by four: cf. vi. Ixxvii.; viii. Ixxv. Z. is such a worthless 'fellow (or, perhaps, so foul a man) that he is no better than a rile cadaver.

  • 55



FOEDASTI miserum, marite, moechum,

et se, qui fuerant prius, requirunt

trunci naribus auribusque voltus.

credis te satis esse vindicatum ?

erras : iste potest et irrumare. 5


MOLLIS erat facilisque viris Poeantius heros :

volnera sic Paridis dicitur ulta Venus, cur lingat cunnum Siculus Sertorius, hoc est :

fab hocf occisus, Rufe, videtur Eryx.


VIMINE clausa levi niveae custodia coctae,

hoc tibi Saturni tempore munus erit. dona quod aestatis misi tibi mense Decembri

si quereris, rasam tu mihi mitte togam.


QUOD nee carmine glorior supino

nee retro lego Sotaden cinaedum,

nusquam Graecula quod recantat echo

nee dictat mihi luculentus Attis

mollem debilitate galliambon, 5

non sum, Classice, tarn malus poeta.

1 cf. in. Ixxxv.

2 cf. xiv. cxvi., and Plin. N. H. xxxi. 23, and the famous Haec est Neronis decocta (Suet. Ner. xlviii.).

3 i.e. that read backward as well as forward.

4 Sotades was an obscene and scurrilous Alexandrian poet. Perhaps the reference is to verses which, read one way, are complimentary, read the other, the reverse.




You have disfigured, O husband, the wretched adulterer, and his face, shorn of nose and ears, misses its former self. Do you believe you are suf- ficiently avenged ? You mistake ; he has still other activities. 1


L'EROE Peanzio era efFeminato e compiacente agli uomini : si dice che Venere cosi abbia vendicato le ferite di Paride. II perche Sertoria Siculo sia cun- nilingo, si e, O Rufo, per quel che pare, dall'aver ucciso Erice.


A FLASK enclosed in light wicker-work, and pre- serving water boiled and iced, 2 this shall be your present at Saturn's season. If you complain that I have sent you the gift of summer in the month of December, do you send me a thin, smooth toga.


BECAUSE I do not pride myself on topsy-turvy verses, 3 nor read backwards in obscene Sotadics; 4 because nowhere does a Greekling echo 5 answer you, nor does graceful Attis dictate to me galli- ambics, voluptuous and broken, I am not, Classicus,

5 Versus echoici, where a concluding word echoes a pre- ceding one (e.g. rerits and eris) ; or where the first words of an hexameter are repeated at the end of the pentameter.

6 A beautiful youth, beloved by Cybele, the Great Mother of the Gods, who gives his name to a poem by Catullus (Ixiii.) in the Galliambic metre.



quid si per gracilis vias petauri

invitum iubeas subire Ladan ?

turpe est difficiles habere nugas

et stultus labor est ineptiarum. 10

scribat carinina circulis Palaemon :

me raris iuvat auribus placere.


DICIS amore tui bellas ardere puellas,

qui faciem sub aqua, Sexte, natantis habes.


NIL recitas et vis, Mamerce, poeta videri. quidquid vis esto, dummodo nil recites.


QUOD nimio gaudes noctem producere vino, ignosco : vitium, Gaure, Catonis habes.

carmina quod scribis Musis et Apolline nullo, laudari debes : hoc Ciceronis habes.

quod vomis, Antoni : quod luxuriaris, Apici. 5

quod fellas, vitium die mihi cuius habes ?


QUINTILIANE, vagae moderator summe iuventae,

gloria Romanae, Quintiliane, togae, vivere quod propero pauper nee inutilis annis,

da veniam : properat vivere nemo satis.

1 A famous Spartan runner, and winner at the Olympic games : ef. x. c.



a bad poet after all. What if you bade Ladas * unwillingly to mount the narrow ways of a spring- board ? 'Tis degrading to undertake difficult trifles ; and foolish is the labour spent on puerilities. Let Palaemon 2 write poems for the general throng; my delight is to please listeners few and choice.


You say that beautiful girls burn with love for you, Sextus, who have a face like that of a man swimming under water ! 3


You recite nothing, and yet wish, Mamercus, to be held a poet. Be what you like provided you recite nothing.


YOUR joy in prolonging the night with too much wine I pardon ; this vice of yours, Gaurus, was Cato's. Your writing poems, aided by no Muse and no Apollo, must merit praise ; this gift of yours was Cicero's. Your vomiting, 'twas Antony's vice ; your luxury, Apicius'. Your beastliness tell me, whose vice was that ?


QUINTILIAN, illustrious trainer of errant youth ; Quintilian, glory of the Roman toga ; because, though still poor, yet of an age not worn out, I am quick to enjoy life, pardon me ; no man is quick

2 A grammarian and improvisatore of the day, who com- posed in unusual metres : Suet. De Gram. xxii.

3 i.e. bloated and disfigured : c/. in. Ixxxix.


differat hoc patrios optat qui vincere census 5

atriaque inmodicis artat imaginibus. me focus et nigros non indignantia fumos

tecta iuvant et fons vivus et herba rudis. sit mihi verna satur, sit non doctissima coniuux,

sit nox cum somno, sit sine lite dies. 10


RERUM certa salus, terrarum gloria, Caesar,

sospite quo magnos credimus esse deos, si festinatis totiens tibi lecta libellis

detinuere oculos carmina nostra tuos, quod fortuna vetat fieri permitte videri, 5

natorum genitor credar ut esse trium. haec, si displicui, fuerint solacia nobis ;

haec fuerint nobis praemia, si placui.


NATORUM mihi ius trium roganti Musarum pretium dedit mearum solus qui poterat. valebis, uxor. non debet domini perire munus.


" PRIMUS ubi est" inquis "cum sit liber iste secundus?" quid faciam si plus ille pudoris habet ?

tu tamen hunc fieri si mavis, Regule, primum, unum de titulo tollere iota potes.

1 By the Lex Julia et Papia Poppaea in A.D. 9 certain privileges were conferred on the fathers of three sons (jus trium liberorum). These privileges were afterwards often

1 60

BOOK II. xc-xrm

enough to enjoy life. Let him delay who craves to surpass his father's means and crowds beyond measure his hall with busts. My hearth and a roof-tree that disdains not sooty smoke delight me, and a bubbling spring and untrimmed sward. Let me have a plump home-born slave, have a wife not too lettered, have night with sleep, have day without a lawsuit.


SURE saviour of our State, the world's glory, Caesar, from whose safety we win belief that the great gods exist, if, so oft read by thee in hurried books, my poems have held thine eyes captive, vouchsafe me in repute what Fortune denies me, that I be deemed the sire of three sons. 1 This, if I have displeased, shall be my solace ; this shall be my reward if I have pleased.


WHEN I begged for the right of a father of three sons, 1 he, who alone could, gave me the reward of my Muse. Good bye, wife ! The bounty of my master should not perish.


"WHERE is the first book," you say, "if that is the second ? " What can I do if my first book is too shy ? Yet if you, Regulus, prefer that this should become the first, you can take one " I " from

its title.

given even to childless or unmarried persons. Both Titus and Domitian conferred them on M.: cf. ill. xcv. 5 ; ix. xcvii. 5.

161 VOL. I. M



Hoc tibi quidquid id est longinquis mittit ab oris Gallia Romanae nomine dicta togae.

hunc legis et laudas librum fortasse priorem : ilia vel haec mea sunt, quae meliora putas.

plus sane placeat domina qui natus in urbe est : debet enim Gallum vincere verna liber.


Cuius vis fieri, libelle, munus ?

festina tibi vindicem parare,

ne nigram cito raptus in culinam

cordylas madida tegas papyro

vel turis piperisve sis cucullus. 5

Faustini fugis in sinum ? sapisti.

cedro nunc licet ambules perunctus

et frontis gemino decens honore

pictis luxurieris umbilicis,

et te purpura delicata velet, 10

et cocco rubeat superbus index.

illo vindice nee Probum timeto.

1 Gallia Togata, that part of Cisalpine Gaul where the toga was worn, i.e. on the Roman side of the Po. M. was here at the time : cf. HI. iv. 4.



THIS, whate'er its worth, Gaul, named after Rome's toga, 1 sends you from distant snores. You read this book, and perhaps praise the former one ; that or this I claim as mine, the one you deem the better. Let that which was born in the Queen City by all means please you more : for the home-born book should surpass the Gaul.


FOR whom, my little book, would you become a present? Haste to get to yourself a protector, lest, hurried off to a sooty kitchen, you wrap tunny-fry in your sodden papyrus, or be a cornet for incense or pepper. Fly you to Faustinus' bosom ? You are wise. Now may you strut abroad, anointed with cedar-oil, and, spruce with the twin deckings of your brow, wax insolent with painted bosses, 2 and a delicate purple clothe you, and your title proudly blush with scarlet. With him for your protector do not fear even Probus. 3

2 The two edges of the papyrus roll (called brows) were gaily coloured. The bosses were the ends of the cylinder round which the roll was wrapped. The outer membrane or envelope of all was coloured purple.

3 A celebrated critic of the day : Suet. De. Gram. xxiv.



[FORMOSAM faciem nigro medicamine celas, sed non formoso corpore laedis aquas.

ipsam crede deam verbis tibi dicere nostris : "Aut aperi faciem, aut tunicata lava."]

ROMAM vade, liber : si, veneris unde, requiret,

Aemiliae dices de regione viae. si, quibus in terris, qua simus in urbe, rogabit,

Corneli referas me licet esse Foro. cur absim, quaeret : breviter tu multa fatere :

"Non poterat vanae taedia ferre togae." " Quando venit ? " dicet : tu respondeto : " Poeta

exierat : veniet, cum citharoedus erit."

Vis commendari sine me cursurus in urbem,

parve liber, multis, an satis unus erit ? unus erit, mihi crede, satis, cui non eris hospes,

lulius, adsiduum nomen in ore meo. protinus hunc primae quaeres in limine Tectae : 5

quos tenuit Daphnis, nunc tenet ille lares, est illi coniunx, quae te manibusque sinuque

excipiet, tu vel pulverulentus eas.

1 Ran from Ariminum (Rimini) to Placentia (Piacenza) in Cisalpine Gaul. Cornelii Forum, a town called after the Dictator Sulla ; now Imola.




A BEAUTEOUS face you conceal with black ointment but with a body not beauteous you insult the waters. Believe that the very goddess of the spring says to you in my words : " Either disclose your face or bathe in your shift ! "


Go, book, to Rome ; if she shall ask whence you came, you will say " From the district of the Aemi- lian Way." l If she shall ask in what lands, in what city, I am, you may report that I am in Cornelii Forum. 1 She will ask why I am abroad ; in brief do you make full confession : "He could not en- dure the weariness of the futile toga." "When comes he?" she will say; do you reply: "A poet he departed ; he will return when he is a harp- player." 2

Now you purpose hurrying to the city without me, little book, do you wish to be recommended to many, or will one be enough ? One will be enough, believe me, one to whom you will be no stranger, Julius, a name perpetually in my mouth. Right before you, just at the very threshold of the Covered Way, 3 you must look for him ; he now occupies the house which Daphnis occupied. He has a wife who with hand and heart will welcome you, however dusty

2 A lucrative calling : cf. \. Ivi. 9.

3 A colonnade closed at both ends, in the N. of Rome, not far from the Mausoleum of Augustus.



hos tu seu pariter sive hanc illumve priorem

videris, hoc dices " Marcus havere iubet," 10

et satis est ; alios cornmendet epistula : peccat qui commendandum se putat esse suis.


Lux tibi post Idus numeratur tertia Maias,

Marcelline, tuis bis celebranda sacris. inputat aetherios ortus haec prima parenti ;

libat florentes haec tibi prima genas. magna licet dederit iucundae munera vitae, 5

plus numquam patri praestitit ille dies.


CENTUM miselli iam valete quadrantes, anteambulonis congiarium lassi, quos dividebat balneator elixus. quid cogitatis, o fames amicorum ? regis superbi sportulae recesserunt. 5

" Nihil stropharum est : iam salarium dandum est."

VIII "THAiDAQuintusamat." "Quam Thaida?" "Thaida

luscam." unum oculum Thais non habet, ille duos.

1 The first shaving of the beard was considered the first day of manhood, and was sacred. The hair was often dedi- cated to a god : cf. i. xxxi. Nero dedicated his to Jupiter Capitolinus in a gold box studded with pearls, and instituted


BOOK III. v-vm

you arrive. Whether you see them both at once, or her or him first, you will say this : " Marcus sends greeting/' and it is enough. A letter may recom- mend others : he errs who thinks he should be recommended to his friends.


THIS is the third morn counted to you after the tdes of May, Marcellinus, one twice to be honoured by your rites. This first made your father debtor for his birth into the light of heaven ; this first takes toll of your blooming cheeks. 1 Though that day gave him the great gift of a joyous life, yet it has not given thy sire more than it gives now.


FAREWELL now, ye hundred wretched farthings, the largess of the jaded escort, ye whom the parboiled bath-man parcelled out. What think ye, my famished friends ? The doles of a haughty patron are gone. " No wriggling serves ; at once he must give a salary." 2


" QUINTUS loves Thais." " Which Thais ? " " Thais the one-eyed." Thais lacks one eye, he both.

the festival of the Juvenalia in honour of the event ; Suet. Nzr. xii. ; Tac. Ann. xiv. xv.

2 Nero substituted for a dinner a dole to clients of a hundred farthings. Uomitian restored the dinner. But many clients (the "famished friends" of the epigram) de- pended on the money dole, for which a dinner was a bad substitute : cf. in. xxx. and Ix.




VERSICULOS in me narratur scribere Cinna. non scribit, cuius carmina nemo legit.


CONSTITUIT, Philomuse, pater tibi inilia bina menstrua perque omnis praestitit ilia dies,

luxuriam premeret cum crastina semper egestas et vitiis essent danda diurna tuis.

idem te moriens heredem ex asse reliquit. 5

exheredavit te, Philomuse, pater.


Si tua nee Thais nee lusca est, Quinte, puella, cur in te factum distichon esse putas ?

sed simile est aliquid. pro Laide Thaida dixi ? die mihi, quid simile est Thais et Hermione ?

tu tamen es Quintus : mutemus nomen amantis : 5 si non vult Quintus, Thaida Sextus amet.


UNOUENTUM, fateor, bonum dedisti

convivis here, sed nihil scidisti.

res salsa est bene olere et esurire.

qui non cenat et unguitur, Fabulle,

hie vere rnihi mortuus videtur. 5

1 in. viii.

2 If, instead of Thais, I had said Hermione, you would not


BOOK III. ix-xn


CINNA is said to write verses against me. He doesn't write at all whose poems no man reads.


PHILOMUSUS, your father an-anged to allow you two thousand sesterces a month, and every day he handed you that allowance, seeing that on the heels of luxury trod ever to-morrow's beggary, and your vices called for a daily wage. Dying he also left you heir to every penny. Your father has disinherited you, Philomusus !


IK your mistress is neither Thais nor one-eyed, Quintus, why do you think my distich J was aimed at you ? But there is some likeness. Did I say " Thais" and mean " Lais " ? Tell me, what likeness is there between "Thais" and Hermione ? Yet you are Quintus ; let us change the lover's name. If Quintus is unwilling, let Sextus be Thais' lover. 2


GOOD unguent, I allow, you gave your guests yes- terday, but you carved nothing. Tis a droll thing to be scented and to starve. He who doesn't dine, and is anointed, Fabullus, seems to me to be in very truth a corpse. 8

have seen any likeness. Let us call her Hermione, and Sextus her lover.

3 Which was anointed.




DUM non vis pisces, dum non vis carpere pullos et plus quam putri, 1 Naevia, parcis a pro,

accusas rumpisque cocum, tamquam omnia cruda attulerit. numquam sic ego crudus ero.

XIV ROMAM petebat esuritor Tuccius

profectus ex Hispania. occurrit illi sportularum fabula :

a ponte rediit Mulvio.


PLUS credit nemo tota quam Cordus in urbe.

"Cum sit tarn pauper, quomodo ? " caecus amat.


DAS gladiatores, sutorum regule cerdo, quodque tibi tribuit subula, sica rapit.

ebrius es : neque enim faceres hoc sobrius umquam, ut velles corio ludere, cerdo, tuo.

lusisti corio : sed te, mihi crede, memento 5

nunc in pellicula, cerdo, tenere tua.

1 putri Heins. , patri codd.

1 Crudus means "raw," and also " suffering from indiges- tion." Milton uses the word in the latter sense (Com. 476), and this has been adopted in the translation. See also "crude or intoxicate" (Par. Reg. iv. 328).

2 Without even entering Rome. The Mulvian Bridge was just outside the Porta Flaminia, the N. Gate of Rome. As to the dole, cf. in. vii.


BOOK III. xm-xvi


WHILE you are unwilling to carve your fish, while you are unwilling to carve your fowls, and spare, Naevia, your boar although more than high, you rate and cut up your cook, saying he sent up every- thing crude. Mine will be no " crude surfeit " l on these terms.


THE starveling Tuccius made for Rome, setting out from Spain. A report of the clients' dole met him : home he returned from the Mulvian Bridge. 2


No man in all the city gives more credit than Cordus. " Seeing he is so poor, how's that ? " He is a blind lover. 3


You give a show of gladiators, 4 cobbler, little king of stitchers, and what the awl has earned for you the poniard hurries off with. You are drunk ; for you would never do this sober, to take your pleasure, cobbler, at the expense of your own hide. 5 You have played with your hide ! but bear this in mind trust my word ! to keep yourself, cobbler, now in your own little skin. 6

3 A play on the word "credit," i.e. "gives credit," or " trusts," "believes." Cordus believes more than he sees : cf. vin. xlix. 4 c,f. in. lix. and xcix.

5 Proverbial for " at your own expense."

t; Stick to your last. Perhaps also an allusion to the ass in a lion's skin.




CIRCUMLATA diu mensis scribilita secundis

urebat nimio saeva calore man us ; sed magis ardebat Sabidi gula : protinus ergo

sufflavit buccis terque quaterque suis. ilia quidem tepuit digitosque admittere visa est, 5

sed nemo potuit tangere : merda fuit.


PERFRIXISSE tuas questa est praefatio fauces, cum te excusaris, Maxime, quid recitas ?


PROXIMA centenis ostenditur ursa columnis,

exornant fictae qua platanona ferae, huius duna patulos adludens temptat hiatus

pulcher Hylas, teneram mersit in ora manuni. vipera sed caeco scelerata latebat in acre 5

vivebatque anima deteriore fera. non sensit puer esse dolos, nisi dente recepto

dum perit. o facinus, falsa quod ursa fuit !


Die, Musa, quid agat Canius meus Rufus : utrumne chartis tradit ille victuris legenda temporum acta Claudianorum ? an quae Neroni falsus adstruit scriptor,

1 A live bear might have done no harm.

  • There are many references to Nero's poetry. Tacitus

(Ann. xiv. xvi.) says it was not his own ; but Suetonius


BOOK III. xvn-xx


A TART, repeatedly handed round at the second course, burnt the fingers cruelly with its excessive heat. But Sabidius' gluttony was more ardent still ; straightway, therefore, three and four times he blew upon it with his full cheeks. The tart, indeed, grew cooler, and seemed to allow the fingers ; but not a man could touch it 'twas filth !


YOUR opening address complained that you had a cold in your throat. Now you have excused yourself, Maximus, why do you recite ?


NEXT to the Hundred Columns, where wild beasts in effigy adorn the plane-grove, is shown a bear. While fair Hylas was in play challenging its yawning mouth he plunged into its throat his youthful hand. But an accursed viper lay hid in the dark cavern of the bronze, alive with a life more deadly than that of the beast itself. The boy perceived not the guile but when he felt the fang and died. Oh, what a crime was this, that unreal was the bear ! l


TELL me, Muse, what my Canius Rufus is doing. Is he committing to immortal pages, for men to read, the deeds of Claudian times ? or does he emulate the works the lying chronicler ascribes to Nero ? 2 or the

denies this : Ner, lii. Some editions put a ? at scriptor, making the sense: "is his theme the deeds the lying chronicler etc. ? "



an aemulatur inprobi iocos Phaedri ? 5

lascivus elegis an severus herois ?

an in coturnis horridus Sophocleis ?

an otiosus in schola poetarum

lepore tinctos Attico sales narrat ?

hinc si recessit, porticum terit templi 10

an spatia carpit lentus Argonautarum ?

an delicatae sole rursus Europae

inter tepentes post meridiem buxos

sedet ambulatve liber acribus curis ?

Titine thermis an lavatur Agrippae 15

an inpudici balneo Tigillini ?

an rure Tulli fruitur atque Lucani ?

an Pollionis dulce currit ad quartum ?

an aestuantis iam profectus ad Baias

piger Lucrino nauculatur in stagno ? 20

"Vis scire quid agat Canius tuus ? ridet."


PROSCRIPTUM famulus servavit fronte notata. non fuit haec domini vita, sed invidia.


DEDERAS, Apici, bis trecenties ventri, et adhuc supererat centies tibi laxum. hoc tu gravatus ut famem et sitim ferre

1 The translator of Aesop ; but the reference must be to lost works.

  • Not known, unless it was the Schola Oc'aviat, part of

the Porttcus Liviae et Octaviae.

3 Perhaps the Temple of Isis : cf. II. xiv. 7.

4 The Porticus Argonautarum : cf. ir. xiv. 6.

5 The Porticus Europae : cf. n. xiv. 5. ' cf. I. Ixix.

I 7 6

BOOK III. xx-xxn

jests of naughty Phaedrus f l is he wanton in elegy or severe in heroics ? or terrible in Sophoclean buskin ? or does he, idling in the Poets' School, 2 tell witty stories touched with Attic grace ? If he has gone hence, does he tread the Temple's 3 piazza, or idly stroll along the expanse of the Argonauts ? 4 Or again, does he sit or walk, free of anxious care, amid the box-trees, warm after noon, of Europa 5 luxuriat- ing in the sun ? Does he bathe in Titus' or Agrippa's warm baths, or in the bath of shameless Tigellinus ? Does he enjoy the country seat of Tullus and Lu- canus? or is he driving to Pollio's charming house at the fourth milestone ? or setting out for steaming Baiae does he now sail lazily on the Lucrine mere ? " Do you wish to know what your Canius is doing ? He is laughing." 6


A SLAVE he had branded saved the life of a pro- scribed man. 7 This was to give his master not life, but lifelong shame. 8


You had expended, Apicius, twice thirty millions on your gorging, and still there remained to you a full ten millions. This you scorned to endure, as

T Antius Restio, proscribed bv the Triumvirs, whose life was saved by his slave's pretence to the soldiers in pursuit that the corpse of a man he had slain, or had found, and was burning, was his master's: Macrob. Sat. ii. 11; Val. Max. vi. viii. 7.

8 For branding such a slave. The assonance in vita and inuidia is intentional.

177 VOL. I. N


sunima venenum potione perduxti.

nihil est, Apici, tibi gulosius factuni. 5


OMNIA cum retro pueris opsonia tradas, cur non mensa tibi ponitur a pedibus ?


VITE nocens rosa stabat moriturus ad aras

hircus, Bacche, tuis victima grata sacris. quem Tuscus mactare deo cum vellet aruspex,

dixerat agresti forte rudique viro ut cito testiculos et acuta falce secaret, 5

taeter ut inmundae carnis abiret odor, ipse super virides aras luctantia pronus

dum resecat cultro colla premitque maim, ingens iratis apparuit hirnea sacris.

occupat hanc ferro rusticus atque secat, 10

hoc ratus antiques sacrorum poscere ritus

talibus et fibris numina prisca coli. sic, modo qui Tuscus fueras, mine Gall us aruspex,

dum iugulas hircum, factus es ipse caper.


Si temperari balneum cupis ferveiis, Faustine, quod vix lulianus intraret, roga lavetur rhetorem Sabineium. Neronianas is refrigerat thermas.

1 i.e. for the benefit of your slaves. They stood behind their masters at dinner. The epigram is taken by some as addressed to one who (cf. n. xxxvii.) handed viands to his slave to be carried home.

I 7 8

BOOK III. xxn-xxv

mere hunger and thirst, and, as the last draught of all, quaffed poison. You never did anything, Apicius, more gluttonous !


SEEING that you hand all your viands to your slaves behind you, why is not the table laid out at your feet? 1 "


GUILTY of having gnawed a vine, a he-goat, doomed to die, stood at the altar, a victim, Bacchus, welcome to thy rites. When the Tuscan soothsayer was minded to sacrifice this to the god, he chanced to bid a country clown quickly to sever with his sharp sickle the tes- ticles of the beast that the foul odour of unclean flesh should pass away. While he himself, leaning over the turf altar, was cutting with his knife the throat of the struggling beast and pressing it down with his hand, a huge hernia was revealed to the scandal of the rites ; this the clown at once seized and severed, thinking that the ritual's ancient mode required this offering, and that by such entrails the old-world deities were honoured. So you, just lately a Tuscan soothsayer, now a Gaul, 2 in slaughtering a he-goat have been made a gelding. 3


IF you wish, Faustinus, that a bath, so hot that even Julianus could scarcely get into it, should be cooled, ask the rhetorician Sabineius to bathe in it. He makes icy the warm baths of Nero.

2 The priests of Cybele were eunuchs, and called Galli.

3 Caper meant "goat" or " castrated goat": Gell. ix. ix.




PRAEDIA solus habes et solus, Candida, nummos, aurea solus habes, murrina solus habes,

Massica solus habes et Opimi Caecuba solus, et cor solus habes, solus et ingenium.

omnia solus habes hoc me puta l velle negare ! 5 uxorem sed habes, Candide, cum populo.


NUMQUAM me revocas, venias cum saepe vocatus : ignosco, nullum si modo, Galle, vocas.

invitas alios : vitium est utriusque. " Quod ? " inquis. et mihi cor non est et tibi, Galle, pudor.


AURICULAM Mario graviter miraris olere. tu facis hoc : garris, Nestor, in auriculam.


HAS cum gemina compede dedicat catenas, Saturne, tibi Zoilus, anulos priores.


SPORTULA mil la datur ; gratis conviva recumbis : die mihi, quid Romae, Gargiliane, facis ?

1 nee me puta Madvig.

1 cf. ii. xliii.

2 Probably porcelain : cf. xiv. cxiii.

1 80

BOOK III. xxvi-xxx


LANDS are yours alone, and yours alone, Candidus, 1 are moneys; gold plate is yours alone; murrine 2 cups are yours alone ; Massic wines are yours alone, and Caecuban of Opimius' year yours alone, and talent is yours alone; yours alone genius. All things are yours alone fancy I waijt to deny it ! but you have a wife, Candidus, who is also the people's property.


You never invite me in return, though you come often when invited ; I pardon you, Gallus, if only you invite no one else. You invite others. This is a fault in each of us. " What fault ? " you say. I have no sense, and you, Gallus, no decency.


You wonder that Marius' ear smells abominably. You are the cause : you whisper, Nestor, into his ear.


THESE chains with their double fetter Zoilus dedi- cates to you, Saturnus. 3 They were formerly his rings. 4


No dole is given ; you recline an unbought guest at dinner 5 : tell me, what do you, Gargilianus, at

3 Slaves, on gaining freedom, dedicated their fetters to Saturn, during whose festival, the Saturnalia, they had some degree of freedom.

4 Z. now wears the ring of a knight : cf, xr. xxxvii. 3.

5 cf. in. vii.



unde tibi togula est et fuscae pensio cellae ?

unde datur quadrans ? unde vir es Chiones ? cum ratione licet dicas te vivere summa,

quod vivis, nulla cum ratione facis.


SUNT tibi, confiteor, difFusi iugera campi urbanique tenent praedia multa lares,

et servit dominae numerosus debitor arcae sustentatque tuas aurea massa dapes.

fastidire tamen noli, Rufine, minores :

plus habuit Didymos, plus Philomelus habet.


" AN possim vetulam " quaeris, Matronia : possum et vetulam, sed tu mortua, lion vetula es.

possum Hecubam, possum Nioben, Matronia, sed si nondum erit ilia cams, nondum erit ilia lapis.


INGENUAM malo, sed si tamen ilia uegetur, libertina mihi proxuma condicio est :

extreme est ancilla loco, sed vincet utramque, si facie nobis haec erit ingenua.


DIGNA tuo cur sis indignaque nomine, dicam. frigida es et nigra es : non es et es Chione.

1 For the l>aths.

2 D. a wealthy eunuch ; P. a harp-player : -cf. in. iv. 8.

3 H. was turned into a bitch, N. into stone. H. was also


BOOK III. xxx-xxxiv

Rome ? Whence comes your poor toga and the rent of your grimy garret ? Whence is provided the far- thing ? l whence the support of Chione your mistress ? You may say that you live with the most reasonable economy : your living at all is unreasonable.


You have, I allow, acres of land widely spread, and houses in town occupy many sites, and many a debtor is a slave to your imperious money-chest, and gold plate supports your banquets. Yet do not scorn, Rufinus, lesser men. More had Didymus ; more Philomelus has. 2


"CAN I love an old woman ?" you ask me, Matronia. 1 can even an old woman ; but you are a corpse, not an old woman. I can love Hecuba, I can Niobe, Matronia, but only if the one is not yet a bitch, the other not yet a stone. 3


I PREFER one free-born, yet if she be denied me, a freedwoman's quality is next in worth to me. In the last rank is the servant-maid ; yet she shall surpass either of the others if her face be to me that of a free-born maid.


I WILL tell you why you suit, and do not suit, your name. You are cold and you are dark ; you are, and are not, Chione. 4

called c.anis from the virulence of her vituperation : Cic. Tusc. in xxvi. and Plant. Men. 718, 4 Derived from x 1 ^ (snow).




ARTIS Phidiacae toreuma clarum pisces aspicis : adde aquam, natabunt.


QUOD novus et nuper factus tibi praestat amicus,

hoc praestare iubes me, Fabiane, tibi : horridus ut primo te semper mane salutem

per mediumque trahat me tua sella lutuiii. lassus ut in thermas decuma vel serius hora 5

te sequar Agrippae, cum laver ipse Titi. hoc per triginta merui, Fabiane, Decembres,

ut sim tiro tuae semper amicitiae ? hoc merui, Fabiane, toga tritaque meaque,

ut nondum credas me meruisse rudem ? 10


IRASCI tantum felices nostis amici.

non belle facitis, sed iuvat hoc facere.


QUAE te causa trahit vel quae fiducia Romam, Sexte ? quid aut speras aut petis inde ? refer.

"Causas" inquis "agam Cicerone disertior ipso atque erit in triplici par mihi nemo foro."

egit Atestinus causas et Civis (utrumque 5

noras) ; sed neutri pensio tota fuit,

BOOK III. xxxv-xxxvm


You see these fish carved finely in relief by Phidian art. Add water : they will swim.


THE duties of a new and recent friend you bid me perform towards you, Fabianus ; that shivering at early morn I should pay my respects to you con- tinually ; that your chair should drag me through the midst of the mud ; that when I am fagged out I should follow you at the tenth hour, or later, to the warm baths of Agrippa, although I myself bathe at those of Titus. Is this what I have deserved, Fabianus, for my thirty Decembers of service, to be always a raw recruit to your friendship? Is this what I have deserved, Fabianus, that, when my toga (my own purchase) is threadbare, you think that I have not yet deserved my discharge ?


To be angry is all you know, you rich friends. You do not act prettily, but it pays to do this. 1


WHAT reason or what confidence draws you to Rome, Sextus ? What do you either hope or look for from that quarter? tell me. "I will conduct cases," you say, " more eloquently than Cicero himself, and there shall be in the three Forums no man my match." Atestinus and Civis each conducted cases you knew

1 It is an excuse for not being liberal in presents : cf. xu. xiii.


" Si nihil hinc veniet, pangentur carmina nobis :

audieris, dices esse Maronis opus." insanis : omnes, gelidis quicumque lacernis

sunt ibi, Nasones Vergiliosque vides. 10

" Atria magna colam." vix tres aut quattuor ista

res aluit, pallet cetera turba fame. " Quid faciam ? suade : nam certum est vivere Romae."

si bonus es, casu vivere, Sexte, potes.


JLIACO similem pueruni, Faustine, ministro lusca Lycoris amat. quam bene lusca videt !


MUTUA quod nobis ter quinquagena dedisti ex opibus tantis, quas gravis area premit,

esse tibi magnus, Telesine, videris amicus.

tu magnus, quod das ? immo ego, quod recipis.


INSERTA phialae Mentoris manu ducta lacerta vivit et timetur argentum.


LOMENTO rugas uteri quod condere temptas, Polla, tibi ventrem, non mihi labra linis.

1 Jove's cupbearer Ganymede. 186


both but neither made his full rent. " If nothing- comes from this source, I will compose poems ; hear them, you will call them Maro's work." You are crazy ; in all those fellows there with their chill mantles you see Nasos and Virgils. " I will court the halls of great men." Barely three or four has that procedure supported ; all the rest of the crowd are pale with hunger. "What shall I do ? Advise me, for I am bent on living in Rome." If you are a good man you may live, Sextus, by accident.


ONE-EYED Lycoris loves a youth like to the cup- bearer from Ilium. 1 How well the one-eyed sees !


BECAUSE you made me a loan of one hundred and fifty thousand sesterces out of all the wealth on which your heavy money-chest shuts tight, you fancy yourself, Telesinus, a great friend. You a great friend because you give ? I, rather, because you get back.


SET 011 the bowl, portrayed by Mentor's 2 hand the lizard lives ; and we fear to touch the silver. 3


You try to conceal your wrinkles by the use of bean-meal, but you plaster your skin, Polla, not my

- A celebrated artist in relief of some centuries before. 3 cf. in. xxxv. on a similar subject.



simpliciter pateat vitium fortasse pusillum : quod tegitur, maius creditur esse malum.


MENTIRIS iuvenem tirictis, Laetine, capillis, tarn subito corvus, qui modo cycnus eras.

non omnes fallis ; scit te Proserpina canum : personam capiti detrahet ilia tuo.


OCCURRIT tibi nemo quod libeiiter,

quod, quacumque venis, fuga est et ingens

circa te, Ligurine, solitudo,

quid sit, scire cupis ? nimis poeta es.

hoc valde vitium periculosum est. 5

non tigris catulis citata raptis,

non dipsas niedio perusta sole^

nee sic scorpios inprobus timetur.

nam tantos, rogo, quis ferat labores ?

et stanti legis et legis sedenti, 10

currenti legis et legis cacanti.

in thermas fugio : sonas ad aureni.

piscinam peto : non licet natare.

ad cenam propero : tenes euntem.

ad cenam venio : fugas edentem. 15

lassus dormio : suscitas iacentem.

vis, quantum facias mali, videre ?

vir iustus probus innocens timeris.

1 To "plaster the face" (on sublinere} meant to deceive: Plaut. Merc. n. iv. 17, et passim. The idea was taken from



lips. 1 Let a blemish, which perhaps is small, simply show. The flaw which is hidden is deemed greater than it is.

You falsely ape youth, Laetinus, with dyed hair, so suddenly a raven who were but now a swan. You don't deceive all ; Proserpine 2 knows you are hoary : she shall pluck the mask from off your head.


THAT no man willingly meets you, that, wherever you arrive, there is flight and vast solitude around you, Ligurinus, do you want to know what is the matter ? You are too much of a poet. This is a fault passing dangerous. No tigress roused by the robbery of her cubs, no viper scorched by tropic suns, nor deadly scorpion is so dreaded. For who, I ask you, would endure such trials ? You read to me while I am standing, and read to me when I am sitting ; while I am running you read to me, and read to me while I am using a jakes. I fly to the warm baths : you buzz in my ear ; 1 make for the swimming bath : I am not allowed to swim ; I haste to dinner : you detain me as I go ; I reach the table : you rout me while I am eating. Wearied out, I sleep : you rouse me up as I lie. Do you want to appreciate the evil you cause ? Though you are a man just, upright, and harmless, you are a terror.

the practical joke of blackening the face of a drunken man. 2 Queen of the shades below.



XLV FUGERIT an Phoebus niensas cenamque Thyestae

ignore : fugimus nos, Ligurine, tuam. ilia quidem lauta est dapibusque instructa superbis,

sed nihil omiiino te recitante placet, nolo mihi ponas rhombos mullumve bilibrem 5

nee volo boletos, ostrea nolo : tace.


EXIGIS a nobis operam sine fine togatam :

non eo, libertum sed tibi mitto meum. " Non est" inquis "idem." multo plus esse probabo.

vix ego lecticam subsequar, ille feret. in turbam incideris, cunctos umbone repellet : 5

invalidum est nobis ingenuumque latus. quidlibet in causa narraveris, ipse tacebo :

at tibi tergeminum mugiet ille sophos. lis erit, ingenti faciet convicia voce :

esse pudor vetuit fortia verba mihi. 10

" Ergo nihil nobis " inquis "praestabis amicus ? "

quidquid libertus, Candide, non poterit.


CAPENA grandi porta qua pluit gutta Phrygiumque Matris Almo qua lavat ferrum, Horatiorum qua viret sacer campus et qua pusilli fervet Herculis fanum,

1 Atreus, king of Argos, in revenge for an injury, served up to his brother Thyestes the bodies of T. 's two sons, which T. unknowingly ate. The Sun is said to have veiled his face in horror : cf. x. iv. 1.




WHETHER Phoebus fled from the table and banquet of Thyestes l I don't know : we fly from yours, Li- gurinus. It is undoubtedly choice, and laid out with rich viands, but nothing at all pleases us while you recite. I don't want you to serve me turbots, or a two-pound mullet, nor do I want mushrooms, oysters I do not want : hold your tongue !


You exact from me gowned service without end ; I don't attend, but I despatch to you my freedman. " It isn't the same thing," you say. I will prove it is much more : I could hardly escort a litter, lie will carry it. Supposing you get into a crowd, he will thrust them all back with his elbow ; my flanks are weak, and a gentleman's. Supposing you tell a story in your pleading, I myself will hold my peace ; but he will bellow for you a thrice-redoubled " Bravo ! " If you have a lawsuit he will pour abuse in stentorian tones ; shyness has forbidden me strong language. " So you, though a friend, will give me no service ? " you say. Whatever, Candidus, 2 my freedman cannot.


WHERE the Capene Gate drips with heavy drops, and where Almo washes the Phrygian Mother's knife, 3 where the plain, hallowed by the Horatii, is green, and where the temple of the little Hercules

2 Addressed also in n. xliii. and HI. xxvi.

3 The priests of Cybele annually washed the statue of the Goddess, and the sacred implements, in the Almo : Ov. Fast. iv. 339.



Faustine, plena Bassus ibat in raeda, 5

omnis beati copias trahens runs.

illic videres frutice nobili caules

et utrumque porrum sessilesque lactucas

pigroque ventri non inutiles betas ;

illic coronam pinguibus gravem turdis 10

leporemque laesum Gallici canis dente

nondumque victa lacteum faba poi'cum.

nee feriatus ibat ante carrucam

sed tuta faeno cursor ova portabat.

urbem petebat Bassus? immo rus ibat. 15


PAUPERIS extruxit cellam, sed vendidit Olus praedia : nunc cellam pauperis Olus habet.


VEIENTANA mihi misces, ubi Massica potas : olfacere haec malo pocula quam bibere.

HAEC tibi, non alia, est ad cenam causa vocandi,

versiculos recites ut, Ligurine, tuos. deposui soleas, adfertur protinus ingens

inter lactucas oxygarumque liber : alter perlegitur, duru fercula prima morantur : 5

tertius est, nee adhuc mensa secunda venit :

1 And so had to carry his supplies with him, for his country villa produced nothing : cf. ill. Iviii. 49.

2 He has become poor in earnest. "A poor man's box " was ordinarily a modest apartment in rich men's houses,



is thronged, Bassus was riding, Faustinas, in a travel ling carriage crammed full, dragging with him all the abundance of the rich country. There might you see cabbages with noble heads, and each kind of leek, and squat lettuces, and beets not unserviceable to a sluggish stomach ; there a hoop heavy with fat fieldfares, and a hare that had been wounded by the fang of a Gallic hound, and a sucking-pig too young to munch beans. Nor was the runner taking holiday ; he went before the vehicle carrying eggs protected by straw. Was Bassus making for the city? On the contrary : he was going into the country. 1


OLUS built "a poor man's box," but sold his lands. Now Olus occupies a "poor man's box."


You mix Veientan wine 3 for me, whereas you drink Massic. I would rather smell these cups of mine than drink them.

THIS, no other, is your reason for inviting me to dine, that you may recite your verses, Ligurinus. I have put off my shoes ; at once a huge volume is brought along with the lettuce and the fish sauce. A second is read through while the first course stands waiting ; there is a third, and the dessert

constructed either for variety, or to be used on unceremonious occasions : Sen. Ep. xviii. and c. Sen. associates it with "quidquid est per quod luxuria divitiarum taedio ludit." 3 Poor wine : cf. r. ciii. 9. Massic was one of the finest.




et quartum recitas et quintum denique librum.

puticlus est, totiens si mihi pom's aprum. quod si non scombris scelerata poemata donas,

cenabis solus iam. Ligurine, domi. 10


CUM faciem laudo, cum miror crura manusque, dicere, Galla, soles " Nuda placebo magis,"

et semper vitas communia balnea nobis.

numquid, Galla, times ne tibi non placeam ?


EMPTA domus fuerat tibi, Tongiliane, ducentis : abstulit hanc nimium casus in urbe frequens.

conlatum est deciens. rogo, non potes ipse videri incendisse tuam, Tongiliane, domum?


ET voltu poteram tuo carere

et collo manibusque cruribusque

et mammis natibusque clunibusque,

et, ne singula persequi laborem,

tota te poteram, Chloe, carere. 5


CUM dare non possim quod poscis, Galla, rogantem, multo simplicius, Galla, negare potes.



does not yet appear ; and you recite a fourth, and finally a fifth book. Sickening is a boar if you serve it to me so often. If you don't consign your ac- cursed poems to the mackerel, 1 in future, Ligurinus, you shall dine at home alone.


WHEN I compliment your face, when I admire your legs and hands, you are accustomed to say, Galla : " Naked I shall please you more," and yet you con- tinually avoid taking a bath with me. Surely you are not afraid, Galla, that I shall not please you ?


You had bought a house, Tongilianus, for two hun- dred thousand sesterces : an accident too common in the city destroyed it. A million was subscribed. I ask you, are you not open to the suspicion, Tongili- anus, of having yourself set fire to your house ? 2


1 COULD dispense with your face, and neck, and hands, and legs, and bosom, and back, and hips. And not to labour details I could dispense with the whole of you, Chloe.


As I cannot give the price, Galla, you demand of your suitor, you may more simply, Galla, say "No" outright.

1 cf. iv. Ixxxvi. K. 2 cf. Juv. iii. 220.


o 2



QUOD quacumque venis Cosmum migrare putamus

et fluere excusso cinnama fusa vitro, nolo peregrinis placeas tibi, Gellia, nugis.

scis, puto, posse nieum sic bene olere canem.


SIT cisterna mihi quam vinea malo Ravemiae, cum possim multo vendere pluris aquam.


CALLIDUS inposuit nuper mihi copo Ravennae : cum peterem mixtum, vendidit ille merum.


BAIANA nostri villa, Basse, Faustini

non otiosis ordinata myrtetis

viduaque platano tonsilique buxeto

ingrata lati spatia detinet campi,

sed rure veto barbaroque laetatur. 5

hie farta premitur angulo Ceres omni

et multa fragrat testa senibus autumnis ;

hie post Novembres imminente iam bruma

seras putator horridus refert uvas.

truces in alta valle mugiunt tauri 10

vitulusque inermi fronte prurit in pugnam.

vagatur omnis turba sordidae chortis,

1 A perfumer of the period. 8 R. suffered from lack of water. 3 ef. note to last epigram. 196



WHEREVER you come we fancy Cosmus 1 is on the move, and that oil of cinnamon flows streaming from a shaken out glass bottle. I would not have you, Gellia, pride yourself upon alien trumpery. You know, I think, my dog can smell sweet in the same way.


I PREFER a cistern at Ravenna to a vineyard, seeing that I can get a much better price for water. 2


A CUNNING taverner imposed on me lately at Ra- venna. Whereas I asked for negus, he sold me wine neat. 3


THE Baian villa, Bassus, ot our friend Faustinas keeps unfruitful no spaces of wide field laid out in idle myrtle-beds, and with widowed planes and clipped clumps of box, but rejoices in a farm, honest and artless. 4 Here in every corner corn is tightly packed, and many a crock is fragrant of ancient autumns. Here, when November is past, and winter is now at hand, the unkempt primer brings home' late grapes. Fiercely in the deep valley roar bulls, and the steer with brow unhorned itches for the fray. All the crowd of the untidy poultry-yard wanders here and there, the shrill-cackling goose, and the

4 Friedlander takes barbaro as "uncultivated," But this is inconsistent with what follows. The whole epigram is a comparison between Faustinus' uncivilised farm ana Bassus' artificial and unfruitful villa.



argutus anser gernmeique pavones

nomenque debet quae rubentibus pinnis

et picta perdix Numidicaeque guttatae 15

et impiorum phasiana Colchorum ;

Rhodias superbi feminas premunt galli ;

sonantque turres plausibus columbarum,

gemit hinc palumbus, inde cereus turtur.

avidi secuntur vilicae sinum porci 20

matremque plenam mollis agnus expectat.

cingunt serenum lactei focum vernae

et larga festos lucet ad lares silva.

non segnis albo pallet otio copo,

nee perdit oleum lubricus palaestrita ; 25

sed tendit avidis rete subdolum turdis

tremulave captum linea trahit piscem

aut inpeditam cassibus refert dammam.

exercet hilares facilis hortus urbanos,

et paedagogo non iubente lascivi 30

parere gaudent vilico capillati,

et delicatus opere fruitur eunuchus.

uec venit inanis rusticus salutator :

fert ille ceris cana cum suis mella

imtamque lactis Sassinate de silva ; 35

somniculosos ille porrigit glires,

hie vagientem niatris hispidae fetum, .

alius coactos non amare capones.

et dona matrum vimine offerunt texto

grandes proborum virgines colonorum. 40

facto vocatur laetus opere vicinus ;

nee avara servat crastinas dapes rnensa,

vescuntur omnes ebrioque non novit

satur minister invidere convivae.

at tu sub urbe possides famem mund&m 45

et turre ab alta prospicis meras laurus,



spangled peacocks, and the bird that owes its name to its flaming plumes, 1 and the painted partridge, and speckled guinea-fowls, and the impious 2 Col- chians' pheasant. Proud cocks tread their Rhodian dames, and cotes are loud with the pigeons' croon ; on this side moans the ringdove, on that the glossy turtle. Greedily pigs follow the apron of the bailiff's wife, and the tender lamb waits for its dam's full udder. Infant home-born slaves ring the clear-burning hearth, and thickly piled billets gleam before the household gods on holidays. The wine seller 3 does not idly sicken with pale-faced ease, nor the anointed wrestling-master make waste of oil, but he stretches a crafty net for greedy fieldfares, or with tremu- lous line draws up the captured fish, or brings home the doe entangled in his nets. The kindly garden keeps the town slaves cheerfully busy, and, without the overseer's order, even the wanton long-curled pages gladly obey the bailiff; even the delicate eunuch delights in work. Nor does the country visitor come empty handed : that one brings pale honey in its comb, and a pyramid of cheese from Sassina's woodland ; that one offers sleepy dormice ; this one the bleating offspring of a shaggy mother ; another capons debarred from love. And the strapping daughters of honest farmers offer in a wicker basket their mother's gifts. When work is done a cheerful neighbour is asked to dine ; no niggard table reserves a feast for the morrow ; all take the meal, and the full-fed attendant need not envy the well-drunken guest. But you in the suburbs possess what is ele- gant starvation, and from your high tower survey

1 Phoenicopterus, or flamingo. 3 An allusion to Medea's sorceries.

3 The slaves mentioned are employed in town for profit or hmiry ; in the country they have healthy exercise.



furem Priapo non timente securus

et vinitovem farre pascis urbano

pictamque portas otiosus ad villain

holus, ova, pullos, poma, caseum, mustum. 50

rus hoc vocari debet, an domus longe ?


SUTOR cerdo dedit tibi, culta Bononia, munus, fullo dedit Mutinae : nunc ubi copo dabit?


CUM vocer ad cenam non iam venalis ut ante,

cur mihi non eadem quae tibi cena datur ? ostrea tu sumis stagno saturata Lucrino,

sugitur inciso mitulus ore mihi : sunt tibi boleti, fungos ego sumo suillos : 5

res tibi cum rhombo est, at mihi cum sparulo. aureus inmodicis turtur te clunibus implet,

ponitur in cavea mortua pica mihi. cur sine te ceno cum tecum, Pontice, cenem ?

sportula quod non est prosit, edamus idem. 10


ESSE nihil dicis quidquid petis, inprobe Cinna : si nil, Cinna, petis, nil tibi, Cinna, nego.

1 cf. in. xlvii. rf. in. xvi.


laurels alone ; you are not nervous, for your Priapus fears no thief; and your vine-dresser you feed on corn brought from town, and indolently cart to your frescoed villa cabbages, eggs, fowls, apples, cheese, must. 1 Ought this to be called a farm, or a town- house away from town ?


A COBBLER gave you a show, 2 lettered Bononia, a bleacher gave one to Mutina. Now where will the taverner give one ?


SINCE I am asked to dinner, no longer, as before, a purchased guest, 3 why is not the same dinner served to me as to you ? You take oysters fattened in the Lucrine lake, 4 I suck a mussel through a hole in the shell ; 5 you get mushrooms, I take hog funguses ; you tackle turbot, but I brill. Golden with fat, a turtle- dove gorges you with its bloated rump ; there is set before me a magpie that has died in its cage. Why do I dine without you although, Ponticus, I am dining with you ? The dole has gone : let us have the benefit of that ; let us eat the same fare.


" 'Tis nothing," you say, whatever you ask, impor- tunate Cinna. If you ask "nothing," Cinna, nothing I deny you, Cinna.

3 The money dole having been abolished : cf. III. vii.

4 Its waters imparted a flavour to oysters : cf. xm. Ixxxii. 6 Or (perhaps) " with lips cut by the shell."




CENTENIS quod emis pueros et saepe ducenis,

quod sub rege Numa condita vina bibis, quod constat decies tibi non spatiosa supellex,

libra quod argenti milia quinque rapit, aurea quod fundi pretio carruca paratur, 5

quod pluris mula est quam domus empta tibi : haec animo credis magno te, Quinte, parare ?

falleris : haec animus, Quinte, pusillus emit.


COTILE, bellus homo es : dicunt hoc, Cotile, multi.

audio : sed quid sit, die mihi, bellus homo ? " Bellus homo est, flexos qui digerit ordine crines,

balsama qui semper, cinnama semper olet ; cantica qui Nili, qui Gaditana susurrat, 5

qui movet in varios bracchia volsa modos ; inter femineas tota qui luce cathedras

desidet atque aliqua semper in aure sonat, qui legit hinc illinc missas scribitque tabellas ;

pallia vicini qui refugit cubiti ; 10

qui scit quam quis amet, qui per convivia currit,

Hirpini veteres qui bene novit avos." quid narras ? hoc est, hoc est homo, Cotile, bellus ?

res pertricosa est, Cotile, bellus homo.



You buy slaves for a hundred thousand, and often for two hundred thousand sesterces apiece ; you drink wines laid down in King Numa's reign ; no vast amount of furniture stands you in a million ; a pound of silver plate runs off with five thousand ; a gilt coach is acquired at the price of a farm ; you buy a mule for more than a town mansion. Do you think, Quintus, that you acquire these things be- cause you have a great mind ? You are deceived. These are what a puny mind buys, Quintus.


COTIUJS, you are "a pretty fellow" : many call you so, Cotilus; I hear them. But, tell me, what is a pretty fellow ? "A pret'ty fellow is one who arranges neatly his curled locks, who continually smells of balsam, continually of cinnamon; who hums catches from the Nile and Gades ; who waves his depilated arms in time to varied measures ; who all the day lolls amid the women's chairs, and is ever whispering in some ear ; who reads billets sent from one quarter or another, and writes them ; who shrinks from con- tact with the cloak on his neighbour's elbow ; l who knows who is the lover of whom ; who hurries from one party to another ; who has at his fingers' ends the long pedigree of Hirpinus." 2 What do you say? Is this thing, Cotilus, this thing a pretty fellow? A very trumpery thing, Cotilus, is your pretty fellow.

1 For fear it should soil or disarrange his dress : cf. n. xli. 10. - A racehorse : Juv. viii. 62.




Si REN AS hilarem navigantium poenam blandasque mortes gaudiumque crudele, quas nemo quondam deserebat auditas, fallax Ulixes dicitur reliquisse. non miror : illud, Cassiane, mirarer, si fabulantem Canium reliquisset.


QUOD spirat tenera malum mordente puella,

quod de Corycio quae venit aura croco ; vinea quod primis cum floret cana racemis,

gramina quod redolent, quae modo carpsit ovis ; quod myrtus, quod messor Arabs, quod sucina trita, 5

pallidus Eoo ture quod ignis olet ; gleba quod aestivo leviter cum spargitur imbre,

quod madidas nardo passa corona comas : hoc tua, saeve puer Diadumene, basia fragrant.

quid si tota dares ilia sine invidia? 10


PAR scelus admisit Phariis Antonius armis :

abscidit voltus ensis uterque sacros. illud, laurigeros ageres cum laeta triumphos,

hoc tibi, Roma, caput, cum loquereris, erat. Antoni tamen est peior quam causa Pothini : 5

hie facinus domino praestitit, ille sibi.

1 cf. m. xx. 8.

9 Antony, the Triumvir, was the murderer of Cicero ; Pothinus, the eunuch of Ptolemy, king of Egypt, of Pompey.




THE sirens, who brought on mariners jocund punishment, and alluring death, and cruel delight, from whom, when their song was heard, no man could of old rescue himself, the wily Ulixes is said to have escaped. I don't wonder ; that I should wonder at, Cassianus, if he had escaped from Canius 1 and his anecdotes.


BREATH of a young maid as she bites an apple ; effluence that comes from Corycian saffron ; perfume such as when the blossoming vine blooms with early clusters ; the scent of grass which a sheep has just cropped ; the odour of myrtle, of the Arab spice-gatherer, of rubbed amber ; of a fire made pallid with Eastern frankincense ; of the earth when lightly sprinkled with summer rain, of a chaplet that has felt locks dewy with nard ; with all these, Diadumenus, cruel boy, thy kisses are fragrant. What if thou wouldst give those kisses in fulness without grudging ?


A CRIME equal to that of Egypt's armed hand Anton ius wrought ; this steel and that destroyed H sacred life." That head, O Rome, was thine when thou didst with joy lead on thy laurelled triumphs ; this was thine when thou wert speaking. 3 Yet could Antonius plead worse excuse than Pothinus : he by his deed served his master, Antonius himself.

3 The pun on "head" is not happy. Cicero and Pompey were both decapitated.




CESSATIS, pueri, nihilque nostis,

Vaterno Rasinaque pigriores,

quorum per vada tarda navigantes

lentos tinguitis ad celeuma remos.

iam prono Phaethonte sudat Aethon 5

exarsitque dies et hora lassos

interiungit equos meridiana.

at vos, tarn placidas vagi per undas

tuta luditjs otium carina,

non nautas puto vos, sed Argonaiitas. 10


Hue est usque tibi scriptus, matrona, libellus.

cui sint scripta rogas interiora ? mihi. gymnasium, thermae, stadium est hac parte : recede.

exuim-ur : nudos parce videre viros. hinc iam deposito post vina rosasque pudore, 5

quid dicat nescit saucia Terpsichore : schemate nee dubio sed aperte nominat illam

quam recipit sexto mense superba Venus, custodem medio statuit quam vilicus horto,

opposita spectat quam proba virgo manu. 10

si bene te novi, longum iam lassa libellum

ponebas, totum nunc studiosa legis.

1 One of the horses of the Sun.

2 Aryonautas, which may be interpreted "Argonauts" or " lazy sailors " (apyovs vavras).

3 The muse of dancing.




SLACK are ye, O youths, and no watermen, more sluggish than Vaternus and Hasina, along whose slow shallows ye float, and dip lazy oars in time to the boatswain's call. Already, while Phaethon slopes downwards, Aethon 1 sweats, and the day has burst in flame, and the noontide hour unyokes weary steeds. But you, straying along waves so placid, play in idleness on a safe keel. Not tars do I hold you, but tarriers. 2


THUS far, O matron, my book has been written for you. Do you ask for whom were writ the later parts ? For me. A gymnasium, warm baths, a running ground are in this part of the book ; depart, we are stripping ; forbear to look on naked men. From this point Terp- sichore, 3 overcome with liquor, after the wine and the roses lays aside shame and knows not what she says, and in no ambiguous trope, but in plain speech, men- tions that symbol which Venus proudly welcomes in the sixth month, 4 which the bailiff sets up as warder in the midst of the garden, which a modest virgin looks at with hand before her face. If I know you well, you were laying down my long book, already wearied ; now you are eagerly reading it all.

  • An image of Priapus was carried in procession by Roman

matrons to the Temple of Venus Eryciua, outside the Colline Gate in the N.E. of Rome. This was part of the rites of Isis.




OMNIA quod scribis castis epigrammata verbis

inque tuis nulla est mentula carminibus, admiror, laudo ; nihil est te sanctius uno :

at mea luxuria pagina nulla vacat. haec igitur nequam iuvenes facilesque puellae,

haec senior, sed quern torquet arnica, legat. at tua, Cosconi, venerandaque sanctaque verba

a pueris debent virginibusque legi.


MOECHUS es Aufidiae, qui vir, Scaevine. fuisti ;

rivalis fuerat qui tuus, ille vir est. cur aliena placet tibi, quae tua non placet, uxor ?

numquid securus non potes arrigere ?


MENTULA cuin doleat puero, tibi, Naevole, culus, non sum divinus, sed scio quid facias.


Vis futui nee vis niecum, Saufeia, lavari.

nescio quod magnum suspicor esse nefas. aut tibi pannosae dependent pectore mammae

aut sulcos uteri prodere nuda times




BECAUSE you write all your epigrams in decent language, and in your poems no obscenity is found, I admire, I applaud ; nothing is more chaste than you of all men ; but no page of mine is without wantonness. These then let naughty youths and girls of easy virtue read, these any old sire, and he too one whom his mistress tortures. But your language, Cosconius, woi-thy of respect and chaste as it is, should be read by boys and virgins. 1


You are the paramour of Aufidia, and you were, Scaevinus, her husband; 2 he who was your rival is her husband. Why does another man's wife please you when she as your own does not please you ? Is it that when secure you lack appetite ?


SEEING that the boy is sore, and you too, Naevolus. though I am no diviner, I know what you are up to.


You wish to have an amour with me, and yet you do not wish, Saufeia, to bathe with me ; I suspect that some monstrous blemish is in question. Either your dugs hang in wrinkles from your bosom, or you fear by nakedness to betray the furrows in your

1 The epigram is ironical. C.'s milk-and-water stuff is fit only for boys and girls. 2 S. had divorced A.

209 VOL. I. P


aut infinite lacerum patet inguen hiatu aut aliquid cunni prominet ore tui.

sed nihil est horum, credo, pulcherrima nuda es. si verum est, vitium peius habes : fatua es.


DORMIS cum pueris mutuniatis, et non stat tibi, Galle, quod stat illis. quid vis me, rogo, Phoebe, suspicari ? mollem credere te virum volebam, sed rumor negat esse te cinaedum.


PSILOTHRO faciem levas et dropace calvam.

numquid tonsorem, Gargiliane, times ? quid facient ungues ? nam certe noil potes illos

resina Veneto nee resecare luto. desine, si pudor est, miseram traducere calvam :

hoc fieri cunno, Gargiliane, solet.


STARE, Luperce, tibi iam pridem mentula desit,

luctaris demens tu tamen arrigere. sed nihil erucae faciunt bulbique salaces

inproba nee prosunt iam satureia tibi. coepisti puras opibus corrumpere buccas :

sic quoque non vivit sollicitata Venus, mirari satis hoc quisquam vel credere possit,

quod non stat, magno stare, Luperce, tibi ?


belly, or your person is lacerated and used up, or you have a protuberance somewhere. But there is nothing such, I am sure ; naked you are most beauti- ful. But if there really is anything, you have a worse delect : you are stupid.


Tu dormi con giovani membruti, e non ti sta, O Gallo, quel che sta a loro. Che vuoi, dimmi, O Febo. ch'io ne sospetti ? Volevo crederti un cinedo : ma quel che si dice non e che sti un cinedo.


WITH salve you smooth your cheeks, and with hair-eradicator your bald pate : surely you are not afraid, Gargilianus, of a barber ? l How will your nails fare ? for those at least you cannot trim with resin or Venetian clay. Give over, if you have any shame, making a sight of your wretched bald pate : this is wont to be done by women elsewhere, Gar- gilianus.


GIA da lungo tempo, O Luperco, il tuo membro cessa stare, tuttavia tu arrabiato ti sforzi arrigere. Ma nulla fanno le rughe, e gli incitevoli bolbi, ne tampoco ti giova la oltre modo lasciva satureia. Tentasti corrompere con ricchezze le innocenti bocche. Venere sollecitata cosi non ha vigore. Nes- suno c'e che possa cid bastantemente ammirare o credere, che cio che non ti consta, tanto, O Luperco, ti costi.

1 Like Diouysius, tyrant of Syracuse, who, fearing assas- sination, would not allow himself to be shaved, but burned his hair off with lighted charcoal : Cic. De Off, II. vii. 25.

211 P 2



ARRIGIS ad vetulas, fastidis, Basse, puellas,

nee formosa tibi sed moritura placet, hie, rogo, non furor est, non haec est mentula demens ?

cum possis Hecaben, 11011 potes Andromachen !


NEC mullus nee te delectat, Baetice, turdus,

nee lepus est umquam nee tibi gratus aper ; nee te liba iuvant nee sectae quadra placentae,

nee Libye mittit iiec tibi Phasis aves : capparin et putri cepas allece natantis 5

et pulpani dubio de petasone voras, teque iuvant gerres et pelle melandrj^a cana ;

resinata bibis vina, Falerna fugis. nescio quod stomachi vitium secretius esse

suspicor: ut quid enim, Baetice, oa7rpo</>ayeis? 10


MINXISTI currente semel, Pauline, cariiia. meiere vis iterum ? iam Palimmis eris.


REM peragit nullam Sertorius, inchoat omnes. hunc ego, cum futuit, non puto perficere.

1 The inferior parts of tunny salted, and called " heart of oak" from its appearance : Plin. N.H. ix. 18.

2 Caused by lascivious practices : cf. in. Ixxxi.




You are ardent for old women, you show disgust, Bassus, for girls ; it is not the beautiful, but the moribund attracts you. Is not this, I ask, frenzy, is not this amorous madness ? Although you can woo Hecuba, Andromache you cannot !


NOR mullet nor fieldfare gratifies you, Baetieus, nor is hare or boar ever palatable to you. Nor do rolls please you, nor a square of scored cake, nor does Libya or Phasis send you her birds. You de- vour capers, and onions floating in stale fish-pickle, and the lean from a dubious ham ; and sprats salted please you, and heart-of-oak tunny 1 with white skin; you drink resined wine, avoid Falernian. Your stomach has some secret failing I suspect ; 2 for why, Baeticus, do you feed on carrion?


You made water on one occasion, Paulinus, while the ship was on her course. Do you wish to exude a second time ? At once you will be a Palinurus. 3


THERE is no undertaking which Sertorius com- pletes : he begins all. This fellow, I fancy, does not in his amours achieve accomplishment.

3 Palinurus was the helmsman of Aeneas. The word na\ivovpos may also be translated "one who makes water again." For a similar pun on Argonauts, cf. m. Ixvii.




DE nullo quereris, nulli maledicis, Apici : rumor ait linguae te tamen esse malae.


QUID cum femineo tibi, Baetice Galle, barathro ?

haec debet medios lambere lingua viros. abscisa est quare Samia tibi mentula testa,

si tibi tarn gratus, Baetice, cunnus erat ? castrandum caput est : nam sis licet inguine Gallus, 5

sacra tamen Cybeles decipis : ore vir es.


CONVIVA quisquis Zoili potest esse,

Summoenianas cenet inter uxores

curtaque Ledae sobrius bibat testa :

hoc esse levius puriusque contendo.

iacet occupato galbinatus in lecto 5

cubitisque trudit hinc et inde convivas

effultus ostro Sericisque pulvillis.

stat exoletus suggeritque ructanti

pinnas rubentes cuspidesque lentisci,

et aestuanti tenue ventilat frigus 10

supina prasino concubina flabello,

fugatque muscas myrtea puer virga.

percurrit agili corpus arte tractatrix

manumque doctam spargit omnibus membris ;

digiti crepantis signa novit eunuchus 1 5

et delicatae sciscitator urinae

1 Sensu obsceno.

2 Prostitutes : cf. i. xxiv. 6 ; xii. xxxii. 22.




You complain of no man, no man you slander, Apicius ; yet rumour asserts that you are one of evil tongue. 1


CHE affari hai tu, O Betico Gallo, col femineo baratro ? Questa tua lingua e fatta per lambire a mezzo gli uomini. A che motivo la mentola fu a te con Samia tegola recisa, se a te, O Betico, si grato era il c o ? II tuo capo merita esser castrato : imperocche, quantunque sii Gallo nelle pudenda, tuttavia inganni i sacrifici di Cibele : sei uomo nella bocca.


WHOEVER can endure to be the guest of Zoilus should dine among the wives by the Walls, 2 and drink, though sober, out of Leda's broken jar ; this is a lighter and more decent thing, I maintain. Garbed in green 3 he lies on a couch he alone fills, and with his elbows thrusts off his guests on either side, propped up as he is on purple and on silken cushions. There stands a catamite by him and offers his belching throat red feathers, and slips of mastick, 4 and a concubine, lying on her back, with a green fan stirs a gentle breeze to cool his heat, and a boy flaps away the flies with a sprig of myrtle. With her nimble art a shampooer runs over his body, and spreads her skilled hand over all his limbs. A eunuch knows the signal of a snapped finger, and, being the inquisitor of that fastidious water, guides his boozy

1 A mark of effeminacy : cf. I. xcvi. 9. J Toothpicks : cf. xiv. xxii.


domini bibentis ebrium regit penem.

at ipse retro flexus ad pedum turbam

inter catellas anserum exta lambentis

partitur apri glandulas palaestritis 20

et concubino turturum natis donat ;

Ligurumque nobis saxa cum ministrentur

vel cocta fumis musta Massilitanis,

Opimianum morionibus nectar

crystallinisque murrinisque propinat. 25

et Cosmianis ipse fusus ampullis

non erubescit murice aureo nobis

dividere moechae pauperis capillare.

septunce multo deinde perditus stertit :

nos accubamus et silentium rhonchis 30

praestare iussi nutibus propinamus.

hos Malchionis patimur inprobi fastus,

nee vindicarij Rufe, possumus : fellat.

UT faciam breviora mones epigrammata, Corde. "fac mihi quod Chione " : non potui brevius.


QUID uarrat tua moecha ? non puellam dixi, Gongylion. quid ergo ? linguam.


Quis tibi persuasit naris abscidere moecho ? non hac peccatum est parte, marite, tibi.

1 And so bad : cf. \. xxxvj. - cf. in. Iv.



master's drunken person. But he himself, bending back to the crowd at his feet, in the midst of his lapdogs who are gnawing goose's livers portions among his wrestlers the kernel of a boar, and gives his concubine the rumps of turtledoves. And, while to us is supplied wine from Ligurian rocks, or must ripened in Massylian smoke, 1 he pledges his naturals in Opimian nectar from crystal and murrine cups. And, though he himself is drenched with all the scent-bottles of Cosmus, 2 he does not blush to parcel out to us in a gold shell a starving whore's pomatum. Then after many a half-pint he is done up and snores ; we lie there, and being ordered to compliment his snorts with silence, drink our pledges by nods. This is the insolence of unconscionable Malchio 3 which we endure, and cannot avenge ourselves, Rufus : he is a


You advise me to make my epigrams shorter, Cordus. " Do me what Chione does " : 4 I could not put it shorter.


WHAT does yon drab say ? I did not mean your mistress, Gongylion. What then ? Your tongue.


WHO induced you to cut off the adulterer's nose : It was not by this part, husband, you were sinned

1 From /j.a\ai(6s (effeminate .
  •  ?f. m. Ixxxvii. and xcvii.

21 7


stulte, quid egisti ? nihil hie tibi perdidit uxor, cum sit salva tui inentula Deiphobi.


NE legeres partem lascivi, casta, libelli, praedixi et monui : tu tamen, ecce, legis.

sed si Panniculum spectas et, casta, Latinum, (non sunt haec mimis inprobiora,) lege.


NARRAT te, Chione, rumor numquam esse fututam

atque nihil cunno purius esse tuo. tecta tamen non hac, qua debes, parte lavaris :

si pudor est, transfer subligar in faciem.


SUNT gemini fratres, diversa sed inguina lingunt. dicite, dissimiles sunt magis an similes ?


UTERE lactucis et mollibus utere malvis : nam faciem durum, Phoebe, cacantis habes.

1 Son of Priam, and husband, after Paris, of Helen. Menelaus, her first husband, mutilated him: rf. Virg. Aen. vi. 494.



against. You fool, what have you done ? Your wife has lost nothing in this quarter, seeing the organ of your Deiphobus l is safe and sound.


" DON'T read part of my wanton volume, chaste madam," I told you before and warned you; 2 and yet, behold ! you read it. However, if you look on Pan- iiiculus ; and if, chaste madam, you look on Latinus these writings of mine are not worse than mimes read on.


RUMOUR reports that you, Chione, have never had amours with men, and that nothing is purer than your person. Yet you bathe covered, but not in your appropriate part ; if you have any modesty, shift your drawers to your face !


Vi sono due fratelli somigliantissimi, ma lambis- cono contrarie pudenda. Dite se sieno piu dissimili o simili ?


TAKE lettuces and take aperient mallows, for you have the appearance, Phoebus, of one straining at stool. 8

  • In in. Ixviii.

3 The same cast of countenance was ascribed to the Em- peror Vespasian : Suet. Vesp. xx.




VOLT, non volt dare Galla mihi, nee dicere possum, quod volt et non volt, quid sibi Galla velit.


CUM peteret patriae missicius arva Ravennae,

semiviro Cybeles cum grege iunxit iter. huic comes haerebat domini fugitivus Achillas

insignis forma nequitiaque puer. hoc steriles sensere viri : qua parte cubaret ~>

quaerunt. sed tacitos sensit et ille dolos : mentitur, credunt. somni post vina petuntur :

continuo ferrum noxia turba rapit exciduntque senem spondae qui parte iacebat ;

namque puer pluteo vindice tutus erat. 10

suppositam fama est quondam pro virgine cervam :

at nunc pro cervo mentula supposita est.


UT patiar moechum rogat uxor, Galle, sed unum. huic ego non oculos eruo, Galle. duos ?


CUM tibi trecenti consules, Vetustilla, et tres capilli quattuorque sint dentes,

1 Iphigenia's, when the latter was about to be sacrificed by her father. Agamemnon,


BOOK III. xc-xcin


GALLA is willing and yet unwilling to favour me. And 1 cannot say, as she is willing and unwilling, what Galla means.


WHILE a discharged soldier was returning to the h'elds of his native Ravenna, he joined on the way Cybele's sexless company. Close companion was his master's fugitive slave, Achillas, a boy renowned for beauty and for wanton ways. This those unfruitful men perceived : they ask him in what part of the bed he lay. But that boy, too, perceived the guile ; he lied, they believed him. They seek their slumber after their wine; straightway that harmful throng snatch the steel and mutilate the old sire who lay in his part of the bed ; for the boy was safe in the ward of the inner side. Fame hath it that of old a hind took a virgin's place ; l but now part of a man took the place of a stag. 2


MY wife asks me, Gallus, to put up with a lover of hers, but only one. 3 Am 1 not then, Gallus. to gouge out this fellow's two "eyes " 4


As you have seen out three hundred consuls. Vetustilla, and have three hairs and four teeth, the

2 A runaway slave was called "a stag" because of its speed. 3 cf. vi. xc. 4 i.e. testicuios.



pectus cicadae, crus colorque fonnicae ;

rugosiorem cum geras stola frontem

et araneorum cassibus pares mammas ; 5

cum conparata rictibus tuis ora

Niliacus habeat corcodilus angusta,

meliusque ranae garriant Ravennates

et Atrianus dulcius culix cantet,

videasque quantum noctuae vident mane, 1

et illud oleas quod viri capellarum,

et anatis habeas orthopygium macrae,

senemque Cynicum vincat osseus cunnus ;

cum te lucerna balneator extincta

admittat inter bustuarias moechas ; 1 5

cum bruma mensem sit tibi per Augustum

regelare nee te pestilenties possit :

audes ducentas nupturire post mortes

virumque demens cineribus tuis quaeris

prurire. quid sarrire si l velit saxum ? 20

quis coniugem te, quis vocabit uxorem,

Philomelus aviam quam vocaverat nuper ?

quod si cadaver exiges tuum scalpi.

sternatur Orci 2 de triclinio lectus,

thalassionem qui tuum decet solus, 25

ustorque taedas praeferat novae nuptae :

intrare in istum sola fax potest cunnum.


ESSE negas coctum leporem poscisque flagella. mavis, Rufe, cocum scindere quam leporem.

1 Or quid ? sarrire quis. si mtias or satira codd.

2 Orci Roeper, Achori codd.

BOOK III. xcin-xciv

breast of a grasshopper, the leg and complexion of an ant ; as you carry a forehead more wrinkled than a woman's stole, and dugs as limp as spiders' webs ; as, compared with those chaps of yours, the crocodile of Nile has narrow jaws, and Ravenna's frogs croak more agreeably, and the Atrian gnat hums more sweetly, and your vision is on a par with an owl's in the morning, and your odour is that of the hus- bands of she-goats, and you have the latter-end of a skinny duck, and your bony person would be too much for an old Cynic ; as the bathmaii admits you among the tomb-frequenting whores only when he has ex- tinguished his lamp ; as winter continues for you all through the month of August, and not even a ma- larious fever can melt you ; you venture, after having buried two hundred husbands, to yearn for marriage, and madly look for a man to itch for your burned out remnants. What, if he should wish to hoe a rock ? Who will call you spouse, who wife, whom Philo- melus has lately called his grandmother ? But if you require your carcase to be clawed, let the marriage-bed from the dining-room of Orcus be laid out this alone befits your nuptials and let the corpse-cremator carry before the new bride the torches : only a funeral link can tickle those ancient sides.


You say the hare is underdone, and call for a whip. You prefer, Rufus, cutting up your cook rather than your hare.




NOMQUAM dicis have sed reddis, Naevole, semper.

quod prior et corvus dicere saepe solet. cur hoc expectes a me, rogo, Naevole, dicas :

nam, puto, nee melior, Naevole, nee prior es. praemia laudato tribuit mihi Caesar uterque 5

natorumque dedit iura paterna trium. ore legor multo notumque per oppida nomen

non expectato dat mihi fama rogo. est et in hoc aliquid : vidit me Roma tribunum

et sedeo qua te suscitat Oceanus. 10

quot mihi Caesareo facti sunt munere cives,

nee famulos totidem suspicor esse tibi. sed pedicaris, sed pulchre, Naevole, ceves.

iam iam tu prior es, Naevole, vincis : have.


LIN GIS, non futuis meam puellam et garris quasi moechus et fu tutor. si te prendero, Gargili, tacebis.


NE legat hunc Chione, mando tibi, Ilufe, libellum. carmine laesa meo est, laedere et ilia potest.

1 cf. xiv. Ixxiv. and Macrob. Sat. vn. iv. 29.: "occurrit ei (Augusto) inter gratulantes corvum tenens, quern instituerat hoc dicere : Ave Caesar Victor Imperator ! " And see Pliny's account (N.H. x. 60) of a crow that learned to salute

BOOK III. xcv-xcvn


You never volunteer, but always return, Naevolus, that "good day " which even a crow 1 is often wont to say the first. Why expect this of me ? Tell me, Naevolus : for I fancy you are neither a better man, Naevolus, than I, nor above me. Each Caesar 2 has praised me and bestowed on me rewards, and given me the privileges of a father of three sons. 3 By many a reader am I read, and fame, without waiting for my death, gives me a name celebrated throughout the towns. There is something in this too : Rome has seen in me a tribune, and I sit in seats out of which Oceanus 4 rouses you. As many have been made citizens through me by Caesar's bounty as ex- ceed, I suspect, even your household of slaves. But you submit to foul lust ; but you, Naevolus, are a fine practitioner. Now, now I see you are my superior, Naevolus ; you beat me : good day !

Tu liiigi, non immembri la mia ragazza ; et ti milanti qual drudo, e qual' immembratore. Se t'acchiappo, O Gargilio, tacerai.


Do not let Chione read this book, Rufus, I charge you. She has been hurt by my verse, and she too can hurt. 5

the three Caesars, and was considered sacred, and honoured with a funeral procession and a pyre on the Appian Way.

  • Titus and Domitian. 3 cf. n. xci. 6.

4 The attendant of the theatre : cf. v. xxiii. 4 ; vi. ix. 2. 6 cf. in. Ixxxiii. and Ixxxvii.

225 VOL. i. g



SIT culus tibi quam macer, requiris ? pedicare potes, Sabelle, culo.


IRASCI nostro non debes, cerdo, libello.

ars tua noil vita est carmine laesa meo. non nocuos permitte sales, cur ludere nobis

non liceat, licuit si iugulare tibi ?

CURSOREM sexta tibi, Rufe, remisimus hora, carmina quern madidum nostra tulisse reor

imbribus inmodicis caelum nam forte ruebat. non aliter mitti debuit ille liber.


BOOK III. xcvni-c


Vuoi tu sapere quanto '1 tuo orripigio sia magro ? Tu puoi, O Sabello, sodomizar con quello.


You should not be angry, cobbler, at my book. It was your trade, not your character, that was wounded by my verse. 1 Allow harmless witticisms. Why may not I be permitted to jest, if you have been permitted to cut throats ?

I SENT you my messenger, Rufus, at the sixth hour, and I think that he was drenched when he delivered my poems ; for it chanced the sky descended with a downpour of rain. In no other way should that book of mine have been sent. 2

1 In in. xvi.

  • The poems were fit only to be rubbed out.

227 Q 2




CAESARIS alma dies et luce sacratior ilia

conscia Dictaeum qua tulit Ida lovem, longa, precor, Pylioque veni numerosior aevo,

semper et hoc voltu vel meliore nite. hie colat Albano Tritonida multus in auro 5

perque manus tantas plurima quercus eat ; hie colat ingenti redeuntia saecula lustro > et quae Romuleus sacra Tarentos habet. inagna quidem, superi, petimus sed debita terris :

pro tanto quae sunt inproba vota deo ? 10


SPECTABAT modo solus inter omnes

nigris munus Horatius lacernis,

cum plebs et minor ordo maximusque

sancto cum duce candidus sederet.

toto nix cecidit repente caelo : 5

albis spectat Horatius lacernis.

1 Domitian's birthday, October 24, 88 A.D., when he was 37.

2 Nestor's.

8 Some explain of D.'s golden palace, some of the golden olive- wreath, the poet's prize at the annual contest in honour of Minerva at D.'s Alban villa. M. is deliberately vague.



PROPITIOUS day 1 of Caesar, and more hallowed than that morn whereon consenting Ida gave bii-th to Jove in Dicte's cave, come thou oft, I pray, and in fuller number than the Pylian's 2 years, and ever shine with countenance such as now, or with one fairer still ! May he full oft honour the Tritonian maid amid Alba's gold, 3 and through those mighty hands may many an oak-wreath pass ! 4 May he honour the ages as they come round in their mighty lustre, 5 and the holy festival that Romulean Tarentos keeps. 6 Great things, ye Lords of Heaven, we ask for, howbeit due to earth : for so great a god what vows are too profuse ?


ALONE among all the rest the other day, Horatius viewed the show in a black cloak, although the com- mon people and the lower and the highest orders, together with our hallowed Chief, sat in white. From every door of heaven snow suddenly fell : it is in a white cloak now that Horatius looks on.

4 D. founded a quinquennial contest, in honour of Jupiter Capitolinus, in music, gymnastics, etc. The prize was a gold oak-leaf crown.

8 Every hundred and ten years nominally, when the Secular Games were held : Hor. Carm. Saec. 21.

9 Sacrifices to Pluto at a spot in the Campus Martius : cf. i. Ixix.




ASPICE quam densum tacitarum vellus aquarum

defluat in voltus Caesaris inque sinus, indulget tamen ille lovi, nee vertice moto

concretas pigro frigore ridet aquas, sidus Hyperborei solitus lassare Bootae 5

et madidis Helicen dissimulare comis. quis siccis lascivit aquis et ab aethere ludit ?

suspicor has pueri Caesaris esse nives.


QUOD siccae redolet palus lacunae,

crudarum nebulae quod Albularum,

piscinae vetus aura quod marinae,

quod pressa piger hircus in capella,

lassi vardaicus quod evocati, 5

quod bis murice vellus inquinatum,

quod ieiunia sabbatariarum,

maestorum quod anhelitus reorum,

quod spurcae moriens lucerna Ledae,

quod ceromata faece de Sabina, 10

quod volpis fuga, viperae cubile,

mallem quam quod oles olere, Bassa.

Via bonus et pauper linguaque et pectore verus, quid tibi vis urbem qui, Fabiane, petis ?

qui nee leno potes nee comissator haberi nee pavidos tristi voce citare reos

1 An allusion to Domitian's campaigns against the Chatti and against the Dacians.




MARK how thickly the still fleecy shower flows down on Caesar's face and on his bosom ! Yet he humours Jove, and with head unmoved smiles at the waters congealed by numbing frost, wont as he has been l to tire Bootes' Northern Star, and, with drenched locks, to disregard the Greater Bear. Who wantons with this dry shower and frolics from heaven ? I deem these were snows sent by Caesar's child. 2


THE stench of the bed of a drained marsh ; of the raw vapours of sulphur springs ; the putrid reek of a sea-water fishpond ; of a stale he-goat in the midst of his amours ; of the military boot of a fagged- out veteran ; of a fleece twice dyed with purple ; 3 of the breath of fasting Sabbatarian Jews ; of the sighs of depressed defendants ; of filthy Leda's lamp as it expires ; of ointment made of dregs of Sabine oil ; of a wolf in flight ; of a viper's lair all these stenches would I prefer to your stench, Bassa !

A GOOD man and poor, true in tongue and heart, what is your aim, Fabianus, you who come to Rome ? You who cannot endure to be counted a pandar, or boon-companion, or with ominous tone to cite

2 Who died in infancy, and is assumed to have been deified.

  • The purple dye gave garments an unpleasant smell : cf.

l. xlix. 32 ; ix. Ixiii.

2 33


nee potes uxorem cari corrumpere amici 5

nee potes algentes arrigere ad vetulas,

vendere nee vanos circum Palatia fumos, plaudere nee Cano plaudere nee Glaphyro :

unde miser vives ? " Homo certus, fidus amicus " hoc nihil est : numquam sic Philomelus eris. 10


CREDI virgine castior pudica et frontis tenerae cupis videri, cum sis inprobior, Malisiane, quam qui compositos metro Tibulli in Stellae recitat domo libellos.


CUR, here quod dederas, hodie, puer Hylle, negasti, durus tarn subito qui modo mitis eras ?

sed iam causaris barbamque annosque pilosque. o nox quam longa es quae facis una senem !

quid nos derides ? here qui puer, Hylle, fuisti, 5

die nobis, hodie qua ratioiie vir es ?


PRIMA salutantes atque altera conterit l hora ;

exercet raucos tertia causidicos ; in quintam varios extendit Roma labores ;

sexta quies lassis ; septima finis erit ; 1 continet B.

1 To make baseless promises of favour by the Emperor. Proverbial, cf. Erasm. Adag. *.v.


BOOK IV. v-vm

trembling defendants, nor endure to seduce the wife of a dear friend, or to lecher after bloodless old women, or to sell about the palace empty smoke, 1 or to applaud Canus, or applaud Glaphyrus, 2 whence, wretched man, will you get your living ? "A man trustworthy, a loyal friend " That is nothing : never in this way will you be a Philomelus. 8


You desire to be thought chaster than a pure virgin, and to win the semblance of bashful mien. Yet you are more dissolute, Malisianus, than the man who recites in Stella's house poems composed in the metre of Tibullus.


WHY, Hyllus boy, have you denied to-day what yesterday you gave, hard so suddenly who erewhile were gentle ? But now you plead your beard, and your years, and hair: O night, how long thou art, one night that makest an old man ! Why do you laugh at me ? Hyllus, who yesterday were boy, tell me how you are man to-day ?


THE first and the second hour wearies clients at the levee, the third hour sets hoarse advocates to work ; till the end of the fifth Rome extends her various tastes ; the sixth gives rest to the tired ; 4

2 A flute-player and a musician respectively.

3 A rich freedman of evil repute : cf. in. xxxi.

4 The siesta.

2 35


sufficit in nonam nitidis octava palaestris ; 5

imperat extructos frangere nona toros ; hora libellorum decuma est, Eupheme, meorum,

temperat ambrosias cum tua cura dapes et bonus aetherio laxatur nectare Caesar

ingentique tenet pocula parca manu. 10

tune admitte iocos : gressu timet ire licenti

ad matutinum nostra Thalia lovem.


SOTAE filia clinici, Labulla, deserto sequeris Clytum marito et donas et amas : eeis durwrtos-


DUM novus est nee adhuc rasa mihi fronte libellus,

pagina dum tangi non bene sicca timet, i puer et caro perfer leve munus amico

qui meruit nugas primus habere meas. curre, sed instructus : comitetur Punica librum 5

spongea : muneribus convenit ilia meis. non possunt nostros multae, Faustine, liturae

emendare iocos : una litura potest.


DUM nimium vano tumefactus nomine gaudes et Saturninum te pudet esse, miser,

1 This and the following epithets are meant to suggest Domitian's divinity.

2 According to Suetonius (Dom. xx.) Domitian was tem- perate in his drinking.



the seventh will be the end. The eighth to the ninth suffices for the oiled wrestlers ; the ninth bids us crush the piled couches. The tenth hour is the hour for my poems, Euphemus, when your care sets out the ambrosial * feast, and kindly Caesar soothes his heart with heavenly nectar, and holds in mighty hand his frugal 2 cup. Then admit my jests : my Thalia fears with unlicensed step to approach a morning Jove.


DAUGHTER of Doctor Sotas, Labulla, you leave your spouse and depart with Clitus ; you give him gifts and your love. You don't act like Sotas' daughter. 3


WHILE my book is new and with its edges not yet smoothed, while the page, not well dry, fears the touch, go, boy, and bear a trifling present to a dear friend who has deserved first to possess my trifles. Run, but equipped : let a Punic sponge attend the book ; that sorts with the gifts I give. Many corrections, Faustinus, cannot emend my jokes : one wiping-out can ! 4


WHILE, swollen with pride, you rejoiced o'ermuch in an empty name, 5 and were ashamed, wretched man, to be Saturninus, you awoke such impious

' The pun is untranslatable. The Greek may mean as in the text, or "you act profligately." * III. c.

5 Antonius, the same as the Triumvir's. His other name was Saturninus.



impia Parrhasia movisti bella sub ursa,

qualia qui Phariae coniugis arma tulit. excideratne adeo fatum tibi nominis huius, 5

obruit Actiaci quod gravis ira freti ? an tibi promisit Rhenus quod non dedit illi

Nilus, et Arctois plus licuisset aquis ? ille etiam nostris Antonius occidit armis,

qui tibi conlatus, perfide, Caesar erat. 10


NULLI, Thai, negas ; sed si te non pudet istud, hoc saltern pudeat, Thai, negare nihil.


CLAUDIA, Rufe, meo nubit Peregrina Pudenti :

macte esto taedis, O Hymenaee, tuis. tarn bene rara suo miscentur cinnama nardo,

Massica Theseis tarn bene vina favis ; nee melius teneris iunguntur vitibus ulmi, 5

nee plus lotos aquas, litora myrtus amat. Candida perpetuo reside, Concordia, lecto,

tamque pari semper sit Venus aequa iugo : diligat ilia senem quondam, sed et ipsa marito

turn quoque, cum fuerit, non videatur anus. 10


SILI, Castalidum decus sororum, qui periuria barbari furoris

1 He revolted in upper Germany at the end of A.D. 88. 238

BOOK IV. xi-xiv

war under the Northern Bear 1 as he awoke who wore his Pharian consort's arms. 2 Had you so forgotten the doom of this name, which the heavy wrath of Actium's strait o'erwhelmed? Or did Rhine promise you what Nile gave not to him, and should larger rights have been given to Polar seas ? Even that famous Antony fell beneath our arms, and he, traitor, compared with you, was a Caesar.


No lover, Thais, you deny. But if you are not ashamed of that, at least be ashamed of this, Thais of denying nothing.


CLAUDIA PEREGRINA weds, Rufus, with my own Pudens ; a blessing, O Hymenaeus, be upon thy torches ! So well does rare cinnamon blend with its own nard ; so well Massic wine with Attic combs. Not closer are elms linked to tender vines, nor greater love hath the lotos for the waters, the myrtle for the shore. Fair Concord, rest thou unbroken on that bed, and may Venus be ever kindly to a bond so equal knit ! May the wife love her husband when anon he is grey, and she herself, even when she is old, seem not so to her spouse !


Siuus, 3 the pride of the Castalian Sisters, who with your mighty tones crush the perjuries of bar-

2 Cleopatra. Antony and Cleopatra were defeated by Octavian (Augustus) at the battle of Actium, B.C. 31. 8 The poet of the Punic Wars.



ingenti premis ore perfidosque

astus Hannibalis levisque Poenos

magnis cedere cogis Africanis, 5

paulum seposita severitate,

dum blanda vagus alea December

incertis sonat hinc et hinc fritillis

et ludit tropa l nequiore talo,

nostris otia commoda Camenis, 10

nee torva lege fronte sed remissa

lascivis rnadidos iocis libellos.

sic forsan tener ausus est Catullus

magno mittere Passerem Maroni.


MILLE tibi nummos hesterna luce roganti in sex aut septem, Caeciliane, dies

" Non habeo " dixi : sed tu, causatus amici adventum, lancem paucaque vasa rogas.

stultus es ? an stultum me credis, amice ? negavi mille tibi nummos, milia quinque dabo ?


PRIVIGNUM non esse tuae te, Galle, novercae rumor erat, coniunx dum fuit ilia patris.

non tamen hoc poterat vivo genitore probari. iam nusquam pater est, Galle, noverca domi est.

magnus ab infernis revocetur Tullius umbris 5

et te defendat Regulus ipse licet,

1 tropa Buddaeus, popa 0, rota y.

1 Tropa was the game of pitching knuckle-bones into a 240

BOOK IV. xiv-xvi

baric frenzy, and compel Hannibal's false wiles and the faithless Carthaginians to yield to the great Africani, awhile lay aside your mien austere, what time December, idling amid alluring hazard, rings on this side and on that with risky dice-box, and tropa 1 sports with the licentious knuckle-bone. Lend thy leisure to my Muse, and read with a smooth, not frowning brow, poems steeped in wanton quips. So belike tender Catullus ventured to send his Sparrow 2 to great Maro.


WHEN you asked me yesterday to lend you a thousand sesterces on six or seven days' credit, Caecilianus, " I haven't got them," I said ; yet you, on the pretext of a friend's arrival, ask me for a dish and a few vases. 3 Are you a fool, or do you think me a fool, my friend? I refused you a thousand sesterces ; shall I give five thousand ?


STEPSON to your stepmother, Gallus, rumour had it you never were while she was your father's wife. But this could not be proved while your progenitor lived. Now your father lives nowhere, Gallus, your stepmother lives with you. Though great Tully were recalled from the nether shades, and Regulus himself

hole, or the mouth of a jar (Pers. iii. 50), probably played with a good deal of disorder and cheating.

4 Cat. ii. and iii. 3 Evidently of silver.

241 VOL. I. R


non potes absolvi : nam quae non desinit esse post patrem, numquam, Galle, noverca fuit.


FACERE in Lyciscam, Paule, me iubes versus, quibus ilia lectis rubeat et sit irata. o Paule, malus es : irrumare vis solus.


QUA vicina pluit Vipsanis porta columnis

et madet adsiduo lubricus imbre lapis, in iugulum pueri, qui roscida tecta subibat,

decidit hiberno praegravis unda gelu ; cumque peregisset miseri crudelia fata, 5

tabuit in calido volnere mucro tener. quid non saeva sibi voluit Fortuna licere ?

aut ubi non mors est, si iugulatis, aquae ?


HANC tibi Sequanicae pinguem textricis alumnam, quae Lacedaemonium barbara nomen habet,

sordida sed gelido non aspernanda Decembri dona, peregrinam mittimus endromida,

seu lentuin ceroma teris tepid um ve trigona 5

sive harpasta manu pulverulenta rapis,

1 Some archway in the region of the Campus Agrippae, over which passed an aqueduct, perhaps the Aqua Virgo : cf. ill. xlvii.


BOOK IV. xvi-xix

were to defend you, you cannot be acquitted; for she who has not ceased to be such after your father's death, never, Gallus, was a stepmother.


You bid me, Paul us, write against Lycisca verses at which she would blush and be enraged. O Paulus, you are a rogue ! You want to keep her to yourself !


WHERE the gate 1 drips near the Vipsanian Columns, and the slippery stone is wet with the constant shower, on a boy's throat, as he passed under that dewy roof, fell water weighted with winter frost; and when it had wrought the unhappy victim's cruel death, the frail dagger melted on the warm gash. What stretch of power has not ruthless Fortune willed for herself? Or where is not death, if ye, O Waters, are cut-throats ? 2


THIS shaggy nursling of a weaver on the Seine, a barbarian garb that has a Spartan name, a thing uncouth, but not to be despised in cold December we send you as a gift, a foreign endromis, whether you rub the sticky ointment, 3 or catch oft the warm- ing hand-ball, or snatch the scrimmage-ball amid the dust, or bandy to and fro the feather weight of the

2 cf. a Greek epigram on a similar subject : Anth. Pal. ix. 56.

3 Or, perhaps, "whether you tread the lists of the oiled wrestler": cf. vn. xxxii. 7.

243 R 2


plumea seu laxi partiris pondera follis sive levem cursu vincere quaeris Athan :

ne niadidos intret penetrabile frigus in artus

neve gravis subita te premat Iris aqua. 10

ridebis ventos hoc munere tectus et imbris nee sic in Tyria sindone tutus l eris.


DIGIT se vetulam, cum sit Caerellia pupa :

pupam se dicit Gellia, cum sit anus, ferre nee hanc possis, possis, Colline, nee illam :

altera ridicula est, altera putidula.


NULLOS esse deos, inane caelum adfirmat Segius : probatque, quod se factum, dum negat haec, videt beatum.


PitiMos passa toros et adhuc placanda marito

merserat in nitidos se Cleopatra lacus, dum fugit amplexus. sed prodidit unda latentem ;

lucebat, totis cum tegeretur aquis. condita sic puro numerantur lilia vitro, 5

sic prohibet tenues gemma latere rosas. insilui mersusque vadis luctantia carpsi

basia : perspicuae plus vetuistis aquae.

1 cidt-ua y.

1 Whether you wrestle or play at ball. Three balls are mentioned. The trigon was a small hand-ball bandied by players standing in a triangle ; the harpastum a similar ball


BOOK IV. xix-xxn

flaccid bladder- ball, 1 or strive to outrun in the race the light-footed Athas ; that searching cold may not pass into your moist limbs, or Iris 2 overwhelm you with a sudden shower. You will laugh at winds and rains, clad in this gift. In Tyrian muslin you will not be so secure.


CAERELLIA calls herself an old woman, although she is a girl ; Gellia calls hei'self a girl, although she is a crone. One cannot put up with either this woman, Collinus, or that : one is ridiculous, the other disgusting.


"THERE are no gods: heaven is empty," Segius asserts ; and he proves it, for in the midst of these denials he sees himself made rich !


NEW to the marriage-bed, and yet unreconciled to her husband, Cleopatra had plunged into the gleaming pool, seeking to escape embrace. But the wave betrayed the lurking dame ; brightly she showed, though covered by the o'erlapping water. So, shut in pellucid glass, lilies may be counted, so crystal forbids tender roses to lurk hidden. 3 I leapt in, and, plunged in the waters, plucked reluctant kisses : ye, O transparent waters, forbad aught beyond !

scrambled for by two sets of players : it was a dusty game. Thefollis was a large ball filled with air and struck with the hand. See generally xiv. xlv. to xlviii. 2 The goddess of the rainbow. 3 cf. vm. xiv. 3.




DUM tu lenta nimis diuque quaeris

quis primus tibi quisve sit secundus,

Graium quos : epigramma conparavit,

palmam Callimachus, Thalia, de se

facuiido dedit ipse Brutiano. 5

qui si Cecropio satur lepore

Romanae sale luserit Minervae,

illi me facias, precor, secundum.


OMNES quas habuit, Fabiane, Lycoris arnicas extulit. uxori fiat arnica meae.


AEMULA Baianis Altini litora villis

et Phaethontei conscia silva rogi, quaeque Antenoreo Dryadum pulcherrima Fauno

nupsit ad Euganeos Sola puella lacus, et tu Ledaeo felix Aquileia Timavo, 5

hie ubi septenas Cyllarus hausit aquas : vos eritis nostrae requies portusque senectae,

si iuris fuerint otia nostra sui.


QUOD te mane domi toto non vidimus anno, vis dicam quantum, Postume, perdiderim ? 1 Graium quos Koestlin, gratumque codd.

1 i.e Callimachus and Brutianus.

_ 2 A Greek poet of Alexandria of the third century B.C. 3 The scene is laid in Venetia. Sola is the nymph (here


BOOK IV. xxm-xxvi


WHILE you were considering, Thalia, very carefully and long, which in your judgment was first, and which second, of the pair whom Greek epigTam has matched in rivalry, 1 Callimachus 2 of his own accord resigned the palm to eloquent Brutianus. Should he, cloyed with Attic wit, trifle with the Roman epigram, make me, I pray, second to him.


ALL the friends she had, Fabianus, Lycoris has buried. May she become a friend to my wife !


ALTINUM'S shores 3 that vie with Baiae's villas, and the wood that saw the pyre of Phaethon, and the maid Sola, fairest of Dryads, who wed with Paduan Faunus by the Euganean meres, and thou, Aquileia, blest with Timavus 4 honoured by Leda's sons, where Cyllarus quaffed its sevenfold waters ye shall be the refuge and harbour of my old age, if I be free to choose the place of my repose.


BECAUSE I have not seen you at home in the morning for a whole year, would you have me tell

put for the lake) of a lake in the Eugauean hills (La Solana).

4 A river with seven, or, according to Virgil (Aen. i. 245), nine mouths, probably the river down which (cf. Plin. N. H. iii. 22) the Argo floated to the Adriatic. Cyllarus was the horse of Castor, one of the Argonauts : cf. viii. xxi. 5.



tricenos, puto, bis, vicenos ter, puto, nuramos. ignosces : togulam, Postume, pluris emo.


SAEPE meos laudare soles, Auguste, libellos.

invidus ecce negat : num minus ergo soles ? quid quod honorato non sola voce dedisti,

non alius poterat quae dare dona mihi ? ecce iterum nigros conrodit lividus ungues.

da, Caesar, tanto tu magis, ut doleat.


DONASTI tenero, Chloe, Luperco Hispanas Tyriasque coccinasque et lotam tepido togam Galaeso, Indos sardonychas, Scythas zmaragdos, et centum dominos novae monetae, et quidquid petit usque et usque donas, vae glabraria, vae tibi misella : nudam te statuet tuus Lupercus.


OBSTAT, care Pudens, nostris sua turba libellis lectoremque frequens lassat et implet opus.

rara iuvant : primis sic maior gratia pomis, hibernae pretium sic meruere rosae ;


BOOK IV. xxvi-xxix

you, Posturuus, how much I have lost ? Twice thirty sesterces, perhaps, perhaps thrice twenty. Your pardon ! On a poor toga, Postumus, I spend more !


OFT are you wont to praise my poems, Augustus. See, a jealous fellow denies it ; are you wont to praise them the less for that? Have you not besides given me, honoured not in words alone, gifts that none other could give ? See, the jealous fellow again gnaws his filthy nails ! Give me, Caesar, all the more, that he may writhe !


You have given, Chloe, to young Lupercus cloaks of Spanish wool dyed with Tyrian purple and with scarlet, and a toga dipt in the mild Galesus, Indian sardonyxes, Scythian emeralds, and a hundred sove- reigns of new-minted money, and whatever he asks you give over and over again. Woe to you, enamoured of smooth-skinned boys, woe to you, wretched woman ! Your Lupercus l will leave you naked.


DEAR Pudens, their very number hampers my poems, and volume after volume wearies and sates the reader. Rare things please one ; so greater charm belongs to early apples, so winter roses win value ;

1 Perhaps with a reference to the Luperci, priests of Pan, who ran naked through Rome on the festival of the Luper- calia. " Yon will be bare as Lupercus."



sic spoliatricem commendat fastus amicam, 5

ianua nee iuvenem semper aperta tenet.

saepius in libro numeratur Persius uno quam levis in tota Marsus Amazonide.

tu quoque, de nostris releges quemcumque libellis, esse puta solum : sic tibi pluris erit. 10


BAIANO procul a lacu, monemus,

piscator, fuge, ne nocens recedas.

sacris piscibus hae natantur undae,

qui norunt dominum manumque lambunt

illam, qua nihil est in orbe maius. 5

quid quod nomen habent et ad magistri

vocem quisque sui venit citatus ?

hoc quondam Libys impius profundo,

dum praedam calamo tremente ducit,

raptis luminibus repente caecus 10

captum non potuit videre plscem,

et nunc sacrilegos perosus hamos

Baianos sedet ad lacus rogator.

at tu, dum potes, innocens recede

iactis simplicibus cibis in undas, 15

et pisces venerare delicatos.


QUOD cupis in nostris dicique legique libellis

et nonnullus honos creditur iste tibi, ne valeam si non res est gratissima nobis

et volo te chartis inseruisse meis.

1 An epigrammatic poet : cf. vn. xcix. 7 ; vni. Iv. 24. He seems to have also written an epic on the Amazons.


BOOK IV. xxtx-xxxi

so her pride commends a mistress who pillages you, and a door always open holds fast no lover. Oftener Persius wins credit in a single book than trivial Marsus x in his whole Amazonid. Do you, too, what- ever of my books you read again, think that it is the only one : so 'twill be to you of fuller worth.


FROM Baiae's lake, fisherman, I warn thee, fly afar, lest with guilt thou depart ! These waters swim with hallowed fish, that know their lord, 2 and fondle that hand greater than anything on earth. Aye, do they not bear his name, and at its master's voice does not each when summoned come ? While aforetime an impious Libyan was drawing up out of this deep his prey with tremulous line, his eyes were snatched from him, and in sudden blindness he could not see the taken fish, and now, loathing his sacrilegious hooks, he sits by Baiae's lake a beggar. But do thou, while thou canst, depart yet innocent when thou hast cast into the water guileless bait, and revere these dainty fish.


SEEING that you wish to be mentioned and read of in my poems, and that honour you deem to be some- thing, may I perish, but the idea is one most pleasant to me ; and I wish to include you in my writings.

2 The Emperor.



sed tu nomen habes averse fonte sororum 5

inpositum, mater quod tibi dura dedit ;

quod nee Melpomene, quod nee Polyhymnia possit nee pia cum Phoebo dicere Calliope.

ergo aliquod gratum Musis tibi nomen adopta :

non semper belle dicitur "Hippodame." 10


ET latet et lucet Phaethontide condita gutta, ut videatur apis nectare clusa suo.

dignum tantorum pretium tulit ilia laborum : credibile est ipsam sic voluisse mori.


PLENA laboratis habeas cum scrinia libris,

emittis quare, Sosibiane, nihil ? "Edent heredes" inquis "mea carmina." quando ?

tempus erat iam te, Sosibiane, legi.


SORDIDA cum tibi sit, verum tamen, Attale, dicit, quisquis te niveam dicit habere togam.

1 A fanciful reproduction of some Latin name incapable of being brought into M.'s metre, whether elegiac, lyric, or heroic.

2 Similar epigrams are iv. lix. and vi. xv. See on the subject generally, Tac. Germ. xlv. and Plin. N.H.ujmvu. 31.


BOOK IV. xxxi-xxxiv

But you have a name, given you by your hard-hearted mother, which was laid upon you when the sister Muses' fountain was unkind, and which neither Melpomene nor Polyhymnia could utter, nor kindly Calliope, with Phoebus' aid. So assume for yourself some name the Muses like : it is not pretty to be always saying " Hippodame." l


IN an amber-drop the bee lies hid and lightens, so that it seems to be shut in its native sweets. Worthy reward for all its toils it has won ; methinks itself would have wished so to die. 2

ALTHOUGH you possess bookcases crammed with books, arduously compiled, why, Sosibianus, do you send forth nothing? " My heirs," you say, "will publish my lays." When, oh, when ? 'Tis already high time, Sosibianus, you should be read. 3


ALTHOUGH your toga is dirty, Attalus, yet he says truly who says that you have a snowy 4 toga.

3 There is an intentional ambiguity here. " You should have by now given us a chance of reading you," or " By now you should have been dead/'

4 A threadbare toga seems to have been called nivea, as giving no warmth : c/. ix. xlix. 8.




FRONTIBUS adversis molles concurrere dammas

vidimus et fati sorte iacere pan. spectavere canes praedam, stupuitque superbus

venator cultro nil superesse suo. unde leves animi tanto caluere furore ? o

sic pugnant tauri, sic cecidere viri.


CANA est barba tibi, nigra est coma : tinguere barbam non potes (haec causa est) et potes, Ole, comam.


" CENTUM Coranus et ducenta Mancinus,

trecenta debet Titius, hoc bis Albinus,

decies Sabinus alterumque Serranus ;

ex insulis fundisque triciens soldum,

ex pecore redeunt ter ducena Parmensi " : 5

totis diebus, Afer, hoc mihi narras

et teneo melius ista quam meum nomen.

numeres oportet aliquid, ut pati possim :

cotidianam refice nauseam nummis :

audire gratis, Afer, ista non possum. 10


GALLA, nega : satiatur amor nisi gaudia torquent : sed noli nimium, Galla, negare diu.

1 cf. iv. Ixxiv. 254

BOOK IV. xxxv-xxxvm


WITH opposing brows we have seen gentle does meet in fight, and lie stricken by an equal fate of death. Dogs have gazed upon the quarry, and the proud huntsman has stood amazed that no task re- mained for his knife. Whence have gentle spirits drawn such furious heat ? So battle bulls, so have fallen men. 1


WHITE is your beard, black is your hair ; dye your beard you cannot this is the reason but you can your hair, Olus. 2


"A HUNDRED thousand sesterces Coranus owes me, and two hundred Mancinus, three hundred Titius, twice as much Albinus, a million Sabinus, and another million Serranus ; from my flats and farms come in a clear three millions, from my flocks at Parma is a return of six hundred thousand." Every and all day, Afer, you prate of this to me, and I remember it all better than my own name. You must count out something to make me endure this ; cure by cash my daily nausea ; I can't hear that tale, Afer, for nothing.


REFUSE me, Galla; love cloys if its pleasures torture not : but refuse not, Galla, too long.

2 Perhaps the meaning is 0. is suffering from some disease of the chin (cf. Plin. N.H. xxvi. 2) preventing the use of dye : cf. i. Ixxvii. 5.




ARQENTI genus omne conparasti,

et solus veteres Myronos artes,

solus Praxitelus manum Scopaeque,

solas Phidiaci toreuma caeli,

solus Mentoreos habes labores. ;">

nee desunt tibi vera Grattiana

nee quae Callaico linuntur auro

nee mensis anaglypta de paternis.

argentum tamen inter omne miror

quare non habeas, Charine, purum. 10


ATRIA Pisonum stabant cum stemmate toto

et docti Senecae ter numeranda domus, praetulimus tantis solum te, Postume, regnis ;

pauper eras et eques sed mihi consul eras, tecum ter denas numeravi, Postume, brumas : 5

communis nobis lectus et unus erat. iam donare potes, iam perdere, plenus honorum,

largus opum : expecto, Postume, quid facias, nil facis et serum est alium mihi quaerere regem.

hoc, Fortuna, placet ? "Postumus inposuit." 10


QUID recitaturus circumdas vellera collo? conveniunt nostris auribus ista magis.

1 i.e. Spanish. The Gallaeci or Callaici inhabited the modern Galicia where gold was found : cf. x. xvi. 3 ; xrv. xcv. 1.

2 A play on the double meaning of "unadorned " and " undenled by your lips": cf. I. Ixxvii. 6.

BOOK IV. xxx.x-xu


You have collected every kind of silver plate, and you alone possess Myron's antique works of art, you alone the handiwork of Praxiteles and of Scopas, you alone the chased product of Phidias' graving chisel, you alone the results of Mentor's toil. Nor do you lack genuine works of Grattius, or dishes overlaid with Gallician l gold, or pieces in relief from an- cestral tables. Nevertheless I wonder why, amid all your silver plate, you, Charinus, have nothing chaste. 2


WHEN the Pisos' hall stood with all its ances- try, 3 and learned Seneca's house illustrious for its triple names, 4 you alone, Postumus, I chose before patronage so great ; poor were you, and a knight, but to me you were a consul. With you I summed, Postumus, twice ten winters ; common to us both was one couch. Now you can make gifts, now squander, full as you are of honours, copious in wealth ; I await, Postumus, to see what you will do. You do nothing, and 'tis too late for me to seek another patron. Does this, Fortune, please you ? "Postumus is a fraud." 5


WHY, when about to recite, do you put a muffler round your neck ? That is more suitable to our ears !

3 The house had declined since C. Calpurnius Piso's con- spiracy against Nero, A.D. 65.

4 Probably M. means Seneca, the philosopher and tutor of Nero, his brother Gallio, and Annaeus Pomponius Mela, the writer on geography.

6 This is Fortune's reply. P. has deceived her.

257 VOL. I. S



Si quis forte mihi possit praestare roganti,

audi, quern puerum, Flacce, rogare velim. Niliacis primum puer hie nascatur in oris :

nequitias tellus scit dare nulla magis. sit nive candidior : namque in Mareotide fusca 5

pulchrior est quanto rarior iste color, lumina sideribus certent mollesque flagellent

colla comae : tortas non amo, Flacce, comas, frons brevis atque modus leviter sit naribus uncis,

Paestanis rubeant aemula labra rosis. 10

saepe et nolentem cogat nolitque volentem,

liberior domino saepe sit ille suo ; et timeat pueros, excludat saepe puellas ;

vir reliquis, uni sit puer ille mihi. " lam scio, nee fallis : nam me quoque iudice verum est. 15

talis erat " dices " noster Amazonicus."


NON dixi, Coracine, te cinaedum :

non sum tarn temerarius nee audax

nee mendacia qui loquar libenter.

si dixi, Coracine, te cinaedum,

iratam mihi Pontiae lagonam, 5

iratum calicem mihi Metili :

iuro per Syrios tibi tumores,

iuro per Berecyntios furores.

quid dixi tamen ? hoc leve et pusillum,

quod notum est, quod et ipse non negabis : 10

dixi te, Coracine, cunnilingum.

1 Pontia (cf. n. xxxiv.) and Metilius were poisoners. 258



IF any could by chance guarantee me the boon at my asking, hear, Flaccus, what kind of boy I would wish to ask for. First of all, let this boy be born on the shores of the Nile ; no country knows better how to beget roguish ways. Let him be fairer than snow ; for in swarthy Mareotis that hue is more beautiful by its rarity. Let his eyes vie with stars, and his soft locks tumble over his neck ; I like not, Flaccus, braided locks. Let his brow be low and his nose slightly aquiline, let his lips rival the red of Paestan roses. And let him oft compel endearments when I am loth, and refuse them when I am fain ; may he oft be more free than his lord ! And let him shrink from boys, oft exclude girls ; man to all else, to me alone let him be a boy. " Now I know him ; you do not deceive me ; 'tis in my judgment true. Such was," you will say, "my Amazonicus."


1 DID not call you, Coracinus, an unnatural lecher ; I am not so rash or daring, nor one willingly to tell lies. If I called you, Coracinus, an unnatural lecher, may I feel the wrath of Pontia's flagon, the wrath of Metilius' cup ! ] I swear to you by the swellings of Syrian votaries, 2 I swear by Berecynthian frenzies. Yet what did I say? This light and in- significant thing a known fact which you yourself, too, will not deny: I said that you, Coracinus, were, as regards women, " evil-tongued."

2 Perhaps a reference to the swellings with which Isis punished misdeeds : cf. Deos inflantes corpora, Pers. v. 187.

2 59 S 2



Hie est pampiiieis viridis modo Vesbius umbris ;

presserat hie madidos nobilis uva lacus ; haec iuga, quam Nysae colles plus Bacchus amavit ;

hoc nuper Satyri monte dedere chores ; haec Veneris sedes, Lacedaemone gratior illi ; 5

hie locus Herculeo numine clarus erat. cuncta iacent flammis et tristi mersa favilla :

nee superi vellent hoc licuisse sibi.


HAEC tibi pro nato plena dat laetus acerra,

Phoebe, Palatinus muiiera Parthenius, ut qui prima novo signal quinquennia lustro,

impleat innumeras Burrus Olympiadas. fac rata vota patris : sic te tua diligat arbor, 5

gaudeat et certa virginitate soror, perpetuo sic flore mices, sic denique 11011 sint

tarn longae Bromio quam tibi, Phoebe, comae.


SATURNALIA divitem Sabellum

fecerunt : merito tumet Sabellus,

nee quemquam putat esse praedicatque

inter causidicos 'beatiorem.

hos fastus animosque dat Sabello 5

farris semodius fabaeque fresae,

1 Mount Vesuvius, which erupted A.U. 79, and destroyed Pompeii and Herculaneum.

2 Herculaneum. 3 Domitian's secretary : rf. xi. i.




THIS is Vesbius, 1 green yesterday with viny shades ; here had the noble grape loaded the dripping vats ; these ridges Bacchus loved more than the hills of Nysa; on this mount of late the Satyrs set afoot their dances ; this was the haunt of Venus, more pleasant to her than Lacedaemon ; this spot was made glorious by the name of Hercules. 2 All lies drowned in fire and melancholy ash ; even the High Gods could have wished this had not been permitted them.


THESE offerings to thee for his son from flowing censer, O Phoebus, Palatine Parthenius 3 gives with joy, that Burrus, who crowns his first five years with a new lustrum, may complete countless Olympiads. 4 Make good a father's vows ! So may thy laurel love thee, and thy sister 5 rejoice in her assured virginity, so mayst thou shine in endless youth, so too may the locks of Bromius 6 be not longer, Phoebus, than are thine !


THE Saturnalia have made Sabellus rich: with reason Sabellus is puffed up ; and there is no man, he thinks and declares, among the lawyers 7 more fortunate. This pride and conceit is inspired in Sabellus by half a peck of spelt and crushed beans,

4 The lustrum was five years, the Olympiad four. M. treats them as the same. 5 Diana. 6 Bacchus.

7 Who received presents from their clients at the Satur- nalia : cf. xii. Ixxii.



et turis piperisqtie tres selibrae,

et Lucanica ventre cum Falisco,

et nigri Syra defruti lagona,

et ficus Libyca gelata testa 10

cum bulbis cocleisque caseoque.

Piceno quoque venit a cliente

parcae cistula non capax olivae,

et crasso figuli polita caelo

septenaria synthesis Sagunti, 15

Hispanae luteum rotae toreuma,

et lato variata mappa clavo.

Saturnalia fructuosiora

annis non habuit decem Sabellus.


ENCAUSTUS Phaethon tabula tibi pictus in hac est. quid tibi vis, dipyrum qui Phaethonta facis ?


PERCIDI gaudes, percisus, Papyle, ploras.

cur, quae vis fieri, Papyle, facta doles? paenitet obscenae pruriginis ? an rnagis illud

fles, quod percidi, Papyle, desieris ?


NESCIT, crede inihi, quid sint epigrammata, Flacce,

qui tantum lusus ista iocosque vocat. ille magis ludit qui scribit prandia saevi

Tereos aut cenam, crude Thyesta, tuam,

1 Sarcastic, relief work being appropriate to gold or silver, not to clay : cf. vm. vi. and xiv. cviii. Saguntine cups were of clay : cf. xiv. cviii.



and three half-pounds of frankincense and pepper, and Lucanian sausages together with a Faliscan paunch, and a Syrian flagon of black boiled must, and fig-jelly in a Libyan jar, together with bulbs, snails, and cheese. There arrived also from a Picenian client a small box scarcely large enough for a few olives, and a set of seven cups smoothed at Saguntum by the potter's clumsy chisel (the embossed l work in clay of the Spanish wheel), and a napkin diversified with a broad 2 stripe. Saturnalia more fruitful these ten years Sabellus has not enjoyed. 3


ON this tablet you have an encaustic painting of Phaethon. What is your object in getting Phaethon* burnt twice ?


Tu godi d'essere immembrato ; e dopo d'esserlo stato, tu, O Papilo, piangi. Perche, O Papilo, ti lagni tu di ci6 che vuoi che ti si faccia ? Ti penti tu dell'osceno prurito, ovvero piangi tu, Papilo, per desiderarlo maggiormente ?


HE does not know, believe me, what epigrams are, Flaccus, who styles them only frivolities and quips. He is more frivolous who writes of the meal of savage Tereus, or of thy banquet, dyspeptic Thyestes,

2 Which was the distinction only of a senator, which S. was not.

3 Ironical, the gifts being poor ones. * cf. IV. xxv.



aut puero liquidas aptantem Daedalon alas, 5

pascentem Siculas aut Polyphemon ovis.

a nostris procul est omnis vesica libellis, Musa nee insano syrmate iiostra tumet.

"Ilia tamen laudant omnes, mirantur, adorant." confiteor : laudant ilia sed ista legunt. 10


QUID me, Thai, senem subinde dicis? nemo est, Thai, senex ad irrumandum.


CUM tibi non essent sex milia, Caeciliane,

ingenti late vectus es hexaphoro : postquam bis decies tribuit dea caeca sinumque

ruperunt nummi, factus es, ecce, pedes. quid tibi pro meritis et tantis laudibus optem ? 5

di reddant sellam, Caeciliane, tibi.


GESTAHI iunctis nisi desinis, Hedyle, capris, qui modo ficus eras, iam caprificus eris.


HUNC, quern saepe vides intra penetralia nostrae Pallados et templi limina, Cosme, novi

1 The epigram is possibly an attack on the poet Statius, whom M. never mentions. * cf. i. xcix.

3 Haemorrhoids : cf. I. Ixv. ; vn. Ixxi. The caprificus was a wild fig. M.'s pun is a cumbrous one.



or of Daedalus fitting to his son melting wings, or of Polyphemus pasturing Sicilian sheep. Far from poems of mine is all turgescence, nor does my Muse swell with frenzied tragic train. " Yet all men praise those tragedies, admire, worship them." I grant it : those they praise, but they read the others. 1


WHY, Thais, do you constantly call me old ? No one, Thais, is too old for some things.


WHEN you did not possess six thousand, Caecili- anus, you were carried all over the town in a huge litter and six ; now the blind goddess has bestowed on you two millions, and your moneys have burst through your purse, see, you go on foot ! What should I wish you for merits and excellencies so great ? May the gods restore you your litter, Caecilianus ! 2


UNLESS you leave off, Hedylus, being drawn by a yoke of goats, you, who just now were adorned with figs, 3 will soon be a goat-fig.


THIS fellow, whom you often see in the inner pre- cincts of our patron Pallas 4 and on the threshold, Cosmus, of the New Temple, 5 a dotard with staff

4 The Temple of Minerva, lately founded by Domitian in honour of the Flavian family : cf. ix. i. 8.

8 The Templum divi Augusti on the Palatine facing the Capitol, or the Temple of Minerva already mentioned.



cum baculo peraque senem, cut cana putrisque stat coma et in pectus sordida barba cadit,

cerea quern nudi tegit uxor abolla grabati, 5

cui dat latratos obvia turba cibos,

esse putas Cynicum deceptus imagine ficta.

non est hie Cynicus, Cosme : quid ergo ? canis.


O cui Tarpeias licuit contingere quercus

et meritas prima cingere fronde comas, si sapis, utaris totis, Colline, diebus

extremumque tibi semper adesse putes. lanificas nulli tres exorare puellas 5

contigit : observant quern statuere diem, divitior Crispo, Thrasea constantior ipso,

lautior et nitido sis Meliore licet, nil adicit penso Lachesis fusosque sororum

explicat et semper de tribus una secat. 10


Luci, gloria temporum tuorum,

qui Caium veterem Tagumque nostrum

Arpis cedere non sinis disertis,

Argivas generatus inter urbes

Thebas carmine cantet aut Mycenas, 5

aut claram Rhodon aut libidinosae

Ledaeas Lacedaemonos palaestras.

1 " Cynic" was derived from KVUV (dog).

2 See iv. i. 6. The Fates.

4 Either Passienus Crispus, consul A.D. 42, Nero's step- father, or Vibius Crispus, the delator : Tac. Hist. ii. 10 ; Juv. iv. 85.



and wallet, whose hair stands up white and shaggy, and whose filthy beard falls over his breast, whom a threadbare cloak, the partner of his bare truckle- bed, covers, to whom the crowd, as it meets him, gives the scraps he barks for you, deceived by his get-up, imagine to be a Cynic. This fellow is no Cynic, Cosmus. What is he, then ? A dog. 1


O THOU, to whom it has been given to reach the Tarpeian crown of oak, 2 and to wreathe worthy locks with peerless leafage, if thou art wise use to the full, Colliiius, all thy days, and ever deem that each is thy last. The three wool-spinning sisters 3 it has been no man's lot to move by prayer; they keep their appointed day. Though thou wert richer than Crispus, 4 more firm of soul than Thrasea's self, 5 more refined even than sleek Melior, yet Lachesis addeth nought to her tale of wool, and the sisters' spindles she unwinds, and ever one of the three cuts the thread.


Lucius, the glory of your time, who let not hoary Gaius 6 and our native Tagus yield to eloquent Arpi, 7 let him who was born amid Argive cities chant in his song Thebes, or Mycenae, or illustrious Rhodes, or of the wanton wrestling-grounds of Ledaean Lace-

8 Thrasea Paetus, a Stoic philosopher, put to death by Nero. Called by Tacitus (Ann. xvi. 21) virtiis ipaa '(virtue itself).

8 cf. I. xlix. 5. Probably Lucius is the Licinianus of that epigram.

7 i.e. to the birthplace of Cicero.



nos Celtis genitos et ex Hiberis

nostrae nomina duriora terrae

grato non pudeat referre versu : 10

saevo Bilbilin optimam metallo,

quae vincit Chalybasque Noricosque,

et ferro Plateam suo sonantem,

quatn fluctu tenui set inquieto

armorum Salo temperator ambit, 15

tutelamque chorosque Rixamarum,

et convivia festa Carduarum,

et textis Peterin rosis rubentem,

atque antiqua patrum theatra Rigas,

et certos iaculo levi Silaos, 20

Turgontique lacus Perusiaeque,

et parvae vada pura Tuetonissae,

et sanctum Buradonis ilicetum,

per quod vel piger ambulat viator,

et quae fortibus excolit iuvencis 25

curvae Manlius arva Vativescae.

haec tarn rustica, delicate lector,

rides nomina ? rideas licebit :

haec tarn rustica malo, quam Butuntos.


MUNERA quod senibus viduisque ingentia mittis,

vis te munificum, Gargiliane, vocem ? sordidius nihil est, nihil est te spurcius uiio,

qui potes insidias dona vocare tuas. sic avidis fallax indulget piscibus hamus, 5

callida sic stultas decipit esca feras. quid sit largiri, quid sit donare docebo,

si nescis : dona, Gargiliane, mihi.

1 cf. i. xlix. 52. 268


daemon. Let not us, sprung from Celts and from Iberians, be ashamed to recall in grateful verse the harsher names of our native land, Bilbilis, excellent in steel for war, that surpasses the Chalybes and the Noricans, and Platea ringing with her native iron, which with its small but troublous stream, Salo, armour's temperer, 1 encircles ; and the guardian god and choruses of Rixamae, and the festive feasts of Carduae, and Peteris blushing with twined roses, and Rigae, our fathers' ancient theatre, and the Silai un- erring with the light javelin, and the lakes of Tur- gontum and'Perusia, and the clear shallows of small Tuetonissa, and Buradon's hallowed oak-wood, where- through even a lazy wayfarer is fain to walk, and the fields of Vativesca on the slope which Manlius tills with sturdy steers. Do you laugh, nice reader, at these names as so rustic ? You may laugh : these names, so rustic, I prefer to Butunti. 2


BECAUSE you send huge presents to old men and to widows, do you want me, Gargilianus, to call you munificent? There is nothing more sordid, nothing more filthy than your unrivalled self who venture to call your enticements gifts. So the perfidious hook flatters greedy fish, so the crafty bait deceives foolish wild beasts. What is generosity, what is giving, I will teach you if you don't know ; give, Gargilianus, to me.

  • A small town in Apulia, which M. elsewhere laughs at :

cf, n. xlviii.




DUM nos blanda tenent lascivi stagna Lucrini

et quae pumiceis fontibus antra calent, tu colis Argei regnum, Faustina, coloni,

quo te bis decimus ducit ab urbe lapis, horrida sed fervent Nemeaei pectora monstri, 5

nee satis est Baias igne calere suo. ergo sacri fontes et litora grata valete,

Nympharum pariter Nereidumque domus. Herculeos colles gelida vos vincite bruma,

nunc Tiburtinis cedite frigoribus. 10


IN tenebris luges amissum, Galla, maritum. nam plorare pudet te, puto, Galla, virum.


FLENTIBUS Heliadum ramis dum vipera repit, fluxit in obstantem sucina gutta feram ;

quae dura miratur pingui se rore teneri, concreto riguit vincta repente gelu.

ne tibi regali placeas, Cleopatra, sepulchro, 5

vipera si tumulo nobiliore iacet.


ARDEA solstitio Castranaque rura petantur quique Cleonaeo sidere fervet ager,

1 Tibur, founded by Catillus the Argive.

  • The Constellation Leo. The "heart" is a star in the

Constellation particularly bright.

3 Because she had been unfaithful to him while alive.




WHILE the seductive waters of the wanton Lucrine lake keep me here, and the grots warm with their volcanic springs, you, Faustinus, sojourn in the realm 1 of the Argive colonist, whither the twice-tenth mile- stone draws you from the city. But terribly glows the heart of Nemea's monstrous lion, 5 * and Baiae is not content with her own fire. So, ye sacred founts and pleasant shores, farewell, the abode alike of Nymphs and of Nereids ! Surpass ye the hills of Hercules in cold winter; now yield ye to Tibur's cool !


IN darkness you lament, Galla, your husband lost. For, I think, you are ashamed, Galla, to deplore your spouse openly. 3


WHILE a viper crept along the weeping poplar- boughs there flowed a gummy drop o'er the beast that met its path, and while she marvelled to be stayed by that clinging dew, suddenly she grew stiff, en- fettered by the congealing mass. Pride not thyself, Cleopatra, on thy royal sepulchre if a viper lies in a nobler tomb ! 4


SEEK ye Ardea in summer's heat, and the fields of Castrum, and meads scorched by Cleonae's

  • cf. iv. xxxii. ; vi. xv. Notwithstanding his comparison

of Cleopatra's asp, M. by "viper" must mean some small creeping thing. Pliny (N.ff. xxxvii. 11) speaks of ants, gnats, and lizards.



cum Tiburtinas damnet Curiatius auras

inter laudatas ad Styga missus aquas, nullo fata loco possis excludere ; cum mors 5

venerit, in medio Tibure Sardinia est.


DONASSE amicum tibi ducenta, Mancine,

nuper superbo laetus ore iactasti.

quartus dies est, in schola poetarum

dum fabulamur, milibus decem dixti

emptas lacernas munus esse Pompullae ; 5

sardonycha verum lineisque ter cinctum

duasque similes fluctibus maris gemmas

dedisse Bassam Caeliamque iurasti.

here de theatro, Pollione cantante,

cum subito abires, dum fugis, loquebaris, 10

hereditatis tibi trecenta venisse,

et mane centum, et post meridiem centum.

quid tibi sodales fecimus mali tantum ?

miserere iam crudelis et sile tandem.

aut, si tacere lingua non potest ista, 15

aliquando narra quod velimus audire.


TIBUR in Herculeum migravit nigra Lycoris, omnia dum fieri Candida credit ibi.

1 Ardea and Castrum Inui in Latium were hot places, as was also Baiae (ager) in summer : cf. iv. Ivii. 5. " Cleonae's star " is the Constellation of Leo.

8 Proverbially unhealthy.

3 Sardonyx is the Sardian onyx (so called from Sardis, the capital of Lydia : Skeat's Etym. Diet. 5,35), i.e. agate of a deep red colour, which, when cut transversely, has the



star, 1 seeing that Curiatius condemns Tibur's air ; from amid waters so belauded was he sent to Styx. In no spot canst thou shut out fate ; when death comes even in Tibur's midst is a Sardinia. 2


PROUDLY and joyfully the other day you boasted, Maiicinus, that a friend had bestowed on you two hundred thousand sesterces. Three days ago, while we were chatting in the Poets' Club, you told me that a cloak, Pompulla's present, cost ten thousand ; you swore that Bassa and Caelia had given you a genuine sardonyx, one girt with triple lines, 3 and two gems like the sea-waves. 4 Yesterday, though your exit from the theatre, while Pollio 5 was singing, was sudden, in your very flight you said that three hundred thousand sesterces had come to you by will, and this morning you added a hundred, and afterwards at noon another hundred. What great injury have we, your friends, done you ? Cruel fellow, at length pity us, and at length hold your peace. Or, if that tongue of yours can't be still, prate some- times of what we want to hear.


DARK Lycoris shifted her quarters to Herculean Tibur, fancying that everything became white there. 6

main body of the stone surrounded by concentric rings of a different colour. Such stones were much valued for signet- rings : see King, Ant. Gems, i. 224 ; Skeat, supra.

4 Aquamarines.

8 A celebrated player on the cithara. 6 c/. vn. xiii.

273 VOL. I. T



DUM petit a Baulis mater Caerellia Baias, occidit insani crimine mersa freti.

gloria quanta perit vobis ! haec monstra Neroni nee iussae quondam praestiteratis, aquae.


IULI iugera pauca Martialis

hortis Hesperidum beatiora

longo laniculi iugo recumbunt :

lati collibus imminent 1 recessus

et planus modico tumore vertex 5

caelo perfruitur sereniore

et curvas nebula tegente valles

solus luce nitet peculiar! :

puris leniter admoventur astris

celsae culmina delicata villae. 10

hinc septem dominos videre montis

et totam licet aestimare Romam,

Albanos quoque Tusculosque colles,

et quodcumque iacet sub urbe frigus,

Fidenas veteres brevesque Rubras, 15

et quod virgineo cruore gaudet

Annae pomiferum nemus Perennae.

illinc Flaminiae Salariaeque

gestator patet essedo tacente,

ne blando rota sit molesta somno, 20

quern nee rumpere nauticum celeuma

1 eminent 0.

1 Who had attempted to drown his mother Agrippina in a boat with a collapsible bottom.




WHILE Caerellia, a mother, was sailing from Bauli to Baiae, she perished o'erwhelmed by the guilt of a maddened sea. What glory ye lost, ye waters ! Such monstrous service, even at his bidding, ye once refused to Nero. 1


THE few fields of Julius Martialis, more favoured than the gardens of the Hesperides, rest on the long ridge of Janiculum : wide sheltered reaches look down 2 on the hills, and the flat summit, gently swelling, enjoys to the full a clearer sky, and, when mist shrouds the winding vales, alone shines with its own brightness ; the dainty roof of the tall villa gently rises up to the unclouded stars. On this side may you see the seven sovereign hills and take the measure of all Rome, the Alban hills and Tusculan too, and every cool retreat nestling near the city, old Fidenae and tiny Rubrae, and Anna Perenna's fruitful grove that joys in maiden blood. 3 On that side the traveller shows on the Flaminian or Salarian way, though his carriage makes no sound, that wheels should not disturb the soothing sleep which neither

2 Munro explains : deep clefts with their heights tower over the fields.

3 A difficult passage. Anna Perenna was a native Latin deity, at whose festival on the Ides of March women sang lascivious songs. Munro accordingly suggests riryine nequiore yaudet. Nothing is known of viryineus cruor.

275 T 2


nee clamor valet helciariorum,

cum sit tarn prope Mulvius sacrumque

lapsae per Tiberim volent carinae.

hoc rus, seu potius domus vocanda est, 25

commendat dominus : tuam putabis,

tam non invida tamque liberalis,

tarn comi patet hospitalitate :

credas Alcinoi pios Penates

aut, facti modo divitis, Molorchi. 30

vos nunc omnia parva qui putatis,

centeno gelidum ligone Tibur

vel Praeneste domate pendulamque

uni dedite Setiam colono,

dum me iudice praeferantur istis 35

lull iugera pauca Martialis.


OCULO Philaenis semper altero plorat. quo fiat istud quaeritis modo ? lusca est.


EGISTI vitam semper, Line, municipalem,

qua nihil omnino vilius esse potest. Idibus et raris togula est excussa Kalendis,

duxit et aestates synthesis una decem. saltus aprum, campus leporem tibi misit inemptum, 5

silva gravis turdos exagitata dedit. captus flumineo venit de gurgite piscis,

vina ruber fudit non peregrina cadus.

1 King of Phaeacia, who entertained Ulysses on his jour- ney to Ithaca homeward : Horn. Od. vii. seqq.



boatswain's call nor bargemen's shout is loud enough to break, though the Mulvian Bridge is so near, and the keels that swiftly glide along the sacred Tiber. This country seat if it should not be called a town mansion its owner commends to you : you will fancy it is yours, so ungrudgingly, so freely, and with such genial hospitality it lies open to you ; you will believe it to be the kindly dwelling of Alcinous, 1 or of Molorchus 2 just become rich. You who to-day deem all this but small, subdue ye cool Tibur's soil, or Praeneste, with an hundred hoes, and assign to one tenant Setia on the hill, so that ye let me as judge prefer to that the few fields of Julius Martialis.


PHILAENIS always weeps with one eye. Do you ask how that happens ? She is one-eyed.


You have lived a provincial life always, Linus, and nothing in the world can be more inexpensive than that. On the Ides, and now and again on the Kalends, your poor toga has been shaken out, and a single dinner-suit has gone through ten summers. The glade has sent you boar, the field the unbought hare ; the wood, when beaten, has given plump field- fares. The captured fish has come from the river's eddies, a red jar has poured out no foreign wine.

'* A shepherd who unknowingly entertained Hercules.



nee tener Argolica missus de gente minister

sed stetit inculti rustica turba foci. 10

vilica vel duri conpressa est nupta coloni,

incaluit quotiens saucia vena mero. nee nocuit tectis ignis nee Sirius agris,

nee mersa est pelago nee fluit ulla ratis. subposita est blando numquam tibi tessera talo, 15

alea sed parcae sola fuere nuces. die ubi sit decies, mater quod avara reliquit.

nusquam est : fecisti rem, Line, difficilem.


PRAETOREM pauper centum sestertia Gaurus

orabat cana notus amicitia, dicebatque suis haec tantum desse trecentis,

ut posset domino plaudere iustus eques. praetor ait " Scis me Scorpo Thalloque daturum, 5

atque utinam centum milia sola darem." a pudet ingratae, pudet a male divitis arcae :

quod non vis equiti, vis dare, praetor, equo ?


INVITAS centum quadrantibus et bene cenas. ut cenem invitor, Sexte, an ut invideam ?

1 Greek, and so costly.

2 i.e. adopted the more expensive methods of gaming.

3 To make up a knight's qualification : cf. v. xxxviii.



No boy-slave has been sent from an Argolic tribe, 1 but a country troop has stood by a homely hearth. You have intrigued with your housekeeper, or with a rough tenant-farmer's wife oft as your passions pricked have warmed with wine. Fire has not harmed your house nor the Dog-star your fields, nor has your ship there swims no ship of yours sunk in the sea. You have never substituted the die for the alluring knuckle-bone, 2 but your sole stake has been a few nuts. Tell me, where is the million your grasping mother left you ? 'Tis nowhere ; you have achieved, Linus, a difficult feat !


THE poor Gaurus known to him by a friendship of many years besought the Praetor for a hundred thousand sesterces, and said his own three hundred thousand were short 3 only by this sum, to enable him, as a qualified knight, to applaud our Master. The Praetor said : " You know I am about to make a gift to Scorpus and Thallus, 4 and would that I were giving only a hundred thousand!" Ah, shame on your ungrateful money-chest, shame on its ignoble riches ! That which you will not give to the knight will you give, Praetor, to the horse ?


You invite me for a hundred farthings to dine with you, and you dine well. Am I invited to dine, Sextus, or to envy ? 5

4 Famous charioteers : cf. (for Scorpus) v. xxv. ; x. 1., liii. , and Ixxiv.

6 Being entertained with fare inferior to your own : cf. vi. xi.




Tu Setina quidem semper vel Massica ponis, Papyle, sed rumor tam bona vina negat :

diceris hac factus caeleps quater esse lagona. nee puto nee credo, Papyle, nee sitio.


NIHIL Ammiano praeter aridam restem moriens reliquit ultimis pater ceris. fieri putaret posse quis, Marulline, ut Ammianus mortuum patrem nollet ?


QUAERO diu totam, Safroni Rufe, per urbem, si qua puella neget : nulla puella negat.

tamquam fas non sit, tamquam sit turpe negare, tamquam non liceat, nulla puella negat.

casta igitur nulla est? sunt castae mille. quid ergo 5 casta facit ? non dat, non tamen ilia negat.


EXIGIS ut donem nostros tibi, Quinte, libellos.

non habeo, sed habet bybliopola Tryphon. " Aes dabo pro nugis et emam tua carmina sanus ?

non" inquis "faciam tam fatue," nee ego.




You indeed put on your table always Setine or Massic, Papilus, but rumour says your wines are not so very good : you are said by means of this brand to have been made a widower four times. I don't think so, or believe it, Papilus, but I am not thirsty.


His father, when he was dying, left by his last will nothing to Ammianus but a shrivelled rope. Who would have thought, Marullinus, it was possible Ammianus should regret his father's death?


I HAVE long been looking all through the city, Safronius Rufus, for a girl who says " No " : no girl says " No." As if it were not right, as if it were disgraceful to say " No," as if it were not allowable, no girl says " No." Is none therefore chaste ? A thousand are chaste. What, then, does a chaste girl do ? She does not offer, yet she does not say "No." 1


You press me to give you my books, Quintus. I haven't any, but bookseller Tryphon has. " Shall I pay money for trifles," you say, "and buy your poems in my sober mind ? I won't act so foolishly." Nor will I.

1 The subject is continued in iv. Ixxxi.




CUM gravis extremas Vestinus duceret horas,

et iam per Stygias esset iturus aquas, ultima volventis oravit pensa sorores,

ut traherent parva stamina pulla mora. iam sibi defunctus caris dum vivit amicis,

moverunt tetricas tarn pia vota deas. tune largas partitus opes a luce recessit

seque mori post hoc credidit ille senem.


ASPICIS inbelles temptent quam fortia dammae proelia ? tarn timidis quanta sit ira feris ?

in mortem parvis concurrere frontibus ardent, vis, Caesar, dammis parcere ? mitte canes.


O FELIX animo, felix, Nigrina, marito

atque inter Latias gloria prima nurus ; te patrios miscere iuvat cum coniuge census,

gaudentem socio participique viro. arserit Euhadne flammis iniecta mariti,

nee minor Alcestin fama sub astra ferat. tu melius : certo meruisti pignore vitae

ut tibi non esset morte probandus amor.

1 The Fates. 2 Hounds would be less savage. 282



WHEN Vestinus in illness was drawing out his latest hours, and now was bound beyond the Stygian waters, he prayed the Sisters 1 as they unwound the last strands to stay awhile the drawing of those black threads. While, dead now to himself, he lived for his dear friends, a prayer so kindly moved the stern goddesses. Then, parcelling his ample wealth, he parted from the sun, and death thereafter he deemed a death in age.


SEE you what strong battle unwarlike does essay ? how great the rage in beasts so timid ? Hot are they to clash with puny brows, and die. Wouldst thou, Caesar, spare the does ? Set on thy hounds. 2


O BLEST in soul, Nigrina, in husband blest ! and among Latin wives the chiefest glory ! blithe art thou to share with thy spouse thy father's wealth, glad that thy husband should be partner and sharer with thee. Let Evadne burn, cast on her hus- band's pyre ; nor any lesser fame lift Alcestis to the stars. 3 Thou doest better : this hast thou earned by a sure pledge given in life that death was not needed to prove thy love !

8 Both sacrificed themselves for their husbands.




MILIA misisti mihi sex bis sena petenti. ut bis sena feram, bis duodena petam.


NUMQUAM divitias deos rogavi

contentus modicis meoque laetus :

paupertas, veniam dabis, recede.

causast quae subiti novique voti ?

pendentem volo Zoilum videre. 5


CONDITA cum tibi sit iam sexagensima messis

et facies multo splendeat alba pilo, discurris tota vagus urbe, nee ulla cathedra est

cui non mane feras inrequietus " Have " ; et sine te nulli fas est prodire tribune, 5

nee caret officio consul uterque tuo ; et sacro decies repetis Palatia clivo

Sigerosque meros Partheniosque sonas. haec faciant sane iuvenes : deformius, Afer,

omnino nihil est ardalione sene. 10


HOSPES eras nostri semper, Matho, Tiburtini. hoc emis. inposui : rus tibi vendo tuum.

1 With envy of my wealth. As to Z. cf. u. xvi. and xix.

2 Gentlemen-in-waiting to the Emperor.




You sent me six thousand when I asked for twice six. To get twice six I will ask for twice twelve.


I HAVE never asked the gods for riches, content as I am with moderate means, and pleased with what is mine. Poverty I ask your pardon ! depart. What is the reason of this sudden and strange prayer ? I wish to see Zoilus hanging by the neck. 1


ALTHOUGH your sixtieth summer is already buried, and your face shines white with many a hair, you gad with roaming feet all over the city, and there is no woman's chair but in your fussiness you bring it in the morning your " How d'ye do ? " ; and without you no praetor may go abroad, and neither consul misses your attendance ; and ten times you make for the palace by the Sacred steep, and pomp- ously talk only of Sigeruses and Partheniuses. 2 Young men may no doubt do this : nothing in the world, Afer, is more ugly than an old busybody. 3


You were my constant guest, Matho, at my villa at Tibur. This you buy. I have cheated you ; I am selling you your own country place. 4

3 An ardelio was a fussy, pretentious person : rf. n. vii. 8 ; Phaedr. ii. 7 ; and Sen. de Tranq. An. xii.

4 i.e. you were so often there, it was practically yours.




DECLAMAS in febre, Maron : hanc esse phrenesin

si nescis, non es sanus, amice Maron. declamas aeger, declamas hemitritaeos :

si sudare aliter non potes, est ratio. " Magna tamen res est." erras; cum viscera febris 5

exurit, res est magna tacere, Maron.


EPIGRAMMA nostrum cum Fabulla legisset negare nullam quo queror puellarum, semel rogata bisque terque neglexit preces amantis. iam, Fabulla, promitte : negare iussi, pernegare non iussi.


Hos quoque commenda Venuleio, Rufe, libellos,

inputet et nobis otia parva roga, immemor et paulum curarum operumque suorum

non tetrica nugas exigat aure meas. sed nee post primum legat haec summumve trientem,

sed sua cum medius proelia Bacchus amat. 6

si nimis est legisse duos, tibi charta plicetur

altera : divisum sic breve net opus.


SECURO nihil est te, Naevole, peius ; eodem sollicito nihil est, Naevole, te melius.


BOOK IV. Lxxx-Lxxxm


You declaim in a fever, Maron ; if you don't know that this is frenzy, you are not sane, friend Maron. You declaim when you are ill, you declaim in a semitertian : if otherwise you can't perspire, there is some reason in it. " Yet it is a great thing." You are wrong ; when fever burns up your vitals 'tis a great thing to hold your tongue, Maron.


WHEN Fabulla had read my epigram x in which I complain that no girl says " No," she, though solicited once, twice, and three times, disregarded her lover's prayers. Now promise, Fabulla : I bade you refuse, I did not bid you to refuse for ever.


THESE little books 2 too commend, Rufus, to Venu- leius, and ask him to put to my account a few idle hours, and, forgetting awhile his cares and tasks, to criticise my trifles with no ungracious ear. But let him not read these poems either after his first or his last cup, but when Bacchus in mid-revel loves his bouts of wine. If it is too much to read two, let one book be rolled up : divided the work will thus become brief.


WHEN you are easy in mind, Naevolus, nothing is more odious than you ; again, when you are worried,

1 iv. Ixxi. 2 The third and fourth books.



securus nullum resalutas, despicis omnes, nee quisquam liber nee tibi natus homo est :

sollicitus donas, dominum regemque salutas, invitas. esto, Naevole, sollicitus.


NON est in populo nee urbe tota a se Thaida qui probet fututam, cum multi cupiant rogentque multi. tam casta est, rogo, Thais ? immo fellat.


Nos bibimus vitro, tu murra, Pontice. quare prodat perspicuus ne duo vina calix.


Si vis auribus Atticis probari,

exhortor moneoque te, libelle,

ut docto placeas Apollinari.

nil exactius eruditiusque est,

sed nee candidius benigniusque. 5

si te pectore, si tenebit ore,

nee rhonchos metues maligniorum,

nee scombris tunicas dabis molestas.

si damnaverit, ad salariorum

curras scrinia protinus licebit, 10

inversa pueris arande charta.

1 Sensu obsceno.

2 Good for yourself, inferior for your guests : cf. iv. Ixviii. ; x. xlix. The excellence of a murrine cup was its opacity : cf. X. Ixxx. 1 ; and Plin. N.H. xxxvii. 8.



nothing is more pleasant. Easy in mind, you return no man's greeting, you look down on all men ; none to you is a free man, or even a created being : worried, you make presents, give the title of " master " and " lord," ask one to dinner. Naevolus, be worried.


THERE is no one of the people, or in the whole city, who can show that he has been favoured by Thais, although many desire her favours, and many ask for them. Is Thais so chaste then ? I ask. Quite the contrary : she is evil-tongued. 1


WE drink from glass, you from murrine, Ponticus. Why ? That a transparent cup may not betray your two wines. 2


IF you would be approved by Attic ears, I exhort and warn you, little book, to please the cultured Apollinaris. 3 No man is more precise and scholarly than he, at the same time no man more fair and kindly. If he shall hold you in his heart, if on his lips, you will neither fear the loud sneers of envy nor supply dolorous wrappers 4 for mackerel. 5 If he shall condemn you, you must fly at once to the drawers of the salt-fish sellers, fit only to have your back ploughed by boys' pens !

3 A critic much relied upon by M. : cf. VH. xxvi. 9.

4 M. compares the paper of his book to the tunica molesta, smeared with pitch, in which criminals were sometimes burned, as in the case of Nero's treatment of the Christians : cf. x. xxv. 5 ; and Juv. i. 155. 5 cf. ill. 1. 9.





INFANTEM secum semper tua Bassa, Fabulle,

conlocat et lusus deliciasque vocat, et, quo mireris magis, infantaria non est.

ergo quid in causa est ? pedere Bassa solet.


NULLA remisisti parvo pro munere dona,

et iam Saturni quinque fuere dies, ergo nee argenti sex scripula Septiciani

missa nee a querulo mappa cliente fuit, Antipolitani nee quae de sanguine thynni 5

testa rubet, nee quae cottana parva gerit, nee rugosarum vimen breve Picenarum,

dicere te posses ut meminisse mei ? decipies alios verbis voltuque benigno ;

nam mihi iam notus dissimulator eris. 10


OHE, iam satis est, ohe, libelle.

iam pervenimus usque ad umbilicos :

tu procedere adhuc et ire quaeris,

nee summa potes in schida teneri,

sic tamquam tibi res peracta non sit, 5

quae prima quoque pagina peracta est.

iam lector queriturque deficitque ;

iam librarius hoc et ipse dicit

"Ohe, iam satis est, ohe, libelle."

1 Considered inferior : cf. vin. Ixxi. 6. 290



YOUR Bassa, Fabullus, constantly sets an infant by her side and calls it her plaything and her darling, and yet that you may wonder the more she is not partial to infants. So what is the reason ? Bassa is apt to break wind.


You have sent me no presents in return for my small offering, and already Saturn's five days are over. So not even six scruples of Septician l silver plate have been sent me, nor a napkin given you by a peevish client, nor a jar ruddy with the blood of Antipolitan tunny, 2 nor one containing small Syrian figs, nor a stumpy basket of wrinkled Picenian olives, so that you could say that you remembered me ? You may deceive others with words and benignant face, for to me in future you will be a detected pi'etender.


Ho, there ! Ho, there ! 'tis now enough, my little book. We have now come to the very end : you still want to go on further and continue, and cannot be held in even in your last strip, just as if your task was not finished which was finished, too, on the first page ! Already my reader is grumbling and giving in ; already even my scribe says : " Ho, there ! Ho, there ! 'tis now enough, little book."

- i.e. the inferior pickle called muria, as compared with the pickle compounded of mackerel : cf. xm. ciii. Antipolis (Antibes) in Gallia Narbonensis was an important seat of the tunny fishery.

291 u 2



HAEC tibi, Palladiae seu collibus uteris Albae,

Caesar, et hinc Triviam prospicis, inde Thetin, seu tua veridicae discunt responsa sorores,

plana suburban! qua cubat unda freti, seu placet Aeneae nutrix seu filia Solis 5

sive salutiferis eandidus Anxur aquis, mittimus, o rerum felix tutela salusque,

sospite quo gratum credimus esse lovem tu tantum accipias : ego te legisse putabo

et tumidus Galla credulitate fruar. 10


MATRONAE puerique virginesque, vobis pagina nostra dedicatur. tu, quern nequitiae procaciores delectant nimium salesque nudi, lascivos lege quattuor libellos : quintus cum domino liber iocatur ; quern Germanicus ore non rubenti coram Cecropia legat puella.

1 The temple of Diana of the Crossways at Aricia.

2 Two goddesses of fortune worshipped at Antium.



THIS to thee, Caesar, whether them art enjoying the hills of Alba dear to Pallas, and dost look forth, here on Trivia's fane, 1 there on the waves of Thetis ; or whether the truth-speaking Sisters 2 learn the oracles thou dost inspire, where, hard by the town, sleeps the ocean's level wave ; whether Aeneas' nurse delights thee, or the daughter of the Sun, 3 or gleam- ing Anxur with its healthful waters, this book I send, O thou blest guardian and saviour of the state, whose safety assures us that Jove is grateful. 4 Do thou but receive it ; 1 will deem that thou hast read it, and in my pride have the joy of my Gallic trustfulness. 5


MATRONS, and boys, and maids, to you my page is dedicated. Do thou, whom bolder wantonness de- lights o'errnuch, and wit unashamed, read my four wanton little books ; the fifth laughs with its Master ; this one Germanicus may, with unblushing face, read in the presence of the Attic Maid. 6

3 Whether you are at Caieta, called after the nurse of Aeneas, or at Circeii, called after Circe.

  • For the rebuilding by Domitian of Jupiter's Temple on

the Capitoline : cf. ix. iii. 7.

8 For the credulity of the Gauls cf. Caes. B. G. iv. 5.

6 Pallas, claimed by Domitian (Germanicus) as his patroness.




ACCOLA iam nostrae Degis, Germanice, ripae,

a famulis Histri qui tibi venit aquis, laetus et attonitus viso modo praeside mundi,

adfatus comites dicitur esse suos : " Sors mea quara fratris melior, cui tarn prope fas est

cernere, tarn longe quern colit ille deum." 6


FETERE multo Myrtale solet vino, sed fallat ut nos, folia devorat lauri merumque cauta fronde, non aqua, miscet. hanc tu rubentem prominentibus venis quotiens venire, Paule, videris contra, dicas licebit " Myrtale bibit laurum."

SEXTK, Palatinae cultor facunde Minervae,

ingenio frueris qui propiore dei (nam tibi nascentes domini cognoscere curas

et secreta ducis pectora nosse licet), sit locus et nostris aliqua tibi parte libellis, 5

qua Pedo, qua Marsus quaque Catullus erit. ad Capitolini caelestia carmina belli

grande coturnati pone Maronis opus.

1 Brother of Decebalus, king of Dacia, sent to treat for peace.

2 i.e. is inspired. The priestess of Apollo at Delphi chewed laurel-leaves to acquire inspiration.


BOOK V. in-v


A DWELLER, Germanicus, on the bank that is now our own, Degis, 1 who came to thee from Ister's subject waves, with joy and wonder saw of late the Governor of the world, and addressed so 'tis said his com- pany : " Prouder is my lot than my brother's ; I may behold so near the god whom he worships from so far."


MYRTALE is wont to reek with much wine, but, to mislead us, she devours laurel leaves and mixes her neat liquor with this artful frond, not with water. As often as you see her, Paulus, flushed and with swollen veins, coming to meet you, you can say : " Myrtale has drunk the laurel." 2

SEXTUS, eloquent votary of Palatine Minerva, 3 you who enjoy more near the genius of the god 4 for you are permitted to learn our lord's cares as they are born, and to know our chief's secret heart let there, I pray, be found also for my little books somewhere a niche where Pedo, where Marsus, and where Catullus shall be set. By the song divine of the Capitoline war 5 place the grand work of buskined Maro. 6

8 S. was probably curator of the Palatine library.

4 cf. note to v. viii. 1.

8 The civil disturbances of A. D. 69, in which the Capito- line Temple was burnt. Perhaps Domitian was the author of the poem. 6 The Aeneid of Virgil.




Si non est grave nee nimis molestum,

Musae, Parthenium rogate vestrum :

sic te serior et beata quondam

salvo Caesare finiat senectus

et sis invidia favente felix, 5

sic Burrus cito sentiat parentem :

admittas timidam brevemque chartam

intra limina sanctions aulae.

nosti tempora tu lovis sereni,

cum fulget placido suoque vultu, 10

quo nil supplicibus solet negare.

non est quod metuas preces iniquas :

numquam grandia nee molesta poscit

quae cedro decorata purpuraque

nigris pagiiia crevit umbilicis. 15

nee porrexeris ista, sed teneto

sic tamquam nihil offeras agasque.

si novi dominum novem sororum,

ultro purpureum petet libellum.


QUALITER Assyrios renovant incendia nidos,

una decem quotiens saecula vixit avis, taliter exuta est veterem nova Roma senectam

et sumpsit vultus praesidis ipsa sui. iam precor oblitus notae, Vulcane, querellae 5

parce : sumus Martis turba sed et Veneris : parce, pater : sic Lemniacis lasciva catenis

ignoscat coniunx et patienter amet.

1 Domitian's secretary, and himself a poet : cf. iv. xlv. ; xi. i. 2 cf. iv. xlv.


BOOK V. vi-vn


IF it is not a burden, or unduly irksome, ye Muses, make to your own Parthenius l this request : "So full late may happy age one day close your course while Caesar is still safe, and you by Envy's favour be fortunate ; so may Burrus 2 soon learn his sire's worth admit this timid and brief volume within the threshold of the hallowed hall. You know the seasons when Jove's brow is unruffled, when he beams with that calm look, all his own, that is wont to deny suppliants nought. You need not fear extravagant petitions ; never does a book which, spruce with cedar oil and purple, has fully grown with its black knobs, make a great or trouble- some request. 3 Do not protrude that book, but so hold it, as if you offered and intended nothing." If I know the Master of the Sisters Nine, of his own accord he will ask for the little book in its purple.


As when the fire renews the Assyrian nest, when- ever one bird 4 has lived its ten cycles, so has new Rome shed her bygone age and put on herself the visage of her Governor. Now, I pray thee, Vulcan, forget thy well-known plaint against us, 5 and spare ; we are the crowd of Mars, but that of Venus withal. Spare us, father; so may thy wanton spouse pardon her Lemnian fetters and love thee with submission.

3 i.e. its very appearance shows it is nob a petition.

4 The phoenix. 6 As descendants from Mars.




EDICTUM domini deique nostri,

quo subsellia certiora fiunt

et puros eques ordines recepit,

dum laudat modo Phasis in theatro,

Phasis purpureis ruber lacernis, 5

et iactat tumido superbus ore :

" Tandem commodius licet sedere,

nunc est reddita dignitas equestris ;

turba non premimur, nee inquinamur " :

haec et talia dum refert supinus, 10

illas purpureas et adrogantes

iussit surgere Leitus lacernas.


LANGUEBAM : sed tu comitatus protinus ad me venisti centum, Symmache, discipulis.

centum me tetigere manus Aquilone gelatae : non habui febrem, Symmache, nunc habeo.


" ESSE quid hoc dicam vivis quod fama negatur et sua quod rarus tempora lector amat ? "

hi sunt invidiae nimirum, Regule. mores, praeferat antiquos semper ut ilia novis.

sic veterem ingrati Pompei quaerimus umbram, 5 sic laudant Catuli vilia templa senes.

1 In 89 A.D. Domitian ordered his procurators to speak of him as Dominus et Deus noster in official documents : Suet. Dom. xiii.

2 By the Lex Julia of Roscius Otho in B.C. 67, which assigned fourteen rows in the theatre to the knights. This law Avas revived and strictly enforced by Domitian.




THE edict of our master and god, 1 whereby the seating has been made more definite and knights have got back 2 their ranks uncontaminated, Pliasis was lately approving in the theatre, Phasis glowing in a purple mantle ; and he was proudly boasting with swelling words : " At length can we sit more conveniently, now the knightly dignity has been restored ; we are not elbowed or besmirched by the mob." While, lolling back, he made these and similar remarks, Leitus 3 commanded that purple and arrogant mantle to get up.


I WAS sickening ; but you at once attended me, Symmachus, with a train of a hundred apprentices. A hundred hands frosted by the North wind have pawed me : I had no fever before, Symmachus ; now I have.

" How shall I explain this that to living men fame is denied, and that few readers love their own times ? " 4 Of a truth, Regulus, this is envy's way : ever to prefer the men of old to those new-born. Thus ungratefully we sigh for Pompey's old shadowy colonnade, so old men extol the poor temple 5 re-

3 The attendant. Phasis was not a knight, and could not claim a seat. * Regulus is supposed to ask the question.

6 Of Jupiter, on the Capitol, consumed by fire B.C. 84, and restored B.C. 62 by Q. Lutatius Catulus. The Dictator Sulla had undertaken the restoration, but predeceased its completion, "the only boon," says Tacitus (Hist. in. Ixxii. ), " denied to his good fortune."



Ennius est lectus salvo tibi, Roma, Marone,

et sua riserunt saecula Maeoniden ; rara coronato plausere theatra Menandro ;

norat Nasonem sola Corinna suum. 10

vos tamen o nostri ne festinate libelli :

si post fata venit gloria, rion propero.


SARDONYCHAS, zmaragdos, adamantas, iaspidas uno versat in articulo Stella, Severe, meus.

multas in digitis, plures in carmine gemmas invenies : inde est haec, puto, culta manus.


QUOD nutantia fronte perticata

gestat pondera Masclion superbus,

aut grandis Ninus omnibus lacertis

septem quod pueros levat vel octo,

res non difficilis mihi videtur, 5

uno cum digito vel hoc vel illo

portet Stella meus decem puellas.


SUM, fateor, semperque fui, Callistrate, pauper sed non obscurus nee male notus eques,

sed toto legor orbe frequens et dicitur " Hie est," quodque cinis paucis hoc mihi vita dedit.

1 Homer. 2 Ovid.

3 i.e. it is from that the brilliants derive their real bril- liancy a somewhat far-fetched conceit.

4 Explained (but doubtfully) of a ring with ten stones, to symbolise the nine Muses, together with Minerva, or S.'s mistress Violentilla.


BOOK V. x-xin

stored by Catulus ; you read Ennius, O Rome, though Maro is to your hand, and his own times laughed at Maeonides ; l seldom did the theatres applaud the crowned Menander ; Corinna alone knew her Naso.- Yet be not too eager, O ye books of mine ! So after death come glory, I hurry not.


SARDONVXES, emeralds, diamonds, jaspers, my Stella, Severus, twists on a single finger. Many gems will you find on his hands, more in his verse ; therefrom, methinks, is his hand adorned. 3


THAT Masclion on his pole-supporting brow proudly bears a nodding weight, or huge Ninus with all the strength of his arms lifts seven boys or eight, does not seem to me a difficult feat, when on a single finger, this one or that, my Stella carries ten maids. 4


I AM, I confess, and I have always been poor, Cal- listratus, yet no obscure or ill-famed knight 5 am I ; yet am I read through all the world by many, and they say of me "'Tis he!", 6 and what death has given to few this has life given to me. But your

5 Titus (confirmed by Domitian) conferred on M. an honorary knighthood and military tribuneship (tribunatus semestris : cf. Suet. Claud, xxv. ; Juv. vii. 88). M. alludes to this in in. xcv. 9.

8 cf. "At pulcrum est digito monstrari et dicier Hie est": Pers. i. 28.



at tua centenis incumbunt tecta columnis 5

et libertinas area flagellat opes, magnaque Niliacae servit tibi gleba Syenes

tondet et innumeros Gallica Parma greges. hoc ego tuque sumus : sed quod sum noil potes esse ;

tu quod es e populo quilibet esse potest. 10


SEDERE primo solitus in gradu semper

tune, cum liceret occupare, Nanneius

bis excitatus terque transtulit castra,

et inter ipsas paene tertius sellas

post Gaiumque Luciumque consedit. 5

illinc cucullo prospicit caput tectus

oculoque ludos spectat indecens uno.

et hinc miser deiectus in viam transit,

subsellioque semifultus extremo

et male receptus altero genu iactat 10

equiti sedere Leitoque se stare.


QUINTUS nostrorum liber est, Auguste, iocorum et queritur laesus carmine nemo meo,

gaudet honorato sed multus nomine lector, cui victura meo munere fama datur.

Quid tamen haec prosunt quamvis venerantia mul- tos ? " 5

non prosint sane, me tamen ista iuvant.


BOOK V. xni-xv

roof rests on a hundred columns, and } r our money- chest keeps close a freedman's wealth, and the broad tillage of Nile's Syene serves you as lord, and Gallic Parma shears for you unnumbered flocks. Such are we you and I ; but what I am you cannot be : what you are that anyone of the people can be.


ACCUSTOMED always to sit in the front row in days when to seize a place was lawful, 1 Nanneius was twice and thrice roused up and shifted camp, and sat down right between the seats, making almost a third behind Gaius and Lucius. Thence with his head buried in a cowl he peers out, and views the show indecently with one eye. Expelled even from here, the wretched fellow passes into the gangway, and, half propped up at the end of a bench and allowed small room, with one knee pretends to the knight by him that he is sitting, with the other to Leitus 2 that he is standing.


THIS, Augustus, is my fifth 'book of jests, and no man complains as being wounded by my verse ; nay, many a reader rejoices in an honoured name, to whom, by bounty of mine, is given undying fame. " Yet what profit is there in these poems, however much they pay homage to many?" Let profit, in truth, be none, yet those poems are at least my delight.

1 i.e. when the Lex Julia was not enforced : cf. v. viii.

2 cf. v. viii. 12.

305 VOL. I. X



SERIA cum possim, quod delectantia malo

scribere, tu causa es, lector amice, mihi, qui legis et tota cantas mea carmina Roma :

sed nescis quanti stet mihi talis amor, nam si falciferi defendere templa fTonantis 5

sollicitisve velim vendere verba reis, plurimus Hispanas mittet mihi nauta metretas

et fiet vario sordidus acre sinus, at mine conviva est comissatorque libellus

et tantum gratis pagina nostra placet. 1

sed non et veteres contenti laude fuerunt,

cum minimum vati munus Alexis erat. " Belle " inquis "dixti : iuvat et laudabimus usque."

dissimulas ? facies me, puto, causidicum.


DUM proavos atavosque refers et nomina magna, dum tibi noster eques sordida condicio est,

dum te posse negas nisi lato, Gellia, clavo nubere, nupsisti, Gellia, cistibero.

1 i.e. take a brief for the Treasury, which was located in the Temple of Saturn. But Saturn is nowhere else called Tonans. Baehrens suggests togatus.

  • Is only read at banquets where guests have not to pa}*

for it.

3 A slave presented to Virgil by Maecenas : cf. vm. Ivi. 12.


BOOK V. xvi-xvn


THAT I, who could write what is serious, prefer to write what is entertaining, you, friendly reader, are the cause, who read and hum my poems all over Rome ; but you do not know what such love costs me. For, were I willing to appear for the Temple of the scythe-bearing Thunderer 1 or to sell my speech to anxious men accused, many a sailor will send me firkins of oil from Spain, and my purse become soiled with odd moneys. But, as it is, my book is but a guest and boon-companion, 2 and only when 'tis unpaid for does my page charm. But our ancestors were not as we, content \vith praise ; then an Alexis 3 was the smallest offering to a bard. "You have written nicely," you say; "we enjoy, and will to the end praise you." Do you pretend not to understand ? You will make me, I think, a lawyer. 4


WHILE you were recalling your great grandfathers, and their grandfathers, and the mighty names of your ancestors ; while a knight like me is a poor match for you ; while you said, Gellia, that you could not marry except a broad stripe, 5 you married, Gellia, a box-bearer ! 6

  • One of a more lucrative profession.
  • i.e. & senator.

' Either a common carrier, or the priest who carried the sacra arcana in a religious procession : cf, Hor. Od. i. xviii. 12. Some take the reference as meant for a Jew ; Juv. iii. 14.

307 x 2



QUOD tibi Decembri mense, quo volant mappae

gracilesque ligulae cereique chartaeque

et acuta senibus testa cum Damascenis,

praeter libellos vernulas nihil misi,

fortasse avarus videar aut inhumanus. 5

odi dolosas munerum et malas artes :

imitantur hamos dona : namque quis nescit

avidum vorata decipi scarum musca ?

quotiens amico diviti nihil donat,

o Quintiane, liberalis est pauper. 10


Si qua fides veris, praeferri, maxime Caesar,

temporibus possunt saecula nulla tuis. quando magis dignos licuit spectare triumphos ?

quando Palatini plus meruere del ? pulchrior et maior quo sub duce Martia Roma ? 5

sub quo libertas principe tanta fuit ? est tamen hoc vitium sed non leve, sit licet unum,

quod colit ingratas pauper amicitias. quis largitur opes veteri fidoque sodali,

aut quern prosequitur non alienus eques ? 10

Saturnaliciae ligulam misisse selibrae

tflammarisvet togae J scripula tota decem luxuria est, tumidique vocant haec munera reges :

qui crepet aureolos forsitan unus erit.

1 The text is probably corrupt. Damnatiave togae (Hous- man), e lamniave Tagi (Munro), and flammantisve auri (Fried- lander) have been suggested.

1 cf. v. lix. 4 for the same idea. 308

BOOK V. xvm-xix


BECAUSE in December's month, when napkins fly about, and slender spoons, and wax tapers, and paper, and pointed jars of dried damsons, I have sent you nothing but my home-bred little books, perhaps I may seem stingy or impolite. I abhor the crafty and cursed trickery of presents ; gifts are like hooks ; for who does not know that the greedy sea-bream is deceived by the fly he has gorged ? Every time he gives nothing to a rich friend, O Quintianus, a poor man is generous. 1


IF one may trust truth, no ages, most mighty Caesar, can be set above your times. When could we view more noble triumphs ? when have the Palatine gods more deserved our thanks? under what chief was Rome, city of Mars, fairer and greater ? under what prince was liberty so great ? Yet is there this blot, no small one, though it be but one : that a poor man courts ungrateful friend- ships. Who lavishes his wealth on an old and loyal comrade, or whom does a knight he himself made escort ? 2 To have dispatched at the Saturnalia 3 a table-spoon weighing half a pound, or a flame- hued toga worth ten scruples 4 in all, is to them extravagance, and our puffed-up lords call these bounties, though perhaps just one of them may

2 To whom he has given the amount of a knightly qualification.

3 The epithet Salunialiciae may perhaps convey a sug- gestion that the silver was poor : cf. iv. Ixxxviii. 3.

  • The scruple was a gold coin worth twenty sesterces,

about three and sixpence.



quatenus hi non sunt, esto tu, Caesar, amicus : 15

nulla ducis virtus dulcior esse potest. iam dudum tacito rides, Germanice, naso ;

utile quod nobis do tibi consilium.


Si tecum mihi, care Martialis,

securis liceat frui diebus,

si disponere tempus otiosum

et verae pariter vacare vitae,

nee iios atria nee domos potentum 5

nee litis tetricas forumque triste

nossemus nee imagines superbas ;

sed gestatio, fabulae, libelli,

campus, porticus, umbra, Vii-go, thermae,

haec essent loca semper, hi labores. 10

nunc vivit necuter sibi, bonosque

soles effugere atque abire sentit,

qui nobis pereunt et inputantur.

quisquam, vivere cum sciat, moratur ?


QUINTUM pro Decimo, pro Crasso, Regule, Macrum

ante salutabat rhetor Apollodotus. nunc utrumque suo resalutat nomine, quantum

cura laborque potest ! scripsit et edidicit.

1 Cold baths from the Aqua Virgo, one of the aqueducts : cf. vi. ilii. 18.


BOOK V. xix-xxi

make sovereigns chink. So long as these men are no friends, be you, Caesar, our friend ; no merit in a chief can be more pleasing. All this while you are smiling, Caesar, with a quiet sneer because I am giving you advice profitable to myself.


IF I and you, dear Martial, were permitted to enjoy careless days, if permitted to dispose an idle time, and both alike to have leisure for genuine life, we should not know the halls or mansions of men of power, nor worrying lawsuits and the anxious forum, nor lordly ancestral busts ; but the promenade, the lounges, the bookshops, the plain, the colonnade, the garden's shade, the Virgin water, 1 the warm baths these should be our haunts always, these our tasks. To-day neither lives for himself, and lie feels the good days are flitting and passing away, our days that perish and are scored to our account. Does any man, when he knows how to live, delay ?


APOLLODOTUS the rhetorician, Regulus, used to greet Quintus for Decimus, Macer for Crassus ; now he returns the greeting of each by his proper name. What power has care and labour ! He wrote the names down and learned them by heart ! 2

2 cf. v. liv.



MANE domi nisi te volui meruique videre,

sint mihi, Paule, tuae longius Esquiliae. sed Tiburtinae sum proximus accola pilae,

qua videt anticum rustica Flora lovem : alta Suburani vincenda est semita clivi 5

et numquam sicco sordida saxa gradu, vixque datur longas mulorum rumpere mandras

quaeque trahi multo marmora fune vides. illud adhuc gravius quod te post mille labores,

Paule, negat lasso ianitor esse domi. 10

exitus hie operis vani togulaeque madentis :

vix tanti Paulum mane videre fuit. semper inhumanos habet officiosus amicos :

rex, nisi dormieris, non potes esse meus.


HEHBARUM fueras indutus, Basse, colores,

iura theatralis dum siluere loci, quae postquam placidi censoris cura renasci

iussit et Oceanum certior audit eques, non nisi vel cocco madida vel murice tincta 5

veste nites et te sic dare verba putas. quadringentorum nullae sunt, Basse, lacernae

aut meus ante omnis Cordus haberet equum.

1 Otherwise unknown.

2 The Temple of Flora and the Capitolium Vetus, a temple dedicated to Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva ; both stood on the Quirinal where M. lived.

3 i.e. BO that I can see you. M. also hints that P.'s absence


BOOK V. xxii-xxm


IF I did not wish, and deserve, to see you " at home " in the morning, Paulus, may your Esquiline house be for me still farther off! But I am next- door neighbour to the Tiburtine column, 1 where rustic Flora looks upon our ancient Jove ; 2 I must surmount the track up the hill from the Subura and the dirty pavement with its steps never dry, and I can scarce break through the long droves of mules and the blocks of marble you see hauled by many a cable. And more annoying still after a thousand exertions, Paulus, when I am fagged out, your door- keeper says you are " not at home " ! Such is the result of misspent toil, and my poor toga drenched ! To see Paulus in the morning was scarcely worth the cost. A diligent client always has inhuman friends : my patron if you do not stay in bed 3 you cannot be.


You were clad, Bassus, in the colour of grass so long as the rules of seating 4 in the theatre were unheard. Now that our serene Censor's care has bid them revive, and knights more genuine obey Oceanus, 'tis never, but in robes steeped in scarlet or dyed with purple, that you are resplendent, and you fancy that thereby you cheat him ! No mantles, Bassus, are reckoned at four hundred thousand sesterces, or else my Cordus 5 before all men would have his knighthood.

is caused by his dancing attendance on other patrons : cf. n. xxxii. 8.

4 cf. viii., xiv., xxv., and xxxviii. of this Book. Oceanus was one of the attendants of the theatre. 8 cf. n. Ivii.




HERMES Martia saeculi voluptas,

Hermes omnibus eruditus armis,

Hermes et gladiator et magister,

Hermes turba sui tremorque ludi,

Hermes, quern timet Helius sed unum. 5

Hermes, cui cadit Advolans sed uni,

Hermes vincere nee ferire doctus,

Hermes subpositicius sibi ipse,

Hermes divitiae locariorum,

Hermes cura laborque ludiarum, 10

Hermes belligera superbus hasta,

Hermes aequoreo minax tridente,

Hermes casside languida timendus,

Hermes gloria Martis universi,

Hermes omnia solus et ter unus. 15


" QUADKINGENTA tibi non suiit, Chaerestrate : surge,

Leitus ecce venit : sta, fuge, curre, late." ecquis, io, revocat discedentemque reducit ?

ecquis, io, largas pandit amicus opes ? quern chartis famaeque damus populisque loquendum ?

quis Stygios non volt tobus adire lacus ? 6

hoc, rogo, non melius quam rubro pulpita nimbo

spargere et effuso permaduisse croco ?

1 Never vanquished, and so no other gliidiator being substituted for him.

  • Or "the anxiety of gladiators' wives," fearing the death

of their husbands at his hands.

BOOK V. xxiv-xxv


HERMES, the age's delight to the Sons of Mars ; Hermes, schooled in all weapons; Hermes, gladiator and trainer both ; Hermes, the confusion and terror of his own school ; Hermes, whom, but whom alone, Helius fears ; Hermes, whom, but whom alone, Ad- volans goes down before ; Hermes, skilled to vanquish without slaying ; Hermes, himself his own substi- tute ; l Hermes, fount of wealth to seat-contractors ; Hermes, the darling and passion of gladiators' women ; 2 Hermes, proud with the warrior's spear ; Hermes, threatful with the sea-trident ; 3 Hermes, terrible in the drooping casque ; 4 Hermes, the pride of Mars in every shape ; Hermes is all things in his single self, and trebly one.


" You don't possess four hundred thousand, Chaerestratus ; get up ; see, Leitus is coming ! Stand up, fly, run, hide ! " Ho, there ! does anyone call him back, and bring him back as he departs ? Ho, there ! does any friend unlock his abounding wealth ? Whom am I to give to my pages, and to fame and the tongues of nations ? Who is loth to pass, all unknown, to the lake of Styx ? Is not this, I ask, better than to sprinkle the stage with a ruddy shower, and be drenched with streams of saffron ?

3 As a retiarius, or net-caster, who was also armed with a trident.

4 As an andabata, a gladiator who fought on horseback, and more or less blindfolded by his helmet.



quam non sensuro dare quadringenta caballo,

aureus ut Scorpi nasus ubique micet ? 10

o frustra locuples, o dissimulator amici, haec legis et laudas ? quae tibi fama perit !


QUOD alpha dixi, Corde, paenulatorum te nuper, aliqua cum iocarer in charta, si forte bilem movit hie tibi versus, dicas licebit beta me togatorum.


INGENIUM studiumque tibi moresque genusque sunt equitis, fateor : cetera plebis habes.

bis septena tibi non sint subsellia tanti, ut sedeas viso pallidus Oceano.


UT bene loquatur sentiatque Mamercus,

efficere nullis, Aule, moribus possis,

pietate fratres Curvios licet vincas,

quiete Nervas, comitate Rusones,

probitate Macros, aequitate Mauricos, 5

oratione Regulos, iocis Paulos :

robiginosis cuncta dentibus rodit.

hominem malignum forsan esse tu credas :

ego esse miserum credo, cui placet nemo.

1 Than to set up a gilded statue of Scorpus, the jockey : cf. x. 1. and liii. 2 u. Ivii.


BOOK V. xxv-xxvni

Than to give four hundred thousand sesterces to an unconscious horse, that the nose of Scorpus l may twinkle everywhere in gold ? O man uselessly rich, O disguiser of your friendship ! Read you these words, and praise them ? What renown you are losing !


I CALLED you lately, 2 Cordus, when I was cracking a joke in some page of mine, "A 1 in cloaks." If as may be this verse has stirred your bile, you may call me B 2 in togas.


THE wit, and the taste, and the manners, and the birth that fit a knight are yours, I grant : the rest is plebeian. A place in the fourteen rows should not seem to you worth having if you have to turn pale in your seat at the sight of Oceanus. 3


THERE is no virtue, Aulus, by which you could induce Mamercus to speak and think kindly of you. You may in affection surpass the brothers Curvii, in calm the Nervas, 4 in courtesy the Rusos, in goodness the Macri, 5 in justice the Maurici, in oratory the Reguli, in wit the Pauli he gnaws all with cankered teeth. Malicious you perhaps may deem the fellow : I deem him miserable whom no man pleases.

3 Because you are still "plebeian" as not having the money-qualification of a knight. * cf. vm. Ixx.

5 cf. x. xvii. and Ixxvii. The rest of the names are unknown.


Si quando leporem mittis mihi, GeHia, dicis : "Formosus septem, Marce, diebus eris."

si non derides, si verum, lux mea, narras, edisti numquam, Gellia, tu leporem.


VARRO, Sophocleo non infitiande coturno

nee minus in Calabra suspiciende lyra, differ opus nee te facundi scaena Catulli

detineat cultis aut elegia comis ; sed lege fumoso non aspernanda Decembri -5

carmina, mittuntur quae tibi mense suo, commodius nisi forte tibi potiusque videtur

Saturnalicias perdere, Varro, nuces.


ASPICE quam placidis insultet turba iuvencis

et sua quam facilis pondera taurus amet. cornibus hie pendet summis, vagus ille per armos

currit et in toto ventilat arma bove. at feritas inmota riget : non esset harena 5

tutior et poterant fallere plana magis. nee trepidant gestus, sed de discrimine palmae

securus puer est sollicitumque pecus.

1 It was a vulgar superstition that eating a hare made the eater beautiful for that time or longer : Plin. N.H. xxviii. 19.

BOOK V. xxix-xxxi


IF at any time you send me a hare, } 7 ou say, Gellia : " Marcus, you will be comely for seven days." l If you are not laughing at me, if you speak truly, my love, you, Gellia, have never eaten a hare.


VAKRO, whom the Sophoclean buskin would not disclaim, nor less to be looked up to for your Calabriaii lyre, 2 put off your studies and let not the stage of the clever Catullus 3 keep you busy, or Elegy with her trim locks ; rather read poems, not to be despised in smoky December, which are sent you in their appro- priate month. But perhaps it seems to you, Varro, more suitable and better to lose your Saturnalian nuts. 4


SEE how the troupe leaps on the placid steers, and how complacently the bull accepts his appointed burden ! This boy hangs on the tips of his horns, that one runs here and there along his shoulders and waves his weapons all over the ox. But the fierce beast stands unmoved and stark ; the sand would not be safer ; rather might the level ground cause a slip. Nor are their movements troubled ; but of the award of the prize the boy is sure, the beast solicitous.

2 For lyrics like Horace's. Varro is unknown.

3 A writer of mimes or comic plays.

4 To gamble for nuts at the Saturnalia.




QUADRANTEM Crispus tabulis, Faustine, supremis non dedit uxori. " Cui dedit ergo ? " sibi.


CARPERE causidicus fertur mea carmina. qui sit nescio : si sciero, vae tibi, causidice.


HANC tibi, Fronto pater, genetrix Flaccilla, puellam

oscula commendo deliciasque meas, parvola ne nigras horrescat Erotion umbras

oraque Tartarei prodigiosa canis. inpletura fuit sextae modo frigora brumae, 5

vixisset totidem ni minus ilia dies, inter tarn veteres ludat lasciva patronos

et nomen blaeso garriat ore meum. mollia non rigidus caespes tegat ossa nee illi,

terra, gravis fueris : non fuit ilia tibi. 1


DUM sibi redire de Patrensibus fundis ducena clamat coccinatus Euclides Corinthioque plura de suburbano longumque pulchra stemma repetit a Leda et suscitanti Leito reluctatur, 5

equiti superbo nobili locupleti cecidit repente magna de sinu clavis. mnnquam, Fabulle, nequior fuit clavis.

1 i.e. he dissipated it in his lifetime.

2 Supposed to be M.'a father and mother.


BOOK V. xxxn-xxxv


CRISPUS in his last will, Faustinas, did not give his wife a farthing. " To whom, then, did he give his estate ? " To himself. 1


A LAWYER is said to carp at my poems ; who he is I don't know : if I do know, woe to you, lawyer !


To thee, father Pronto, to thee, mother Flacilla, 2 I commend this maid, my sweetheart and my darling, that tiny Erotion may not shudder at the dark shades and the Tartarean hound's stupendous jaws. She would have completed only her sixth cold winter had she not lived as many days too few. Beside protectors so aged let her lightly play, and prattle my name with lisping tongue. And let not hard clods cover her tender bones, nor be thou heavy upon her, O earth : she was not so to thee !


WHILE Euclides in scarlet was loudly proclaiming that two hundred thousand sesterces a year were the return of his farms at Patrae, and more that of his property in the suburbs of Corinth, and was tracing a long pedigree from beauteous Leda, and arguing with Leitus who was making him stir out of the pocket of this proud, high-born, rich knight there suddenly fell a big key. Never, Fabullus, was there a key more wicked ! 3

3 As showing that E. was only a door-keeper, or in some other menial position.

321 VOL. I. Y



LAUUATUS nostro quidam, Faustina, libello dissimulat, quasi nil debeat : inposuit.


PUKLLA senibus dulcior mihi cycnis,

agna Galaesi mollior Phalantini,

concha Lucrini delicatior stagni,

cui nee lapillos praeferas Erythraeos

nee modo politum pecudis Indicae dentem 5

nivesque primas liliumque non tactum ;

quae crine vicit Baetici gregis vellus

Rhenique nodos aureamque nitellam ;

fragravit ore quod rosarium Paesti,

quod Atticarum prima mella cerarum, 10

quod sucinorum rapta de manu gleba ;

cui conparatus indecens erat pavo,

inamabilis sciurus et frequens phoenix,

adhuc recenti tepet Erotion busto,

quam pessimorum lex amara fatorum 15

sexta peregit hieme, nee tarn en tota,

nostros amores gaudiumque lususque.

et esse tristem me meus vetat Paetus,

pectusque pulsans pariter et comam vellens :

" Deflere non te vernulae pudet mortem ? 20

ego coniugem " inquit "extuli et tamen vivo,

notam superbam nobilem locupletem."

quid esse nostro fortius potest Paeto ?

ducentiens accepit et tamen vivit.

1 The water of the Baetis ^Guadalquivir) gave wool a golden hue : ef. ix. Ixi. 3.


BOOK V. xxxvi-xxxvn


A CERTAIN individual, Faustinus, whom I praised in my book, pretends he owes me nothing. He has cheated me.


A MAID, sweeter-voiced to me than aged swans, more tender than the lamb by Phalanthian Galaesus, more dainty than mother of pearl of Lucrine's mere, before whom thou wouldst not choose Eastern pearls, nor the tusk new polished of India's beast, and snows untrodden, and the unfingered lily ; whose locks out- shone the Baetic fleece, 1 the knotted hair of Rhine, 2 and the golden dormouse ; whose breath was fragrant as Paestan bed of roses, as the new honey of Attic combs, as a lump of amber snatched from the hand; 3 compared with Avhom the peacock was unsightly, no darling the squirrel, and less rare the phoenix ; warm on a pyre yet new Erotion lies, whom the bitter decree of the most evil Fates carried off ere her sixth winter was full, my love, my joy, my playfellow. And my friend Paetus forbids me to be sad, while he beats his breast with both his hands and plucks his hair. " Are you not ashamed to bewail the death of a paltry home-bred slave? I," he says, "have buried my wife, and yet I live, a wife known to all, proud, high-born, wealthy." What can be more steadfast than our Paetus ? He has received twenty millions and goes on living still !

2 Which was yellow and knotted : cf. Lib. Spect. iii. 9 ; Juv. xiii. 164.

3 The warmth of the hand brought out the fragrance of amber.

323 Y 2



CALLIODORUS habet censum (quis nescit?) equestrem,

Sexte, sed et fratrem Calliodorus habet. " Quadringenta seca " qui dicis, O-VKO. /xe/ai^e :

uno credis equo posse sedere duos ? quid cum fratre tibi, quid cum Polluce molesto ? 5

non esset Pollux si tibi, Castor eras, unus cum sitis, duo, Calliodore, sedebis ?

surge : o-oAoi*io-ju.6V, Calliodore, facis. aut imitai'e genus Ledae : cum fratre sedere

non potes : alternis, Calliodore, sede. 10


SUPREMAS tibi triciens in anno

signanti tabulas, Charine, misi

Hyblaeis madidas thymis placentas.

defeci : miserere iam, Charine :

signa rarius, aut semel fac illud, 5

mentitur tua quod subinde tussis.

excussi loculosque sacculumque :

Croeso divitior licet fuissem,

Iro pauperior forem, Charine,

si conchem totiens meam comesses. 10


PINXISTI Venerem, colis, Artemidore, Minervam : et miraris opus displicuisse tuum ?

1 The point of the epigram is that the knight's qualifica- tion (400,000 sesterces) possessed by C. cannot serve for his brother also.

8 Who, of the Twins, was the horseman : cf. vu. Ivii. 2.

3 Your procedure amounts to saying "two sits," i.e. on the knight's horse.




CALLIODORUS has who does not know it? a knight's estate, Sextus, but Calliodorus also has a brother. You, who say " Divide four hundred," go, halve a fig : on one horse do you think that two can sit ? 1 What have you to do with your brother, what with troublesome Pollux ? If you had had no Pollux, you would have been Castor. 2 Although you two are one, will you, Calliodorus, sit as two ? Get up ! You are guilty of a solecism, Calliodorus. 3 Or else copy the sons of Leda you can't sit with your brother sit alternately, 4 Calliodorus.


WHILE you were thirty times in the year sealing your last will, Charinus, I sent you cakes steeped with Hybla's thyme-fed honey. I am used up : pity me now, Charinus ; seal more seldom, or do once for all what your cough constantly suggests falsely. I have shaken out my boxes and my money-bag ; had I been richer than Croesus, yet I should now be poorer than Irus, 5 Charinus, had you so often eaten beans of mine. 6


You who have painted Venus, Artemidorus, are a votary of Minerva ; 7 do you wonder that your work has not found favour ?

4 Like Castor and Pollux, who lived alternately in Heaven and in the vShades : cf. i. xxxvi.

5 The typical beggar : see Horn. Od. xvii.

6 Though beans are cheap : cf. Juv. iii. 293.

7 The tutelary goddess of art. Venus had defeated Minerva in the contest of beauty decided by Paris.




SPADONE cum sis eviratior fluxo, et concubino mollior Celaenaeo, quern sectus ululat matris entheae Gallus, theatra loqueris et gradus et edicta trabeasque et Idus fibulasque censusque, et pumicata pauperes manu monstras. sedere in equitum liceat an tibi scamnis videbo, Didyme : non licet maritorum.


CALLIDUS efFracta nummos fur auferet area,

prosternet patrios irapia flamma lares : debitor usuram pariter sortemque negabit,

non reddet sterilis semina iacta seges : dispensatorem fallax spoliabit arnica,

mercibus extructas obruet unda rates, extra fortunam est quidquid donatur amicis :

quas dederis solas semper habebis opes.


THAIS habet nigros, niveos Laecania dentes. quae ratio est ? emptos haec haljet, ilia suos.


QUID factum est, rogo, quid repente factum, ad cenam mihi, Dento, quod vocanti (quis credat ?) quater ausus es negare ?

1 Attis. 2 Cybele.

3 Of July, when there was a procession of the knights




ALTHOUGH you are more unmanned than a flaccid eunuch, and more effeminate than the Ganymede of Celaenae l whose name the emasculated priest of the soul-maddening Mother 2 howls, you talk of theatres, and rows of seats, and edicts, and gowns of purple stripe, and Ides, 3 and clasps, and estates, and with a pumice-smoothed hand point at poor men. Whether you should sit on the knights' benches I will consider, Didymus : you can't sit on those of husbands. 4


A CUNNING thief will break your money-box and carry off your coin, cruel fire will lay low your an- cestral home ; your debtor will repudiate interest alike and principal, your sterile crop will not return you the seed you have sown ; a false mistress will despoil your treasurer, the wave will overwhelm your ships stored with merchandise. Beyond Fortune's power is any gift made to your friends ; only wealth bestowed will you possess always.


THAIS has black, Laecania snowy teeth. What is the reason ? One has those she purchased, the other her own.


WHAT has happened, I ask, what has happened suddenly* that, when I asked you, Dento, to dinner, four times (who would believe it ?) you made bold

(equilum transvectio) crowned with olive, and in their state robes (trabeae) : Dion. Hal. vi. 13 ; Val. Max. n. ii. 9.

  • Assigned seats in the theatre by Augustus.

3 2 7

sed nee respicis et fugis sequentem,

quern thermis modo quaerere et theatris 5

et conclavibus omnibus solebas.

sic est, captus es unctiore mensa

et maior rapuit canem culina.

iam te, sed cito, cognitum et relictum

cum fastidierit popina dives, 10

antiquae venies ad ossa cenae.


DICIS formosam, dicis te, Bassa, puellam. istud quae non est dicere, Bassa, solet.


13 ASIA dum nolo nisi quae luctantia carpsi et placet ira mihi plus tua quam facies,

ut te saepe rogem, caedo, Diadumene, saepe : consequor hoc, ut me nee timeas nee ames.


NUMQUAM se cenasse domi Philo iurat, et hoc est : non cenat, quotiens nemo vocavit eum.


QUID non cogit amor ? secuit nolente capillos

Encolpos domino, non prohibente tamen. 328


to refuse? Moreover, you don't even look back, but fly, when I follow you, from me whom but lately in warm baths, and in theatres, and in every dining- room you used to look for. So it is : you have been captured by a richer dinner, and a bigger kitchen has carried off the dog ! Presently and that soon when you are known and discarded, and the wealthy eating-house is sick of you, to the bones of the old dinner you will return.


You say, Bassa, that you are beautiful; you say that you are a girl. That is what she who is neither is wont to say, Bassa.


KISSES I reject save those I have ravished from reluctance, and your anger pleases me more than your face ; so I often beat you, Diadumenus, to make myself solicit you often. I achieve this : you neither fear nor love me.


PHILO swears he has never dined at home, and it is so. He doesn't dine at all whenever no one has invited him.


WHAT does not love compel ? Encolpos has shorn his locks against his master's will, yet not forbidden.



permisit flevitque Pudens : sic cessit habenis audaci questus de Phaethonte pater ;

talis raptus Hylas, talis deprensus Achilles deposuit gaudens, matre dolente, comas.

sed tu ne propera (brevibus ne crede capillis) tardaque pro tanto munere, barba, veni.


VIDISSEM modo forte cum sedentem

solum te, Labiene, tres putavi.

calvae me numerus tuae fefellit.

sunt illinc tibi, sunt et hinc capilli

quales vel puerum decere possunt : 5

nudumst in medio caput nee ullus

in longa pilus area notatur.

hie error tibi profuit Decembri,

turn cum prandia misit Imperator :

cum panariolis tribus redisti. 10

talem Geryonem fuisse credo.

vites censeo porticum Philippi :

si te viderit Hercules, peristi.

CENO domi quotiens, nisi te, Charopine, vocavi, protinus ingentes sunt inimicitiae,

1 E. had dedicated his long hair to Phoebus if his master Pudens became first centurion (primi pili) (see i. xxxi.), and now proceeds to fulfil the vow.

2 Helios, the Sun, allowed Phaethon to drive his chariot.

3 A beautiful youth drawn under the water by the ena- moured Nymphs.



Pudens allowed it and wept : l in such wise did his sire 2 yield the reins, sighing at Phaethon's bold- ness ; so fair was ravished Hylas, 3 so fair discovered Achilles, 4 when amid his mother's tears with joy he laid aside his locks. Yet haste not thou, O beard trust not those shortened tresses 5 and spring slow in return for sacrifice so great !


WHEN, as it chanced, I saw you just now in your seat, I fancied your single self, Labienus, was three persons : my calculation of your bald pate came out wrong. You have on that side hairs, you have hairs on this, such as might grace even a boy ; and your head in the middle is bare, and no single shoot is noticed in its long expanse. This confusion was profitable to you in December, just when the Em- peror sent round lunches ; you went home with three baskets of bread. Geryon 6 was like you, I am sure. You should avoid in my opinion the Portico of Philippus; 7 if Hercules sees you, you are undone !

IF, as often as I dine at home, I have not invited you, Charopinus, immediately you become my deadly

4 Who had been hidden by Thetis in woman's clothes to prevent him going to the Trojan war. An early instance of Pacificism !

8 Do not imagine him yet a man.

8 A three-headed herdsman slain by Hercules.

7 Where there was a Temple of Hercules and the Muses, containing a statue of Hercules.



meque velis stricto medium transfigere ferro, si nostrum sine te scis caluisse focum.

nee semel ergo mihi furtum fecisse licebit ? inprobius nihil est hac, Charopine, gula.

desine iam nostram, precor, observare culinam, atque aliquando meus det tibi verba cocus.


Hie, qui libellis praegravem gerit laevam, iiotariorum quern premit chorus levis, qui codicillis hinc et inde prolatis epistulisque commodat gravem voltum similis Catoni Tullioque Brutoque, exprimere, Rufe, fidiculae licet cogant, have Latinum, x a V non Ptest Graecum. si fingere istud me putas, salutemUs.


QUAE mihi praestiteris memini semperque tenebo.

cur igitur taceo, Postume ? tu loqueris. incipio quotieus alicui tua dona referre,

protinus exclamat "Dixerat ipse mihi." non belle quaedam faciunt duo : sufficit unus

huic operi : si vis ut loquar, ipse tace. crede mihi, quamvis ingentia, Postume, dona

auctoris pereunt garrulitate sui.

1 Perhaps containing notes taken in shorthand of forth- coming speeches.



enemy, and you would wish to run me through with a drawn sword if you discover that my kitchen fire has been aglow without you as guest. Cannot I then, not even once in a way, hoodwink you? Nothing is more insatiable, Charopinus, than this gluttony of yours. Cease, I pray, by now to watch my kitchen, and let my cook occasionally cheat you !


THAT fellow who has his left hand weighted with documents, round whom a smooth-cheeked band of shorthand-writers crowds, who, when note-books 1 and letters are offered to him on this side and on that, lends them a severe countenance, looking like a very Cato, and Tully, and Brutus ! that fellow cannot bring out, even though the fiddle-strings 2 forced him, a " How d'ye do ? " in Latin, a x a 'P e m Greek. If you think I am inventing that, let us greet him. 3


YOUR bounty to me I remember and shall always keep in mind. Why, then, am I silent about it, Postumus ? You speak of it. As often as I begin to report to someone your presents, he at once ex- claims : " He himself had told me." These are things which two persons do not do nicely : one suf- fices for this work ; if you want me to speak, be you yourself silent. Trust me ; gifts, however great, Pos- tumus, lose their value by the chattering of the giver.

2 A method of torture : Sen. de Ir. in. 3.

3 An epigram on a pretentious and surly lawyer, possibly the Pontilianus of v. Ixvi.


COLCHIDA quid scribis, quid scribis, amice, Thyesten ?

quo tibi vel Nioben, Basse, vel Andromachen ? materia est, mihi crede, tuis aptissiina chartis

Deucalion vel, si non placet hie, Phaethon.


EXTEMPORALIS factus est tneus rhetor : Calpurnium non scripsit, et salutavit.


Die mihi, quern portas, volucrum regina? "Tonantem." nulla manu quare fulmina gestat? " Amat."

quo calet igne deus ? " Pueri." cur mitis aperto respicis ore lovem? "De Ganymede loquor."


GUI tradas, Lupe, filium magistro quaeris sollicitus diu rogasque. omnes grammaticosque rhetorasque devites moneo : nihil sit illi cum libris Ciceronis aut Maronis. famae Tutilium suae relinquat ;

1 Medea.

2 i.e. they should be drowned or burned : cf. a similar Greek epigram (Anth. Pal. xi. ccxiv.) which M. copies.

3 cf. v. xxi.




WHY write of the Colchian dame/ why write, my friend, of Thyestes ? What does it avail you, Bassus, to write of Niobe or Andromache ? The fittest matter, believe me, for those sheets of yours is Deucalion, or if he doesn't please you Phaethon. 2


MY friend the rhetorician has become spontaneous. He did not write down "Calpurnius," and yet greeted him by name. 3


TELL me, whom bearest thou, queen of birds ? "The Thunderer." Why carries he in his hand no thunderbolts? "He loves." With what flame burns the god ? " With love for a boy." Why lookest thou mildly back with open mouth towards Jove ? " I am speaking of Ganymede." 4


To what master should you entrust your son, Lupus ? This you have long been anxiously considering and asking me. All teachers of grammar and rhetoric I warn you to avoid ; let him have nothing to do with the works of Cicero or Maro; leave Tutilius 5

4 A Phrygian youth carried off by the eagle to be Jove's cupbearer : cf. I. vi., an epigram referring to the masterpiece of Leochares, a Greek sculptor contemporary with Praxi- teles : cf. Plin. N.H. xxxiv. 19 (17). M. now probably alludes to some similar representation of Jupiter.

5 An advocate and author of some note in the time of Augustus.



si versus facit, abdices poetam.

artes discere vult pecuniosas ?

fac discat citharoedus aut choraules ;

si duri puer ingeni videtur, 10

praeconem facias vel architectuni.


CUM voco te dominum, noli tibi, Cinna, placere : saepe etiam servum sic resaluto tuum.


CHAS te victurum, eras dicis, Postume, semper.

die mihi, eras istud, Postume, quando venit ? quam longe eras istud, ubi est ? aut unde petendum r

numquid apud Parthos Armeniosque latet ? iam eras istud habet Priami vel Nestoris annos.

eras istud quanti, die mihi, possit emi ? eras vives ? hodie iam vivere, Postume, serum est :

ille sapit quisquis, Postume, vixit heri.


QUOD lion argentum, quod non tibi mittimus aurum,

hoc facimus causa, Stella diserte, tua. quisquis magna dedit, voluit sibi magna remitti ;

fictilibus nostris exoneratus eris.

1 r/. in. iv. 33 6


to his own fame. If he make verses, disinherit the bard. Does he wish to learn money-making arts ? make him learn to be harper or flutist for the chorus ; 1 if the boy seem to be of dull intellect, make him an auctioneer or architect.


WHEN I call you "master" 2 don't pride yourselr, China. I often return even your slave's greeting so.


" TO-MORROW you will live, to-morrow," you are always saying, Postumus. Tell me, when does that "morrow" of yours arrive, Postumus? How distant is that morrow ? where is it ? or in what quarter should we look for it ? Surely it does not lie hid among the Parthians and Armenians ? Already that morrow is as old as Priam or as Nestor. That morrow tell me for how much it can be bought ? To-morrow will you live ? To live to-day, Postumus, is already too late. He is wise, whoever he be, Postumus, who " lived " yesterday. 3


IN sending you no silver plate, no gold plate, I act in your interest, eloquent Stella. He who has given great presents has desired great presents in return : your burden will be lightened by my earthenware. 4

2 Apparently a form of address to a person whose name had been forgotten.

3 cf. i. xv. * cf. v. xviii. 9.





ADLATRES licet usque nos et usque

et gannitibus inprobis lacessas,

certum est hanc tibi pernegare famam,

olim quam petis, in meis libellis

qualiscumque legaris ut per orbem. 5

nam te cur aliquis sciat fuisse ?

ignotus pereas, miser, necesse est.

non derunt tarn en hac in urbe forsan

unus vel duo tresve quattuorve,

pellem rodere qui velint caninam : 10

nos hac a scabie tenemus ungues.


CRISPULUS iste quis est, uxori semper adhaeret

qui, Mariane, tuae ? crispulus iste quis est ? nescio quid dominae teneram qui garrit in aurem

et sellam cubito dexteriore premit ? per cuius digitos currit levis anulus omnis,

crura gerit nullo qui violata pilo ? nil mihi respondes ? " Uxoris res agit " inquis

" iste meae." sane certus et asper homo est, procuratorem voltu qui praeferat ipso :

acrior hoc Chius non erit Aufidius. 10

o quam dignus eras alapis, Mariane, Latini :

te successurum credo ego Panniculo. res uxoris agit ? res ullas crispulus iste ?

res non uxoris, res agit iste tuas.

1 Alluding to the proverb "dog does not bite dog." AJ. says "I will not retort." See Erasm. Adag. s.v. Caninam pellem rodere.

1 i.e. the aestivum aurum of Juv. i. 28. Roman fops wore the heavier hibernum aurum in winter.




BARK at me as you may for ever and ever, and assail me with your ceaseless snarlings, resolved am I to refuse you the fame you seek so long to be read of in whatever shape in my works throughout the world. For why should some one or other know you existed ? Unknown, you must perish, you miser- able fellow. Yet there may be found in this city perhaps one or two, or three or four, who are ready to gnaw a dog's hide. 1 I keep my nails from such an itch.


WHO is that curled spark who is always clinging to your wife's side, Marianus ? Who is that curled spark, he who whispers some trifle into the lady's tender ear, and leans on her chair with his right elbow, round each of whose fingers runs a light 2 ring, who carries legs unmarred by any hair ? Do you make no reply ? "That individual does my wife's jobs," you say. To be sure ! he is a trusty and rugged fellow who flaunts factor in his very face : Chian Aufidius 3 will not be sharper than he. Oh, Marianus, how you deserve the buffets of Latinus ! 4 You will be successor I fancy to Panniculus. He does your wife's jobs, does he ? Thnt curled spark do any ? That fellow doesn't do your wife's jobs : he does yours.

8 Aufidius was a notorious libertine : Juv. ix. 25.

4 Latinus and Panniculus were comic actors in mimes, like clown and pantaloon, the latter being the stupid character, who gets his ears boxed by Latinus : cf. n. Ixxii. 4. M. means that Marianus is a fool.

339 z 2


IURE tuo nostris maneas licet, hospes, in hortis,

si potes in nudo ponere membra solo, aut si portatur tecum tibi magna supellex :

nam mea iam digitum sustulit hospitibus. nulla tegit fractos nee inanis culcita lectos, 5

putris et abrupta fascia reste iacet. sit tamen hospitium nobis commune duobus :

emi hortos ; plus est : instrue tu ; minus est.


" QUID sentis " inquis " de nostris, Marce, libellis? " sic me sollicitus, Pontice, saepe rogas.

admiror, stupeo : nihil est perfectius illis, ipse tuo cedet Regulus ingenio.

" Hoc sentis ? " inquis " faciat tibi sic bene Caesar, 5 sic Capitolinus luppiter." immo tibi.


SEXTANTES, Calliste, duos infunde Falerni, tu super aestivas, Alcime, solve nives,

pinguescat nimio madidus mihi crinis amomo lassenturque rosis tempora sutilibus.

tarn vicina iubent nos vivere Mausolea, 5

cum doceant ipsos posse perire deos.

1 i.e. asked for mercy, like a gladiator : cf. Lib. Spect. xxix. 5.

2 Ponticus' blessing being based on the truth of M.'s opinions was an empty one. M. with ironical politeness returns the blessing : cf. vm. Ixxvi.




OF your own right you may remain, my guest, in my gardens if you can lay your limbs on the bare ground, or if a pile of furniture is brought with you ; for mine has already held up its finger J to my guests. No cushion not even one without stuffing covers my broken couches, and the rotten girth lies, its band burst, upon the floor. Nevertheless, let hospitality be divided between us two ; I bought the gardens : that is the larger share; do you furnish them: that is the smaller.


You say " what is your opinion, Marcus, of my little books ? " Such is the question, Ponticus, you often ask me anxiously. I admire them ; I am over- powered ; nothing is more perfect than they are ; Regulus himself will give place to you in genius. "Is this your opinion?" you say: "so may Caesar bless you, so may Capitoline Jove." Rather be that blessing yours. 2


POUR in, Callistus, two double-measures 3 of Falernian ; do thou, Alcimus, dissolve upon them the summer's snow ; let my dripping locks be rich with over-bounteous balm, and my temples droop beneath the knitted roses. Yon tombs, 4 so nigh, bid us enjoy life, forasmuch as they teach us that the very gods can die.

3 Four cyathi, the sextans being equal to two cyathi.

4 The Mausoleum of Augustus (described by Strabo, v. iii.), which M. could see from his house on the Quirinal : cf. n. lix. M. probably imagines himself drinking in the Mica.




ASTRA polumque dedit, quamvis obstante noverca,

Alcidae Nemees terror et Areas aper et castigatum Libycae ceroma palaestrae

et gravis in Siculo pulvere fusus Eryx, silvarumque tremor, tacita qui fraude solebat 5

ducere non rectas Cacus in antra boves. ista tuae, Caesar, quota pars spectatur harenae !

dat maiora novus proelia mane dies, quot graviora cadunt Nemeaeo pondera monstro !

quot tua Maenalios conlocat hasta sues ! 10

reddatur si pugna triplex pastoris Hiberi,

est tibi qui possit vincere Geryonem. saepe licet Graiae numeretur belua Lernae,

inproba Niliacis quid facit Hydra feris ? pro meritis caelum tantis, Auguste, dederunt 15

Alcidae cito di sed tibi sero dabunt.


SAEPE salutatus numquam prior ipse salutas. sic erit ; aeternum, Pontiliane, vale.


HIBERNOS peterent solito cum more recessus Atthides, in nidis una remansit avis.

1 Hercules, son of Jupiter, who, having accomplished his labours, was deified.

1 The Nemean lion, afterwards the Constellation Leo. 3 i.e. by their tails. * cf. v. xlix. 11.




THE starry heaven, albeit his stepmother said nay, was granted to Alcides l by his slaughter of Nemea's dread beast, 2 and by Arcadia's boar, and by the chastisement of the oiled wrestler of Libyan lists, and by the laying low of huge Eryx in Sicilian dust, and of Cacus, the terror of the woods, wont with secret guile to drag into his den the back- turned 3 oxen. How small a part are such things of the sights of thy Arena, Caesar ! Each new day gives us at morn conflicts more great. How many massive beasts, heavier than Nemea's monster, are laid low ! How many Maenalian boars does thy spear expose in death ! Were the threefold fight 4 with Iberia's shepherd fought anew, one 5 thou hast that can vanquish Geryon. Though the heads of Grecian Lerna's beast were counted oft, 6 what is the prodigious hydra to the brutes of Nile ? Heaven for worth so great, Augustus, the gods quickly granted to Alcides; but to thee they shall grant it late. 7


THOUGH often greeted, you are never the first to greet. So it shall be : Pontilianus, " farewell for ever." 8


WHEN the Attic birds 9 in wonted wise sought their winter retreats, one bird remained within the nest.

5 Carpophorus, a famous bestiarius : cf. Lib. Spect. xv. , xxiii., and xxvii

6 When one of the hydra's heads was cut off by Hercules, two grew in its place.

7 i.e. that you may live long to benefit earth.

8 The last salutation to the dead 9 Swallows.



deprendere nefas ad tempera verna reversae

et profugam volucres diripuere suae. sero dedit poenas : discerpi noxia mater J3

debuerat, sed tune cum laceravit Ityn.


ARCTOA de gente comam tibi, Lesbia, misi, ut scires quanto sit tua flava magis.


ANTONI Phario nihil obiecture Pothino

et levius tabula quam Cicerone nocens, quid gladium demens Romana stringis in ora ?

hoc admisisset nee Catilina nefas. impius infando miles corrumpitur auro, 5

et tantis opibus vox tacet una tibi. quid prosunt sacrae pretiosa silentia linguae ?

incipient omnes pro Cicerone loqui.


INFUSUM sibi nuper a patrono

plenum, Maxime, centiens Syriscus

in sellariolis vagus popinis

circa balnea quattuor peregit.

o quanta est gula, centiens cornesse ! 5

quanto maior adhue, nee accubare !

1 Progne slew and served up her son Itys to his father Tereus. She was turned into a swallow.

2 The eunuch of Ptolemy, king of Egypt, who slew Pompey.



This crime they detected when they returned in the spring time, and her own mates tore asunder the deserter. Late was the penalty she paid : the guilty mother had deserved to be rent in twain, but it was when she mangled Itys. 1


FROM a Northern race I sent you, Lesbia, a lock of hair, that you might know how much more golden is your own.


ANTONY, who canst ne'er reproach Pharian Pothi- nus, 2 and less guilty for thy list of doom than for Cicero's death, why, madman, drawest thou the sword against the lips 3 of Rome? A crime like this not even Catiline had wrought. An impious soldier is bribed with gold accursed, and a price so great bought thee the stillness of that one voice ! What avails the dear-bought silence of that hal- lowed tongue ? All men shall begin to speak for Cicero. 4


THE fortune showered upon him lately by his patron a full ten millions, Maximus Syriscus, gadding about, got through on tavern stools 6 about the four baths. Oh, what stupendous gluttony, to gorge ten millions ! And still more stupendous, not even to recline at table !

3 The mouthpiece of Roman eloquence.

4 cf. in. Ixvi.

5 Much like our quick-lunch counters.




UMIDA qua gelidas summittit Trebula valles et viridis Cancri mensibus alget ager,

rura Cleonaeo numquam temerata Leone et domus Aeolio semper arnica Noto

te, Faustine, vocant : longas his exige messes collibus ; hibernum iam tibi Tibur erit.


Qui potuit Bacchi matrem dixisse Tonantem, ille potest Semelen dicere, Rufe, patrem.


NON donem tibi cur meos libellos oranti totiens et exigenti miraris, Theodore ? magna causa est : dones tu mihi ne tuos libellos.


POMPEIOS iuvenes Asia atque Europa, sed ipsum terra tegit Libyes, si tamen ulla tegit.

quid mirum toto si spargitur orbe ? iacere uno non poterat tanta ruina loco.


QUAE legis causa nupsit tibi Laelia, Quinte, uxorem potes hanc dicere legitimam.

1 The Constellation of Leo.

2 A summer resort. It will seem, in comparison, warm enough to be a winter resort.

3 Bacchus was called bimater because, on the death of his




WHERE moist Trebula stands above the cool vales, and the green field is chill in the months of the Crab, a farm by Cleonae's lion l never spoilt, and a house ever welcoming the Aeolian south-west wind, summon you, Faustinus ; on these hills spend your long harvest-time : presently Tibur 2 will seem to you a winter place.


HE who could call the Thunderer the mother 01 Bacchus, 3 can, Rufus, call Semele his father.


WHY don't I give you my works, although so often you beseech me for them, and press me ? Do you wonder, Theodorus ? There is great reason : that you may not give me your works.


POMPEY'S sons Asia and Europe entomb, to himself the land of Libya gives if grave he has a grave. What wonder if o'er the whole world 'tis scattered ? In one spot so vast a ruin could not lie.


LAELIA, who married you, Quintus, to satisfy the law, 4 you may call your " lawful " spouse.

mother Semele, Jupiter placed him in his thigh till his birth was due : cf. Lib. Sped. xii. 7.

4 The Lex Julia against adultery, revived by Domitian cf. vi. vii.




PKOFECIT poto Mithridates saepe veneno

toxica ne possent saeva nocere sibi. tu quoque cavisti cenando tarn male semper

ne possis umquam, Cinna, perire fame.


NARRATUR belle quidam dixisse, Marulle, qui te ferre oleum dixit in auricula.


Si tristi domicenio laboras,

Torani, potes esurire mecum.

non derunt tibi, si soles irpottivuv,

viles Cappadocae gravesque porri,

divisis cybium latebit ovis. 5

ponetur digitis tenendus ustis

nigra coliculus virens patella,

algentem modo qui reliquit hortum.

et pultem niveam premens botellus,

et pallens faba cum rubente lardo. 10

mensae munera si voles secundae,

marcentes tibi porrigentur uvae

et nomen pira quae ferunt Syrorum,

et quas docta Neapolis creavit,

lento castaneae vapore tostae : 15

vinum tu facies bonum bibendo.

post haec omnia forte si movebit

Bacchus quam solet esuritionem,

1 You listen to great men with an ear as inclined as if you carried oil in it. Said "of flatterers, who say pleasant rather than salutary things": Erasm. Adag. s.v. Oleum in auricula ferre.




MITHRIDATES, by often drinking poison, achieved protection against deadly drugs. You too, Cinna, have taken care, by dining so badly always, against ever perishing of hunger.


A CERTAIN person is said to have made this neat remark, Marullus : he remarked that you carried oil in your ear. 1


IF you are troubled by the prospect of a cheerless dinner at home, Toranius, you may fare modestly with me. You will not lack, if you are accustomed to an appetizer, 2 cheap Cappadocian lettuces and strong- smelling leeks ; a piece of tunny will lie hid in sliced eggs. There will be served to be handled with scorched fingers on a black-ware dish light green broccoli, which has just left the cool garden, and a sausage lying on white pease-pudding, and pale beans with ruddy bacon. If you wish for what a dessert can give, grapes past their prime shall be offered you, and pears that bear the name of Syrian, and chest- nuts which learned Neapolis has grown, roasted in a slow heat ; the wine you will make good by drink- ing it. 3 After all this spread, if as may be Bac- chus rouses a usual appetite, choice olives which

2 Here begins the promulsis or gustus, consisting of a draught of mulsum together with appetizers, such as lettuces, etc. : cf. xiii. xiv. The dinner proper begins at 1. 6.

3 This seems to have been a common formula of politeness : Petr. xxxix. and xlviii. " Your drinking will be sufficient to recommend the wine."



succurrent tibi nobiles olivae,

Piceni modo quas tulere rami, 20

et fervens cicer et tepens lupinus.

parva est cenula (quis potest negare r)

sed finges nihil audiesve fictum

et voltu placidus tuo recumbes ;

nee crassum dominus leget volumen, 25

nee de Gadibus inprobis puellae

vibrabunt sine fine prurientes

lascivos docili tremore lumbos ;

sed quod nee grave sit nee infacetum,

parvi tibia Condyli sonabit. 30

haec est cenula. Claudiam sequeris.

quam nobis cupis esse tu priorem ?


UNDECIES una surrexti, Zoile, cena,

et mutata tibi est synthesis undecies, sudor inhaereret madida ne veste retentus

et laxam tenuis laederet aura cutem. quare ego non sudo, qui tecum, Zoile, ceno ? 5

frigus enim magnum synthesis una facit.


NON totam mihi, si vacabis, horam

dones et licet inputes, Severe,

dum nostras legis exigisque nugas.

" Durum est perdere ferias " : rogamus

iacturam patiaris hanc ferasque. 5

1 M. keeps a surprise for the end. But the text, and meaning, is obscure.



Picenian branches have but lately borne will relieve you, and hot chick-peas and warm lupines. My poor dinner is a small one who can deny it ? but you will say no word insincere nor hear one, and, wearing your natural face, will recline at ease ; nor will your host read a bulky volume, nor will girls from wanton Gades with endless prurience swing lascivious loins in practised writhings ; but the pipe of little Con- dylus shall play something not too solemn nor unlively. Such is your little dinner. You will follow Claudia. What girl do you desire to meet before me ? l


ELEVEN times during one dinner you got up, Zoilus, and your evening dress was changed eleven times, that sweat, kept in by your moist garb, should not cling to you, and a searching draught affect your opened pores. How is it that I don't sweat, who dine with you, Zoilus ? Why, a single evening suit produces great coolness ! 2


LESS than an hour, if you are at leisure, you may give me, and charge to my account, Severus, while you read and criticise my trifles. " 'Tis hard to spoil one's holiday." Yet I ask you to endure and put up

2 Having no change, I cannot pretend perspiration as an excuse for showing off.



quod si legeris ista cum diserto

(sed numquid sumus inprobi ?) Secundo,

plus multo tibi debiturus hie est

quam debet domino suo libellus.

nam securus erit, nee inquieta 10

lassi marmora Sisyphi videbit,

quern censoria cum meo Severe

docti lima momoi'derit Secundi.


SEMPER pauper eris, si pauper es, Aemiliane. dantur opes nullis nunc nisi divitibus.


QUID promittebas mihi milia, Gaure, ducenta, si dare non poteras milia, Gaure, decem ?

an potes et non vis ? rogo, non est turpius istud ? i, tibi dispereas, Gaure : pusillus homo es.


INSEQUERIS, fugio ; fugis, insequor ; haec mihi mens est : velle tuum nolo, Dindyme, nolle volo.


IAM tristis nucibus puer relictis

clamoso revocatur a magistro,

et blando male proditus fritillo,

arcana modo raptus e popina,

aedilem rogat udus aleator. 5

1 i.e. regard its labour wasted.

2 cf. vui. xix. 3 Playthings.



with this loss. If you read them am I too pre- sumptuous ? along with eloquent Secundus, this little book is likely to owe you much more than it owes its author. For it will be free from anxiety, nor will it look upon the restless stone of weary Sisyphus, 1 when the censorial file of the learned Secundus, aided by my Severus, has scored it.


. You will always be poor, if you are poor, Aemili- anus. Wealth is given to-day to none save the rich. 2


WHY were you promising me, Gaurus, two hundred thousand if you, Gaurus, could not give me ten thousand ? Can you and won't you ? I ask you is not that more disgraceful ? Go to the devil your own way, Gaurus : you are a paltry fellow.


You pursue me, I fly ; you fly, I follow. Such is my mind ; your willingness I reject, Dindymus, your coyness I prize.


Now the boy, sad to desert his nuts, 3 is recalled to school by his clamorous master; and, ill-betrayed by the sound of his fascinating dice-box, and just .dragged out of the secluded cook-shop, the boozy gambler is begging for mercy of the Aedile. 4 The

4 Who punished gambling except during the Saturnalia : cf. iv. xiv. 7-9 ; xiv. i. 3.




Saturnalia transiere tota,

nee munuscula parva nee minora

misisti mihi, Galla, quam solebas.

sane sic abeat meus December.

scis certe, puto, vestra iam venire 10

Saturnalia, Martias Kalendas ;

tune reddam tibi, Galla, quod dedisti.



Saturnalia are all over, yet you, Galla, have not sent me any small presents, not even any smaller than usual. By all means let my December so depart; you know at any rate, I fancy, that your Saturnalia are coming presently, the Kalends of March ; l then I will return you, Galla, what you gave.

1 Presents were made to women at the Matronalia on March 1.




SEXTUS mittitur hie tibi libellus,

in primis mihi care Martialis :

quern si terseris aure diligenti,

audebit minus anxius tremensque

magnas Caesaris in manus venire. 5


Lusus erat sacrae conubia fallere taedae,

lusus et inmeritos exsecuisse mares, utraque tu prohibes, Caesar, populisque f'uturis

succurris, nasci quod sine fraude iubes. nee spado iam nee moechus erit te praeside quisquam :

at prius (o mores !) et spado moechus erat. 6


NASCERE Dardanio promissum nomen lulo, vera deum suboles ; nascere, magne puer,

cui pater aeternas post saecula tradat habenas, quique regas orbem cum seniore senex.

ipsa tibi niveo trahet aurea pollice fila 5

et totam Phrixi lulia nebit ovem.

1 See notes to v. Ixxv. and n. Ix.

  • i.e. to the Romans.
Niece of Domitian, deified after her death. She shall



THIS, my sixth book, is sent to you, Martial, dear to me above all men. If you, with a critic's careful ear, will emend it, it will venture with less anxiety and fear to pass into Caesar's mighty hands.


'TWAS pastime once to betray wedlock with its hallowed torch, and pastime to mutilate unoffending males. 1 Both thou forbiddest, Caesar, and thou suc- courest generations yet to come, in that thou biddest births to be without dishonour. No man shall now be eunuch or adulterer while thou art governor ; but aforetime (shame on our morals !) even a eunuch was adulterer.


BE born, thou name promised to Dardan lulus,' 2 true scion of the gods ; be born, illustrious boy, that thy sire, after long years have passed, may yield to thee everlasting reins of empire, and thou mayst sway the world in old age with one more aged still. Julia 3 with her own snow-white finger shall draw thy golden threads, and spin for them all the fleece of Phryxus' ewe.

watch over the destiny of Domitian's expected child instead of the Fates, and spin his life's threads in gold.




CENSOR maxime principumque princeps, cum tot iam tibi debeat triumphos, tot nascentia templa, tot renata, tot spectacula, tot deos, tot urbes, plus debet tibi Roma quod pudica est.

RUSTICA mercatus multis sum praedia nummis : mutua des centum, Caeciliane, rogo.

nil mihi respondes ? taciturn te dicere credo "Non reddes " : ideo, Caeciliane, rogo.


COMOEDI tres sunt, sed amat tua Paula, Luperce, quattuor : et K<a<f>ov Paula irpocrwirov amat.


IULIA lex populis ex quo, Faustine, renata est atque intrare domos iussa Pudicitia est,

aut minus aut certe non plus tricesima lux est, et nubit decimo iam Telesilla viro.

quae nubit totiens, non nubit : adultera lege est. offendor moecha simpliciore minus.


PRAETORES duo, quattuor tribuni, septem causidici, decem poetae cuiusdam modo nuptias petebant


BOOK VI. iv-vm


GREATEST of censors and Prince of Princes, albeit she already owes thee so many triumphs, so many temples rising, so many renewed, so many spectacles, so many gods, so many cities yet more Rome owes thee, in that she is chaste.

I HAVE bought a country property at a tall price ; I ask you, Caecilianus, to lend me a hundred thousand sesterces. You make me no answer? I fancy you say to yourself: "You won't repay them." That is why, Caecilianus, I ask.


THERE are three actors in Comedy, but your Paula, Lupercus, loves four. Paula loves a " walker-on " as well.


SINCE the Julian law, Faustinus, was re-enacted for the peoples, and Chastity was commanded to enter our homes, 'tis the thirtieth day perhaps less, at least no more and Telesilla is now marrying her tenth husband. She who marries so often does not marry ; she is adulteress by form of law ; l by a more straightforward prostitute I am offended less.


Two pi-aetors, four tribunes, seven lawyers, ten poets, lately sued a certain old man for the hand of 1 cf. V. Ixxv. ; VI. xxii.



a quodam sene. non moi'atus ille

praeconi dedit Eulogo puellam. 5

die, numquid fatue, Severe, fecit ?


IN Pompeiano dormis, Laevine, theatre : et quereris si te suscitat Oceanus ?


PAUCA lovem nuper cum milia forte rogarem,

"Ille dabit " dixit " qui mihi templa dedit." templa quidem dedit ille lovi sed milia nobis

nulla dedit : pudet, a, pauca rogasse lovem. at quam non tetricus, quam nulla nubilus ira, 5

quam placido nostras legerat ore preces ! talis supplicibus tribuit diademata Dacis

et Capitolinas itque reditque vias. die precor, o nostri die conscia virgo Tonantis,

si negat hoc vultu, quo solet ergo dare ? 10

sic ego : sic breviter posita mihi Gorgone Pallas :

"Quae nondum data sunt, stulte, negata putas ? "


QUOD non sit Pylades hoc tempore, non sit Orestes miraris ? Pylades, Marce, bibebat idem,

1 Auctioneers were wealthy: cf. v. Ivi. Eulogus ("the man of fair speech") is an invented name.


BOOK VI. vm-xi

a certain maid. Without hesitation, he gave the girl to Eulogus the auctioneer. 1 Tell me, you don't thinly he acted foolishly, Severus?


Do you go to sleep, Laevinus, in Pompey's theatre, and grumble if Oceanus 2 rouse you ?


WHEN for some poor thousands, as it chanced, I was praying Jupiter, " He will give them," he said, "who gave me temples." Temples, 'tis true, he gave to Jupiter, but to me he gave no thousands ; alas ! ashamed am I to have asked so few of Jove ! ' 6 Yet how little severe was he, how unclouded by anger ! With a look how calm had he read my petition ! Such his guise when he bestows diadems on suppliant Dacians, and goes and returns along Capitoline ways. 4 Tell me, I pray, tell me, thou Maid, our Thunderer's confidant, if with such a face he denies, with what is he wont to give ? Thus I : so briefly Pallas, laying aside her shield, answered me : " That which has not yet been given, thinkest thou, O foolish one, has been refused ? "


Do you wonder that to-day there is no Pylades, that there is no Orestes ? Pylades, Marcus, drank

a See note to v. xxiii. "Rouse" is intentionally am- biguous.

3 Domitian. M. regrets having asked so little of one so great : cf, xi, Ixviii. 4 In triumph.



nee melior panis turdusve dabatur Orestae,

sed par atque eadem cena duobus erat. tu Lucrina voras, me pascit aquosa peloris : 5

non minus ingenua est et mihi, Marce, gula. te Cadmea Tyros, me pinguis Gallia vestit :

vis te purpureum, Marce, sagatus amem ? ut praestem Pyladen, aliquis mihi praestet Oresten.

hoc non fit verbis, Marce : ut ameris, ama. 10


IURAT capillos esse, quos emit, suos Fabulla : numquid ergo, Paule, peierat ?


Quis te Phidiaco formatam, lulia, caelo,

vel quis Palladiae non putet artis opus ? Candida non tacita respondet imagine lygdos

et placido fulget vivus in ore decor. 1 ludit Acidalio, sed non manus aspera, nodo, 5

quern rapuit collo, parve Cupido, tuo. ut Martis revocetur amor summique Tonantis,

a te luno petat ceston et ipsa Venus.

1 liquor (quick blood) y.

1 The epigram is on a statue of Julia, the deified niece of Domitian, along with Venus and Cupid : cf. vi. iii,

3 6 4


the same wine as Orestes, and no better bread or field-fare was given to Orestes ; but equal and the same was the dinner of the two. You gorge Lucrine oysters, watery mussels from Pelorus feed me ; yet my palate too, Marcus, is that of a gentleman. Cadmean Tyre clothes you, Gaul with her greasy wool me : would you have me, Marcus, in a coarse wrapper love you in purple ? That I may prove myself a Pylades, let someone prove himself to me an Orestes. That does not come about by talk, Marcus : by love win love.


FABULLA swears that the hair she buys is hers. Does she therefore swear falsely, Paulus?


WHO would not think, Julia, 1 that thou wert shaped by the chisel of Phidias ? or who that thou wert not the work of Pallas' 2 skill ? The white Lygdian 3 marble answers me with its speaking likeness, and a live beauty glows in the placid face. Her hand with no rough touch plays with the Acidalian girdle 4 which it has snatched, small Cupid, from thy neck. To win back the love of Mars and of the imperial Thunderer, from thee let Juno ask for thy cestos, and Venus herself too.

1 The goddess.

! Parian marble from the Cyclades.

4 The girdle or ceattis of Venus, which inspired love.




VERSUS scribere posse te disertos adfirmas, Laberi : quid ergo non vis ? versus scribere qui potest disertos, f non scribatf , Laberi : virum putabo.


DUM Phaethontea formica vagatur in umbra,

inplicuit tenuem sucina gutta feram. sic modo quae fuerat vita contempta manente,

funeribus facta est nunc pretiosa suis.


Tu qui pene viros terres et falce cinaedos,

iugera sepositi pauca tuere soli, sic tua non intrent vetuli pomaria fures

sed puer et longis pulchra puella comis.


CINNAM, Cinname, te iubes vocari. non est hie, rogo, Cinna, barbarismus ? tu si Furius ante dictus esses, Fur ista ratione dicereris.


SANCTA Salonini terris requiescit Hiberis, qua melior Stygias non videt umbra domos.

1 I render Schneidewin's conjecture c,onscribat, which is accepted by Friedlander. 1 cf. iv. xxxii. and lix.


BOOK VI. xiv-xvm


You affirm, Laberius, that you can write elegant verses : why, then, are you unwilling ? He who can write elegant verses should write them down, 1 La- berius : then I shall think him a hero.


WHILE an ant was roaming in the poplar shade a gummy drop enfolded the tiny insect. Thus, despised but now while life remained, it has become to-day precious by its death. 2


THOU who with thy appurtenance scarest men, and, with thy sickle, rascals, guard these few acres of secluded ground. So may no hoary thieves enter thy orchard ; only a boy or a fair girl with flowing locks !


CiNNAMus, 3 you bid us address you as Cinna. Is not this, I ask, Cinna, a barbarism ? If you had been called Furius before, you would, on that principle, be called Fur. 4


THE holy shade of Saloninus sleeps in Iberia's land, than whom no nobler shade views the abodes

3 Probably a freedman who wished to adopt a genuine Roman name : cf. vii. Ixiv. A thief.



sed lugere nefas : nam qui te, Prisce, reliquit, vivit qua voluit vivere parte magis.


NON de vi neque caede nee veneno, sed lis est mihi de tribus capellis : vicini queror has abesse furto. hoc iudex sibi postulat probari : tu Cannas Mithridaticumque bellum et periuria Punici furoris et Sullas Mariosque Muciosque magna voce sonas manuque tota. iam die, Postume, de tribus capellis.


MUTUA te centum sestertia, Phoebe, rogavi, cum mihi dixisses "Exigis ergo nihil ? "

inquiris, dubitas, cunctaris meque diebus

teque decem crucias : iam rogo, Phoebe, nega.


PERPETUAM Stellae dum iungit lanthida vati laeta Venus dixit " Plus dare non potui."

haec coram domina ; sed nequius illud in aure : " Tu ne quid pecces, exitiose, vide.

saepe ego lascivom Martem furibunda cecidi, legitimos esset cum vagus ante toros.

1 cf. the Pythagorean saying q>i\wv aia^ara. pfv 5i5o fila.


BOOK VI. xvm-xxt

of Styx. But grief is guilt ; for he who has left thee, Priscus, behind him yet lives in that half wherein he wished to live. 1


MY action is not one for assault, or wounding, or poisoning : it concerns my three she-goats ; I com- plain that they are lost by my neighbour's theft ; this is the fact which the judge prescribes to be proved to him. You, with a mighty voice and every gesture you know, make the court ring with Cannae, and the Mithridatic war, and insensate Punic per- juries, and Sullas, and Mariuses, and Muciuses. Now mention, Postumus, my three she-goats. 2


1 ASKED you, Phoebus, for a hundred thousand ses- terces on loan, seeing that you had said to me, " Do you then beg for nothing? " You enquire, hesitate, delay, and for ten days you torture both yourself and me. I now ask you, Phoebus, to say "No."


WHILE she was uniting lanthis to Stella the poet in lasting bonds, Venus joyfully said, " More I could not give." This was in the presence of the bride, but her word in his ear was naughtier. " See that you make no slip, you rogue ! Oft in my fury have I smitten wanton Mars when not then my lawful spouse he strayed from me. But, now he is my

2 Copied from a Greek epigram of the age of Nero : Anth. Pal. xi. cxli.

369 VOL. I. B B


sed postquam meus est, nulla me paelice laesit : tarn frugi luno vellet habere virum."

dixit et arcauo percussit pectora loro.

plaga iuvat : sed tu iam, dea, caede duos.


QUOD iiubis, Proculina, concubino

et, moechum modo, nunc facis maritum,

ne lex lulia te notare possit,

non nubis, Proculina, sed fateris.


STARE iubes nostrum semper tibi, Lesbia, penem : crede mihi, non est mentula quod digitus.

tu licet et manibus blandis et vocibus instes, te contra facies imperiosa tua est.


NIL lascivius est Charisiano : Saturnalibus ainbulat togatus.


MARCELLINE, boni suboles sincera parentis, horrida Parrhasio quern tegit Ursa iugo,

ille vetus pro te patriusque quid optet amicus, accipe et haec memori pectore vota tene,

1 cf. i. Ixxiv. and vi. vii.

2 When the wearing of the toga was unusual. Perhaps


BOOK VI. xxi-xxv

own, he has wounded me by no paramour ; Juno would wish to possess so virtuous a spouse." She spake, and struck his breast with her mystic lash. The blow aids him ; but do thou, goddess, now smite two.


IN that you wed your paramour, Proculina, and make him, but now your leman, your husband, to avoid the brand of the Julian law, you are not wedding, Proculina, but confessing. 1


You bid me, Lesbia, to be always prepared to serve you ; believe me, one's faculties are not all equally at hand. You may urge me with toyings and wheedling words, but your face is imperious to defeat you.


CHARISIANUS is rakishness itself: he walks about in the Saturnalia 2 in a toga !


MARCELLJNUS, true offspring of a good father, you whom the numbing Bear covers with her Parrhasian 3 car, hear what an old friend, and your father's, wishes for you, and keep these prayers in a remembering

M. means that C. was too poor to buy the usual dress (synthesis).

3 Helice, of Parrhasia, a district of Arcadia, was changed into the Constellation.



cauta sit ut virtus nee te temerarius ardor 5

in medios enses saevaque tela ferat. bella velint Martemque ferum rationis egentes,

tu potes et patris miles et esse ducis.


PEKICLITATUR capite Sotades noster. reum putatis esse Sotaden ? non est. arrigere desit posse Sotades : lingit.


Bis vicine Nepos (nam tu quoque proxima Florae

incolis et veteres tu quoque Ficelias) est tibi, quae patria signatur imagine voltus,

testis maternae nata pudicitiae. tu tamen annoso nimium ne parce Falerno, 5

et potius plenos acre relinque cados. sit pia ; sit locuples, sed potet filia mustum :

amphora cum domina nunc nova fiet anus. Caecuba non solos vindeinia nutriat orbos :

possunt et patres vivere, crede mihi. 10


LIBERTUS Melioris ille notus, tota qui cecidit dolente Roma, cari deliciae breves patroni,

1 " Your father has claims upon you, as well as the Emperor."

2 " To have the head (civil status) in jeopardy " was said of a man under a charge. There is a play on words here.


BOOK VI. xxv-xxvni

heart. See that your valour be wary ; let no rash ardour bear you into the midmost fray of swords and savage spears. Let those who lack sense be eager for wars and fierce Mars ; you can be your father's soldier and your Captain's l too.


OUR friend Sotades has his head in jeopardy. 2 Do you fancy Sotades an accused man ? He is not. Sotades' other powers have become nerveless : he uses his tongue.


NEPOS, doubly my neighbour for you too dwell full nigh to Flora, 3 you too in old Ficeliae 4 a daughter you have, whose face is stamped with the semblance of her sire, a witness to her mother's virtue ! Yet spare not overmuch your old Falernian ; rather leave your jars filled with coin. Loving let her be, let her be rich, but let your daughter drink new wine : a flagon, new to-day, will grow aged with its mistress. Let not a Caecuban vintage cheer only childless men ; fathers, too, can enjoy life : believe my word.

MELIOR'S freedman, known to all men, he who perished while all Rome grieved, his dear patron's

! The Temple of Flora, on the Quirinal, not far from the

Capitolinm Vetus : cf. v. xxii. 4.

4 Near M.'s house at Nomentum, or (perhaps) a street or district on the Quirinal: Burn's Rome and the Campagna, pp. 251, 393.



hoc sub marmore Glaucias humatus

iuncto Flaminiae iacet sepulchre : 5

castus moribus, integer pudore,

velox ingenio, decore felix.

bis senis modo messibus peractis

vix unum puer adplicabat annum.

qui fles talia, nil fleas, viator. 10


NON de plebe domus nee avarae verna catastae,

sed dommi sancto dignus amore puer, munera cum posset nondum sentire patroni,

Glaucia libertus iam Melioris erat. moribus hoc formaeque datum : quis blandior illo ?

aut quis Apollineo pulchrior ore fuit ? inmodicis brevis est aetas et rara senectus.

quidquid ames, cupias non placuisse nimis.


SEX sestertia si statim dedisses,

cum dixti mihi "Sume, tolle, dono,"

deberem tibi, Paete, pro ducentis.

at nunc cum dederis diu moratus,

post septem, puto, vel novem Kalendas,

vis dicam tibi veriora veris ?

sex sestertia, Paete, perdidisti.

cf. x. Ixi.

Excessive excellence or good fortune, and the praise of



brief-lived darling, beneath this marble Glaucias lies in a tomb next the Flaminian way. Pure was he in manners, of modesty unstained, nimble of wit, with charm richly blest. To but twice six summers sped the boy was scarcely adding a single year. Traveller, who weepest for such a fate, never mayst thou have cause to weep ! l


HOME-BRED, no slave of the household's crowd nor of the grasping auction mart, but a boy worthy of his master's pure love, Glaucia, albeit not yet could lie apprize his patron's gift, was already Melior's freedman. To character and grace was this boon given ; who was more witching than he ? or who fairer with his Apollo's face ? To unwonted worth comes life but short, and rarely old age. Whate'er thou lovest, pray that it may not please thee too much ! 2


HAD you given at once six thousand sesterces when you said to me, "Take them, off with them, I give them," I should be your debtor, Paetus, for two hundred thousand. But now you have given them after long delay, after seven, I think, or nine Kalends have gone, would you have me tell you what is truer than truth ? You have lost your six thousand, Paetus.

it, was supposed to rouse the jealousy of the gods, and amulets were worn as charms.




UXOREM, Charideme, tuam scis ipse sinisque a medico futui. vis sine febre mori.


CUM dubitaret adhuc belli civil is Enyo, forsitan et posset v'incere mollis Otho,

damnavit multo staturum sanguine Martem et fodit certa pectora tota manu.

sit Cato, dum vivit, sane vel Caesare maior : dum moritur, numquid rnaior Othone fuit ?


NIL miserabilius, Matho, pedicone Sabello

vidisti, quo nil laetius ante fuit. furta, fugae, mortes servorum, incendia, luctus

adfligunt hominem, iam miser et ftituit.


BASIA da nobis, Diadumene, pressa. " Quot " inquis ?

oceani fluctus me numerare iubes et maris Aegaei sparsas per litora conchas

et quae Cecropio monte vagantur apes,

1 But by poison.

2 See his dying speech in Plut. Otho xv. ; Tac. Hint. ii. 47-48. Suet. (Otho x.) adds: " etiam privation usque adeo detestatum civilia bella. "


BOOK VI. xxxi-xxxiv


You are quite aware, Charidemus, of your wife's misconduct with your doctor, and you wink at it. It is not by fever that you want to die. 1


ALBEIT the goddess of civil strife wavered yet, and effeminate Otho belike might win, he cursed war that should cost so much blood, 2 and with unflinching hand pierced deep his breast. Certes let Cato in life be greater even than Caesar ; was he in death greater than Otho ? 3


You have seen, Matho, nothing more miserable than the unnatural Sabellus, and yet once nothing was more cheerful than he. Thefts, flight, deaths of slaves, fires, griefs, afflict the fellow : now the miserable man actually runs after women !


GIVE me, Diadumenus, kisses closely pressed. " How many ? " thou sayest. Thou biddest me sum Ocean's waves, and the shells strewn o'er Aegean shores, and the bees that stray on Cecrops' hill, 4 the

3 Cato died when his cause was clearly lost ; not so Otho, at the time of his defeat by Vitellius at Bedriacum, A.D. 69, the " ingen* annua " of vn. Ixiii. 9.

4 Hymettus in Attica, noted for fragrant thyme, the food of bees.



quaeque sonant pleno vocesque man usque theatre, 5 cum populus subiti Caesaris ora videt.

nolo quot arguto dedit exorata Catullo Lesbia : pauca cupit qui numerate potest.


SEPTEM clepsydras magna tibi voce petenti

arbiter invitus, Caeciliane, dedit. at tu multa diu dicis vitreisque tepentem

ampullis potas semisupinus aquam. ut tandem saties vocemque sitimque, rogamus 5

iam de clepsydra, Caeciliane, bibas.


MENTULA tam magna est, tantus tibi, Papyle, nasus, ut possis, quotiens arrigis, olfacere.


SECTI podicis usque ad umbilicum

nullas relliquias habet Charinus,

et prurit tamen usque ad umbilicum.

o quanta scabie miser laborat !

culum non habet, est tamen cinaedus. 5


ASPICIS ut parvus nee adhuc trieteride plena Regulus auditum laudet et ipse patrem ?

maternosque sinus viso genitore relinquat et patrias laudes sentiat esse suas ?

1 Cat. v. and vii.

2 Perhaps M. also means it is unlucky to count: see Cat. vii.


BOOK VI. xxxiv-xxxvm

voices and hands that resound in the full theatre when the people see Caesar's unexpected face. Not for me the number that .Lesbia, won by prayer, gave to tuneful Catullus. 1 He wishes but few who is able to count. 2


SEVEN water-clocks' allowance 3 you asked for in loud tones, and the judge, Caecilianus, unwillingly gave them. But you speak much and long, and, with back-tilted head, swill tepid water out of glass flasks. That you may once for all sate your oratory and your thirst, we beg you, Caecilianus, now to drink out of the water-clock.


Tu, O Papilo, hai una mentula si smisurata, ed un si gran naso, che potesti, ogni volta che arrigi, fiutarla.


CARINO ha nessuna reliqui del suo podice raso sino all' umbillico, e tuttavia gli prude sino all' um- billico ; oh, da quanta scabie 1' infanie e travagliato ! culum habet sectum, e tuttavia e cinedo.


SEE you how little Regulus, not yet full three years old, himself too listens, and applauds his father's speech, and, when he sees his sire, leaves his mother's lap and feels his father's glory also his own ? Already

3 The length of speeches was regulated by the dropping of water from clepsydrae, shaped like modern hour-glasses.



iam clamor centumque viri densumque corona 5

volgus et infant! lulia tecta placent. acris equi suboles magno sic pulvere gaudet,

sic vitulus inolli proelia fronte cupit. di, servate, precor, matri sua vota patrique,

audiat ut natum Regulus, ilia duos. 10


PATER ex Manilla, Cinna, factus es septem non liberorum : namque nee tuus quisquam nee est amici filiusve vicini, sed in grabatis tegetibusque concept! materna produnt capitibus suis furta. 5

hie qui retorto crine Maurus incedit subolem fatetur esse se coci Santrae. at ille sima nare, turgidis labris ipsa est imago Pannychi palaestritae. pistoris esse tertium quis ignorat, 10

quicumque lippum novit et videt Damam ? quartus cinaeda fronte, candido voltu ex concubino natus est tibi Lygdo : percide, si vis, filium : nefas non est. hunc vero acuto capite et auribus longis, 15

"quae sic moventur ut solent asellorum, quis morionis filium negat Cyrtae ? duae sorores, ilia nigra et haec rufa, Croti choraulae vilicique sunt Carpi, iam Niobidarum 1 grex tibi foret plenus 20

si spado Coresus Dindymusque non esset.

1 iamni ubida pniit g. y, iamque hybridarum g. $-. 380

BOOK VI. xxxvm-xxxix

the acclaim, and the Hundred Court, 1 and the crowd in a dense ring, and the Julian Basilica, please his infant mind. The offspring of a mettled steed so rejoices in the thick dust of the course, so the steer with unarmed brow longs for battle. Ye gods, fulfil, I pray, for mother and father their prayer, that Regulus may listen to his son, she to both ! 2

You have been made, Cinna, by Marulla the father of seven not children, for there is no son of yours, nor son of a friend or neighbour ; but creatures con- ceived on truckle-beds and mats betray by their features their mother's adulteries. This one who struts with curly hair, a Moor, confesses he is the offspring of Santra the cook ; but that other with flat nostrils, blubber lips is the very image of Pan- nichus the wrestler. Who is not aware, if he has known and seen blear-eyed Dama, that the third is the baker's son ? The fourth, with his shameless brow, pallid face, was born to you from your minion Lygdus : use your son as you do him, if you wish ; 'tis no crime. But this creature with pointed head, and long ears which move just as donkeys' ears are wont who could deny he is the son of Cyrta the cretin? Two sisters one is dark, the other red- haired are the children of Crotus, fluter to the chorus, and of Carpus the bailiff. By now your troupe of slaves would have been made up of as many sons as Niobe's if Coresus and Dindymus had not been eunuchs.

1 The Court of the Cenlumviri (strictly 105).

2 The prayer was not granted ; the boy died young : Plin.



FEMINA praef'erri potuit tibi mil la. Lycori : praeferri Glycerae femina nulla potest.

haec erit hoc quod tu : tu non potes esse quod haec est. tempera quid faciunt ! hanc volo, te volui.


Qui recitat lana fauces et colla revinctus, hie se posse loqui, posse tacere negat.


ETRUSCI nisi thermulis lavaris,

inlotus morieris, Oppiane.

nullae sic tibi blandientur undae,

non fontes Aponi rudes puellis,

non mollis Sinuessa fervidique 5

fluctus Passeris aut superbus Anxur,

non Phoebi vada principesque Baiae.

nusquam tarn nitidum vacat serenum :

lux ipsa est ibi longior, diesque

nullo tardius a loco recedit. 10

illic Taygeti virent metalla

et certant vario decore saxa,

quae Phryx et Libys altius cecidit ;

siccos pinguis onyx anhelat aestus

et flamma tenui calent ophitae. 15

ritus si placeant tibi Laconum,

1 Said to break into flame if a woman bathed after a mau. Perhaps the allusion is only to the known chastity of Pata- vian (Paduan) women : cf. xi. xvi. 8, and Plin. Ep. i. 14.




No woman could once be preferred to you, Lycoris, no woman can be preferred to Glycera now ; she shall be the thing you are ; you cannot be what she is. Such is the might of Time ! I long for her, for you I longed.


HE who recites with throat and neck wrapped up in wool declares that he can neither speak nor keep silence.


IF you do not bathe in the warm baths of Etruseus, you will die unbathed, Oppianus. No other waters will so allure you, not even the springs of Aponus 1 unknown to women ; not mild Sinuessa, and the waves of steaming Passer, or towering Anxur ; not the waters of Phoebus,- and peerless Baiae. Nowhere is the sunlit sheen so cloudless ; the very light is longer there, and from no spot does day withdraw more lingeringly. There the quarries of Taygetus 3 are green, and in varied beauty vie the rocks which the Phrygian and Libyan 4 has more deeply hewn. The rich alabaster pants with dry heat, and snake- stone is warm with a subtle fire. If Lacedaemonian methods 5 please you, you can content yourself with

2 The Aquae Passerianae in Etruria, where were also the Aquae ApolliiMres, now Bagni di Vicarello.

3 The green Laconian marble : cf. ix. Ixxv. 9.

4 Synnadic and Numidian marble, one streaked with purple, the other yellow.

5 A hot-air bath followed by a cold plunge. There was a special apartment called Laconicum.



contentus potes arido vapore

cruda Virgine Marciave mergi ;

quae tarn Candida, tarn serena lucet

ut nullas ibi suspiceris undas 20

et credas vacuam nitere lygdoii.

non adtendis et aure me supina

lam dudum quasi neglegenter audis.

inlotus morieris, Oppiane.


DUM tibi felices indulgent, Castrice, Baiae

canaque sulpureis unda natatur aquis, me Nomentani confirmant otia ruris

et casa iugeribus non onerosa suis. hoc mihi Baiani soles mollisque Lucrinus, 5

hoc sunt mihi vestrae, Castrice, divitiae. quondam laudatas quocumque libebat ad undas

currere iiec longas pertimuisse vias : nunc urbis vicina iuvant facilesque recessus,

et satis est, pigro si licet esse mihi. 10


FESTIVE credis te, Calliodore, iocari et solum multo permaduisse sale.

omnibus adrides, dicteria dicis in omnis ; sic te convivam posse placere putas.

at si ego non belle sed vere dixero quiddam, nemo propinabit, Calliodore, tibi.

1 Roman aqueducts.

2 rf. vi. xiii. 3.



dry warmth, and then plunge in the natural stream of the Virgin or of Marcia, 1 which glistens so bright and clear that you would not suspect any water there, but would fancy the Lygdian marble 2 shines empty. You don't attend, but have been listening to me all this time with a casual ear, as if you didn't care. You will die unbathed, Oppianus !


WHILE happy Baiae lavishes on you, Castricus, its bounty, and the Nymph's spring, white with sul- phurous water, is your swimming-bath, the quiet of my Nomentan farm, and a small house not too large for its fields, recruit me. This to me is Baian sun- shine and mild Lucrine lake ; this to me is the riches, Castricus, you enjoy. Erewhile I gladly hurried everywhere to famous waters, and did not fear long journeys ; now places near the city attract me, and quiet retreats easy to reach, and 'tis enough for me if I am allowed to be lazy.


You believe yourself to be a pleasant jester, Cal- liodorus, and alone overflowing with streams of wit. At all you sneer, you shoot your scoffs against all ; so, as a guest, you opine you can please. But if I may make a remark, not smart indeed, but true, no man, Calliodorus, will pass the cup in pledge to you. 3

3 Because it would be passed back to him defiled : cf. n. xv. ; xn. Ixxiv. 9.




LUSISTIS, satis est : lascivi nubite cunni : permissa est vobis non nisi casta Venus.

haec est casta Venus ? nubit Laetoria Lygdo : turpior uxor erit quam modo moecha fuit.


VAPULAT adsidue veneti quadriga flagello nee currit : magnam rem, Catiane, facis.


NYMPHA, mei Stellae quae fonte domestica puro

laberis et domini gemmea tecta subis, sive Numae coniunx Triviae te misit ab antris

sive Camenarum de grege nona venis, exsoluit votis hac se tibi virgine porca

Marcus, furtivam quod bibit aeger aquam. tu contenta meo iam crimine gaudia fontis

da secura tui : sit mihi sana sitis.


QUOD tarn grande sophos clamat tibi turba togata, non tu, Pomponi, cena diserta tua est.

1 cf. vi. iv. and vii.

2 The charioteers of the circus were divided into four factions, red, white, green, and blue, the last being out of favour with Domitian. M. means that the Bine driver pulled his horses, not wishing to win : cf. xiv. Iv.

3 The Nymph Egeria.




You have had your fling : enough ! Wed, you wantons ; you are allowed only chaste love. 1 Is this chaste love? Laetoria weds Lygdus : she will be viler as wife than she was just now as adulteress.


THE four-horse car of the Blue charioteer 2 is re- peatedly lashed on, and yet goes slow. You are doing a great feat, Catianus.


NYMPH that, welcomed to my Stella's house, glidest with thy pure spring and enterest beneath its master's jewelled halls, whether Numa's spouse 3 sent thee from Trivia's grots, 4 or thou comest, the ninth of the Camenae, 5 Marcus with this vii'gin porker acquits him to thee of his vow 6 made because in sickness he quaffed thy stream by stealth. Be thou content to-day with my fault, and grant me without scathe the delights of thy spring: may my thirst be again without harm !


THE full-dressed throng shout a loud "Bravo" to applaud you. 'Tis not you, Pomponius : it is your dinner that is eloquent.

4 From Aricia, where Diana of the Crossways (Trivia) was worshipped.

6 Native Nymphs of Italy, afterwards identified with the Muses, and probably so here.

6 M., contrary to doctor's orders (see vi. Ixxxvi.), had drunk cold water from the spring, and had made a vow to the Nymph if the water did him no harm.

387 c c 2



NON sum de fragili dolatus ulmo,

nee quae stat rigida supina vena

de ligno mihi quolibet columna est,

sed viva generata de cupressu,

quae nee saecula centiens peracta 5

nee longae cariem timet senectae.

hanc tu, quisquis es o malus, timeto,

nam si vel minimos manu rapaci

hoc de palmite laeseris racemos,

nascetur, licet hoc velis negare, 10

inserta tibi ficus a cupressu.

CUM coleret puros pauper Telesinus amicos, errabat gelida sordidus in togula :

obscenos ex quo coepit curare cinaedos, argentum, mensas, praedia solus emit.

vis fieri dives, Bithynice ? conscius esto. nil tibi vel minimum basia pura dabunt.


QUOD convivaris sine me tarn saepe, Luperce,

inveni noceam qua ratione tibi. irascor : licet usque voces mittasque rogesque

" Quid facies ? " inquis. quid faciam ? veniam.

1 The epigram is on a statue of Priapus : cf. I. xxxv. 15 vi. Ixxiii.




NOT hewn am I of fragile elm, nor is my column, which stands upright with rigid shaft, 1 shaped of common wood; but it was born of the long-lived cypress, that dreads not cycles an hundred times accomplished, nor the decay of prolonged age. This fear thou, whoever thou art, O evil man! For if with robber hand thou shalt wound of yonder vine even its smallest shoots, there shall be born though thou wouldst deny it grafted on thee by this cypress-rod, a bunch of figs. 2

WHEN Telesinus a poor man then cultivated decent friends, he went about, a shabby figm-e, in a poor shivering toga ; ever since he began to court obscene rakes he buys rivalled by none silver- plate, tables, landed properties. Do you wish to become rich, Bithynicus ? Be an accomplice ; not a stiver will pure kisses give you.


BECAUSE you entertain so often without inviting me, Lupercus, I have discovered a way to annoy you. I am angry : though you go on asking me, sending, begging " What will you do ? " you say. What will I do ? I'll come.

2 A tumour : cf. I. Ixv. ; iv. lii.




Hoc iacet in tumulo raptus puerilibus minis Pantagathus, domini cura dolorque sui,

vix tangente vagos ferro resecare capillos doctus et hirsutas excoluisse genas.

sis licet, ut debes, tellus, placata levisque, artificis levior non potes esse manu.


LOTUS nobiscum est, hilaris cenavit, et idem inventus mane est mortuus Andragoras.

tarn subitae mortis causam, Faustina, requiris ? in somnis medicum viderat Hermocraten.


TANTOS et tantas si dicere Sextilianum, Aule, vetes, iunget vix tria verba miser.

" Quid sibi vult ? " inquis. dicam quid suspicer esse : tantos et tantas Sextilianus amat.


QUOD semper casiaque cinnamoque

et nido niger alitis superbae

fragras plumbea Nicerotiana,

rides nos, Coracine, nil olentis,

malo quam bene olere nil olere. I

1 Copied from a Greek epigram : Anth. Pal. xi. cclvii. cf. cxviii., which M, probably had also in his eye.

2 i.e. praegrandes draucos eorumque caudas.




WITHIN this tomb lies Pantagathus, snatched away in boyhood's years, his master's grief and sorrow, skilled to cut with steel that scarcely touched the straggling hairs, and to trim the bearded cheeks. Gentle and light upon him thou mayst be, O earth, as behoves thee ; lighter than the artist's hand thou canst not be.


ANDRAOORAS bathed With us, took a cheerful dinner, and nevertheless was found in the morning dead. Do you ask, Faustinus, the cause of a decease so sudden ? He had in a dream seen Doctor Her- mocrates ! 1


IF, Aulus, you forbid Sextilianus to say the words "so tall" masculine or feminine he can put scarcely three words together, the wretched fellow. " What is the matter with him ? " you say. I'll tell you what I suspect. Sextilianus has " so tall " attractions 2 of both genders !


BECAUSE, constantly smeared darkly with cassia and cinnamon and the perfumes from the nest of the lordly bird, 3 you reek of the leaden jars of Niceros, 4 you laugh at us, Coracinus, who smell of nothing. To smelling of scent I prefer smelling of nothing. 5

3 Cassia and cinnamon were said to be found in the nest of the phoenix : Plin. N.ff. xii. 42.

4 A celebrated perfumer of the day. 8 cf. u. xii.


QUOD tibi crura rigent saetis et pectora villis, verba putas famae te, Charideme, dare.

extirpa, mihi crede, pilos de corpora toto teque pilare tuas testificare natis.

" Quae ratio est? " inquis. scis multos dicere multa : 5 fac pedicari te, Charideme, putent.


MENTIRIS fictos unguento, Phoebe, capillos

et tegitur pictis sordida calva comis. tonsorem capiti non est adhibere necesse :

radere te melius spongea, Phoebe, potest.


CERNERE Parrhasios dum te iuvat, Aule, triones

comminus et Getici sidera pigra poli, o quam paene tibi Stygias ego raptus ad uiidas

Elysiae vidi nubila fusca plagae ! quamvis lassa tuos quaerebant lumina vultus 5

atque erat in gelido plurimus ore Pudens. si mihi lanificae ducunt non pulla sorores

stamina nee surdos vox habet ista deos, sospite me sospes Latias reveheris ad urbes

et referes pili praemia clarus eques. 10

1 Aulus Pudens was campaigning against the Dacians.

  • i.e. grant me longer life.




PERCHE hai le gambe irsute di setole, ed il petto d'ispidi peli, tu t'imagini, O Caridemo, imporre alia fama. Credimi, strappati i peli da tutto il corpo : e commincia darne prova dalle natiche. " Per qual motive?" di tu. Tu sai che molti mormorano. Fa, O Caridemo, che piutosto pensino, che tu sei un cinedo.


You fob us off with fictitious hair by means of ointment, Phoebus, and your dirty bald scalp is covered with locks represented in paint. You need not call in a barber for your head ; to give you a better clearance, a sponge, Phoebus, is the thing.


WHILE it pleased you, Aulus, to survey anear the Northern Bears and the slow-wheeling stars of Getic heavens, 1 oh, how nearly was I snatched away from you to the waves of Styx, and viewed the gloomy clouds of the Elysian plain ! Weary as they were, my eyes searched for your face, and on my chill lips oft was Pudens' name. If the wool-working Sisters draw not my threads of sable hue, 2 and this my prayer find not the gods deaf, I shall be safe, and you shall safe return to Latin cities and bring back a chief centurion's honour, 3 an illustrious knight withal.

3 cf. i. xxxi. 3.




ET dolet et queritur sibi non contingere frigus

propter sescentas Baccara gausapinas, optat et obscuras luces ventosque nivesque,

edit et hibernos, si tepuere, dies, quid fecere mali nostrae tibi, saeve, lacernae 5

tollere de scapulis quas levis aura potest? quanto simplicius, quanto est huinanius illud,

mense vel Augusto sumere gausapinas !


LAUDAT, amat, cantat nostros mea Roma libellos, meque sinus omnes, me manus omnis habet.

ecce rubet quidam, pallet, stupet, oscitat, odit. hoc volo : nunc nobis carmina nostra placent.


REM factam Pompullus habet, Faustine : legetur

et nomen toto sparget in orbe suum. " Sic leve flavorum valeat genus Usiporum

quisquis et Ausonium non amat imperium." ingeniosa tamen Pompulli scripta feruntur. 5

" Sed famae non est hoc, mihi crede, satis : quam mtilti tineas pascunt blattasque diserti

et redimunt soli carmina docta coci ! nescio quid plus est, quod donat saecula chartis :

victurus genium debet habere liber." 10




BACCARA is annoyed and grumbles that he meets with no cold weather : 'tis on account of his innu- merable frieze mantles ; and he wishes for dark hours, and winds, and snows ; and hates winter days if they are mild. What harm, you cruel fellow, has my cloak, which a light breeze can lift from my shoulder-blades, done you? How much more straightforward, how much more kind it would be, even in the month of August, to put on your frieze wrappers ! l


MY Rome praises, loves, and hums my verses, and every pocket, every hand holds me. See, yonder fellow turns red, turns pale, is dazed, yawns, curses ! That is what I want ; now my verses please me !


POMPULLUS has his wish achieved, Faustinus ; he will be perused and will spread his name through the whole world. "So may the fickle race of the yellow- haired Usipi flourish, and everyone who does not love Ausonia's rule ! " 2 Yet the writings of Pompullus are said to be clever. " But this, trust me, is not enough to bring fame ; how many fluent writers feed moths and bookworms, and cooks alone buy their learned lays ! There is something more that gives immor- tality to writings ; a book, to live, must have a Genius."

1 i.e. if you must show off.

2 i.e. may they perish as P.'s works will.




AMISIT pater unicum Salanus : cessas munera mittere, Oppiane ? lieu crudele nefas malaeque Parcae ! cuius vulturis hoc erit cadaver ?


Scis te captari, scis hunc qui captat, avarum,

et scis qui captat quid, Mariane, velit. tu tamen hunc tabulis heredem, stulte, supremis

scribis et esse tuo vis, furiose, loco. " Munera magna tamen misit." sed misit in ha mo ; 5

et piscatorem piscis amare potest ? hicine deflebit vero tua fata dolore ?

si cupis, ut ploret, des, Mariane, nihil.


CUM sis nee rigida Fabiorum gente creatus nee qualem Curio, dum prandia portat aranti, hirsuta peperit deprensa sub ilice coniunx, sed patris ad speculum tonsi matrisque togatae films, et possit sponsam te sponsa vocare : 5

emendare meos, quos novit fama, libellos

1 In depriving S. of his only protection against fortune- hunters : cf. the next epigram.




SALANUS the father has lost his only son ; do you hesitate, Oppianus, to send a present ? Ah, mon- strous cruelty and malignant Fates ! 1 To what vulture shall this corpse belong?


You know you are angled for, 2 you know this fellow who angles is greedy, and you know, Marianus, what your angler wants ; yet you write him down your heir, you fool, by your last will, and are willing he should step, you madman ! into your shoes. " Yet the presents he sent me were magnificent." But he sent them on a hook ; and can a fish love the fisher- man ? Will this man weep for your death with genuine grief? If you want him to lament, leave him, Marianus, nothing.


ALTHOUGH you are not born of the stern Fabian race, nor are such a one as Curius' wife, taken in labour while she was carrying his midday meal to him at the plough, brought forth under a shaggy oak, 3 but the son of a father shorn in front of a mirror and of a harlot mother, and though your own wife might well call you wife, you take upon yourself to amend my poems that Fame knows well, and to carp

2 capture (to hunt) was the regular phrase to express fortune-hunting.

3 The rude Fabii and Curii might justly sneer at M.'s verses.



et tibi permittis felicis carpere nugas,

has, inquam, nugas, quibus aurem advertere totam

non aspernantur proceres urbisque forique,

quas et perpetui dignantur scrinia Sili 10

et repetit totiens facundo Regulus ore,

quique videt propius magni certamina Circi

laudat Aventinae vicinus Sura Dianae,

ipse etiam tanto dominus sub pondere rerum

non dedignatur bis terque revolvere Caesar. 15

sed tibi plus mentis, tibi cor limante Minerva

acrius et tenues finxerunt pectus Athenae.

ne valeam, si non multo sapit altius illud,

quod cum panticibus laxis et cum pede grandi

et rubro pulmone vetus nasisque timendum 20

omnia crudelis lanius per compita portat.

audes praeterea, quos nullus noverit, in me

scribere versiculos miseras et perdere chartas.

at si quid nostrae tibi bilis inusserit ardor,

vivet et haerebit totaque legetur in urbe, 25

stigmata nee vafra delebit Cinnamus arte.

sed miserere tui, rabido nee perditus ore

fumantem nasum vivi temptaveris ursi.

sit placidus licet et lambat digitosque manusque,

si dolor et bilis, si iusta coegerit ira, 30

ursus erit : vacua dentes in pelle fatiges

et tacitam quaeras, quam possis rodere, carnem.

1 Silius Italicus, the poet of the Punic wars : cf. vii. Ixiii.

2 The celebrated advocate.

3 The Temple of Diana on the Aventine. The Circus was in the hollow between the Aventine and Palatine hills.



at my happy triflings these triflings, I say, to which the chief men of state and courts of law do not disdain to turn an attentive ear ; these which the bookcases of immortal Silius 1 think worthy of them, and Regulus 2 with eloquent tongue repeats so often, and Sura commends, he who views hard by the struggles of the mighty Circus, Sura, the neighbour of Aventine Diana; 3 these which our lord, though he bears so vast a weight of empire, does not disdain twice and thrice to unroll, Caesar himself. But you have more understanding, Minerva sharpened your mind to a keener point, and subtle Athens shaped your intellect ! May I hang if there is not fuller flavour in that heart 4 which, together with protrud- ing guts, and huge hoof, and gory lights, decayed and a terror to the nose, the unfeeling butcher carries from street to street. You dare besides to write against me your paltry verses, which no one will know of, and to spoil your wretched paper. But if the heat of my wrath sets a brand upon you, that will remain and cling to you and be read all over the town, and Cinnamus, 5 for all his cunning skill, will not efface the marks. Nay, take pity on your- self, and do not, lost man, tempt with your rabid tooth the foaming snout of a live bear. He may be gentle and lick your fingers and your hands, yet if pain, and wrath, and righteous anger compel him, he will be a bear. Weary out your fangs on an empty hide, and look out for some flesh to gnaw that cannot reply.

4 A play on two meanings of aapere, " to have flavour," or " to have sense." Cor also has the two meanings of " heart," in a physical sense, and " intellect."

6 A barber of the day : cf. vi. xvii.; vn. Ixiv.




' HEXAMETRIS epigramma facis" scio dicere Tuccam.

Tucca, solet fieri, denique, Tucca, licet. "Sedtamen hoc longum est." solet hoc quoque,Tucca,

licetque :

si breviora probas, disticha sola legas. conveniat nobis ut fas epigrammata longa 5

sit transire tibi, scribere, Tucca, mihi.


FAMAE non nimium bonae puellam, quales in media sedent Subura, vendebat modo praeco Gellianus. parvo cum pretio diu liceret, dum puram cupit adprobare cunctis, adtraxit prope se manu negantem et bis terque quaterque basiavit. quid profecerit osculo requiris ? sescentos modo qui dabat negavit.


CUR tantum eunuchos habeat tua Caelia, quaeris, Pannyche ? volt futui Caelia nee parere.


FLETE nefas vestrum sed toto flete Lucrino, Naides, et luctus sentiat ipsa Thetis.

inter Baianas raptus puer occidit undas Eutychos ille, tuum, Castrice, dulce latus.




"You make your epigram 1 in hexameters," says Tucca, as I know. Tucca, that is usual, in fact, Tucca, it is allowable. " Yet this one is long." That too is usual, Tucca, and allowable ; if you approve of what is shorter, read distichs only. Let us make a com- pact : you to be permitted to skip long epigrams ; I, Tucca, to write them.


A GIRL of not too good a reputation, one of such as sit in the middle of the Subura, the auctioneer Gellianus was lately selling. As for some time she was going for small biddings, wishing to prove to all that she was clean, he drew the unwilling girl to him, and twice, thrice, four times kissed her. Do you ask what he achieved by the kiss ? A bidder of six hundred sesterces withdrew his bid !


Do you ask, Pannychus, why your Caelia consorts with eunuchs only ? Caelia looks for the license of marriage, not the results.


WEEP for your crime, aye, weep o'er all the Lucrine lake, ye Naiads, and let even Thetis 2 hear the sound of your lament ! For the boy is dead, snatched away amid the waves of Baiae, that Eutychos, thy

1 i.e. the preceding one. 2 The goddess of the sea.


VOL. 1. D D


hie tibi curarum socius blandumque levamen, 5

hie amor, hie nostri vatis Alexis erat. numquid te vitreis nudum lasciva sub undis

vidit et Alcidae nympha remisit Hylan ? an dea femineum iam neglegit Hermaphroditum

amplexu teneri sollicitata viri ? 10

quidquid id est, subitae quaecumque est causa rapinae,

sit, precor, et tellus mitis et unda tibi.


NON miror quod potat aquam tua Bassa, Catulle : miror quod Bassae filia potat aquam.


SEXAGESIMA, Marciane, messis

acta est et, puto, iam secunda Cottae

nee se taedia lectuli calentis

expertum meminit die vel uno.

ostendit digitum, sed inpudicum, 5

Alconti Dasioque Symmachoque.

at nostri bene conputentur anni

et quantum tetricae tulere febres

aut languor gravis aut mali dolores

a vita meliore separetur : 10

infantes sumus et senes videmur.

aetatem Priamique Nestorisque

longam qui putat esse, Marciane,

muitum decipiturque falliturque.

non est vivere, sed valere vita est. 15

1 A handsome youth celebrated by Virgil in his second Eclogue : cf. v. xvi. 12 ; viu. Ivi. 12.



sweet companion, Castricus. He to thee was partner in thy studies, and thy soothing solace, he was the darling, he the Alexis l of our bard. Did some wanton nymph see thy nakedness under the glassy waves, and give back Hylas 2 to Alcides ? or does the goddess, 3 won by the embrace of a soft spouse, now slight womanly Hermaphroditus ? Whate'er it be, whate'er the cause of a rape so sudden, let earth, I pray, and wave, be gentle to thee !


1 DON'T wonder, Catullus, your Bassa drinks water; 4 I wonder that the daughter of Bassa drinks water.


A SIXTIETH summer, Marcianus, has gone, and I think already a second one also, over Cotta's head, and yet he cannot recall that even for a single day he has felt the weariness of a fevered bed. He points his finger and the insulting finger 5 at Alcon, and Dasius, and Symmachus. 6 As for us, let our years be strictly counted, and so much of them as harsh fevers have carried off, or sore weakness, or racking pains, be parted from happier life : we are children, and seem old men. He who thinks the life of Priam and of Nestor long, Marcianus, is much deceived and mistaken : life is not living, but living in health.

2 See note to v. xlviii. 5. Alcides = Hercules.

3 Salmacis, originally the Nymph of a fountain in Caria, but here, and in x. xxx. , identified by M. with the Nymph of spring near the Lucrine lake. 4 cf. II. 1. 2.

5 The middle finger was called in/amis, and was used to point in scorn. 6 Doctors.

43 D D 2



EDERE lascivos ad Baetica crusmata gestus

et Gaditanis ludere docta modis, tendere quae tremulum Pelian Hecubaeque maritum

posset ad Hectoreos sollicitare rogos, urit et excruciat dominum Telethusa priorem. 5

vendidit ancillam, nunc redimit dominam.


FUR notae nimium rapacitatis conpilare Cilix volebat hortum, ingenti sed erat, Fabulle, in horto praeter marmoreum nihil Priapum. dum non vult vacua manu redire, ipsum subripuit Cilix Priapum.


NON rudis indocta fecit me falce colonus :

dispensatoris nobile cernis opus, nam Caeretani cultor ditissimus agri

hos Hilarus colles et iuga laeta tenet, aspice quam certo videar non ligneus ore 5

nee devota focis inguinis arma gerain, sed mihi perpetua numquam moritura cupresso

Phidiaca rigeat mentula digna manu. vicini, moneo, sanctum celebrate Priapum

et bis septenis parcite iugeribus. 10

1 cf. v. Ixxviii. 26-

2 The father of Jason and Priam respectively, both typical old men.




SHE who was cunning to show wanton gestures to the sound of Baetic castanets and to frolic to the tunes of Gades, 1 she who could have roused passion in palsied Pelias, and have stirred Hecuba's spouse 2 even by Hector's pyre Telethusa burns and racks with love her former master. He sold her as his maid, now he buys her back as mistress.


A THIEF of too notorious rapacity, a Cilician, was minded to plunder a garden ; but in the immense garden was nothing, Fabullus, but a marble Priapus. Being loth to return with empty hands, the Cilician carried off' Priapus 3 himself !


No rude husbandman shaped me with clumsy sickle ; you see the steward's noble work ; for Hi- larus, the most wealthy tiller of Caere's fields, pos- sesses these hills and smiling slopes. Mark with how distinct a likeness, and as though not in wood, I appear, and carry a weapon not doomed to the fire ; rather how an appendage, immortal, wrought of imperishable cypress, and worthy of the handiwork of Phidias, stands rigid. Ye neighbours, I charge you, pay honour to holy Priapus and spare these twice seven acres !

3 The guardian god of the garden could not protect himself !




MEDIO recumbit imus ille qui lecto, calvam trifilem semitatus unguento, foditque tonsis ora laxa lentiscis, mentitur, Aefulane : non habet denies.


CUM mittis turdumve mihi quadramve placentae, sive femur leporis sive quid his simile est,

buccellas misisse tuas te. Pontia, dicis.

has ego non mittam, Pontia, sed nee edam.


ILLE sacri lateris custos Martisque togati,

credita cui summi castra fuere ducis, hie situs est Fuscus. licet hoe, Fortuna, fateri :

non timet hostilis iam lapis iste minas ; grande iugum domita Dacus cervice recepit 5

et famulum victrix possidet umbra nemus.


CUM sis tarn pauper quam nee miserabilis Iros, tarn iuvenis quam nee Parthenopaeus erat,

1 The place of honour at dinner.

2 The usual toothpick : cf. xiv. xxii. There may perhaps be a reference to the name given to those unduly solicitous of their personal appearance, who were called " toothpick- chewers " : cf. Erasm. Adag. s.v. lentiscum mandere.

3 A notorious poisoner : cf. n. xxxiv.

4 i.e. of the Emperor as warrior and statesman.




HE who lies the lowest on the middle couch, 1 with his three-haired baldness laid out in paths with ointment, and who probes his loosened jaws with strips of mastich, 2 is a fraud, Aefulanus : he has no teeth.


WHEN you send me either a fieldfare, or a section of cake, or a leg of hare, or something similar, you tell me, Pontia, 8 you have sent me your tit-bits. These dainties I won't send elsewhere, Pontia but neither will I eat them.


THAT guardian of a sacred life, of Mars in the civil gown, 4 he to whom our great captain's camp was given in trust, here Fuscus lies. This, Fortune, may we confess : that stone fears no longer a foe- man's threat. The Daciaii has taken on his bowed neck our mighty yoke, and the victor ghost holds in fee the subject grove. 5


ALTHOUGH you are poorer than even wretched Irus, 6 younger even than Parthenopaeus, 7 stronger than

8 The epigram is supposed to be an inscription on the tomb, in Dacia, of Cornelius Fuscus, a former captain of the Emperor's Praetorian guard at Rome. He was defeated and slain, A.D. 87, in an expedition against the Dacians, who were subsequently subdued : cf. Juv. iv. iii.

6 The typical beggar : Horn. Od. xvii.

7 A Greek warrior, young and handsome : cf. ix, vi. 7.


tarn fortis quam nee cum vinceret Artemidorus,

quid te Cappadocum sex onus esse iuvat ? rideris multoque magis traduceris, Afer, 5

quam nudus medio si spatiere foro. non aliter monstratur Atlans cum compare ginno

quaeque vehit similem belua nigra Libyn. invidiosa tibi quam sit lectica requiris ?

non debes ferri mortuus hexaphoro. 10


POTOR nobilis, Aule, lumine uno

luscus Phryx erat alteroque lippus.

huic Heras medicus " Bibas caveto :

vinum si biberis, nihil videbis."

ridens Phryx oculo " Valebis " inquit. 5

misceri sibi protinus deunces

sed crebros iubet. exitum requiris ?

vinum Phryx, oculus bibit venenum.


TRISTIS es et felix. sciat hoc Fortuna caveto ingratum dicet te, Lupe, si scierit.


UT nova dona tibi, Caesar, Nilotica tell us

miserat hibernas ambitiosa rosas. navita derisit Pharios Memphiticus hortos,

urbis ut intravit limina prima tuae :

1 A Greek athlete who won in the Capitoline contest, A.D. 86 ; or (perhaps) a pancratiast of Tralles, of the days of Galba and Vitellius. 2 A giant.



even Artemidorus l when he won in the contest, why do you like to be the load of six Cappadocians ? You are laughed at, and are much more a spectacle, Afer, than if you were to walk naked in the midst of the Forum. Similar would be the sight of an Atlas 2 with a small mule to match him, or a black elephant carrying a Libyan of the same hue. Do you want to know how offensive your litter is ? Even when dead you ought not to be carried in a litter and six. 3


PHRYX, a notorious tippler, was blind, Aulus, ot one eye, and blear-eyed in the other. Heras, his doctor, said to him : " Beware of drinking ; if you drink wine you will not see at all." Phryx laughed, and said to his eye '"'Adieu." Immediately he orders eleven measures 4 to be mixed for him, and frequently. Do you ask the result ? Phryx drank a vintage, his eye venom.


You are sad, although fortunate. Take care For- tune does not know this ; " Ingrate" will be her name for you, Lupus, if she knows.


As a novel gift to you, Caesar, the land of Nile had proudly sent winter roses. The sailor from Mem- phis scoffed at the gardens of Egypt when he first trod on the threshold of your city, so rich was the

3 But on a pauper's bier, borne by four at most : cf. vni. Ixxv. 9.

4 Nearly three times the usual quantity, eleven cyathi instead of four (triens, cf. vi. Ixxxvi. 1 ; i. cvi. 8).



tantus veris honos et odorae gratia Florae 5

tantaque Paestani gloria ruris erat ; sic, quacumque vagus gressumque oculosque ferebat,

tonsilibus sertis omne rubebat iter. at tu Romanae iussus iam cedere brumae

mitte tuas messes, accipe, Nile, rosas. 10


IRATUS tamquam populo, Charideme, lavaris :

inguina sic toto subluis in solio. nee caput hie vellem sic te, Charideme, lavare.

et caput ecce lavas : inguina malo laves.


QUID AM me modo, Rufe, diligenter

inspectum, velut emptor aut lanista,

cum vultu digitoque subnotasset,

" Tune es, tune " ait " ille Martialis,

cuius nequitias iocosque novit 5

aurem qui modo non habet Batavam ? "

subrisi modice, levique nutu

me quern dixerat esse non negavi.

" Cur ergo " inquit " habes malas lacernas ? "

respond i : " quia sum malus poeta." 10

hoc ne saepius accidat poetae,

mittas, Rufe, mihi boiias lacernas.


QUANTUM sollicito fortuna parentis Etrusco, tantum, summe ducum, debet uterque tibi.

1 i.e.. thus polluting the water ; cf. n. xlii. and Ixx. For Charideraus, cf. vi. lyi,



beauty of spring and the charm of fragrant Flora, so rich the glory of Paestan fields ; so ruddy, where'er he turned his wandering footsteps or his eyes, was every path with twining roses. But do thou, bidden now to yield to a Roman winter, send us thy harvests, receive, O Nile, our roses.


You wash, Charidemus, as if you were in a rage with the people ; such a cleaning you give your middle all over the bath. 1 Even your head I should not wish you to wash here in such a fashion, Charidemus. Lo ! you wash your head too : I prefer your washing your middle.


A CERTAIN person, Rufus, lately looked me up and down carefully, just as if he were a purchaser of slaves or a trainer of gladiators, and when he had furtively observed me and pointed me out : "Are you, are you," he said, "that Martial, whose naughty jests everyone knows who at least has not a barbarous ear?" I smiled quietly, and with a slight bow, did not deny I was the person mentioned. "Why, then," said he, "do you wear a bad cloak?" I replied: "Because I am a bad poet." That this may not happen too often to a poet, send me, Rufus, a good cloak.


As much as his father's fortunes owe to Etruscus' solicitude, 2 so much both father and son, illustrious

2 He had accompanied his father into exile. As to the father's death, see vii. xl.



nam tu missa tua revocasti fulmina dextra : hos cuperem mores ignibus esse lovis ;

si tua sit summo, Caesar, natura Tonanti, utetur toto fulmine rara manus.

muneris hoc utrumque tui testatur Etruscus, esse quod et comiti contigit et reduci.


OCTAPHORO sanus portatur, Avite, Philippus hunc tu si sanum credis, Avite, furis.


EDITUR en sextus sine te mihi, Rufe Camoni,

nee te lectorem sperat, amice, liber : impia Cappadocum tell us et numine laevo

visa tibi cineres reddit et ossa patri. funde tuo lacrimas orbata Bononia Rufo, 5

et resonet tota planctus in Aemilia. heu qualis pietas, heu quam brevis occidit aetas !

viderat Alphei praemia quinta modo. pectore tu memori nostros evolvere lusus,

tu solitus totos, Rufe, tenere iocos, 10

accipe cum fletu maesti breve carmen amici

atque haec apsentis tura fuisse puta.

1 cf. ix. Ixxiv. and Ixxvi.

2 The district served by the Via Aemilia running from Aritninum to Placentia.



chief, owe to thee. For thou hast recalled the bolts by thy right hand hurled ; I could pray that Jove's fire possessed such gentleness ! Were thy nature, Caesar, the almighty Thunderer's, rarely shall his hand employ his bolts' full force. To thy bounty, Etruscus ascribes a two-fold boon : partnership in his sire's exile, and his sire's return.


PHILIPPUS, though sound, is carried in a litter and six, Avitus. If you think this fellow "sound," Avitus, you are crazy yourself.


Lo ! my sixth book goes forth without thee, Ca- monius Rufus, 1 and does not hope, my friend, that thou wilt read it. The Cappadocian land, unholy and with baleful omen visited by thee, gives back to thy sire thy ashes and thy bones. Pour forth thy tears, Bononia, widowed of thy Rufus ! and let lamentation be loud o'er all Aemilia ! 2 Alas, what filial love ! alas, what brief a life has perished ! it had seen but the fifth prize bestowed by Alpheus. 3 Thou, who with unforgetful heart wert wont to quote my casual lays, thou, Rufus, wont to recall whole epigrams, re- ceive, with his tears, thy sorrowing friend's brief song, and deem these lines incense shed upon thee from afar !

3 He had lived only five Olympiads, and thus was only twenty : cf. ix. Ixxvi. 3. Usually in M. an Olympiad == lustrum = 5 years.




SETINUM dominaeque nives densique trientes, quando ego vos medico non prohibente bibam ?

stultus et ingratus nee tanto munere dignus qui mavult heres divitis esse Midae.

possideat Libycas messis Hermumque Tagumque, 5 et potet caldarn, qui mihi livet, aquam.


Di tibi dent et tu, Caesar, quaecumque mereris : di mihi dent et tu quae volo, si merui.


MANE salutavi vero te nomine casu

nee dixi dominum, Caeciliane, meum. quanti libertas constet mihi tanta, requiris ?

centum quadrantes abstulit ilia mihi.


CUM peteret seram media iam nocte matellam

arguto madidus pollice Panaretus, Spoletina data est sed quam siccaverat ipse,

nee fuerat soli tota lagona satis, ille fide summa testae sua vina remensus 5

reddidit oenophori pondera plena sui. miraris, quantum biberat, cepisse lagonam ?

desine rnirari, Rufe : merum biberat.

1 A line wine : cf. iv. Ixix.

2 Or "my lady's snows," i.e. Violentilla's. Wine was strained through snow : -cf. v. Ixiv. 2 ; xiv. ciii.




THOU, Setine, 1 and ye lordly snows, 2 and ye cups filled oft, when shall I drink you, nor my doctor say me nay ? Fool and ingrate, and unworthy such a boon is he who would sooner be heir of wealthy Midas ! May he possess Libyan harvests, and Hermus, and Tagus, who envies me and drink warm water ! 3


MAY the gods and thou, Caesar, grant thee all thy deserts ; may the gods and thou grant me my wish if I have deserved it !


THIS morning I addressed you, as it chanced, by your own name, nor did I add " My lord," Caecili- anus. Do you ask how much such casual conduct has cost me ? It has robbed me of a hundred farthings. 4


WHEN Panaretus in his cups was, by snapping his fingers, requiring it being now midnight a neces- sary vase, a Spoletian jar was handed him, one which he had already drained dry by himself, and the whole flagon had not been sufficient for his single self. He, with scrupulous accuracy, remeasured to the jar the wine he had drunk from it, and returned the full burden of his wine-holder. Do you wonder the flagon took all he had drunk ? Don't wonder any longer, Rufus : he had drunk his wine neat !

3 M. was ill : cf. vi. xlvii. and Iviii.

4 The client's usual dole : cf. in. vii. 1.




MOECHUM Gellia non habet nisi unum. turpe est hoc magis : uxor est duorum.


SANCTA ducis summi prohibet censura vetatque moechari. gaude, Zoile : non futuis.


CAELATUS tibi cum sit, Anniane, serpens in patera Myronos arte, Vaticana bibis : bibis venenum.


TAM male Thais olet quam non fullonis avari

testa vetus media sed modo fracta via, non ab amore recens hircus, non ora leonis,

non detracta cani Transtiberina cutis, pullus abortivo nee cum putrescit in ovo, 5

amphora corrupto nee vitiata garo. virus ut hoc alio fallax permutet odore,

deposita quotiens balnea veste petit, psilothro viret aut acida latet oblita creta

aut tegitur pingui terque quaterque faba. 10

cum bene se tutam per fraudes mille putavit,

omnia cum fecit, Thaida Thais olet.

1 cf. Sen. De Btn. xvi. " matrimonium vocari unius adul- terium": cf. in. xcii. 2 cf. V. Ixxv. ; vi. vii.

3 Vatican was very inferior wine : cf. I. xviii. 2 ; X. xlv. 5. M. assumes that the serpent poisoned the wine. He means that A. drank bad wine in costly cups.


BOOK VI. xc-xcm


GELLIA has a paramour, but only one. That is all the more disgraceful : she is the wife of two. 1


THE sacred censor's edict of our illustrious chief forbids and debars adultery. 2 Congratulate yourself, Zoilus : you are impotent.


ALTHOUGH, Ammianus, you have on your cup a viper chased by Myron's art, you drink Vatican : you drink venom. 3


THAIS smells worse even than a grasping fuller's long-used crock, 4 and that, too, just smashed in the middle of the street ; than a he-goat fresh from his amours ; than the breath of a lion ; than a hide dragged from a dog beyond Tiber ; 5 than a chicken when it rots in an abortive egg ; than a two-eared jar poisoned by putrid fish-sauce. In order craftily to substitute for such a reek another odour, whenever she strips and enters the bath she is green with depilatory, or is hidden behind a plaster of chalk and vinegar, or is covered with three or four layers of sticky bean-flour. When she imagines that by a thousand dodges she is quite safe, Thais, do what she will, smells of Thais.

4 Fullers used urine in their trade, and used to collect it at street-corners in jars.

5 Where tanners pursued their trade ; Juv. xiv. 203.

6 Ordinarily used to remove wrinkles : cf. in. xlii. 1 ; xiv. Ix.

417 VOL. I. E E



PONUNTUR semper chrysendeta Calpetiano sive foris seu cum cenat in urbe domi.

sic etiam in stabulo semper, sic cenat in agro. non habet ergo aliud ? non habet immo suum.


BOOK VI. xciv


GOLD-ENAMELLED plate is always served to Calpe- tianus, whether he dines away from home or when he is at home in town. In this way, too, he always dines at an inn, in this way in the country. Has he no other plate then ? Nay, he possesses none of his own ! l

1 C. is satirised for his ostentatious use of plate which is not his own, but borrowed : cf. n. Iviii.

419 E E 2



ACCIPE belligerae crudum thoraca Minervae, ipsa Medusaeae quern timet ira comae.

dum vacat, haec, Caesar, poterit lorica vocari : pectore cum sacro sederit, aegis erit.


INVIA Sarmaticis domini lorica sagittis

et Martis Getico tergore fida magis, quam vel ad Aetolae securam cuspidis ictus

texuit innumeri lubricus unguis apri, felix sorte tua, sacrum cui tangere pectus

fas erit et nostri mente calere dei. i comes et magnos inlaesa merere triurnphos

palmataeque ducem, sed cito, redde togae.


CUR non mitto meos tibi, Pontiliane, libellos ? ne mihi tu mittas, Pontiliane, tuos.

1 These lines allude to a cuirass, made of boars' hoofs, either taken from a temple of Minerva, or made for Domitian in imitation of her aegis with the Gorgon's head upon it, and worn by him in his Sarmatian expedition, A.D. 92. It is again alluded to in xiv. dkxix.



RECEIVE the savage breast-plate of warrior Minerva, thou whom even Medusa's wrathful tresses dread. 1 While 'tis unworn, this, Caesar, may be called a cuirass ; when it shall repose on a sacred breast, 'twill be an aegis.


IMPENETRABLE by Sarmatian arrows, thou cuirass of our Lord, more trusty than the Getic shield of Mars, which, a safeguard even against the stroke of an Aetolian spear, 2 the burnished hooves of unnumbered boars inwove, blest art thou in thy lot ! whose right shall be to touch that sacred breast, and to warm with the spirit of our God ! Go with him and win, undinted, mighty triumphs, and bring home and that soon our chief to the palm-embroidered gown. 3


WHY do I not send you my works, Pontilianus ? That you, Pontilianus, may not send yours to me.

2 Meleager's, who slew the Calydonian boar : cf. Lib. Spect. xv. 1.

  • A general in his triumphal procession wore a toga of

purple and gold (toga picta) over a tunic embroidered with palm-leaves (tunica palmata).




ESSEX, Castrice, cum mail coloris, versus scribere coepit Oppianus.

Si desiderium, Caesar, populique patrumque respicis et Latiae gaudia vera togae,

redde deum votis poscentibus. invidet hosti Roma suo, veniat laurea multa licet :

terrarum dominum propius videt ille tuoque terretur vultu barbarus et fruitur.


ECQUID Hyperboreis ad nos conversus ab oris

Ausonias Caesar iam parat ire vias ? certus abest auctor sed vox hoc nuntiat omnis :

credo tibi, verum dicere, Fama, soles, publica victrices testantur gaudia chartae, 5

Martia laurigera cuspide pila virent. rursus, io, magnos clamat tibi Roma triumphos,

mvicTusque tua, Caesar, in urbe sonas. sed iam laetitiae quo sit fiducia maior,

Sarmaticae laurus nuntius ipse veni. 10


HIBERNA quamvis Arctos et rudis Peuce et ungularum pulsibus calens Hister

1 For the "pallor" of poets tf. Hor. Ep. i. xix. 28.

2 Domitian in A.D. 92 was campaigning against the Sarma- tians. He returned in Jan. 93.


BOOK VII. iv-vn


BECAUSE, Castricus, he was of a sickly hue, 1 Oppi- anus begins to write verses.


IF thou regardest, Caesar, the longing of the people and of the Fathers, and the Latin gown's true joy, bring back our God to our urgent prayers ! 2 Albeit there comes many a letter laurel-wreathed, 3 Rome envies her own foe ; he views more near the Master of the world, and in thy countenance the barbarian finds his terror and his joy.


TURNED usward from Hyperborean shores, is Caesar now bent on treading Ausonian ways ? Sure witness is there none, yet every voice so tells us ; thee, Report, I trust ; thou art wont to speak the truth. Despatches of victory attest the public joy ; the pikes of war are green with laurel-crowned heads. Again O joy ! Rome shouts thy mighty triumphs, and in thy city, Caesar, thou art proclaimed Unconquered. But now, that faith in our delight be greater still, come, thyself the herald of thy Sarmatian bay.


ALBEIT the wintry North, and savage Peuce, 4 and Hister glowing with the beat of hooves, and Rhine,

3 Despatches announcing victory were laurel- wreathed.

4 An island at the mouth of the Danube (Hister), so called from its pines : cf. vii. Ixxxiv. 3.



fractusque cornu iam ter inprobo Rhenus

teneat domantem regna perfidae gentis

te, summe mundi rector et parens orbis, 5

abesse nostris non tamen potes votis.

illic et oculis et animis sumus, Caesar,

adeoque mentes omnium tenes unus

ut ipsa magni turba nesciat Circi

utrumne currat Passerinus an Tigris. 10


NUNC hilares, si quando mihi, nunc ludite, Musae :

victor ab Odrysio redditur orbe deus. certa facis populi tu primus vota, December :

iam licet ingenti dicere voce " Venit ! " felix sorte tua ! poteras non cedere lano, 5

gaudia si nobis quae dabit ille dares, festa coronatus ludet convicia miles,

inter laurigeros cum comes ibit equos. fas audire iocos levioraque carmina, Caesar,

et tibi, si lusus ipse triumphus amat. 10


CUM sexaginta numeret Cascellius annos, ingeniosus homo est : quando disertus erit ?

PEDICATUR Eros, fellat Linus : Ole, quid ad te de cute quid faciant ille vel ille sua ?

1 River gods were represented with horns. The shattering of the horn meant defeat : cf. x. vii. 6.


BOOK VII. vn-x

his presumptuous horn now shattered thrice, 1 detain thee, while thou dost subdue a false nation's realm, thou ruler supreme of the universe and father of the world, yet thou canst not be parted from our prayers. There, where thou art, are we in vision and in soul, Caesar ; and so alone dost thou possess the thoughts of all that the very throng of the mighty Circus knows not whether Passarinus runs or Tigris. 2


Now joyfully, if ever in page of mine, frolic, ye Muses ! in victory is our God being restored to us from the Odrysian world. Thou first, December, makest sure fulfilment of a people's prayers : now may we shout with a mighty voice, " He comes ! " Happy in thy lot ! Thou mightest not have made way for Janus, wert thou giving us the joys that he shall give ! In festive raillery shall the wreathed soldier sport when he shall tread attendant on the laurelled steeds. To hear the jest and lighter song is lawful even for thee, Caesar, if a triumph of itself woos mirthfulness. 3


THOUGH Cascellius now numbers sixty years, he is only a clever man : when will he be eloquent ?

EROS has one filthy vice, Linus has another : Olus, what is it to you what one or the other does with

2 Race-horses.

3 For the licence allowed to soldiers in a triumphal pro- cession cf. i. iv. 3.



centenis futuit Matho milibus : Ole, quid ad te ?

non tu propterea sed Matho pauper erit. in lucem cenat Sertorius : Ole, quid ad te, 5

cum liceat tota stertere nocte tibi ? septingenta Tito debet Lupus : Ole, quid ad te ?

assem ne dederis crediderisve Lupo. illud dissimulas ad te quod pertinet, Ole,

quodque magis curae convenit esse tuae. 10

pro togula debes : hoc ad te pertinet, Ole.

quadrantem nemo iam tibi credit : et hoc. uxor moecha tibi est : hoc ad te pertinet, Ole.

poscit iam dotem filia grandis : et hoc. dicere quindecies poteram quod pertinet ad te : 15

sed quid agas ad me pertinet, Ole, nihil.


COGIS me calamo manuque nostra emendare meos, Pudens, libellos. o quam me nimium probas amasque qui vis archetypas habere nugas !


Sic me fronte legat dominus, Faustine, serena

excipiatque meos qua solet aure iocos, ut mea nee iuste quos odit pagina laesit

et mihi de nullo fama rubore placet, quid prodest, cupiant cum quidam nostra videri, 5

si qua Lycambeo sanguine tela madent, vipereumque vomat nostro sub nomine virus,

qui Phoebi radios ferre diemque negat ?

1 i.e. scurrilous. Lycambes was driven to suicide by the 428

BOOK VII. x-xn

his own hide ? Matho pays his whore a hundred thousand : Olus, what is it to you ? You will not be poor on that account, but Matho. Sertorius dines till daylight : Olus, what is it to you, seeing you can snore all night? Lupus owes seven hundred thou- sand sesterces to Titus : Olus, what is it to you ? don't give or lend Lupus a stiver. You ignore what is your own affair, Olus, what more concerns your careful thought. You owe for your sorry toga : this is your affair, Olus. Nobody now lends you a penny : this too. Your wife is a wanton ; this is your affair, Olus. Your strapping daughter now demands a dowry : this too. Fifteen times over I could mention what is your affair : but your doings, Olus, are no affair of mine.


You compel me to correct my poems with my own hand and pen, Pudeiis. Oh, how overmuch you approve and love my work who wish to have my trifles in autograph !


MAY my Master be as certain to read me, Fausti- nus, with an unruffled brow, and to welcome my jests with his wonted heed, as my page has not wounded even those it justly hates, and fame won from another's blush is not dear to me ! What does this avail me when certain folk would pass off as mine darts wet with the blood of Lycambes, 1 and under my name a man vomits his viperous venom who owns he cannot bear the light of day? My jests

lampoons of the poet Archilochus, to whom he had refused his daughter.



ludimus innocui : scis hoc bene : iuro potentis

per genium Famae Castaliumque gregem 10

perque tuas aures, magni mihi numinis instar, lector inhumana liber ab invidia.


DUM Tiburtinis albescere solibus audit

antiqui dentis fusca Lycoris ebur, venit in Herculeos colles. quid Tiburis alti

aura valet ! parvo tempore nigra redit.


ACCIDIT infandum nostrae scelus, Aule, puellae ;

amisit lusus deliciasque suas : non quales teneri ploravit arnica Catulli

Lesbia^ nequitiis passeris orba sui, vel Stellae cantata meo quas flevit lanthis, 5

cuius in Elysio nigra columba volat : lux mea non capitur nugis neque moribus istis

nee dominae pectus talia damna movent : bis senos l puerum numerantem perdidit annos,

mentula cui nondum sesquipedalis erat. 10


Quis puer hie nitidis absistit lanthidos undis ?

effugit dominam Naida numquid Hylas ? o bene quod silva colitur Tirynthius ista

et quod amatrices tarn prope servat aquas !

1 senos Heins. , denos codd.

1 cf. iv. Ixii. The sulphurous exhalations of the springs at Tibur (cf. iv. iv. 2) were supposed to have the property of whitening things, especially ivory.


BOOK VII. xn-xv

are harmless : you know this well : I swear by the genius of mighty Fame, and the Castalian choir, and by your ears, which are to me as a great deity, O reader, who art free from ungentle envy.


HEARING that, under Tibur's suns, the ivory of an old tusk grows white, dusky Lycoris came to the hills of Hercules. What power high-set Tibur's air has ! In a short time she returned black ! l


AN unspeakable calamity has chanced to a girl of mine, Aulus : she has lost her plaything and her darling, not such a one as Lesbia, the mistress of tender Catullus, deplored when she was forlorn of her sparrow's roguish tricks, nor such as lanthis, sung of by my Stella, 2 wept for, whose black dove flits in Elysium. My love is not taken by trifles, nor by such passions as that ; nor do such losses move my mistress' heart : she has lost a boy just counting twice six years, whose parts were not as yet Gar- gantuan !


WHAT boy is this who stands apart from lanthis' sparkling fount ? Is it Hylas, 3 who shuns the Naiad, its mistress ? Oh, well that he of Tiryns 4 is wor- shipped in that grove, and that so nigh he watches

2 L. Arruntius Stella, a poet, and the friend of M. : cf. v. xi. 3 ; i. vii. 4, His wife was Violentilla (lanthis), whose dove S. sang of : cf. I. vii.

3 The companion of Hercules. He was drawn under the water by an enamoured nymph : cf. v. xlviii. 5 ; ix. Ixv. 14.

4 Hercules.



securus licet hos fontes, Argynne, ministres : 5

nil facient Nymphae : ne velit ipse cave.


AERA domi non sunt, superest hoc, Regule, solum ut tua vendamus muriera : numquid emis ?


RURIS bybliotheca delicati,

vicinam videt unde lector urbem,

inter carmina sanctiora si quis

lascivae fuerit locus Thaliae,

hos nido licet inseras vel imo, 5

septem quos tibi misimus libellos

auctoris calamo sui notatos :

haec illis pretium facit litura.

at tu munere, delicata, 1 parvo

quae cantaberis orbe iiota toto, 10

pignus pectoris hoc mei tuere,

luli bybliotheca Martialis.


CUM tibi sit facies de qua nee femina possit

dicere, cum corpus nulla litura notet, cur te tarn rarus cupiat repetatque fututor

miraris ? vitium est non leve, Galla, tibi.

1 ddicata y ; interpunctionem correxit Munro ; dedicala 0.

1 The epigram is on a statue of a boy running (probably one of Stella's slaves), placed beside a fountain, perhaps in Stella's garden (cf. vi. xlvii.), and named after Argynnus,



the amorous waters ! Secure thou, Argynnus, mayst tend this fount : the nymphs will do thee no harm ; but ware the god himself! l


I HAVE not a copper at home ; this one thing alone remains, Regulus, to sell your presents : are you a buyer ?


O LIBRARY of a dainty country house, from which a reader surveys the City close at hand, if, amid poems more reverend, there shall be a place for wanton Thalia, thou mayst put in a niche, though it be the lowest one, these seven little books which I have sent thee, scored by their author's pen : such correc- tion gives them value ! But do thou, 2 dainty one, that, because of my small gift, shall be sung and known throughout the world, protect this pledge of my heart's love, O library of Julius Martialis !


ALTHOUGH you have a face which not even a woman could criticise, although no blemish marks your body, do you wonder why it is so rarely a gallant desires you and seeks you a second time ? You have a defect, Galla, and no light one. Ogni

the favourite of Agamemnon. M. means that Hercules will protect Argynnus from the nymphs of the fountain, but that he will be in danger of being carried off by Hercules himself. 2 Or, without Munro's punctuation, "thou, who, because of my gift, shall be sung of as dainty."

433 VOL. I. F F


access! quotiens ad opus mixtisque movemur 5

inguinibus, cunnus non tacet, ipsa taces. di facerent ut tu loquereris et ille taceret :

offender cunni garrulitate tui. pedere te mallem : namque hoc nee inutile dicit

Symmachus et risum res movet ista siniul. 10

quis rid ere potest fatui poppysmata cunni ?

cum sonat hie, cui non mentula mensque cadit ? die aliquid saltern clamosoque obstrepe cunno

et, si adeo muta es, disce vel inde loqui.


FRAGMENTUM quod vile putas et inutile lignum, haec fuit ignoti prima carina maris.

quam nee Cyaneae quondam potuere ruinae frangere nee Scythici tristior ira freti,

saecula vicerunt : sed quamvis cesserit annis, sanctior est salva parva tabella rate.


NIHIL est miserius neque gulosius Santra.

rectam vocatus cum cucurrit ad cenam,

quam tot diebus noctibusque captavit,

ter poscit apri glandulas, quater lumbum,

et utramque coxam leporis et duos armos, 5

nee erubescit peierare de turdo

et ostreorum rapere lividos cirros.

buccis placentae ] sordidam Unit mappam ;

1 Buccis placentae Scriver. ; buccis plangentcm & ; dulcis placenta y.


BOOK VII. xvm-xx

volta che venni teco alle prese, e nei mischiati pia- ceri s'aggitiamo coi lumbi, tu taci, e '1 tuo c o chiazza. Volessero gli del che tu parlassi ed esso tacesse : io sono nauseate dalla chiacchiera del tuo c o. Amerei meglio che tu petassi : imperocche Simaco dice che ci6 e giovevole, e nel tempo stesso muove il riso. Chi pu6 ridere ai poppismi d'un fatuo c o ? quando questo romba, a cui non cade la men- tola e la mente ? Di almeno qualche cosa, o serra il susurroso tuo c o : e se non sei affatto mutola, impara indi a parlare.


THE fragment thou regardest as cheap and useless wood, this was the first keel to stem the unknown sea. That which the clash of the Azure rocks l could not shatter of old, nor the wrath, more dread, of Scythia's ocean, ages have subdued : yet, however much it has submitted to time, more sacred is this small plank than the vessel unscathed.


No miserliness or gluttony is equal to Santra's. When he has been invited and has hurried off to the grand dinner which he has for so many nights and days fished for, he asks thrice for kernels of boar, four times for the loin, and for each leg of a hare, and both wings ; nor does he blush to tell lies about a fieldfare, and to snatch the discoloured beards of oysters. With mouthfuls of cake he stains his soiled

1 Two rocks at the mouth of the Bosphorus, supposed to float and collide. They were, according to legend, discovered by the Argonauts. Perhaps the legend represents early experiences of icebergs.

435 F F 2


illic et uvae conlocantur ollares

et Punicorum pauca grana malorum 10

et excavatae pellis indecens volvae

et lippa ficus debilisque boletus.

sed mappa cum iam mille rumpitur furtis,

rosos tepenti spondylos sinu condit

et devorato capite turturem truncum. 15

colligere longa turpe nee putat dextra

analecta quidquid et canes reliquerunt.

nee esculenta sufficit gulae praeda :

mixto lagonam replet ad pedes vino.

haec per ducentas cum domum tulit scalas 20

seque obserata clusit anxius cella

gulosus ille, postero die vendit.


HAEC est ilia dies, quae magni conscia partus Lucanum populis et tibi, Polla, dedit.

heu ! Nero crudelis nullaque invisior umbra, debuit hoc saltern non licuisse tibi.


VATIS Apollinei magno memorabilis ortu lux redit : Aonidum turba, favete sacris.

haec meruit, cum te erris, Lucane, dedisset, mixtus Castaliae Baetis ut esset aquae.

1 i.e. a sow's matrix, a favourite dish : cf. Hor. Ep. I. xv. 41. It was stuffed with appetising herbs and condiments : cf. Athen. iii. 58, 59 ; which in this instance had already been eaten. Excavatae, may be however = ejectitiae, a matrix from

43 6

BOOK VII. xx-xxn

napkin ; there too are packed preserved grapes, and a few grains of pomegranate, and the unsightly skin of a scooped out haggis, 1 and an oozing fig, and a flabby mushroom. And when his napkin is already bursting under his thousand thefts, he secretes in the reeking folds of his gown gnawed vertebrae, and a turtle-dove shorn of its head already gobbled up. Nor does he think it disgraceful to pick up with a long arm whatever the sweeper and the dogs have left. Nor are eatables sufficient loot for him : he fills behind his back a flagon with the wine and water. When that greedy fellow has carried these things home up two hundred stairs, and anxiously shut himself in his locked garret, the next day he sells the lot !


THIS is that day which, conscious of a great birth, gave Lucan to the nations and, Polla, 2 to thee. Ah, Nero ! cruel, and for no death more hateful ! this deed at least should not have been permitted thee !


MADE glorious by the mighty birth of Apollo's bard, the day returns : ye Aonian throng, 3 look kindly on these rites ! These it earned, when it had given thee, Lucan, to the earth, that Baetis 4 might be mingled with the water of Castalia.

which the fetus has been removed before birth : cf. Plin. N.H. xi. 84.

2 Folia Argentaria, the widow of the poet Lucan. She was a patron of M. : cf. X. Ixiv. 1. * The Muses.

4 Lucan was born at Cordova on the Baetis (Guadalquiver).




PHOEBE, veni, sed quantus eras cum bella tonanti ipse dares Latiae plectra secunda lyrae.

quid tanta pro luce precer ? tu, Polla, maritum saepe colas et se sentiat ille coli.


CUM luvenale meo quae me committere temptas,

quid non audebis, perfida lingua, loqui ? te fingente nefas Pyladen odisset Orestes,

Thesea Pirithoi destituisset amor, tu Siculos fratres et maius nomen Atridas 5

et Ledae poteras dissociare genus, hoc tibi pro mentis et talibus inprecor ausis,

ut facias illud quod, puto, lingua, facis.


DULCIA cum tantum scribas epigrammata semper

et cerussata candidiora cute, nullaque mica salis nee amari fellis in illis

gutta sit, o demens, vis tamen ilia legi ! nee cibus ipse iuvat morsu fraudatus aceti, 5

nee grata est facies cui gelasinus abest. infanti melimela dato fatuasque mariscas :

nam mihi, quae novit pungere, Chia sapit.

1 " Inspire me now as thon didst inspire Lucan, the second poet after Virgil, when he sang of the civil war between Pompey and Caesar."


BOOK VII. xxm-xxv


PHOEBUS, come thou, but in thy might, as thou wert when to him who thundered of war thou gavest with thy own hand the second quill of the Latin lyre. 1 What should be my prayer for a day so great ? Mayst thou, Polla, long revere thy spouse, and may he himself feel that he is revered !


THOU that essayest to embroil me with my Juvenal, what wilt not thou, perfidious tongue, dare to say ? At thy imagining of wrong Orestes would have hated Pylades, Peirithous' love would have left Theseus lorn : thou couldst have parted the Sicilian brothers, 2 and a greater name the sons of Atreus, and Leda's generation. 3 This is my curse on thee for thy de- serts and for attempts so shameless : that thou mayst do that which, O tongue, I wot thou doest !


ALTHOUGH you continually write epigrams that are merely sweet, and more immaculate than a white- enamelled skin, and no grain of salt, nor drop of bitter gall is in them, yet, O madman ! you wish them to be read ! Not food itself is pleasant robbed of biting vinegar, nor is a face winning when no dimple is there. To an infant give honey-apples and insipid figs : for me the Chian fig with a tang has savour.

2 Amphinomus and Anapius, models of fraternal love and filial piety, who carried their parents from an eruption of Etna : Strabo, vi. 2. Claudian has a poem (De Piia Fra- tribus) on the subject. 3 Castor and Pollux,




APOLLINAREM conveni meum, scazon,

et si vacabit (ne molestus accedas)

hoc qualecumque, cuius aliqua pars ipse est

dabis : hoc facetae * carmen inbuant aures.

si te receptum fronte videris tota, 5

noto rogabis ut favore sustentet.

quanto mearum, scis, amore nugarum

flagret : nee ipse plus amare te possum.

contra malignos esse si cupis tutus,

Apollinarem conveni rneum, scazon. 10


TUSCAE glandis aper populator et ilice multa

iam piger, Aetolae fama secunda ferae, quern meus intravit splendenti cuspide Dexter,

praeda iacet nostris invidiosa focis. pinguescant madido laeti nidore penates 5

flagret et exciso festa culina iugo. sed cocus ingentem piperis consumet acervum,

addet et arcano mixta Falerna garo. ad dominum redeas, noster te non capit ignis,

conturbator aper : vilius esurio. 10


Sic Tiburtinae crescat tibi silva Dianae et properet caesum saepe redire nemus,

1 hoc 5-, haec codd.; facetae Gronov.,facetum codd. 440

BOOK VII. xxvi-xxvm


SALUTE my Apolliiiaris, halting verse, 1 and if he be at leisure do not approach him unseasonably you will give him this, whate'er its worth, in which he too has some part : may cultivated ears be first to hear this verse ! If you see yourself welcomed by an un- ruffled brow, you will ask him to support you with his well-known favour. With what great love for my trifles he burns you know ; not even I myself can love you more. If against malice you wish to be safe, salute my Apollinaris, halting verse !


THE ravager of Tuscan mast, now fat with many an acorn, second in renown to the Aetolian beast, 2 a boar which my Dexter pierced with his gleaming spear, lies here, a booty abhorrent to my hearth. Let my household gods joyously grow fat the steaming reek, and my festal kitchen blaze with felling of a hill top. But ah ! the cook will consume a huge heap of pepper, and add Falernian mixed with his treasured fish-sauce. Go back to your owner my fire is too small for you, O boar that would bankrupt me ! 'tis less ruinous to starve.


So may Diana's wood at Tibur burgeon for you, and the grove, oft lopped, be quick to grow anew ;

1 cf. i. xcvi. 1.

2 The boar slain by Meleager : cf. Lib. Spect. xv. 1.



nee Tartesiacis Pallas tua, Fusee, trapetis

cedat et inmodici dent bona musta lacus ; sic fora mirentur, sic te Palatia laudent, 5

excolat et geminas plurima palma fores : otia dum medius praestat tibi parva December,

exige, sed certa, quos legis, aure iocos. " Scire libet verum ? res est haec ardua." sed tu

quod tibi vis dici dicere, Fusee, potes. 10


THESTYLE, Victoris tormentum dulce Voconi,

quo nemo est toto notior orbe puer, sic etiam positis formosus amere capillis

et placeat vati nulla puella tuo : paulisper domini doctos sepone libellos, 5

carmina Victori dum lego parva tuo. et Maecenati, Maro cum cantaret Alexin,

nota tamen Marsi fusca Melaenis erat.


DAS Parthis, das Germanis, das, Caelia, Dacis,

nee Cilicum spernis Cappadocumque toros ; et tibf de Pharia Memphiticus urbe fututor

navigat, a rubris et niger Indus aquis ; nee recutitorum fugis inguina ludaeorum, 5

nee te Sarmatico transit Alarms equo. qua ratione facis, cum sis Romana puella,

quod Romana tibi mentula nulla placet ?

1 Now Tarifa, in Spain.

2 i.e. the law courts. They were at this time three, the F. Romanum, F. Caesaris, and F. Augusti.

3 Palms were affixed to the doors of advocates after success in court : Juv. vii. 117.

4 i.e. the plain truth.


BOOK VII. xxvin-xxx

and your olive, Fuscus, yield not to presses of Tar- tessus, 1 and your overflowing vats give you goodly must ; so may the forums 2 admire you, so may the Palace praise you, and many a palm deck your fold- ing doors 8 while mid December secures you some small leisure, examine, and with unfailing ear, the jests you read, "Do you wish to learn the truth? that is a hard matter." But you can say to me, Fuscus, what* you wish said to you.


THESTYLUS, the dear torment of Voconius Victor, O boy better known 5 than any in all the world, so may you, even now with your shorn locks, be beau- tiful and dear, and no maiden be pleasing to your bard lay aside awhile your master's learned books while I read some small verses to your Victor. Even to Maecenas, although Maro was singing of Alexis, still was Marsus' dusk Melaenis 6 known.


You grant your favours to Parthians, you grant them to Germans, you grant them, Caelia, to Dacians, and you do not spurn the couch of Cilicians and Cappadocians ; and for you from his Egyptian city comes sailing the gallant of Memphis, and the black Indian from the Red Sea; nor do you shun the lecheries of circumcised Jews, and the Alan on his Sarmatian steed does not pass you by. What is your reason that, although you are a Roman girl, no Roman lewdness has attraction for you ?

5 Because you are sung of in his poems (docti libelli) ; cf. vati in 1. 4.

6 On whom Marsus had written a poem. He was a younger contemporary of Horace, and wrote elegies, and epigrams, and an epic poem called Amazonis : cf. I. Epist. 12 ; iv. xxix. 8.




RAUCAE chortis aves et ova matrum

et flavas medio vapore Chias

et fetum querulae rudem capellae

nee iam frigoribus pares olivas

et canum gelidis hoi us pruinis 5

de nostro tibi missa rure credis ?

o quam, Regale, diligenter erras !

nil nostri, nisi me, ferunt agelli.

quidquid vilicus Umber aut colonus

aut rus marmore tertio notatum 10

aut Tusci tibi Tusculive mittunt,

id tota mihi iiascitur Subura.


ATTICE, facundae renovas qui nomina gentis

nee sinis ingentem conticuisse domum, te pia Cecropiae comitatur turba Minervae,

te secreta quies, te sophos omnis amat. at iuvenes alios fracta colit aure magister 5

et rapit inmeritas sordidus unctor opes, non pila, non follis, non te paganica thermis

praeparat aut nudi stipitis ictus hebes, vara nee in lento ceromate bracchia tendis,

non harpasta vagus pulverulenta rapis, 10

1 Frost-bitten. M. depreciates what he sends, lest R. should think him a rich man.

2 i.e. M. has to buy in the market ; cf. x. xciv. 5.


BOOK VII. xxxi-xxxn


BIRDS of the cackling farmyard, and eggs of mother hens, and Chian figs yellow from insufficient heat, and the young offspring of the bleating she-goat, and olives unable now to stand the cold, 1 and cabbages whitened by chill hoar frosts do you believe these were sent you from my country-place ? Oh, how carefully wrong, Regulus, you are ! My small fields bear nothing but me. Whatever your Umbrian bailiff, or tenant sends you, or your country-house marked by the third milestone, or your lands in Etruria or at Tusculum, this for me is produced all over the Subura. 2


ATTICUS, who make live anew the names of an elo- quent race, and suffer a mighty house to continue mute, on you the pious votaries of Cecropian Minerva attend, you cloistered leisure, you every philosopher holds dear. But other young men the boxing-master with his battered ear courts, and the dirty anointer makes off with wealth undeserved. No hand-ball, no bladder-ball, no feather-stuffed ball 3 makes you ready for the warm bath, nor the blunted stroke upon the unarmed stump ; 4 nor do you stretch forth squared arms besmeared with sticky ointment, nor, darting to and fro, snatch the dusty scrimmage-ball,

3 As to these, cj. iv. xix. 5 ; xiv. xlv.-xlviii.

4 The post (palus) on which sword-strokes with a blunted sword were practised : Juv. vi. 247. This was also done as exercise before the bath.



sed curris niveas tantum prope Virginis undas

aut ubi Sidonio taurus amore calet. per varias artes, omnis quibus area servit,

ludere, cum liceat currere, pigritia est.


SORDIDIOR caeno cum sit toga, calceus autem

candidior prima sit tibi, Cinna, nive : deiecto quid., inepte, pedes perfundis amictu ?

collige, Cinna, togam ; calceus ecce perit.


Quo possit fieri modo, Severe,

ut vir pessimus omnium Charinus

unam rem bene fecerit, requiris ?

dicam, sed cito. quid Nerone peius ?

quid thermis melius Neronianis ? 5

non dest protinus, ecce, de malignis

qui sic rancidulo loquatur ore :

" Quid tu tot domini deique nostri

praefers muneribus ? " l Neronianas

thermas praefero balneis cinaedi. 10


INGUINA succinctus nigra tibi servos aluta stat, quotiens calidis tota foveris aquis.

sed meus, ut de me taceam, Laecania, servos ludaeum nuda sub cute pondus habet,

tu tot Housman, quid te tot , ut quid tu X V ; interpunxit post muneribus Housman, who explains that the maiignus wrests 1. 5 into an insnlt to Domitian. " No," says M., "I only said I prefer N. 'swarm baths to those of a cinaedus," thus keeping the description of the vir pessimus to the last word.


BOOK VII. xxxn-xxxv

but you run only by the clear Virgin water, 1 or where the Bull warms with passion for his Sidonian love. 2 To trifle in the various sports to which every open space is devoted, when one can run, is sloth.


As your toga is dirtier than mud, whereas your shoe, Cinna, is whiter than untrodden snow, why do you, foolish man, overspread your feet with your draggling garb ? Gather up your toga, Cinna ; see, your shoe is being spoilt. 3


How does it possibly come, Severus, that Charinus, the worst rascal in the world, did one thing well ? Do you ask ? I will tell you, and briefly. What was worse than Nero ? What is better than Nero's warm baths ? See, at once some one of the malicious crowd is ready to say in sour tones : " What do you set above the many structures erected by our Master and God?" I set Nero's warm baths above the baths of a pathic.


Un- servo, cinto le pudende con un nero cuojo, attende a te ogni volta che tutta t'immergi nelle calde acque. Ma il mio servo, senza parlare di me, ha il giudaico peso sott'un nudo cuojo ; ma ed i

1 The Aqua Virgo. Here perhaps was a running ground, as there was in the Port. Eur. : cf. n. xiv. 4.

2 In the Porticua Europae : cf. n. xiv. 3 ; in. xx. 12.

3 M. means that C. prefers white shoes to a white toga, and yet allows the one to soil the other.



sed nudi tecum iuvenesque senesque lavantur. I

an sola est servi mentula vera tui ? ecquid femineos sequeris, matrona, recessus,

secretusque tua, cunne, lavaris aqua ?


CUM pluvias madidumque lovem perferre negaret

et rudis hibernis villa nataret aquis, plurima, quae posset subitos effundere nimbos,

muneribus venit tegula missa tuis. horridus, ecce, sonat Boreae stridore December : i

Stella, tegis villam, non tegis agricolam.


NOSTI mortiferum quaestoris, Castrice, signum ?

est operae pretium discere theta novum : exprimeret quotiens rorantem frigore nasum,

letalem iuguli iusserat esse notam. turpis ab inviso pendebat stiria naso, B

cum flaret media fauce December atrox : collegae tenuere manus : quid plura requiris ?

emungi misero, Castrice, non licuit.


TANTUS es et talis nostri, Polypheme, Severi

ut te mirari possit et ipse Cyclops, sed nee Scylla minor, quod si fera monstra duorum

iunxeris, alterius fiet uterque timor.


BOOK VII. xxxv-xxxvm

giovani, ed i vecchi si lavano nudi teco. La mentola del tuo servo e solamente la vera ? O matrona, siegui tu i feminei recessi, e ti lavi tu di nascosto O c o, nella tua acqua ?


WHEN my rough country-house was refusing to en- dure any longer the rain and drenching sky, and was swimming in a winter deluge, many a tile, to carry off sudden storms, reached me by your bounty. See, rough December roars with the North wind's thunder ! Stella, you cover the farm, you don't clothe the farmer !


Do you know, Castricus, the quaestor's signal for death ? It is worth while to learn this new kind of death-warrant : he had given orders that, every time he blew his nose dripping with the cold, that should be the fatal sign of execution. An unsightly icicle was hanging from his hateful nose, when wild December was blowing a blast from the depths of its throat : his colleagues held his hands : what more do you ask ? The unhappy man, Castricus, was not allowed to blow his nose !


So huge and so ugly are you, Polyphemus, slave of my Severus, that even the Cyclops himself might wonder at you. And Scylla is no smaller. Now, if you marry the two wild monstrosities, each will become the other's bogey !

o a



DISCURSUS varies vagumque mane

et fastus et have potentiorum

cum perferre patique iam negaret,

coepit fingere Caelius podagram.

quam dum volt nimis adprobare veram 5

et sanas linit obligatque plantas

inceditque gradu laborioso,

(quantum cura potest et ars doloris !)

desit fingere Caelius podagram.


Hie iacet ille senex Augusta notus in aula,

pectore non humili passus utrumque deum ; natorum pietas sanctis quem coniugis umbris

miscuit : Elysium possidet ambo nemus. occidit ilia prior viridi fraudata iuventa : 5

hie prope ter senas vixit Olympiadas. sed festinatis raptum tibi credidit annis,

aspexit lacrimas quisquis, Etrusce, tuas.


COSMICOS esse tibi, Semproni Tucca, videris. cosmica, Semproni, tarn mala quam bona sunt.


MUNERIBUS cupiat si quis contendere tecum, audeat hie etiam, Castrice, carminibus.

1 i.e. pleased or angry. As to Claudius Etruscus, see Stat. Sylv. iii. 3. He had been banished and recalled by Domitiau : cf. vi. Ixxxiii.

2 Periods of five years, as generally in M. : cf. iv. xlv. 4.


BOOK VII. xxxix-xLii


WHEN he refused any longer to endure and put up with the various gaddings about, and the devious morning calls, and the pride and salutations of wealthy patrons, Caelius set up the pretence of gout. And while he was anxious to prove it was quite genuine, and plastered and swathed his sound feet, and got along with a labouring gait, Caelius what potency has the exercise and cultivation of illness ! has ceased to pretend gout !


HERE lies that aged sire, famed in the Augustan hall as bearing with no abject soul our God in either mood ; l his sons' love has joined him to his wife's hallowed shade : Elysium's grove holds them both. She died the first, robbed of her fresh youth ; he lived well-nigh thrice six Olympiads. 2 Yet whoever has seen thy tears, Etruscus, accounts him snatched away from thee too swiftly.


THE very quintessence of Cosmus' shop you fancy yourself, Sempronius Tucca. Of Cosmus' essences, 3 Sempronius, as many are bad as good. 4


IP any one wish to vie with you in gifts, let him venture, Castricus, in poetry too. I am poorly

3 Another, but less likely, interpretation is to take cos- micnx as = man of the world, and cosmica as = worldly things.

4 cf. in. Iv. 1 ; I. Ixxxvii. 2.



nos tenues in utroque sumus vincique parati :

inde sopor nobis et placet alta quies. tarn mala cur igitur dederim tibi carmina, quaeris ? 5

Alcinoo nullum poma dedisse putas ?


PRIMUM est ut praestes, si quid te, Cinna, rogabo ;

illud deinde sequens ut cito, Cinna, neges. diligo praestantem ; non odi, Cinna, negantem :

sed tu nee praestas nee cito, Cinna, negas.


MAXIMUS ille tuus, Ovidi, Caesonius hie est,

cuius adhuc vultum vivida cera tenet, hunc Nero damnavit ; sed tu damnare Neronem

ausus es et profugi, non tua, fata sequi : aequora per Scyllae magnus comes exulis isti, 5

qui modo nolueras consulis ire comes, si victura meis mandantur nomina chartis

et fas est cineri me superesse meo, audiet hoc praesens venturaque turba fuisse

illi te, Senecae quod fuit ille suo. 10


FACUNDI Senecae potens amicus, caro proxinius aut prior Sereno,

1 i.e. carried coals to Newcastle. Alcinous, the mythical king of Phaeacia, was celebrated for his orchards : cf. x. xciv. 2.



furnished in both, and prepared to be surpassed ; hence repose and unbroken quiet are my delight. Why then, you ask, did I send you such bad poems ? Think you no man has given apples to Alcinous P 1


THE first thing is that you should hand it over if I ask anything of you, Cinna ; the next thing after that, Cinna, is that you should refuse quickly. I like a man who hands over ; I do not hate, Cinna, a man who refuses ; but you neither hand over, nor do you, Cinna, quickly refuse.


HERE, Ovidius, 2 is your Maximus Caesonius, whose lineaments the living wax still preserves. He it was Nero condemned ; but you dared to condemn Nero, and to follow the fortunes of a banished man, not your own : over Scylla's seas you went, that exile's high-souled comrade, you who had lately refused to be comrade of a consul. If those names shall live which are entrusted to my pages, and if it may be that I survive my own ashes, this shall the men of to-day and of to-morrow hear, that you were to him all that he was to his Seneca. 3


THE powerful friend of the eloquent Seneca, counted next to his dear Serenus, or dearer still,

2 Quintus Ovidius, M.'s friend and neighbour at Nomen- tum : cf. vn. xciii. 3 ; x. xliv.

3 Caesonius had followed Seneca into exile when he had been banished by the Emperor Claudius.



hie est Maximus ille, quern frequenti

felix littera pagina salutat.

hunc tu per Siculas secutus undas, 5

o nullis Ovidi tacende linguis,

sprevisti domini furentis iras.

miretur Pyladen suum vetustas,

haesit qui comes exuli parentis.

quis discrimina conparet duorum ? 10

haesisti comes exuli Neronis.


COMMENDARE tuum dum vis mihi carmine munus

Maeonioque cupis doctius ore loqui, excrucias multis pariter me teque diebus,

et tua de nostro, Prisce, Thalia tacet. divitibus poteris musas elegosque sonantes 5

mittere : pauperibus munera ?rea 1 dato.


DOCTOR UM Licini celeberrime Sura virorum,

cuius prisca gravis lingua reduxit avos, redderis (heu, quanto fatorum munere !) nobis

gustata Lethes paene remissus aqua, perdiderant iam vota metum securaque flebat 5

ftristitia 2 et lacrimisf iamque peractus eras : non tulit invidiam taciti regnator Averni

et raptas Fatis reddidit ipse colus. scis igitur quantas hominum mors falsa querellas

moverit et frueris posteritate tua. 10

1 iTf^d Palmer, pexa ft, plena, y.

2 flebant. tristitia Postgate, tristities Housman.

1 The S of salutem (greeting). These letters of Seneca are unknown.



that Maximus is here, whom in many a page the happy letter * greets. This is he whom you no tongue, Ovidius, but should speak your name ! followed over Sicilian waters, spurning the wrath of an infuriate despot. Let hoary time admire its Pylades, who as comrade clung to one 2 whom his parent banished. Who could compare the perils of the two ? You, as comrade, clung to one banished by Nero !


WHILE you are wishing to recommend your present to me by a poem, and are anxious to speak more skilfully than Homeric lips, you rack both me and yourself alike for many days, and your Thalia, 3 Priscus, at my expense is dumb. You can send to rich men verses and sounding elegies : to poor men send prosaic gifts.


MOST famed of learned men, Licinius Sura, whose old world tongue recalled our grave grandsires, thou art restored to us ah, by how great a boon of Fate ! sent back when thou hadst well-nigh tasted Lethe's wave. Already had our prayers lost their fear ; and sadness wept in calm despair, and to our tears thou wert already sped : the reproach the Lord of silent Avernus could not bear, and himself gave back their ravished distaff to the Fates. Wherefore thou knowest what plaints of men thy false death stirred, and dost enjoy

2 Orestes, banished by Clytemnestra after the murder of Agamemnon : Aeseh. Cho. 912.

3 The Muse of epigram : </. iv. viii. 12. P. was apparently a poet.



vive velut rapto fugitivaque gaudia carpe : perdiderit nullum vita reversa diem.


CUM mensas habeat fere trecentas, pro mensis habet Annius ministros : transcurrunt gabatae volantque lances, has vobis epulas habete, lauti : nos offendimur ambulante cena.


PARVA suburbani munuscula mittimus horti : faucibus ova tuis, poma, Severe, gulae.

FONS dominae, regina loci quo gaudet lanthis,

gloria conspicuae deliciumque domus, cum tua tot niveis ornetur ripa ministris

et Ganymedeo luceat unda choro, quid facit Alcides silva sacratus in ista? 5

tarn vicina tibi cur tenet antra deus ? numquid Nympharum notos observat amores,

tarn multi pariter ne rapiantur Hylae ?


MERCARI nostras si te piget, Urbice, nugas et lasciva tamen carmina nosse libet,

1 i.e. thy own after-fame. * Ravished from death.

3 A custom had arisen of handing the dishes round instead of placing them on the table. M. complains that they are handed round so quickly that the guest had no time to eat.



succession to thyself. 1 Live thy life as it were spoil, 2 and pluck the joys that fly : life brought back should lose no day.


ALTHOUGH Annius has almost three hundred tables, he has servants instead of tables : the platters scud across and the dishes flit. 3 Keep such banquets to yourselves, you epicures ! We are annoyed by a peripatetic dinner.


I SEND you these small offerings of my suburban garden, eggs for your hunger, Severus, apples for your palate.


FOUNT of thy mistress, in which lanthis, 4 queen of the spot, delights, glory and delight of a splendid house, when thy marge is decked with so many snow-white slaves and thy lucent wave reflects a band of Ganymedes, 5 what means Alcides consecrate in yonder grove ? Why holds the God a grot so near to thee ? Keeps he guard over the Nymphs, known wantons, lest so many Hylases be rapt away together ? 6


IF you shrink from buying my trifles, Urbicus, and yet would be acquainted with my wanton verses,

4 The wife of M.'s friend Stella. As to the fountain, cf. vi. xlvii.

5 The fount appears to have been surrounded by marble statues of slaves as cupboarers. 6 cf. VH. xv. 6.



Pompeium quaeres, et nosti forsitan, Auctum :

Ultoris prima Martis in aede sedet iure madens varioque togae limatus in usu. 5

non lector metis hie, Urbice, sed liber est. sic tenet absentes nostros cantatque libellos

ut pereat chartis littera nulla meis : denique, si vellet, poterat scripsisse videri ;

sed famae mavult ille favere meae. 10

hunc licet a decuma (neque enim satis ante vacabit)

sollicites, capiet cenula parva duos, ille leget, bibe tu ; nolis licet, ille sonabit :

et cum " lam satis est" dixeris, ille leget.


GRATUM est quod Celeri nostros legis, Aucte, libellos, si tamen et Celerem quod legis, Aucte, iuvat.

ille meas gentes et Celtas rexit Hiberos, nee fuit in nostro certior orbe fides.

maior me tanto reverentia turbat, et aures 5

non auditoris, iudicis esse puto.

LIII OMNIA misisti mihi Saturnalibus, Umber,

munera, contulerant quae tibi quinque dies : bis senos triplices et dentiscalpia septem ;

his comes accessit spongea mappa calix semodiusque fabae cum vimine Picenarum 5

et Laletanae nigra lagona sapae ; 458


you will seek out and perhaps you know him Pomponius Auctus : he sits at the entrance of Aveng- ing Mars, steeped in law, and versed in the many- sided practice of the gown. He is not a reader of my books, Urbicus, but himself the book. He so remembers my poems, though they are not before him, and declaims them, that not a letter is lost from my pages ; in fine, he might, if he chose, have been counted their author ; but he chooses rather to support my fame. After the tenth hour for he will not be fully at leisure before you may solicit him : a small dinner will do for two ; he will read : do you drink ; although you may not wish it, he will mouth my verses ; and when you have said " Hold ! enough ! " he will go on reading.


I AM gratified that you read my poems to Celer, Auctus x if, that is, what you read, Auctus, pleases Celer too. He was Governor over my native tribes and Celtiberians, and in that world of mine was no man of honour more sure. Therefore greater awe confounds me ; and I deem his ears not those of a hearer, but of a judge.


You have sent me at the Saturnalia, Umber, all the presents the five days have contributed for you, twice six three-leaved tablets, and seven toothpicks ; these a sponge, a napkin, and a cup accompanied, and a half-peck of beans, together with a wicker crate of Picenian olives, and a black flagon of

1 The Auctus of the preceding epigram.



parvaque cum canis venerunt cottana prunis

et Libycae fici pond ere testa gravis. vix puto triginta nummorum tota fuisse

munera, quae grandes octo tulere Syri. 10

quanto commodius iiullo mihi ferre labore

argenti potuit pondera quinque puer !


SEMPER mane mihi de me mera somnia narras,

quae moveant animum sollicitentque meum. iam prior ad faecem, sed et haec vindemia, venit,

exorat noctes dum mihi saga tuas ; consumpsi salsasque molas et turis acervos ; 5

decrevere greges, dum cadit agna frequens ; non porcus, non chortis aves, non ova supersunt.

aut vigila aut dormi, Nasidiane, tibi.


NULLI munera, Chreste, si remittis,

nee nobis dederis remiserisque :

credam te satis esse liberalem.

sed si reddis Apicio Lupoque

et Gallo Titioque Caesioque, 5

linges non mihi (nam proba et pusilla est)

sed quae de Solymis venit perustis

damnatam modo mentulam tributis.

1 Really to sponge on M. : cf. xi. 1. 7.

2 All these were used in expiations. 460


Laletanian must ; and there came some small Syrian figs, together with dried prunes, and a jar heavy with the weight of Libyan figs. I hardly think these presents in all were worth thirty sesterces, and yet eight hulking Syrians carried them ! How much more conveniently, with no labour, might a boy have brought five pounds of silver plate !


EVERLASTINGLY 011 a morning you relate to me dreams nothing but dreams about myself, to fret and harass my mind. 1 Already last year's vintage, aye, and this one too, has come to the dregs, while the wise woman is exorcising for me your nightly visions ; I have used up salt cakes, as well as heaps of frankincense ; my flocks have decreased by the frequent slaughter of a lamb ; no porker, no poultry-yard fowls, no eggs remain. 2 Either keep awake, Nasidienus, or dream about yourself!


IP you give presents in return to no man, Chrestus, 3 give and return none to me either : I will believe you to be generous enough. But if you give them to Apicius, and Lupus, and Gallus and Titius and Caesius, you shall assault, not my person (for that is chaste and petty), but the one that comes from Solyma now consumed by fire, 4 and is lately condemned to tribute. 5

" cf. ix. xxviii.

4 Jerusalem, captured by Titus, and burned A.D. 70.

5 The Jews were subject to a tax : Suet. Dom. xii.




ASTRA polumque pie cepisti mente, Rabiri, Parrhasiam mira qui struis arte domain.

Phidiaco si digna lovi dare templa parabit, has petet a nostro Pisa Tonante manus.


CASTORA de Polluce Gabinia fecit Achillan : TTV dya0ds fuerat, nunc erit


IAM sex aut septem nupsisti, Galla, cinaedis,

dum coma te nimium pexaque barba iuvat. deinde, experta latus madidoque simillima loro

inguina nee lassa stare coacta manu, deseris inbelles thalamos mollemque maritum, 5

rursus et in similes decidis usque toros. quaere aliquem Curios semper Fabiosque loquentem,

hirsutum et dura rusticitate trucem : invenies : sed habet tristis quoque turba cinaedos :

difficile est vero nubere, Galla, viro. 10

1 A reference to the domed roof of Domitian's palace, built \>y R. , his architect (cf. x. Ixxi.), and completed in A.D. 92.

- In Elis. " Phidian Jove" is the statue at Olympia of Zeus by Phidias.

3 i.e. she has made a pugilist a knight. The reference is




HEAVKN with its stars you, Rabirius, have con- ceived in your pious soul, who by wondrous art build the mansion of the Palatine. 1 If Pisa - shall be set to give Phidian Jove a temple worthy of him, she will beg of our Thunderer these hands of yours.


GABINIA has made Achillas a Castor out of a Pollux. 3 Pyxagathos he has been : now he will be Hippodamus.


ALREADY you have married six or seven paederasts, Galla ; long hair and a combed-out beard much attract you. Next, when you have tested their capacity, and their flaccid and used-up powei's, you desert weaponless encounters, and an effeminate husband, and yet again you continually fall back upon the same amours as before. Look out for some fellow who is always prating of the Curii and Fabii, 4 shaggy, and with a savage look of stubborn rusticity : you will discover him ; but even the grim tribe 5 has its paederasts : it is difficult, Galla, to marry a genuine man. 6

to Horn. II. iii. 237, where Pyxagathos (TTI/ ayuffos) is the epithet of Pollux, the boxer, and Hippodamus ('nrirdSanos) that of Castor, the horseman. There is probably an obscene jest here: cf. Shak., Henry V., in. vii. 47-49.

4 Types of ancient Roman virtues : cf. ix. xxviii. G.

5 i.e. of so-called philosophers : cf. ix. xxvii. and xlvii. ' cf. i. xxiv.




NON cenat sine apro noster, Tite, Caecilianus. bellum convivam Caecilianus habet.


TARPEIAE venerande rector aulae,

quern salvo duce credimus Tonantem,

cum votis sibi quisque te fatiget

et poscat dare quae del potestis :

nil pro me mihi, luppiter, petenti 5

ne stiscensueris velut superbo.

te pro Caesare debeo rogare :

pro me debeo Caesarem rogare.


ABSTULERAT totarn temerarius institor urbem

inque suo nullum limine limen erat. iussisti tenuis, Germanice, crescere vicos,

et modo quae fuerat semita, facta via est. nulla catenatis pila est praecincta lagonis 5

nee praetor medio cogitur ire Into, stringitur in densa nee caeca novacula turba,

occupat aut totas nigra popina vias. tonsor copo cocus lanius sua limina servant.

nunc Roma est, nuper magna taberna fuit. 10


RECI.USIS foribus grandes percidis, Amille, et te depreiidi, cum facis ista, cupis,

1 On which he dines alone, whereas a boar is meant for a party : cf. Juv. i. 140.




OUR friend Caecilianus does not dine, Titus, without boar. 1 A fine guest Caecilianus has !


RULER revered of the Tarpeian hall, 2 whom, while our Chief is safe, we believe art Thunderer, while each man wearies thee with prayers for himself, and claims gifts ye Gods can give, with me, who ask naught for myself, be not wroth, as if I were proud. Thee on behalf of Caesar ought I to sue : for myself it behoves me to sue Caesar.


THE audacious huckster had robbed us of all the City, and never a threshold kept within its own bounds. You have ordered, 3 Germanicus, our narrow streets to expand, and what was but now a track has become a road. No pillar 4 is girt with chained flagons, nor is the praetor forced to walk in the middle of the mud, nor is any razor rashly drawn in the midst of a dense crowd, nor does the grimy cook-shop monopolise the whole of the way. Barber, taverner, cook, butcher keep to their own thresholds. Now Rome exists : of late it was a huge shop.


O AMILLO, tu precidi colle porte aperte, e brami esser sorpreso quando fai queste cose, per tema

z Jupiter of the Capitol, where was the Tarpeian rock. 3 Domitian (Germanicus) in A. D. 92 by edict forbade stalls protruding into the street. 4 Of a wine-shop.




ne quid liberti narrent servique paterni et niger obliqua garrulitate cliens.-

non pedicari se qui testatur, Amille, illud saepe facit quod sine teste facit.


PERPETUI numquam moritura volumina Sili

qui legis et Latia carmina digna toga, Pierios tantum vati placuisse recessus

credis et Aoniae Bacchica serta coinae ? sacra coturnati non attigit ante Maronis 5

implevit magni quam Ciceronis opus : hunc miratur adhuc centum gravis hasta virorum,

hunc loquitur grato plurimus ore cliens. postquam bis senis ingentem fascibus annum

rexerat, adserto qui sacer orbe fuit, 10

emeritos Musis et Phoebo tradidit annos

proque suo celebrat nunc Helicona foro.


Qu tonsor tota fueras notissimus urbe

et post hoc dominae munere factus eques,

Sicanias urbes Aetnaeaque regna petisti, Cinname, cum fugeres tristia iura fori.

qua nunc arte graves tolerabis inutilis annos ? 5

quid facit infelix et fugitiva quies ?

1 Teste ia ambiguous. It also means 6px^.

2 cf. iv. xiv. ' i.e. advocacy.

4 A spear set in the ground was the sign of the Centumviral Court.



che i liberti ed i servi di casa dicano qualche cosa, ed il cliente, periculoso per la sua chiacchiera maliziosa. O Amillo, colui che testifica non esser pedicato, fa sovente cio che fa senza testimonio. 1


You who read the undying works of immortal Silius, 2 poems worthy of the Latin gown, think you the Muses' retreats only have delighted the bard, and Bacchic chaplets on poetic locks ? Buskined Maro's sacred art he essayed not ere he had wrought to the full great Cicero's work 3 ; the stately spear 4 of the Hundred Court admires him still, of him many a client speaks in grateful tone. When, with the twice six axes, he had ruled the mighty year hallowed by the freedom of the world regained, 5 his veteran years he gave in their turn to the Muses and to Phoebus, and, instead of his own forum, courts Helicon now.


You, who had been in all the City the most noted barber, and were afterwards by your lady's bounty made a knight, took refuge in Sicilian cities and Etna's kingdoms, Cinnamus, avoiding the stern laws of the forum." By what art now will you, a useless creature, support the heavy years ? What does that unhappy and exiled leisure do ? Rhetorician,

5 He was consul in A.D. 68, the year of Nero's death.

6 She had given him his qualification of 400,000 sesterces.

7 Perhaps to avoid an enquiry into his qualification, or into his free birth.

467 H H 2


non rhetor, non grammaticus ludive magister, non Cynicus, non tu Stoicus esse poles,

vendere nee vocem Siculis plausumque theatris. quod superest, iterum, Cinname, tonsor eris. 10


Lis te bis decumae numerantem frigora brumae content una tribus, Gargiliane, foris.

a miser et demens ! viginti litigat annis quisquam cui vinci, Gargiliane, licet ?


HEREDEM Fabius Labienum ex asse reliquit : plus meruisse tamen se Labienus ait.


PEDICAT pueros tribas Philaenis

et tentigine saevior mariti

undenas dolat in die puellas.

harpasto quoque subligata ludit

et flavescit haphe, gravesque draucis 5

halteras facili rotat lacerto,

et putri lutulenta de palaestra

uncti verbere vapulat magistri :

nee cenat prius aut recumbit ante

quam septem vomuit meros deunces ; 10

ad quos fas sibi tune putat redire,

cum colophia sedecim comedit.

post haec omnia cum libidinatur,



grammarian, or schoolmaster you cannot be, nor Cynic, nor yet Stoic, nor can you sell your shouts and applause to Sicilian theatres. What remains is this, Cinnamus, you will be a barber again.


A LAWSUIT while you are counting its twentieth cold winter, still wears you out, Gargilianus, a single suit in three Courts. Ah, unhappy man, and mad ! Does anyone go to law for twenty years, Gargilianus, who can give in ?


FABIUS left Labienus heir to all his property. Yet Labienus asserts he deserved still more. 1


LA tribade Filene pedica i ragazzi, e piu libidi- nosa nella prurigine che un marito, liscia in un giorno ondici ragazze. sbracciata giuoca anche all' arpasto, ed ingialisce pel tatto della polvere, e getta con robusto braccio palle di piombo 2 pesanti agli irsuti, e strofinata d'unguento della putre palestra, e sferzata colla verga del maestro che la ugne. Ne prima ella cena, o si mette a tavola, che non abbia vomitato sette sestieri, al qual numero essa pensa poter far ritorno quando ha mangiato sedici colifie. Dopo tutte queste cose, quando e presa dalla libidine, non fella : pensa ci6

1 Because he had given F. in his lifetime more than the value of the estate.

3 Dumb-bells : cf. xiv. xlix. Juv. copies this passage in vi. 421 seqq.



non fellat (putat hoc parum virile),

sed plane medias vorat puellas. 15

di mentem tibi dent tuam, Philaeni,

cunnum lingere quae putas virile.


COMMENDARE meas, Instanti Rufe, Camenas parce precor socero ; seria forsan amat.

quod si lascivos admittit et ille libellos, haec ego vel Curio Fabricioque legam.


HAEC est ilia tibi promissa Theophila, Cani,

cuius Cecropia pectora voce madent. hanc sibi iure petat magni senis Atticus hortus,

nee minus esse suam Stoica turba velit. vivet opus quodcumque per has emiseris aures ; 5

tarn non f'emineum nee populare sapit. non tua Pantaenis nimium se praeferat illi,

quamvis Pierio sit bene nota choro. carmina fingentem Sappho laudabat amatrix :

castior haec et non doctior ilia fuit. 10


IPSARUM tribadum tribas, Philaeni, recte, quam futuis, vocas amicam.

1 A friend of M. : cf. viu. 1. 21 ; vin. Ixxiii. 1 ; perhaps identical with the proconsul of Baetica : cf. xn. xcviii. 3.

- Typical embodiments of old Roman virtues : cf. VI. Ixiv. 2 ; ix. xxviii. 4.



esser poco maschile ; ma tutta strugge al mezzo le ragazze. Gli del, O Filene, ti dieno un' in- clinazione a te conveniente, tu che pensi esser maschile lingere un c o.


SPARE, I pray, Instantius Rufus, 1 to recommend my Muse to your father-in-law : perhaps he likes serious poems. But if he too condescends to wanton verse, these I would venture to read even to Curius and Fabricius. 2


THIS is Theophila your affianced bride, Canius, she whose mind is steeped in Attic lore. Rightly might the Athenian garden of the great sage 3 claim her ; no less would the Stoic band wish her for its own. That work shall live, whate'er it be you pass through these ears, so little womanlike or common is her judgment. Your Pantaenis 4 though well known is she to the Pierian choir would not o'ermuch rank herself before her. Sappho the lover praised a poetess : more pure is Theophila, yet Sappho was not more learned.


O FILENE, tribade delle tribadi stesse, tu chiami con proprieta arnica colei che tu immembri.

3 Epicurus or Plato.

4 An unknown poetess of the time, whom Canius seems to have admired.




FICOSA est uxor, ficosus et ipse maritus,

filia ficosa est et gener atque nepos, nee dispensator nee vilicus ulcere turpi

nee rigidus fossor sed nee arator eget. cum sint ficosi pariter iuvenesque senesque, 5

res mira est, ficos non habet unus ager.


GRATUS sic tibi, Paule, sit December

nee vani triplices brevesque mappae

nee turis veniant leves selibrae,

sed lances ferat et scyphos avorum

aut grandis reus aut potens amicus : 5

seu, quod te potius iuvat capitque,

sic vincas Noviumque Publiumque

mandris et vitreo latrone clusos ;

sic palmam tibi de trigone nudo

unctae det favor arbiter coronae 10

nee laudet Polybi magis sinistras ;

si quisquam mea dixerit malignus

atro carmina quae madent veneno,

ut vocem mihi commodes patronam

et quantum poteris, sed usque, clames 15

"Non scripsit meus ista Martialis."


ESQUILIIS domus est, domus est tibi colle Dianae, et tua patricius culmina vicus habet ;

1 cf. i. Ixv.

2 In the game of latrunculi, like our draughts or chess. The latro (robber) was a superior piece to the mandra (pawn) : cf. xiv. xvii.




TUBEROUS 1 is the wife, tuberous too even the husband, the daughter is tuberous, and the son-in- law, and the grandson ; nor is the steward, or the bailiff free from this unsightly wen, nor the sturdy ditcher, and not even the ploughman. Seeing that young and old alike are tuberous, the wonderful thing is not a single field bears tubers !


So may December be pleasant to you, Paulus, and no worthless three-leaved tablets and scant)' nap- kins come to you, nor light half-pounds of frank- incense ; but may either some hulking defendant or wealthy friend bring you dishes and antique goblets ; or what pleases and attracts you more so may you beat Novius and Publius hemmed in by your pawns and glass robbers 2 ; so may the oiled ring's 3 favourable judgment award you victory over the thin-clad hand-ball players, and not praise more than yours the left-handers 4 of Polybus if some malignant fellow claim as mine poems that are steeped in black venom, do you lend me a patron's voice, and with all your strength and without stop- ping shout : " My Martial did not write that." 5


ON the Esquiline you have a house, you have a house on Diana's hill, and the Patrician Street

3 Of athletes looking on.

4 A left-hand stroke was considered a mark of skill. As to the game, cf. vii. xxxii. 7. 5 </ i. lii.



hinc viduae Cybeles, illinc sacraria Vestae, inde novum, veterem prospicis inde lovem.

die ubi conveniam, die qua te parte requiram : 5

quisquis ubique habitat, Maxime, nusquam habitat.


CVLLENES caelique decus, facunde minister,

aurea cui torto virga dracone viret : sic tibi lascivi noil desit copia furti,

sive cupis Paphien seu Ganymede cales ; maternaeque sacris ornentur frondibus Idus 5

et senior parca mole prematur avus : hunc semper Norbana diem cum coniuge Carpo

laeta colat, primis quo coiere toris. hie pius antistes sophiae sua dona ministrat,

hie te ture vocat fidus et ipse lovi. 10


Vis futui gratis, cum sis deformis anusque. res perridicula est : vis dare nee dare vis.

1 A mountain in Arcadia on which Mercury was born.

  • The caduceus, or herald's wand, borne by Mercury as

the messenger of the gods.

3 The Ides of May : cf. xn. Ixvii. 1. Maia was the mother of Mercury.



holds a roof of yours ; from this you survey the shrine of widowed Cybele, from that the shrine of Vesta ; from here the new, from there the ancient temple of Jove. Say where I may call upon you, say in what quarter I may look for you : he who lives everywhere, Maximus, lives nowhere.


PRIDE of Cyllene 1 and of Heaven, eloquent minister, whose golden rod 2 is alive with twining snakes, so mayst thou lack no occasion for wanton intrigue, whether 'tis Paphie thou desirest, or art warm with love for Ganymede ; and so may thy mother's Ides 3 be decked with holy boughs, and thy aged grandsire 4 be bowed by little weight let Norbana with her husband Carpus ever cele- brate with joy this day whereon they first joined in wedlock. A duteous high-priest, he devotes his gifts to wisdom, he invokes- thee with incense, he too 5 a leal votary of Jove.


You wish to receive services without paying for them, although you are ugly and an old woman. It is a thing too ridiculous : you wish to give, and yet not to give. 6

4 Atlas, who sustained the weight of the sky.

8 "He is faithful to our Jupiter, the emperor, as thou art to the celestial Jupiter."

6 A play on two meanings of dare, one sensu obsceno, the other in the sense of payment : cf. in. xc.




QUOD te diripiunt potentiores per convivia porticus theatra, et tecum, quotiens ita incidisti, gestari iuvat et iuvat lavari, nolito nimium tibi placere. delectasj Philomuse, non amaris.


EXIGIS ut nostros donem tibi, Tucca, libellos. non faciam : nam vis vendere, non legere.


CUM Saxetani ponatur coda lacerti

et, bene si cenas, conchis inuncta tibi,

sumen aprum leporem boletos ostrea mullos mittis : habes nee cor, Papyle, nee genium.


POTAVI modo consulare vinum. quaeris quam vetus atque liberale ? prisco l consule conditum : sed ipse qui ponebat erat, Severe, consul.

1 prisco Housman, ipso codd.

1 Possibly Al. is thinking of himself (Friedlander).

2 From Sex or Saxetanum in Hispania Baetica, where was a noted salt-fishery. But the lacerti, according to Pliny (N.H. xxxii. 53), were very small.




BECAUSE men of influence vie in hurrying you off to entertainments, colonnades, theatres, and enjoy, whenever you happen to meet them, being carried in litters with you, and enjoy bathing with you, by no means fancy yourself too much. You entertain them, Philomusus, 1 you are not loved.


You demand that I should present you with my works, Tucca. I won't do it ; for you want to sell them, not to read.


ALTHOUGH the tail of a Saxetan 2 lizard-fish is served, and, if you dine lavishly, beans dressed with oil are set before yourself, you send as presents sow's paunch, boar, hare, mushrooms, oysters, mullets : Papylus, you have neither sense nor taste. 3


I HAVE just drunk a consular wine. You ask how old and generous it was ? Laid down in the year of an ancient consul. But my host who served it, Severus, was consul. 4

3 P. dines poorly himself, but sends expensive eatables as presents.

4 A fine vintage was known by the name of the consul of the year, and a "consular wine" was generally "old and generous": cf. i. xxvi. 7 of Opimian. Housman's emendation follows a hint in $ that there isjocus de nomine commits.




QUATENUS Odrysios iam pax Romana triones

temperat et tetricae conticuere tubae, hunc Marcellino poteris, Faustina, libellum

mittere : iam chartis, iam vacat ille iocis. sed si parva tui munuscula quaeris amici 5

commendare, ferat carmina nostra puer ; non qualis Geticae satiatus-lacte iuvencae

Sarmatica rigido ludit in amne rota, sed Mitylenaei roseus mangonis ephebus

vel non caesus adhuc matre iubente Lacon. 10 at tibi captivo famulus mittetur ab Histro

qui Tiburtinas pascere possit oves.


"TRIOINTA toto mala sunt epigrammata libro." si totidem bona sunt, Lause, bonus liber est.


MENOPHILI penem tarn grandis fibula vestit

ut sit comoedis omnibus una satis, hunc ego credideram (nam saepe lavamur in unum)

sollicitum voci pai-cere, Flacce, suae : dum ludit media populo spectante palaestra, 5

delapsa est misero fibula : verpus erat.

1 Who had been campaigning in Dacia : cf. vi. xxv.

2 Spartan boys used to be flogged at the altar of Diana to teach them endurance.

3 The Danube. Marcelliuus will give, in return for the




SEEING that now the Roman peace restrains the Thracian North,, and threatening clarions are un- blown, you can send this little book, Faustinus, to Marcellinus ; l he has leisure now for my writings, now for my jokes. But, if you wish to commend the small offering of your friend, let a boy carry my poems, not such a one as, full-fed on the milk of Getic cows, plays with Sarmatian hoop on the icebound stream, but the rosy stripling of Mitylene's slave-dealer, or a Spartan not yet scourged 2 at his mother's bidding. But to you will be sent a slave from subject Hister, 3 who can feed your sheep at Tibur.


"TAKE all your book, and there are thirty bad epigrams in it." If as many are good, Lausus, the book is a good one.


MENOPHILUS' person a sheath covers so enormous that it alone would be sufficient for the whole tribe of comic actors. 4 This fellow I had imagined for we often bathe together was solicitous to spare his voice, Flaccus ; but while he was exercising himself in the view of the people in the middle of the exercise ground, the sheath unluckily fell off' : lo, he was circumcised ! 6

boy, one of his Getic captives. For F.'s farm at Tibur, cf. iv. Ivii. 3 ; v. Ixxi. 6.

4 Comic actors and singers wore this, as a preventive of sexual indulgence, to save their voice : cf. xi. Ixxv. 3 ; xiv. ccxv.; Juv. vi. 73, 380. i.e. a Jew.




EUTRAPELUS tonsor dum circuit ora Luperci expingitque genas, altera barba subit.


DUM mea Caecilio formatur imago Secundo

spirat et arguta picta tabella manu, i, liber, ad Geticam Peucen Histrumque iacentem :

haec loca perdomitis gentibus ille tenet, parva dabis caro sed dulcia dona sodali : 5

certior in nostro carmine vultus erit : casibus hie nullis, nullis delebilis annis

vivet, Apelleum cum morietur opus.


QUOD non insulse scribis tetrasticha quaedam, disticha quod belle pauca, Sabelle, facis,

laudo nee admiror. facile est epigrammata belle scribere, sed librum scribere difficile est.


AD natalicias dapes vocabar, essem cum tibi, Sexte, non amicus. quid factum est, rogo, quid repente factum est, post tot pignora nostra, post tot annos . quod sum praeteritus vetus sodalis ? 5

sed causam scio. nulla venit a me

1 In spite of the barber's name, " nimble " (evTpdire\os). 480



WHILE Eutrapelus the barber goes round Lupercus' face, and trims his cheeks, a second beard grows. 1


WHILE my likeness is taking form for Caecilius Secundus, 2 and the canvas breathes, painted by a cunning hand, go, book, to Getic Peuce 3 and prostrate Hister these regions with their conquered peoples he rules. Small, but welcome, shall be the gift you will make to my dear comrade : more truly in my song will my face be seen ; this my song, which no chances, no lapse of years, can efface, shall live when the work of Apelles shall perish.


YOUR writing, not without wit, certain quatrains, your composing nicely a few distichs, Sabellus, 1 applaud, yet am not surprised. 'Tis easy to write epigrams nicely, but to write a book is hard.


I USED to be invited to your birthday feast, although, Sextus, I was no intimate of yours. What has happened, I ask, what has suddenly happened, that, after so many pledges of friendship between us, after so many years, I, your old comrade, am passed over? But I know the reason. There came

2 Probably the younger Pliny. 8 cf. vil. vii. 1.

481 VOL. I. I I


Hispani tibi libra pustulati

nee levis toga nee rudes lacernae.

non est sportula quae negotiator :

pascis munera, Sexte, non amicos. 10

iam dices mihi " Vapulet vocator."


Si meus aurita gaudet lagalopece Flaccus,

si fruitur tristi Canius Aethiope ; Publius exiguae si flagrat amore catellae,

si Cronius similem cercopithecoii amat ; delectat Marium si perniciosus ichneumon, 5

pica salutatrix si tibi, Lause, placet : si gelidum collo nectit Glaucilla draconem,

luscinio tumulum si Telesilla dedit : blanda Cupidinei cur non amet ora Labycae

qui videt haec dominis monstra placere suis ? 10


FERTUR liabere meos, si vera est fama, libellos

inter delicias pulchra Vienna suas. me legit omnis ibi senior iuvenisque puerque

et coram tetrico casta puella viro. hoc ego maluerim quam si mea carmina cantent o

qui Nilum ex ipso protinus ore bibunt ; quam meus Hispano si me Tagus im pleat auro,

pascat et Hybla meas, pascat Hymettos apes, non nihil ergo sumus nee blandae munere linguae

decipimur : credam iam, puto, Lause, tibi. 1

1 "Who negligently omitted your name. This is. of course, an excuse.

1 What animal the lagalopex was is unknown.


BOOK VII. i.xxxvi-i. xxxvni

to you from me no pound of Spanish refined silver, nor smooth-napped toga, nor new mantles. Hospitality is not a matter of bargain ; you are feeding favours, Sextus, not friends. You will now reply: "Let my summoner 1 be flogged."


IF my Flaccus delights in a long-eared lynx,- if Canius 3 appreciates a grim Ethiopian, if Publius is consumed with love for a tiny lapdog, 4 if Cronius loves a long-tailed monkey as ugly as himself; if a mischievous ichneumon is a joy to Marius, if you, Lausus, a talking magpie attracts ; if Glaucilla twines a clammy snake round her neck, if Telesilla has set up a monument over her nightingale ; why should he who sees such monsters as these please their masters not love the winning face of Labycas/ Cupid's boy?


FAIR Vienna 5 is said, if report speak true, to. hold my little books among her darling posses- sions. Every old sire and youth and boy reads me there, and the chaste bride in the presence of her strait-laced husband. I prize this more than if those who drink of Nile straight from its fount were to hum my poems, than if my own Tagus were to glut me with Spanish gold, and Hybla fed, and Hymettus fed my bees. Of some account then am I, nor am I deceived by the tribute of a flattering tongue : now, I think, I will believe you, Lausus.

3 A poet of Gades : cf. in. xx.

4 cf. I. cix. 5 Vienne on the Rhone.

Who had condemned M.'s book of epigrams: cf. vu. Ixxxi.

483 i i 2



I, FELIX rosa, inollibusque sertis nostri cinge comas Apollinaris. quas tu nectere Candidas, sed olim, sic te semper amet Venus, memento.


IACTAT inaequalem Matho me fecisse libellum : si verum est, laudat carmina nostra Matho.

aequales scribit libros Calvinus et Umber : aequalis liber est, Cretice, qui malus est.


DE nostro, facunde, tibi, luvenalis, agello

Saturnalicias mittimus, ecce, nuces. cetera lascivis donavit poma puellis

mentula custodis luxuriosa dei.


"Si quid opus fuerit, scis me non esse rogandum "

uno bis dicis, Baccara, terque die. appellat rigida tristis me voce Secundus :

audis et nescis, Baccara, quid sit opus, pensio te coram petitur clareque palamque : 5

audis et nescis, Baccara, quid sit opus. esse queror gelidasque mihi tritasque lacernas :

audis et nescis, Baccara, quid sit opus, hoc opus est, subito fias ut sidere mutus,

dicere ne possis, Baccara "Si quid opus." 10

1 cf. IV. Ixxxvi.; vii. xxvi. 484



Go, happy rose, and with thy soft chaplet gird the locks of my Apollinaris. 1 And see that thou wreathe them when but may it be long hereafter they are white : so may Venus ever love thee !


MATHO puts it abroad that I have composed an unequal book ; if that is true, Matho praises my poems. Equal books are what Calvinus and Umber write : the equal book, Creticus, is the bad one.


FROM my small ground, eloquent Juvenal, I send you, see, Saturnalian nuts. The rest of the fruit the rakish Guardian God has bestowed on frolicking girls.


" IF there be any need, you know you do not require to ask me " : that is what you say, Baccara, twice and thrice in a single day. Truculent Secundus duns me in stringent tones : you hear him, and don't know, Baccara, what my need is. My rent is claimed in your presence loudly and publicly : you hear, and don't know, Baccara, what my need is. I complain that my cloak is thin and threadbare : you hear, and don't know, Baccara, what my need is. This is my need, that you should be struck dumb by a sudden stroke from heaven, that you may be unable to say, Baccara, " If there be any need."




NARNIA, sulpureo quam gurgite candidus amnis

circuit, ancipiti vix adeunda iugo, quid tarn saepe meum nobis abducere Quintum

te iuvat et lenta detinuisse mora ? quid Nomentani causam mihi perdis agelli, 5

propter vicinum qui pretiosus erat ? sed iam parce mihi, nee abutere, Narnia, Quinto :

perpetuo liceat sic tibi ponte frui.


UNGUENTUM fuerat, quod onyx modo parva gerebat : olfecit postquam Papylus, ecce, garumst.


BRUMA est et riget horridus December,

audes tu tamen osculo nivali

omnes obvius hinc et hinc tenere

et totam, Line, basiare Romam.

quid posses graviusque saeviusque 5

percussus facere atque verberatus ?

hoc me frigore basiet nee uxor

blandis filia nee rudis labellis,

sed tu dulcior elegantiorque,

cuius livida naribus caninis 10

dependet glacies rigetque barba,

qualem forficibus metit supinis

tonsor Cinyphio Cilix marito.

1 Quintus Ovidius, alluded to in vn. xliv. and xlv. : see also x. xliv.


BOOK VII. xcin-xcv


NARNIA, girdled by a stream, white with its sulphur- ous eddies, thou whose twin peaks are scarce to be scaled, why so oft art thou glad to draw my Quintus l from me, and to keep him so weary a time ? Why destroy est thou for me the value of my small Nomentan farm, which was precious to me because he was my neighbour ? But spare me now, nor overdo, Narnia, thy welcome to Quintus : so for all time mayst thou enjoy thy bridge/ !


IT was perfume that the small casket held just now : now Papylus has smelt it, see, it is fish- pickle 3 !


'Tis winter, and rough December is stiff' with frost, yet you dare with icy kiss, as you go here and there, to stop all you meet, and to kiss all Rome, Linus. What more severe and more cruel revenge could you take if you had been assaulted and beaten ? In this cold not even my wife should kiss me, nor my innocent daughter with her wheedling lips ; but you are more pleasant and refined, from whose dog-like nostrils a livid icicle hangs, whose beard is as stiff as that which, with up-turned scissors, a Cilician barber reaps off' a Cinyphian 4

2 A high-level bridge joining the two heights, part of which still stands.

3 Malodorous : cf. in. xvii. 6 : in. xxviii.

4 Cinyps or Cinyphus was a district on the N. coast of Africa, famous for the long hair of its goats : Virg. Geory. Hi. 312.



centum occurrere malo cunnilingis

et Gallum timeo minus recentem. 1 5

quare si tibi sensus est pudorque,

hibernas, Line, basiationes

in mensem rogo differas Aprilem.


CONDITUS hie ego sum Bassi dolor, Urbicus infans,

cui genus et nomen maxima Roma dedit. sex mihi de prima derant trieteride menses,

ruperunt tetricae cum male l pensa deae. quid species, quid lingua mihi, quid profuit aetas ? 5

da lacrimas tumulo, qui legis ista, meo : sic ad Lethaeas, nisi Nestore serior, undas

non eat, optabis quern superesse tibi.


NOSTI si bene Caesium, libelle,

montanae decus Umbriae Sabinum,

Auli municipem mei Pudentis,

illi tu dabis haec vel occupato.

instent mille licet premantque curae, 5

nostris carminibus tamen vacabit.

nam me diligit ille proximumque

Tumi nobilibus legit libellis.

o quantum tibi nominis paratur !

o quae gloria ! quam frequens amator ; 10

te convivia, te forum sonabit

aedes compita porticus tabernae.

uni mitteris, omnibus legeris.

1 male Heins., mala codd. 488

BOOK VII. xcv-xcvn

he-goat. I would sooner run across a hundred lewd rascals, and I fear less a priest of Cybele fresh from his vices. 1 So, if you have any feeling and shame, I ask you, Linus, to put off your wintry osculations till the month of April.


BURIED am I here, by Bassus mourned, Urbicus, an infant, to whom mightiest Rome gave race and name. Six months were wanting of my first three years when the harsh Goddesses cruelly snapt my thread. What availed me my beauty, what my prattle, what my age ? Give thou, who readest this, tears to my tomb : so may he, 2 whom thou wouldst have survive thy years, pass not to the waters of Lethe, save when older than Nestor !


IF you know well, little book, Caesius Sabinus, 3 the pride of hilly Umbria, fellow-townsman of my Aulus Pudens, you will give him these, though he be engaged. Though a thousand duties press on and distract him, yet he will be at leisure for my poems. For he loves me, and, next to Turnus' 4 famous satires, reads me. Oh, what a reputation is being stored up for you ! Oh, what glory ! How many an admirer ! With you banquets, with you the forum will echo, houses, by-ways, colonnades, book- shops ! You are being sent to one, by all will you be read.

1 cf. ill. Ixxxi. ; Juv. viii. 176. a i.e. thy son.

3 Alluded to in ix. Iviii. * cf. xi. x.



XCVIII OMNIA, Castor, emis. sic fiet ut omnia vendas.


Sic placidum videas semper, Crispine, Tonantem

nee te Roma minus quam tua Memphis amet, carmina Parrhasia si nostra legentur in aula,

(namque soleiit sacra Caesaris aure frui) dicere de nobis ut lector candidus aude

" Tempo ribus praestat 11011 nihil iste tuis, nee Marso nimium minor est doctoque Catullo."

hoc satis est : ipsi cetera mando deo.


BOOK VII. xcviu-xcix


You buy everything, Castor ; so the result will be that you sell everything !


So may you see the Thunderer always placid, Crispinus, 1 and Rome, no less than your native Memphis, love you if my poems shall be read iiithe Palatine hall (for they are wont to reach Caesar's sacred ear), venture, as a candid reader, to say this of me : " He brings your time some honour, and is not far behind Marsus and elegant Catullus." This is sufficient : I leave the rest to the God himself.

1 A rich upstart, and favourite of Domitian, the verna Canopi of Juv. i. 26 ; cf. also iv.



Full text volume 2[2]
















BOOK X 151

BOOK xi 235


BOOK xin 389

BOOK xiv 439









OMNES quidem libelli mei, domine, quibus tu famam, id est vitam, dedisti, tibi supplicant; et, puto propter hoc legentur. hie tamen, qui operis nostri octavus in- scribitur, occasione pietatis frequentius fruitur ; minus itaque ingenio laborandum fuit, in cuius locum mate- ria successerat: quam quidem subinde aliqua iocorum mixtura variare temptavimus, ne caelesti verecundiae tuae laudes suas, quae facilius te fatigare possint quam nos satiare, omnis versus ingereret. quamvis autem epigrammata a severissimis quoque et summae fortunae viris ita scripta sint ut mimicam verborum licentiam adfectasse videantur, ego tamen illis non permisi tam lascive loqui quam solent. cum pars libri et maior et melior ad maiestatem sacri nominis tui alligata sit, meminerit non nisi religiosa purifica- tione lustratos accedere ad templa debere. quod

1 This book appears by internal evidence to have been published towards the end of A.D. 93. The epigrams are not, however, in chronological order.





OF a truth all my little books, Sire, to which you have given fame, that is, life, are your suppliants, and I think will, for this reason, be read. This one, however, which is marked the eighth of my works, enjoys more frequently the opportunity of showing loyalty. Accordingly I had less occasion for the labour of invention, for which the subject-matter formed a substitute ; that, however, I have here and there attempted to diversify by some intermixture of pleasantry, so that every verse should not heap upon your divine modesty its meed of praise which would more easily weary you than satiate me. And although epigrams have been written in such a style, even by men the most austere and of the highest position, as apparently to have aimed at the verbal licence of mimes, yet I have not allowed these to speak with their usual playfulness. As part of my book and that the greater and better is attached to the Majesty of your sacred name, it should re- member that it is unfitting to approach the temple save cleansed by religious purification. 2 That readers

2 An allusion to the Emperor's assumption of deity : cf. viii. ii. G.

3 B 2


ut custoditurura me lecturi sciant, in ipso libelli huius limine profited brevissimo placuit epigram- mate.

LAURIGEROS domini, liber, intrature penates

disce verecundo sanctius ore loqui. nuda recede Venus ; non est tuus iste libellus :

tu mini, tu Pallas Caesariana, veni.


FASTORUM genitor parensque lanus

victorem modo cum videret Histri,

tot vultus sibi non satis putavit

optavitque oculos habere plures,

et lingua pariter locutus omni 5

terrarum domino deoque rerum

promisit Pyliam quater senectam.

addas, lane pater, tuam rogamus.


" QUINQUE satis fuerant : nam sex septemve libelli est nimium : quid adhuc ludere, Musa, iuvat ?

sit pudor et finis : iam plus nihil addere nobis fama potest : teritur noster ubique liber ;

et cum rupta situ Messallae saxa iacebunt 5

altaque cum Licini marmora pulvis erunt,

1 Because of the Emperor's recent victories on the Danube.

2 The god Janus presided over the year and the public records. He was represented with two faces turned in op- posite ways, i.e. towards the past and the future ; or with four to represent the four seasons.


may know I shall regard this obligation, I have deter- mined to make my profession on the very threshold of this little book by a very brief epigram.


THOU, my book, who art purposed to enter my Master's laurel-wreathed 1 abode, learn to speak more reverently in modest speech. Undraped Venus, stand back : this little book is not thine ; do thou come to me, thou, Pallas, patron of Caesar.


WHEN Janus, begetter and parent of our annals, 2 of late saw Hister's conqueror, he deemed his many faces were not enough for him, and wished to possess more eyes ; and, speaking alike with every tongue, he promised the Lord of Earth and God of the Universe a Pylian old age 3 four times over. Add, Father Janus, we entreat, your own.


" FIVE were sufficient ; for six or seven books are too much : why do you want, Muse, to frolic still ? Let there be some stint and an end : now nothing more can Fame give me ; my book is thumbed every- where ; and when Messalla's 4 pavements shall lie shivered by decay, and Licinus' 6 towering marble

J Nestor's.

4 M. Valerius Messalla Corvinus, the patron of Tibullus : cf. X. ii. 9. He repaired the Via Latina : cf. Tib. I. vii. 57. Or " saxa " may perhaps refer to his tomb.

5 A rich freedman of Augustus (cf. Juv. i. 109), who had a magnificent tomb.


me tamen ora legent et secum plurimus hospes

ad patrias sedes carmina nostra feret." finieram, cum sic respondit nona sororum,

cui coma et unguento sordida vestis erat : 10

" Tune potes dulcis, ingrate, relinquere nugas ?

die mihi, quid melius desidiosus ages ? an iuvat ad tragicos soccum transferre coturnos

aspera vel paribus bella tonare modis, praelegat ut tumidus rauca te voce magister, 15

oderit et grandis virgo bonusque puer ? scribant ista graves nimium nimiumque severi,

quos media miseros nocte lucerna videt. at tu Romanes lepido sale tingue libellos :

adgnoscat mores vita legatque suos. 20

angusta cantare licet videaris avena,

dum tua multorum vincat avena tubas."


QUANTUS, io, Latias mundi conventus ad aras

suscipit et solvit pro duce vota suo ! non sunt haec hominum, Germanice, gaudia tantum,

sed faciunt ipsi nunc, puto, sacra dei.

DUM donas, Macer, anulos puellis, desisti, Macer, anulos habere.

J Thalia, the Muse of epigram. * Hexameters.

3 For Jan. 3, the day when vows were publicly offered for the Emperor (votorum nuncupatio : cf. Suet. Ner. xlvi.). 6


shall be dust, yet me shall lips read, and many a sojourner shall carry my poems with him to his fatherland." I ended; when thus replied the ninth of the Sisters, 1 her hair and vesture stained with unguent : " Can you, ungrateful man, resign your pleasant trifles? Tell me, what better thing when idle will you do ? Wish you to adapt your comic shoe to the tragic buskin, or in even-footed measures 2 to thunder of rough wars, that a pompous pedagogue may dictate you in hoarse tones, and tall girl and honest boy hate you ? Let those themes be written by men grave overmuch, and overmuch austere, whom at midnight their lamp marks at their wretched toil. But do you dip your little Roman books in sprightly wit ; let Life recognize and read of her own man- ners. To a thin pipe you may appear to sing, if only your pipe outblow the trump of many."


Ho ! How great a concourse of the world at Latin altars makes and pays their vows 3 for their Chief! These are not the joys of men only, Germanicus : nay, the very gods now, I ween, offer sacrifice.

WHILE you give rings to girls, Macer, you have ceased, Macer, to possess rings yourself. 4

4 i.e. you have lost your qualification as a knight: cf. Juv. xi. 43. The ius anulorum (right to wear a gold ring) was possessed by senators, knights, and magistrates.



ARCHETYPIS vetuli nihil est odiosius Aucti

(ficta Saguntino cymbia malo luto), argenti furiosa sui cum stemmata narrat

garrulus et verbis mucida vina facit : " Laomedonteae fuerant haec pocula mensae : 5

ferret ut haec, muros struxit Apollo lyra. hoc cratere ferox commisit pi-oelia Rhoetus

cum Lapithis : pugna debile cernis opus, hi duo longaevo censentur Nestore fundi :

pollice de Pylio trita columba nitet. 10

hie scyphus est in quo misceri iussit amicis

largius Aeacides vividiusque merum. hac propinavit Bitiae pulcherrima Dido

in patera, Phrygio cum data cena viro est." miratus fueris cum prisca toreumata multum, 15

in Priami calathis Astyanacta bibes.


Hoc agere est causas, hoc dicere, Cinna, diserte, horis, Cinna, decem dicere verba novem ?

sed modo clepsydras ingenti voce petisti quattuor. o quantum, Cinna, tacere potes !


PRINCIPIUM des, lane, licet velocibus annis et renoves voltu saecula longa tuo,

1 In the battle between the Lapithae and the Centaurs. ' Achilles : cf. Horn. II. ix. 203.


BOOK VIII. vi-vm


THAN old Auctus' antiques nothing is more odious I prefer drinking vessels moulded from Saguntine clay when he prates of the crazy pedigrees of his silver plate, and by his chattering makes the wine vapid. " These are cups that once belonged to Laomedon's table : to win these Apollo by his harp-playing built the walls of Troy. With this mixing-bowl fierce Rhoetus joined battle with the Lapithae : ' you see the work- manship is dinted by the fight. These two goblets are valuable because of aged Nestor : the dove is burnished by the nibbing of the Pylian thumb. This is the tankard in which the grandson of Aeacus 2 ordered a fuller draught and stronger wine be mixed for his friends. In this bowl most beautiful Dido pledged Bitias when her banquet was given to the Phrygian hero." ; When you have much admired these ancient chasings, in Priam's cups you will drink Astyanax. 4


Is this your pleading of causes, is this eloquence, Cinna, in ten hours, Cinna, to say nine words ? And just now in loud tones you asked for four water- clocks ! 5 Oh, what store of silence, Cinna, you possess !


ALBEIT thou, Janus, givest their beginning to the flying years, and dost with thy visage renew the

3 Aeneas : cf. Verg. Aen. i. 738.

4 i.e. something very young and immature. Astyanax was the grandson of Priam. 5 cf. vi. xxxv. 1.



te primum pia tura rogent, te vota salutent, purpura te felix, te colat omnis honos :

tu tamen hoc mavis, Latiae quod contigit urbi mense tuo reducem, lane, videre deum.


SOLVERE dodrantem nuper tibi, Quinte, volebat lippus Hylas, luscus vult dare dimidium.

accipe quam primum ; brevis est occasio lucri : si fuerit caecus, nil tibi solvet Hylas.


EMIT lacernas milibus decem Bassus

Tyrias coloris optimi. lucrifecit.

" Adeo bene emit ? " inquis. immo non solvet,


PERVENISSE tuam iam te scit Rhenus in urbem ;

nam populi voces audit et ille tui : Sarmaticas etiam gentes Histrumque Getasque

laetitiae clamor terruit ipse novae, dum te longa sacro venerantur gaudia Circo,

nemo quater missos currere sen sit equos. null urn Roma ducem, nee te sic, Caesar, amavit :

te quoque iam non plus, ut velit ipsa, potest. 10

BOOK VIII. vm-xi

long ages, albeit pious incense invokes thee, prayers salute thee first, to thee the consul's joyous purple, to thee every magistrate pays court, yet this thou countest more it has been thy fortune, Janus, in thine own month to see our god l returning home !


HYLAS, when blear-eyed, Quintus, was willing lately to pay you three-quarters of his debt ; now he is one- eyed he is willing to give half. Take it at once : brief is the opportunity for gain ; if he become blind, Hylas won't pay you a penny.

BASSUS has bought a cloak for ten thousand ses- terces, a Tyrian of the best colour. He has made a bargain. " Did he buy so cheap ? " you ask. Aye, he is not going to pay.


THAT thou hast come to thy city Rhine knows already, for he too hears the voices of thy people : Sarmatian tribes as well, and Hister and the Getae, the very shout of our new-found gladness has af- feared. While in the sacred Circus applause long sustained revered thee, 110 man perceived the steeds had four times been started. No chief has Rome so loved, nor thee so much, Caesar, as now ; thee too, albeit she would, she cannot now love more.

1 The Emperor.




UXOREM quare locupletem ducere nolim quaeritis ? uxori nubere nolo meae.

inferior matrona suo sit, Prisce, marito : non aliter fiunt femina virque pares.


MORIO dictus erat : viginti milibus emi. redde mihi nummos, Gargiliane : sapit.


PALLIDA ne Cilicum timeant pomaria brumam,

mordeat et tenerum fortior aura nemus. hibernis obiecta Notis specularia puros

admittunt soles et sine faece diem, at mihi cella datur non tota clusa fenestra,

in qua nee Boreas ipse manere velit. sic habitare iubes veterem crudelis amicum ?

arboris ergo tuae tutior hospes ero.


DUM nova Pannonici numeratur gloria belli, omnis et ad reducem dum litat ara lovem,

dat populus, dat gratus eques, dat tura senatus, et ditant Latias tertia dona tribus,

1 Naturals or cretins were kept as curiosit es : ff. in. Ixxxii. 24 ; xn. xciii. 3.


BOOK VIII. xn-xv


" WHY am 1 unwilling to marry a rich wife ? " Do you ask? I am unwilling to take my wife as husband. Let the matron be subject to her husband, Priscus ; in no other way do woman and man become equal.


HE had been described as an idiot; 1 I bought him for twenty thousand sesterces. Give me back my money, Gargilianus ; he has his wits.


THAT your orchard trees from Cilicia may not grow wan and dread the winter, nor too keen an air nip the tender boughs, glass casements facing the wintry south winds admit the clear suns and daylight un- defiled. But to me is assigned a garret, shut in by an ill-fitting window, in which even Boreas himself would not care to abide. Is it in such a lodging you cruelly bid your old friend dwell ? Then as the guest of one of your trees I shall be more protected. 2


WHAT time from Pannoniaii war new glory is added to the tale, and eveiy altar makes fair offerings to greet returning Jove, while the people gives, the grateful knights give, the Senate gives incense, and a third largess makes rich the Latin tribes, Rome

2 cf, a similar epigram, viu. Ixviii.



hos quoque secretes memoravit 1 Roma triumphos, 5 nee minor ista tuae laurea pacis erat, 2

quod tibi de sancta credis pietate tuorum. principis est virtus maxima nosse suos.


PISTOR qui fueras diu, Cypere,

causas nunc agis et ducena quaeris :

sed consumis et usque mutuaris.

a pistore, Cypere^ non recedis :

et panem facis et facis farinam. 5


EGI, Sexte, tuam pactus duo milia causam.

misisti nummos quod mihi mille quid est ? " Narrasti nihil " inquis " et a te perdita causa est."

tanto plus debes, Sexte, quod erubui.


Si tua, Cerrini, prornas epigrammata vulgo,

vel mecum possis vel prior ipse legi : sed tibi tantus inest veteris respectus amici,

carior ut mea sit quam tua fama tibi.

1 memorabit j8. * erit 0.

1 Domitian had waived a formal triumph, merely dedicat- ing a laurel-wreath (ista laurea, 1. 6) to Jupiter Capitolinus : Suet. Dom. vi. ; Stat. Sylv. in. Hi. 171.

BOOK VIII. xv-xvm

has made memorable this triumph also, though con- cealed ; l nor was the laurel that marks the peace thou bringest of less account, because touching thy people's reverent love thou dost trust thyself. 2 A Prince's greatest virtue is to know his own.


You who were long a baker, Cyperus, now conduct cases, and look to make two hundred thousand ses- terces a year ; but you squander them, and are continually raising loans. You do not part from your role of baker, Cyperus ; you make your bread and make your dust fly too. 3


I HAVE pleaded your case, Sextus, for an agreed fee of two thousand sesterces. What is the reason you have sent me one thousand ? " You set out none of the facts," you remark, "and by you my case was ruined." You owe me all the more, Sextus; I blushed.


WERE you, Cerrinius, to issue your epigrams to the public, you might be read in rivalry with me, or even as my superior ; but so great is your regard for your old friend that dearer to you is my fame than your

2 i.e. thou canst rely on the people understanding the greatness of thy victory without a triumph.

3 i.e. you dissipate your earnings, as grain is reduced to the dust of flour. Or perhaps the metaphor is taken from flour falling through the meshes of a sieve : cf. Pers. iii. 112.



sic Maro nee Calabri temptavit carmina Flacci, 5 Pindaricos nosset cum superare modos,

et Vario cessit Romani laude coturni, cum posset tragico fortius ore loqui.

aurum et opes et rura frequens donabit amicus : qui velit ingenio cedere rarus erit. 10


PAUPER videri Cinna vult ; et est pauper.


CUM facias versus nulla non luce ducenos, Vare, nihil recitas. non sapis, atque sapis.


PHOSPHORE, redde diem : quid gaudia nostra moraris ?

Caesare venture, Phosphore, redde diem. Roma rogat. placidi numquid te pigra Bootae

plaustra vehunt, lento quod nimis axe venis ? Ledaeo poteras abducere Cyllaron astro : 5

ipse suo cedet nunc tibi Castor equo. quid cupidum Titana tenes ? iam Xanthus et Aethon

frena volunt, vigilat Memnonis alma parens. tarda tamen nitidae non cedunt sidera luci,

et cupit Ausonium luna videre ducem. 10

iam, Caesar, vel nocte veni : stent astra licebit,

non derit populo te veniente dies.

1 Horace.

'* It is fatal to appear poor : cf. v. Ixxxi.

  • The Constellation of the Lesser Bear.


BOOK VIII. xvm-xxi

own. So Maro did not even attempt the lyrics of Calabrian Flaccus, 1 although his skill might have surpassed the measures of Pindar, and he gave place to Varius in the renown of the Roman buskin, though he might have spoken in tragic tone with stronger voice. Gold and possessions and lands many a friend will bestow : he who is willing to yield in genius will be rare.

XIX CINNA wishes to appear poor, and he is poor. 2


ALTHOUGH no day passes but you compose two hundred verses, Varus, you recite none of them. You have no wit and yet are wise.


PHOSPHOR, bring us back day ; why puttest thou off our joys ? Now Caesar comes, Phosphor, bring us back day, Rome begs thee. Doth the sluggish wain of slow-twisting Bootes 3 bear thee, that thou comest with too slow an axle ? Thou mightest have withdrawn Cyllarus 4 from Leda's constellation ; freely will Castor now yield his steed to thee. Why stayest thou eager Titan? Already Xanthus and Aethon 5 look for the reins ; Memnon's kindly Mother wakes. Yet the slow stars yield not to glowing light, and the moon longs to see Ausonia's Chief. Now, Caesar, come thou, even by night ; let the stars stand still ; the people, when thou comest, shall not want for day.

  • The horse of Castor : cf. vui. xxviii. 8.

5 Horses of the Sun : cf. in. Ixvii. 5.

6 Aurora, goddess of the morning.





INVITAS ad aprum, ponis mihi, Gallice, porcum. hybrida sum, si das, Gallice, verba mihi.


ESSE tibi videor saevus nimiumque gulosus, qui propter cenam, Rustice, caedo cocum.

si levis ista tibi flagrorum causa videtur, ex qua vis causa vapulet ergo cocus?


Si quid forte petam timido gracilique libello, inproba non fuerit si mea charta, dato.

et si non dederis, Caesar, permitte rogari : ofFendunt numquam tura precesque lovem.

qui fingit sacros auro vel marmore vultus, 5

non facit ille deos : qui rogat, ille facit.


VIDISTI semel, Oppiane, tantum aegrum me : male saepe te videbo.


NON tot in Eois timuit Gangeticus arvis raptor, in Hyrcano qui fugit albus equo,

quot tua Roma novas vidit, Germanice, tigres, delicias potuit nee numerare suas.

1 Hybrids were supposed to want sense. A hybrid pri- marily meant the offspring of a sow and of a wild boar : cf. Plin. N. H. viii. 79.




You invite me to a boar ; you set before me, Gal- licus, a pig. I am a hybrid l myself if you can deceive me, Gallicus.


I APPEAR to you cruel and over gluttonous because, on account of the dinner, Rusticus, I lash my cook. If that seem to you a slight reason for a beating, for what reason, then, do you wish a cook to be flogged ?


IF I may by chance ask for something in my bashful and slender little volume, if my page be not overbold, do thou grant it. And even if thou shalt not grant it, Caesar, allow the asking : incense and prayers never offend Jove. He who shapes sacred lineaments in gold or marble does not make gods : he makes them who prays.


You came to see me once only when I was ill. It will go badly with me if I see you often. 2


TIGRESSES not so many has the robber 3 dreaded in Eastern fields by Ganges' side, as he flies with pale face on his Hyrcanian steed, as but now thy Rome, Germanicus, has seen, nor could she count what gave

s cf. v. ix. 3 i.e. of cubs.

19 c 2


vincit Erythraeos tua, Caesar, harena triumphos 5

et victoris opes divitiasque del : nam cum captives ageret sub curribus Indos,

contentus gemina tigride Bacchus erat.


MUNERA qui tibi dat locupleti, Gaure, senique, si sapis et sentis, hoc tibi ait " Morere."


Die, toga, facundi gratum mihi munus amici,

esse velis cuius fama decusque gregis ? Apula Ledaei tibi floruit herba Phalanthi,

qua saturat Calabris culta Galaesus aquis ? an Tartesiacus stabuli nutritor Hiberi 5

Baetis in Hesperia te quoque lavit ove ? an tua multifidum numeravit lana Timavum,

quern pius astrifero Cyllarus ore bibit ? te nee Amyclaeo decuit livere veneno

nee Miletos erat vellere digna tuo. 10

lilia tu vincis nee adhuc delapsa ligustra

et Tiburtino monte quod albet ebur; Spartanus tibi cedet olor Paphiaeque columbae,

cedet Erythraeis eruta gemma vadis : sed licet haec primis nivibus sint aemula dona, 15

non sunt Parthenio candidiora suo.

1 Bacchus, according to myth, made an expedition into the East, where he taught the conquered nations the use of the vine. He was represented as drawn by tigers.


BOOK VIII. xxvi-xxvm

her delight. Thy Arena, Caesar, has surpassed Indian triumphs and the wealth and riches of the victor god ; 1 for Bacchus, while he drove beneath the yoke the captive Indians, was content with two tigresses alone.


HE who gives presents, Gaurus, to you, a rich man and old, if you have wit and sense, says this to you "Die."


SAY, Toga, welcome gift to me of my eloquent friend, of what flock wouldst thou be the fame and glory ? Did the Apulian herbage of Spartan Phalan- thus flourish for thy sake, where Galaesus 2 floods the tilth with Calabrian waters ? or did Tartessian Baetis, nurse of Hiberian flocks, wash thee too on the back of a Spanish sheep ? 3 or has thy wool counted the mouths of many-cleft Timavus, whereof trusty Cyl- larus, 4 now amid the stars, once drank? Thee it beseemed not to darken with Spartan dye, nor was Miletus worthy to stain thy fleece. Lilies thou dost outshine, and privet yet unfallen, and the ivory that gleams white on Tibur's mount ; Sparta's swan shall yield to thee and Paphian doves, there shall yield the pearl plucked out from Eastern shoals. Yet, albeit this gift vies with new fallen snow, 'tis not more dazzling white 5 than Parthenius its giver.

2 A river near Tarentum founded by the Spartan Phalan- thus. The district was famed for the fine fleeces of its sheep : cf. Hor. Od. n. vi. 10.

1 cf. v. xxxvii. 7. * cf. iv. xxv. 6.

5 An allusion to the etymology of Parthenius' name (irp- Bfvtot = virgin- white),



non ego praetulerim Babylonos picta superbae

texta Samiramia quae variantur acu ; non Athamanteo potius me mirer in auro,

Aeolium dones si mihi, Phrixe, pecus. 20

o quantos risus pariter spectata movebit

cum Palatina nostra lacerna toga !


DISTICHA qui scribit, puto, vult brevitate placere. quid prodest brevitas, die mihi, si liber est ?


Qui nunc Caesareae lusus spectatur harenae,

temporibus Bruti gloria summa fuit. aspicis ut teneat flammas poenaque fruatur,

fortis et attonito regnet in igne manus ! ipse sui spectator adest et nobile dextrae 5

funus amat : totis pascitur ilia sacris ; quod nisi rapta foret nolenti poena, parabat

saevior in lassos ire sinistra focos. scire piget post tale decus quid fecerit ante :

quam vidi satis hanc est mihi nosse manum. 10


NESCIO quid de te non belle, Dento, fateris,

coniuge qui ducta iura paterna petis. sed iam supplicibus dominum lassare libellis

desine et in patriam serus ab urbe redi :

1 Phryxus' ram with the golden fleece : cf. vi. iii. 6. 1 A hint for a new cloak.



I could not more prize proud Babylon's painted tapestry embroidered by Semiramis' needle ; no more should I admire myself in gold of Athamas, if thou, Phryxus, wert to give me the ram of Aeolus' son. 1 Oh, what laughter will my worn cloak excite seen together with this toga from the Palatine ! 2


HE who writes distichs wishes, I imagine, to please by brevity. What is the use of brevity, tell me, if it constitute a book?


WHAT now entertains as a spectacle in Caesar's Arena was in Brutus' days their chiefest glory. 3 You see how the hand grasps the flame and relishes its punishment, and bravely lords it amid the astonished fire ! His own spectator is he, and he admires his right hand's noble death ; in the full sacrifice that hand delights. Had not, against its will, that penalty been denied it, his left hand fiercer still was ready to pass to the sated hearth. I care not, after such a feat, to learn what was its crime before : enough for me to have known the prowess of the hand I saw.


'Tis not a pretty sort of confession, Dento, you make about yourself, who, after you have married a wife, ask for paternal rights. 4 Cease at last with suppliant petitions to weary our Master, and, though late, return from the city to your own country.

3 cf. x. xxv., where a different view is taken of Mucius' heroism. 4 cf. u, xci. and xcii.



nam dum tu longe deserta uxore diuque tres quaeris natos, quattuor invenies.


AERA per taciturn delapsa sedentis in ipsos

fluxit Aratullae blanda columba sinus, luserat hoc casus, nisi inobservata maneret

permissaque sibi nollet abire fuga. si meliora piae fas est sperare sorori

et dominum mundi flectere vota valent, haec a Sardois tibi forsitan exulis oris,

fratre reversuro, nuntia venit avis.


DE praetoricia folium mihi, Paule, corona

mittis et hoc phialae nomen habere iubes. hac fuerat nuper nebula tibi pegma perunctum,

pallida quam rubri diluit unda croci. an magis astuti derasa est ungue ministri 5

brattea, de fulcro quam reor esse tuo ? ilia potest culicem longe sentire volantem

et minimi pinna papilionis agi ; exiguae volitat suspensa vapore lucernae

et leviter fuso rumpitur icta mero. 10

hoc linitur sputo lani caryota Kalendis,

quam fert cum parco sordidus asse cliens.

1 Paulus (cf. vii. Ixxii.) had sent M. a cup of such thin metal that it could hardly be called a cup. An epigram against paltry gifts.

BOOK VIII. xxxi-xxxm

Otherwise, after deserting your wife at such a dis- tance and for so long, while you are seeking three sons you will discover four !


GLIDING down through the still air, a winsome dove fluttered into Aretulla's very bosom as she sat. Chance might have played the freak had not the bird stayed, all unguarded, and refused to take the flight permitted to it. If a loving sister may hope for happier things, and prayers avail to move the Master of the World, belike from Sardinia's shores this bird came to thee, the exile's messenger, to herald thy brother's return.


FROM your praetor's crown, Paulus, you send me a leaf and require this to be called a bowl. 1 With this film your platform 2 was lately coated, and the pale stream of red saffron 3 washed it away. Or rather was it a flake I think, belonging to the leg of your couch scraped off by the nail of a cunning slave ? It can from a distance feel the fluttering of a gnat, and be wafted by the wing of the very smallest but- terfly ; it floats in air, kept up by the heat of a tiny lamp, and, splashed with wine even lightly sprinkled, it dissolves. With such a layer is coated on the Kalends of January the nut 4 which a shabby client brings as a gift together with small coin. Pliant

2 cf. Lib. Sped. ii. 2. cf. Lib. Sped. iii. 8.

4 Symbolic gifts, like Easter eggs : cf. xni. xxvii : Ov. F. i. 189.



lenta minus gracili crescunt colocasia filo,

plena magis nimio lilia sole cadunt ; nee vaga tarn tenui discurrit aranea tela, 15

tarn leve nee bombyx pendulus urget opus, cvassior in facie vetulae stat creta Fabullae,

crassior offensae bulla tumescit aquae ; fortior et tortos servat vesica capillos

et mutat Latias spuma Batava comas. 20

hac cute Ledaeo vestitur pullus in ovo,

talia lunata splenia fronte sedent. quid tibi cum phiala, ligulam cum mittere possis,

mittere cum possis vel cocleare mihi, (magna nimis loquimur), cocleam cum mittere possis,

denique cum possis mittere, Paule, nihil ? 26


ARCHETYPUM Myos argentum te dicis habere.

quod sine te factum est hoc magis archetypum est ?


CUM sitis similes paresque vita, uxor pessima, pessimus maritus, miror non bene convenire vobis.


REGIA pyramidum, Caesar, miracula ride ; iam tacet Eoum barbara Memphis opus :

1 A kind of soap giving the hair a light hue : cf. xiv. xxvi. 2 cf. n. xxix. 9.

8 An ancient Greek artist, famous for working in silver : cf. xiv. xcv. He was contemporary with Phidias.


BOOK VIII. xxxm-xxxvi

Egyptian beans grow with a less slender filament, of thicker mould are lily leaves that fall beneath the overpowering sun ; nor does the spider dart about a web so slender, nor the pendulous silkworm ply a work so light. Denser stands the chalk on old Fabulla's face, denser swells the bubble in tumbled water, and stronger is the bladder-net that confines knotted locks, and the Batavian pomade l that trans- forms Latin tresses. With skin like this is clothed the chick in a swan's egg, such are the patches that rest on a crescent-plastered 2 brow. What use have you for a bowl when you can send me a tablespoon, when you can send me even a snail-pick I am sug- gesting too great things when you can send me a snail-shell : in a word, when you, Paulus, can send me nothing?


You say you have a piece of silver, a genuine antique by Mys. 3 Is that which was made without your assistance any the more an antique ? 4


SEEING that you are like one another, and a pair in your habits, vilest of wives, vilest of husbands, I wonder you don't agree !


LAUGH, Caesar, at the regal wonders of the Pyra- mids : now barbaric Memphis speaks not of her

4 Perhaps addressed to a silversmith who was in the habit of " faking " his antiques. " You may not have faked this," says M., " but that does not prove it genuine."



pars quota Parrhasiae labor est Mareoticus aulae !

clarius in toto nil videt orbe dies, septenos pariter credas adsurgere monies ; 5

Thessalicum brevior Pelion Ossa tulit ; aethei'a sic intrat nitidis ut conditus astris

inferiore tonet nube serenus apex et prius arcano satietur numine Phoebi

nascentis Circe quam videt ova patris. 10

haec, Auguste, tamen, quae vertice sidera pulsat,

par domus est caelo sed minor est domino.


QUOD Caietano reddis, Polycharme, tabellas,

milia te centum num tribuisse putas ? "Debuit haec " inquis. tibi habe, Polycharme, tabellas

et Caietano milia crede duo.


Qui praestat pietate pertinaci

sensuro bona liberal itatis,

captet forsitan aut vicem reposcat.

at si quis dare nomini relicto

post manes tumulumque perseverat, 5

quaerit quid nisi parcius dolere ?

refert sis bonus an velis videri.

praestas hoc, Melior, sciente fama,

qui sollemnibus anxius sepulti

nomen non sinis interire Blaesi, 10

1 cf. vn. Ivi.

2 When the giants attempted to scale heaven in their war with the gods, they piled Pelion upon Ossa, both mountains in Thessaly.


BOOK VIII. xxxvi-xxxvm

Eastern work. How small a part of the Palatine hall l would Egypt's toil achieve ! Nothing so grand the eye of day sees in all the world. You would believe the seven hills uprose all together ; Ossa with Thessalian Pelion atop was not so high ; 2 Heaven it so pierces that, hidden amid the lustrous stars, its peak echoes sunlit to the thunder in the cloud below, and is sated with Phoebus' mystic power ere Circe 3 views her sire's springing face. And yet, Augustus, this palace that with its pinnacle touches the stars, though level with Heaven, is less than its lord.


BECAUSE, Polycharmus, you return to Caietanus his bond, do you really imagine you have given him a hundred thousand sesterces ? " He owed this sum," you say. Keep your bond, Polycharmus, and trust Caietanus with two thousand. 4


HE who with constant devotion bestows gifts on one who will feel the bounty's good, fishes perhaps or claims return. But if any man persist in giving to the name that survives death and the tomb, what profit seeks he but assuagement of grief? Wide is the difference 'twixt goodness and pretence. This gift, as fame knows, you, Melior, make ; who, in your care, by solemn rites forbid to perish the name of buried Blaesus, and that his birthday should be

3 Daughter of the Sun, which was said to strike first upon her island. Here put for Circeii in Latium.

4 cf. a similar epigram, ix. cii.



et de munifica profusus area

ad natalicium diem colendum

scribarum memori piaeque turbae

quod donas, facis ipse Blaesianum.

hoc longum tibi, vita dum manebit, 15

hoc et post cineres erit tributum.


Qui Palatinae caperet convivia mensae ambrosiasque dapes non erat ante locus :

hie haurire decet sacrum, Germauice, nectar et Ganymedea pocula mixta manu.

esse velis, oro, serus conviva Tonantis : at tu si properas, luppiter, ipse veni.


NON horti neque palmitis beati sed rari nemoris, Priape, custos, ex quo natus es et potes renasci, furaces, moneo, manus repellas et silvam domini focis reserves : si defecerit haec, et ipse lignum es.


" TRISTIS Athenagoras non misit munera nobis quae medio brumae mittere mense solet."

an sit Athenagoras tristis, Faustine, videbo : me certe tristem fecit Athenagoras.

1 He endows the guild of scribes with a fund out of which 3


kept, in your lavish bounty out of a princely coffer to the school of scribes a company that remembers him and loves yourself celebrate a feast to Blaesus. 1 This shall be your long-enduring tribute while life shall last, this also after you are dust.


LARGE enough to hold the revels of the Palatine board and its ambrosial feasts, was no place hereto- fore ; here it beseems thee, Germanicus, to quaff thy nectar divine, and cups blent by Ganymede's hand. May it be late, I beseech thee, that thou dost consent to be the Thunderer's guest ; but do thou, Jupiter, if thou art impatient, come hither thyself.


PRIAPUS, guardian, not of parterre or blooming vine, but of the thin wood wherefrom thou wert born and canst be born again, keep off, I warn thee, thievish hands, and preserve my copse for its master's hearth. If this copse fail, thou also art wood ! 2


" ATHENAGORAS regrets he did not send me the presents he is used to send in the middle of winter's month." Whether Athenagoras regrets, Faustinus, I will consider ; me, at any rate, Athenagoras made regret.

to celebrate annually the birthday of B. "In effect," says M., "you do this yourself every year."

2 i.e. and may be burned instead. Horace (Sat. i. viii. 2) with like flippancy treats Priapus as little better than wood.

3 1



Si te sportula maior ad beatos non corruperit, ut solet, licebit de nostro, Matho, centies laveris.


EFFERT uxores Fabius, Chrestilla maritos, funereamque toris quassat uterque facem.

victores committe, Venus : quos iste manebit exitus, una duos ut Libitina ferat.


TITULLE, moneo, vive : semper hoc serum est ;

sub paedagogo coeperis licet, serum est.

at tu, miser Titulle, nee senex vivis,

sed omne limen conteris salutator

et mane sudas urbis osculis udus, 5

foroque triplici sparsus ante equos omnis

aedemque Martis et colosson Augusti

curris per omnis tertiasque quintasque.

rape, congere, aufer, posside : relinquendum est.

superba densis area palleat nummis, 10

centum explicentur paginae Kalendarum :

iurabit heres te nihil reliquisse,

supraque pluteum te iacente vel saxum,

fartus papyro dum tibi torus crescit,

flentis superbus basiabit eunuchos ; 15

tuoque tristis films, velis nolis,

cum concubino nocte dormiet prima.

1 A hundred farthings (quadrantes) was the client's usual allowance (cf. in. vii. 1), and a quadrant was the price of a bath.


BOOK VIII. xm-xLiv


IF greater -dole has not, as is usual, bribed you to court wealthy men, you may bathe, Matho, a hundred times at my expense. 1


FABIUS buries his wives, Chrestilla her husbands, and each of them waves the funeral torch over a marriage-bed. Match the victors, Venus ; this is the end that will await them one funeral to convey the pair.


TITULLUS, I warn you, live your life : ever this comes late ; though you begin under a pedagogue, 'tis late. But you, wretched Titullus, do not live even in old age, but wear out every threshold at levees, and sweat at daybreak beslavered with the kisses of the town ; and in the three Forums, mud- bespattered in front of all the Equestrian statues, and the Temple of Mars, and the Colossus 2 of Augustus, you hurry ever from the third to the fifth hours. 3 Plunder, hoard, rob, possess: you must resign it all. Let your proud money-chest be yellow with crowded coins, an hundred pages of debts due on the Kalends be opened, your heir will swear you have left no- thing. And even when you are laid out on bier or stone, while, stuffed with papyrus, your pyre is growing high, he will in insolence kiss the weeping eunuchs ; and your mourning son, whether you wish it or not, will the first night sleep with your favourite.

- A bronze statue of Augustus in the Forum that bore his name.

3 i.e. during the business hours of the day : cf. iv. viii. 2, 3.

33 VOL. a. D



PRISCUS ab Aetnaeis tnihi, Flacce, Terentius oris

redditur : hanc lucem lactea gemma notet ; defluat et lento splendescat turbida lino

amphora centeno consule facta minor, continget nox quando meis tam Candida mensis ? 5

tarn iusto dabitur quando calere mero ? cum te, Flacce, mihi reddet Cythereia Cypros,

luxuriae fiet tam bona causa meae.


QUANTA tua est probitas tanta est infantia formae,

Ceste puer, puero castior Hippolyto. te secum Diana velit doceatque natare,

te Cybele totum mallet habere Phryge ; l tu Ganymedeo poteras succedere lecto, 5

sed durus domino basia sola dares, felix, quae tenerum vexabit sponsa maritum

et quae te faciet prima puella virum !


PARS maxillarum tonsa est tibi, pars tibi rasa est, pars vulsa est. unum quis putet esse caput ?

1 Phryge Brodaeus, phryga Codd. Housman suggests molli mallet habere Phryge.

1 cf. xiv. ciii. and civ. 34



TERENTIUS PRISCUS is given back to me, Flaccus, from 'Etna's shore: this day let a milk-white pearl mark ! and let the wine-jar, shrunken through a hundred consulships, be outpoured, and its dull- ness grow bright, slowly strained through linen. 1 When shall a night so fair again bless my board ? When shall I be allowed to warm with wine so justly earned ? When Cytherean Cyprus shall give thee, Flaccus, back to me, as good a cause shall arise for my revelry.


EVEN as thy modesty is thy childish grace of form, boy Cestus, than boy Hippolytus 2 more chaste. Thee would Diana 3 wish, and teach, to swim with her, thee, not unmanned, would Cybele prefer to the Phrygian; 4 thou mightest have succeeded to the bed of Ganymede, 5 but in thy hardness kisses only wouldst thou have given thy lord. Happy the bride that shall provoke her youthful spouse, the maid that first shall make of thee a man !


PART of your jaws are clipped, part is shaved, part is plucked of hairs. Who would imagine this to be a single head ?

  • Who rejected the solicitation of his stepmother Phaedra.

8 The virgin goddess of chastity.

  • The emasculated Attis : cf. v. xli. 2.

5 cf. i. vi. 1.

35 D 2



NESCIT cui dederit Tyriam Crispinus abollam,

dum mutat cultus induiturque togam. quisquis habes, umeris sua munera redde, precamur :

non hoc Crispinus te sed abolla rogat. non quicumque capit saturatas murice vestes 5

nee nisi deliciis convenit iste color, si te praeda iuvat foedique insania lucri,

qua possis melius fallere, sume togam.


FORMOSAM sane sed caecus diligit Asper.

plus ergo, ut res est, quam videt Asper amat.

QUANTA Gigantei memoratur mensa triumphi

quantaque nox superis omnibus ilia fuit, qua bonus accubuit genitor cum plebe deorum

et licuit Faunis poscere vina lovem, tanta tuas celebrant, Caesar, convivia laurus ; 5

exhilarant ipsos gaudia nostra deos. vescitur omnis eques tecum populusque patresque

et capit ambrosias cum duce Roma dapes. grandia pollicitus quanto maiora dedisti !

promissa est nobis sportula, recta data est. 10

1 A well-known fop : cf. Cum rerna Canopi \ Crwpinu# f Tyrias humero revocante lacenias : Juv. i. 27.




CRISPINUS l does not know to whom he gave his Tyrian cloak while he was changing his dress and putting on his toga. Whoever you are who have it, restore to his shoulders their own endowment, we beg you : Crispinus does not ask this of you, but the cloak does. Not everyone sets off a robe steeped in purple : only daintiness that colour suits. If looting attract you, and a mad rage for disgraceful gain, to escape notice the better, select a toga ! 2


ASPER loves a woman who is undoubtedly lovely, but he is blind ; so Asper, as the fact is, loves more than he sees. 3

GREAT as was the storied feast for triumph over the Giants, and great as was to all the High gods that night on which the good Sire reclined at table with the common crowd of gods, and Fauns had licence to call on Jove for wine ; so great a banquet, Caesar, celebrates thy laurels won : our joys make glad the very gods themselves. Every knight feasts along with thee, the people too, and the Fathers, and Rome together with her Chief partakes am- brosial fare. Large things didst thou promise : how much greater hast thou given ! A dole was promised us, a banquet has been given.

As being universal wear. cf. v. xv.




Quis labor in phiala ? docti Myos anne Myronos ?

Mentoris haec mantis est an, Polyclite, tua ? livescit nulla caligine fusca nee odit

exploratores, nubila massa, focos. vera minus flavo radiant electra metallo 5

et niveum felix pustula vincit ebur. materiae non cedit opus : sic alligat orbem,

plurima cum tola lampade luna nitet. stat caper Aeolio Thebani vellere Phrixi

cultus : ab hoc mallet vecta fuisse soror ; 10

hunc nee Cinyphius tonsor violaverit et tu

ipse tua pasci vite, Lyaee, velis. terga premit pecudis geminis Amor aureus alis ;

Palladius tenero lotos ab ore sonat : sic Methymnaeo gavisus Arione delphin 15

languida non taciturn per freta vexit onus, imbuat egregium digno mihi nectare munus

non grege de domini sed tua, Ceste, manus ; Ceste, decus mensae, misce Setina : videtur

ipse puer nobis, ipse sitire caper. 20

det numerum cyathis Istanti : littera Rufi :

'auctor enim tanti muneris ille mihi :

1 Istanti Munro, instanti 0, instantis y.

1 All Greek artists of past days, renowned for chasing or sculpture.

2 The, golden fleece of the ram that bore Phryxus and Helle over the sea : cf. vm. xxviii. 20. 3 cf. vn. xcv. 13.




WHOSE labour is in the bowl ? was it of artist Mys or of Myron ? Is this Mentor's hand, or, Poly- clitus, thine ? 1 No darkness gives it a dull leaden hue, nor is it a cloudy mass that shrinks from as- saying fires. True amber is less radiant than its yellow ore, and the fine frosted silver surpasses snow- white ivory. The workmanship yields not to the material : even so the moon rounds her orb when she shines in fullness with all her light. There stands a he-goat prankt in the Aeolian fleece of Theban Phryxus 2 ; by such his sister would more gladly have been borne ; such a goat no Cinyphian barber 3 would deform, and thou thyself, Lyaeus, wouldst consent to his cropping thine own vine. 4 A Love in gold, two-winged, loads the back of the beast; the pipe of Pallas sounds from his tender lips ; in such wise the dolphin, blithe with the burden of Methymnaean Arion, 5 bore him, no unmelodious freight, o'er tranquil seas. Let no hand from the master's crowd of slaves, only thy hand, Cestus, first fill this peerless gift for me with fitting nectar ; Cestus, the banquet's pride, mix thou the Setine : the very boy, the very goat, methinks, is athirst. Let the letters of Istantius Rufus' 6 name assign their number to our measures of wine, 7 for he was the source to me of so proud a gift. If Telethusa come,

4 Juv. alludes to this : i. 76 (stantem extra pocula caprum).

5 A celebrated harpist, who, to escape the crew of the vessel carrying him to Corinth with his wealth, leaped, it is said, into the sea after playing a last time on his harp : cf. Herod, i. 23, 24.

8 A friend of M. : cf. vui. Ixxiii. 1.

7 As to this practice, cf. ix. xciii. 8 ; xi. xxxvi. 8.



si Telethusa venit promissaque gaudia portat,

servabor dominae, Rufe, triente tuo ; si dubia est, septunce trahar ; si fallit amantem, 25

ut iugulem curas, nomen utrumque bibam.


TONSOREM puerum sed arte talem

qualis nee Thalamus fuit Neronis,

Drusorum cui contigere barbae,

aequandas semel ad genas rogatus

Rufo, Caediciane, commodavi. 5

dum iussus repetit pilos eosdem,

censura speculi manum regente,

expingitque cutem facitque longam

detonsis epaphaeresin capillis,

barbatus mihi tonsor est reversus. 10


FORMOSISSIMA quae fuere vel sunt, sed vilissima quae fuere vel sunt, o quam te fieri, Catulla, vellem formosam minus aut magis pudicam !


MAGNA licet totiens tribuas, maiora daturus dona, ducum victor, victor et ipse tui,

diligeris populo non propter praemia, Caesar, te propter populus praemia, Caesar, amat.

1 cf. i. cvi.

2 M. intends to drink to the vocative, i.e. Rufe, Istanti, etc. s Probably the Emperors Claudius and Nero, who bore this

name before they became Emperors. 40


and bring her promised joys, I will keep myself for my mistress, Rufus, by drinking your four measures ; l if she be doubtful, I shall while away the time by seven ; if she fail her lover, then, to throttle care, I will drink both your names. 2


A BARBER, young, but such an artist as not even was Nero's Thalamus, to whom fell the beards of the Drusi, 3 I lent, on his request, Caedicianus, to Rufus to smooth his cheeks once. While at command he was going over the same hairs, guiding his hand by the judgment of the mirror, and smoothing the skin, and making a second thorough clip of the close-cut hair, my barber returned to me with a beard. 4


MOST beautiful of all women who have been or are, but vilest of all who have been or are, 5 oh, how I could wish, Catulla, you could become less beautiful or more pure !


ALBEIT thou givest so oft great gifts, and shalt give greater, O thou victor over Captains and victor withal over thyself, 6 thou art loved by the people, Caesar, not because of thy boons; 'tis because of thee, Caesar, the people loves thy boons.

4 c/. vu. Ixxxiii.

5 An echo of the style of Catullus : cf. xxi. 2 and xxiv. 2.

6 i.e. whose virtues (or bounties) increase day by day.




AUDITOR quantum Massyla per avia murmur,

innumero quotiens silva leone furit, pallidus attonitos ad Poena mapalia pastor

cum revocat tauros et sine mente pecus, tantus in Ausonia fremuit modo terror harena. 5

quis non esse gregem crederet ? unus erat ; sed cuius tremerent ipsi quoque iura leones,

cui diadema daret marmore picta Nomas. o quantum per colla decus, quern sparsit honorem

aurea lunatae, cum stetit, umbra iubae ! 10

grandia quam decuit latum venabula pectus

quantaque de magna gaudia morte tulit ! unde tuis, Libye, tarn felix gloria silvis ?

a Cybeles numquid venerat ille iugo ? an magis Herculeo, Germanice, misit ab astro 15

hanc tibi vel frater vel pater ipse feram ?


TEMPORIBUS nostris aetas cum cedat avorum

creverit et maior cum duce Roma suo, ingenium sacri miraris desse Maronis

nee quemquam tanta bella sonare tuba, sint Maecenates, non derunt, Flacce, Marones 5

Vergiliumque tibi vel tua rura dabunt. iugera perdiderat miserae vicina Cremonae

flebat et abductas Tityrus aeger oves : risit Tuscus eques paupertatemque malignam

reppulit et celeri iussit abire fuga. 10

1 i.e. in the presence of the emperor.

  • A yoke of lions was the sign of Cybele.



LOUD as is heard the roar through M assy lian wilds, oft as the woodland riots with countless lion-hordes, what time the pale shepherd recalls to his Punic stead the startled bulls and flock dismayed, so great a terror roared but now on Ausonia's sand. Who but would deem it a herd ? 'Twas a single beast, but one whose laws even the very lions would tremble at, to whom marble-dight Numidia would assign a crown. Oh, what glory, what dignity did not the tawny cloud of his curved mane, when it stood erect, shed upon his neck ! How that broad breast became mighty spears, and how great joy he won by his noble death ! l Whence came, Libya, so blest an honour to thy woods ? Had he come down from Cybele's yoke? 2 Or rather, did thy brother, Ger- manicus, or thy sire himself, send down this beast from Hercules' star? 3


ALTHOUGH our grandsires' age yields to our own times, and Rome has waxed greater in company with her chief, you wonder divine Maro's genius is seen no more, and that no man with such a trump as his blows loud of war. Let there be many a Maecenas, many a Maro, Flaccus, will not fail, and even your fields will give you a Virgil. Tityrus, 4 sick at heart, had lost his lands nigh ill-starred Cremona, and was weeping for his plun- dered sheep : the Tuscan knight smiled, and dis- pelled malignant poverty, and bade it go in hurried

3 Had Titus or Vespasian, now gods, sent down the Nemean lion slain by Hercules from the constellation Leo ? cf. iv. Ivii. 5. * Representing Virgil in the Bucolics.



" Accipe divitias et vatum maximus esto ;

tu licet et nostrum" dixit " Alexin ames." adstabat domini mensis pulcherrimus ille

marmorea fundens nigra Falerna manu, et libata dabat roseis carchesia labris 15

quae poterant ipsum sollicitare lovem. excidit attonito pinguis Galatea poetae,

Thestylis et rubras messibus usta genas ; protinus " Italiam " concepit et " Arma virumque,"

qui modo vix Culicem fleverat ore rudi. 20

quid Varies Marsosque loquar ditataque vatum

nomina, magnus erit quos numerare labor? ergo ego Vergilius, si munera Maecenatis

des mihi ? Vergilius non ero, Marsus ero.


TRES habuit dentes, pariter quos expuit omnes, ad tumulum Picens dum sedet ipse suum ;

collegitque sinu fragmenta novissima laxi oris et adgesta contumulavit humo.

ossa licet quondam defuncti non legat heres : 5

hoc sibi iam Picens praestitit officium.


CUM tibi tarn crassae sint, Artemidore, lacernae. possim te Sagarim iure vocare meo.


ASPICIS hunc uno contentum lumine, cuius lippa sub adtrita fronte lacuna patet ?

1 rf. v. xvi. 12.

2 Characters in the Bucolics.



flight. " Take wealth, and be greatest of bards : you," he said, "may love even my Alexis." 1 That boy most fair was standing by his master's board, pouring the dark Falernian with hand marble-fair, and offered the beaker tasted first by his rosy lips, lips that might tempt Jove himself. Plump Galatea 2 fell away from the inspired bard and Thestylis 2 with her cheeks burnt red by harvest; at once "Italy" he conceived, and " Arms and the man," 3 he who but now in song untrained had with effort wept for a gnat. 4 Why should I speak of Variuses and Mar- suses, and tell the names of poets enriched, whom 'twere a long task to number ? Shall I then be a Virgil if you give me the gifts of a Maecenas ? I shall not be a Virgil, a Marsus 5 shall I be.


PICENS had three teeth, all of which he spat out at once as he was sitting by his own tomb ; and he gathered up in his lap the latest fragments of his loosened jaws, and entombed them in piled-up earth. His heir some day need not gather up the dead man's bones : that office Picens has already per- formed for himself.


SEEING that your cloaks, Artemidorus, are -so thick, I might rightly call you Sagaris. 6


You see this fellow who puts up with one eye, under whose shameless brow a sightless socket gapes ?

3 Italy = Georgics, "arms, etc." = Aeneid.

4 Culex, an early poem. 5 cf. iv. xxix. 8.

8 A play on words. Sagum was a thick military cloak.



ne contemne caput, nihil est furacius illo ;

non fuit Autolyci tarn piperata manus. hunc tu convivam cautus servare memento : 5

tune furit atque oculo luscus utroque videt. pocula solliciti perdunt ligulasque ministri

et latet in tepido plurima mappa sinu ; lapsa nee a cubito subducere pallia nescit

et tectus laenis saepe duabus abit ; 10

nee dormitantem vernam fraudare lucerna

erubuit fallax, ardeat ilia licet, si nihil invasit, puerum tune arte dolosa

circuit et soleas subripit ipse suas.


SUMMA Palatini poteras aequare Colossi, si fieres brevior, Claudia, sesquipede.


LIVET Charinus, rumpitur, furit, plorat

et quaerit altos unde pendeat ramos :

non iam quod orbe cantor et legor toto,

nee umbilicis quod decorus et cedro

spargor per omnes Roma quas tenet gentes, 5

sed quod sub urbe rus habemus aestivum

vehimurque mulis non ut ante conductis.

quid inprecabor, o Severe, liventi ?

hoc opto : mulas habeat et suburbanum.

1 The son of Mercury, patron of thieves, and himself the typical thief.



Don't despise the man, he is thievishness itself; Auto- lycus' l hand was not so sharp. When he is your guest remember to watch him carefully : then he runs amok and, though one-eyed, sees with either. Cups and dessert-spoons the anxious servants lose, and there lurks many a napkin in his warm bosom ; nor is he ignorant how to withdraw by stealth even the mantle slipt from your elbow, and often he goes away clad in two cloaks ; and the cunning thief does not blush to rob a sleeping home-born slave of his lamp, although it is alight. If he has seized nothing, then with crafty skill he circumvents his slave and filches his very own slippers !


You might reach to the top of the Palatine Colossus 2 if you, Claudia, were to grow shorter by a foot and a half.


CHARINUS is green with envy, is bursting, raging, weeping, and is looking out for high boughs to hang himself from ; not now because I am acclaimed and read through the whole world, nor because, smart with bosses and cedar oil, I am spread abroad over all the nations Rome sways, but because I have in the suburbs a summer country house, and am drawn by mules no longer, as before, hired. What curse shall I utter, Severus, on his green looks ? I wish him this : let him possess mules and a suburban property ! 3

2 ff. Lib. Sped. ii. 1.

3 With all their worries.


SCRIBIT in aversa Picens epigrammata charta, et dolet averse quod facit ilia deo.


THESTYLON Aulus amat sed nee minus ardet Alexin, forsitan et nostrum nunc Hyacinthon amat.

i nunc et dubita vates an diligat ipsos, delicias vatum cum meus Aulus amet.


UT poscas, Clyte, munus exigasque,

uno nasceris octiens in anno

et solas, puto, tresve quattuorve

non natalicias habes Kalendas.

sit vultus tibi levior licebit 5

tritis litoris ai'idi lapillis,

sit moro coma nigrior caduco,

vincas mollitia tremente plumas

aut massam modo lactis alligati,

et talis tumor excitet papillas ]

qualis cruda viro puella servat,

tu nobis, Cly te, Jam- senex videris :

tarn multos quis enim fuisse credat

natalis Priamive Nestorisve ?

sit tandem pudor et modus rapinis. 15

quod si ludis adhuc semelque nasci

uno iam tibi non sat est in anno,

natum te, Clyte, nee semel putabo.

1 Phoebus, who inspires poets.



PICENS writes epigrams on the backside of his paper, and complains that when he does so the god ] turns his.


AULUS is fond of Thestylus, and has no less warmth for Alexis ; perhaps now he is fond of my Hya- cinthus too. Go, now ! doubt after that whether my friend Aulus loves the poets themselves, seeing that he loves poets' favourites.


THAT you may demand, Clytus, and exact a present, you are born eight times in a single year, and only three or four Kalends, I think, you do not keep as birthdays. Smoother though your face be than the dry beach's wave-worn pebbles, blacker your hair than a mulberry ripe to fall, though you surpass feathers in fluttering softness, or a lump of newly curdled milk, and though such a rounded fullness swells a breast as the virgin bride keeps for her spouse, yet you seem to us, Clytus, already old ; for who would believe so many birthdays were Priam's or Nestor's ? Let there be at length some decent limit and measure to your rapine. But if you still play with us, and a single birth in one year is now not sufficient for you, I shall regard you, Clytus, as not having been born even once. 2

2 "To regard a person as not born" was a common phrase to express that the person alluded to was a nobody : cf. IV. Ixxxiii. 4 ; x. xxvii. 4 ; Petr. 58.





Hie ubi Fortunae Reducis fulgentia late

templa nitent, felix area nuper erat : hie stetit Arctoi formosus pulvere belli

purpureum fundens Caesar ab ore iubar : hie lauru redimita comas et Candida cultu 5

Roma salutavit voce manuque ducem. grande loci meritum testantur et altera dona :

stat sacer et domitis gentibus arcus ovat. hie gemini currus numerant elephanta frequentem,

sufficit inmensis aureus ipse iugis. 10

haec est digna tuis, Germanice, porta triumphis ;

hos aditus urbem Martis habere decet.


AUGUSTO pia tura victimasque

pro vestro date Silio, Camenae.

bis senos iubet en redire fasces,

nato consule, nobilique virga

vatis Castaliam domum sonare 5

rerum prima sal us et una Caesar.

gaudenti superest adhuc quod optet,

felix purpura tertiusque consul.

Pompeio dederit licet senatus

et Caesar genero sacros honores, 10

quorum pacificus ter ampliavit

lanus nomina, Silius frequentes

mavult sic numerare consulatus.

1 A temple was built to Fortuna Redux in honour of Domitian's Sarmatian campaign.

2 The temple of Fortuna Redux being the other.

The lictor, escorting the consul to his house, struck on the door with his staff: Liv. vi. 34.




HERE, where far-gleaming shines the fane of For- tune that gives return/ was of late, happy in its lot, an open space ; here, graced by the dust of Northern war, stood Caesar, shedding from his face effulgent light ; here, her locks wreathed with bay, and white of vesture, Rome with voice and hand greeted her Chief. A second gift, too, 2 attests the high merit of the spot : a consecrated arch staiids in triumph over the conquered nations ; here stand two chariots and many an elephant ; he himself in gold is master of the mighty cars. This gate, Germanicus, is worthy of thy triumphs : such an approach it beseems the City of Mars to possess.


To Augustus bring, ye Camenae, pious incense and victims on behalf of your Silius. Lo ! by a son's consulship Caesar, our chief and only ward, bids the twice six axes return, and the door of the poet sire resound to the lictor's noble staff. 3 Yet this re- mains for his joy to wish for, the blessed purple of a third consul. 4 Though to Pompeius the senate, to his son-in-law 5 Caesar, gave sacred honours, and peaceful Janus thrice enrolled their names, 6 yet thus would Silius rather reckon repeated consul- ships.

  • M. hopes that Silius' second son (who, however, died

shortly afterwards) may become consul, three consulships thus falling to one house. The father was consul A. D. 68 : vn. Ixiii. 9.

6 Agrippa, who married Julia, Augustus' daughter.

6 The consular Fasti were kept in the Temple of Janus.

E 2



HORAS quinque puer nondum tibi nuntiat, et tu

iam conviva mihi, Caeciliane, venis, cum modo distulerint raucae vadimonia quartae

et Floralicias lasset harena feras. curre, age, et inlotos revoca, Calliste, ministros ; 5

sternantur lecti : Caeciliane, sede. caldam poscis aquam : nondum mihi frigida venit ;

alget adhuc nudo clusa culina foco. mane veni potius ; nam cur te quinta moretur ?

ut iantes, sero, Caeciliane, venis. 10


Qui Corcyraei vidit pomaria regis,

rus, Entelle, tuae praeferet ille domus. invida purpureos urat ne bruma racemos

et gelidum Bacchi munera frigus edat, condita perspicua vivit vindemia gemma 5

et tegitur felix nee tamen uva latet : femineum lucet sic per bombycina corpus,

calculus in nitida sic numeratur aqua, quid non ingenio voluit natura licere ?

autumnum sterilis ferre iubetur hiemps. 10

1 cf. iv. viii. 2.

2 i.e. adjourned the court. Vadimonia were bonds re- quired of the parties to a suit to ensure their appearance.




THE boy does not yet announce to you the fifth hour, and yet you, Caecilianus, come already as my guest, although the fourth hour, hoarse with plead- ing, 1 has only just enlarged the bail-bonds, 2 and the arena still wearies the wild beasts at Flora's games. 3 Come, run, Callistus, and call back the unwashed servants ; let the couches be spread : Caecilianus, sit down. You ask for warm water : my cold has. not yet arrived ; 4 my kitchen is closed and chill, its fire unlaid. Come rather at daybreak ; for why should the fifth hour keep you waiting? For a breakfast you come late, Caecilianus.


HE who has seen the orchards of Corcyra's king 5 will prefer, Entellus, the country youi?- house con- tains. That jealous winter may not sear the purple clusters, and chill frost consume the gifts of Bacchus, your vineyard blooms shut in transparent glass, and the fortunate grape is roofed and yet unhid. So shine a woman's limbs through silk, so is the pebble counted in pellucid water. What power has not Nature wished for mind ? Barren winter is bidden to bear autumn's fruits. 6

3 Hares and goats were hunted in the arena at the Ludi Florales.

4 M. had no water laid on to his house : cf. IX. xix.

5 Alcinous : cf. vu. xlii. 6.

6 cf. a similar epigram, viu. xiv.




MIRARIS veteres, Vacerra. solos nee laudas nisi mortuos poetas. ignoscas petimus, Vacerra : tanti non est, ut placeam tibi, perire.


QUANTA quies placidi tantast facundia Nervae,

sed cohibet vires ingeniumque pudor. cum siccare sacram largo Permessida posset

ore, verecundam maluit esse sitim, Pieriam tenui frontem rediniire corona

contentus, famae nee dare vela suae. sed tamen hunc nostri scit temporis esse Tibullum,

carmina qui docti nota Neronis habet.


QUATTUOR argenti libras mihi tempore brumae

misisti ante annos, Postumiane, decem ; speranti plures (nam stare aut crescere debeiit

inunera) venerunt plusve minusve duae ; tertius et quartus multo inferiora tulerunt ;

libra fuit quinto Septiciana quidem ; besalem ad scutulam sexto pervenimus anno ;

post hunc in cotula rasa selibra data est ;

1 Afterwards emperor. His poetical ability is also alluded to in ix. xxvi.




You admire, Vacerra, the ancients alone, and praise none but dead poets. Your pardon, pray, Vacerra : it is not worth my while, merely to please you, to die.


GREAT as is the restraint, so great is the eloquence of placid Nerva, 1 but modesty restrains his power and genius. Though he might have drained sacred Permessis 2 in full draughts, he chose to slake his thirst with diffidence, content to wreathe his poet's brow with a slender crown, and to leave his sail unspread to the breeze of his own fame. Yet that he is the Tibullus of our time each man knows who keeps in mind the lays of learned Nero. 3


FOUR pounds of silver plate in winter's season you sent me, Postumianus, ten years ago. While I hoped for a greater weight for gifts should stand fixed or grow there arrived two pounds more or less. The third and the fourth year brought much inferior presents : in the fifth was one pound, Septicius' 4 work to boot. I came down to an eight-ounce oblong dish in the sixth year ; the next was given me a bare half-pound in the shape of a small cup.

2 A fountain (also called Aganippe) sacred to the Muses, and arising in Mt. Helicon.

3 Nero is said to have called Nerva his Tibullus.

  • i.e. inferior: cf. iv. Ixxxviii. 3.



octavus ligulam misit sextante minorern ;

nonus acu levius vix cocleare tulit. quod mittat nobis decumus iam non habet annus :

quattuor ad libras, Postumiane, redi.


NONDUM murice cultus asperoque

morsu pumicis aridi politus

Arcanum properas sequi, libelle,

quern pulcherrima iam redire Narbo,

docti Narbo Paterna Votieni, 5

ad leges iubet annuosque fasces :

votis quod paribus tibi petendum est,

continget locus ille et hie amicus.

quam vellem fieri meus libellus !


ISTANTI, quo nec sincerior alter habetur

pectore nec nivea simplicitate prior, si dare vis nostrae vires animosque Thaliae

et victura petis carmina, da quod amem. Cynthia te vatem fecit, lascive Properti ; 5

ingenium Galli pulchra Lycoris erat ; fama est arguti Nemesis formosa Tibulli ;

Lesbia dictav'it, docte Catulle, tibi : non me Paeligni nec spernet Mantua vatem,

si qua Corinna mihi, si quis Alexis erit. 10

1 The full name appears to ha ve been Colonia Julia Paterna Narbo Marcia, .now Narbonne. It was the capital of Gallia Narbonensis.




The eighth sent me a dessert-spoon less than two ounces weight : the ninth produced with difficulty -a snail -pick lighter than a needle. The tenth year now has nothing to send me : to your four pounds, Postumianus, return '


THOUGH you are not yet smart with purple and smoothed by the rough bite of dry pumice, you haste, little book, to follow Arcanus, whom most lovely Narbo Narbo Paterna x of the learned Vo- tienus now bids return to declare the laws and to yearly office. 'Twill be your lot to be sued for with equal prayers to see that spot and to have this friend. How I wish I could become my own little book '


IsTANTius, 2 than whom none other is held more true of heart, before whom is none in pure sin- cerity, if thou wouldst give strength and spirit to my Muse, and lookest for poems that shall live, give me something to love. 'Twas Cynthia made thee a poet, wanton Propertius ; of Gallus the. inspiration was fair Lycoris ; tuneful Tibullus' renown sprang from lovely Nemesis ; Lesbia prompted thee, learned Catullus. The Pelignians 3 will not spurn me, nor Mantua, 4 as a bard, if some Corinna, if some Alexis be my own.

2 Istantius Rufus : cf. vin. li. '21.

3 Counti-ymen of Ovid.

4 Birthplace of Virgil.




OPLOMACHUS nunc es, fueras opthalmicus ante, fecisti medicus quod facis oplomachus.


DUM repetit sera conductos nocte penates

Lingonus a Tecta Flaminiaque recens, expulit offenso vitiatum pollice talum

et iacuit toto corpore fusus humi. quid faceret Gallus, qua se ratione moveret? 5

ingenti domino servulus unus erat, tarn macer ut minimam posset vix ferre lucernam :

succurrit misero casus opemque tulit. quattuor inscripti portabant vile cadaver,

accipit infelix qualia mille rogus ; 10

hos comes invalidus summissa voce precatur,

ut quocumque velint corpus inane ferant : permutatur onus stipataque tollitur alte

grandis in angusta sarcina sandapila. hie raihi de multis unus, Lucane, videtur 15

cui merito dici "mortue Galle " potest.


" Die verum mihi, Marce, die amabo ; nil est quod magis audiam libenter." sic et cum recitas tuos libellos, et causam quotiens agis clientis,

1 cf. similar epigrams, i. xxx. and xlvii.

  • cf. in. v. 5.



You are now a gladiator: you were an eye-special- ist before. You did as doctor what you do now as gladiator. 1


WHILE late at night a Lingonian just returning from the Covered 2 and Flaminian Ways was making for his hired lodging, catching his big toe, he put out his ankle, and lay upset all his length on the ground. What should the Gaul do ? how could he move ? The huge master had a single tiny slave, so thin that he could barely carry the smallest lantern : chance came to the rescue of the wretched man, and brought aid. Four branded slaves were carrying a common corpse the pauper's burying-gi'ound re- ceives a thousand such these slaves the weak at- tendant besought in a low voice to shift the lifeless body wherever they wished. The load is changed and the cargo is lifted high and crammed in a huge cargo in a narrow bier. This individual seems to me, Lucanus, to be the one of many to whom can justly be said, "O dead Gaul." 3


" TELL me the truth, Marcus, tell me, please : there is nothing I would more gladly hear." Such, Gallicus, both when you recite your poems and whenever you plead a client's cause is your prayer

3 " Mortue Galle " was the refrain of the verses with which the retiarins (net-caster) used to provoke his oppo- nent, the mirmillo (who wore a Gaulish helmet).



oras, Galilee, me rogasque semper. 5

durum est me tibi quod petis negare. vero verius ergo quid sit audi : verum, Gallice, non libenter audis.


LIBER, amicorum dulcissima cura tuorum,

Liber, in aeterna vivere digne rosa, si sapis, Assyrio semper tibi crinis amomo

splendeat et cingaiit florea serta caput ; Candida nigrescant vetulo crystalla Falerno 5

et caleat blando mollis amore torus, qui sic vel medio finitus vixit in aevo,

longior huic facta est quam data vita fuit.


Quos cuperet Phlegraea suos victoria ludos,

Indica quos cuperet pompa, Lyaee, tuos, fecit Hyperborei celebrator Stella triumphi,

o pudor ! o pietas ! et putat esse parum. non illi satis est turbato sordidus auro 5

Hermus et Hesperio qui sonat orbe Tagus. omnis habet sua dona dies : nee linea dives

cessat et in populum multa rapina cadit ; nunc veniunt subitis lasciva nomismata nimbis,

nunc dat spectatas tessera larga feras, 10

nunc implere sinus securos gaudet et absens

sortitur dominos, ne laceretur, avis.

1 ff. a very similar epigram, v. Ixiii.

2 For a similar sentiment, cf. x. xxiii. 7, 8.

3 The victory of the gods over the giants in the Phlegraean Plains in Campania : cf. vin. 1. 1.



and request to me continually. It is hard for me to refuse what you want. Hear, then, what is truer than truth ; truth, Gallicus, you do not willingly hear. 1


LIBER, of thy friends the care most sweet, Liber, worthy to live amid deathless roses, if thou art wise, let thy locks glisten alway with Assyrian balm and chaplets of flowers encircle thy head ; let thy clear crystal darken with old Falernian, and thy soft couch warm with love's endearments. Whoever has so lived, to him, even did the end come in middle age, life has been made longer than was appointed. 2


SPORTS which a Phlegraean victory 3 might have craved for its own, which thy Indian pageant, Lyaeus, 4 might have craved to be thine, Stella, honouring the Northern triumph, has given; and yet what modesty is his, what loyalty ! he holds them too small. Not for him suffices the wealth of Hermus, dark with tumbled gold, and of Tagus echoing in the Western world. Each day provides its own gifts ; the cord's rich burden 5 fails not, and full-laden spoil falls upon the people ; now come in sudden showers sportive tokens; 6 now the bounteous ticket assigns the beasts of the arena ; now the bird is glad to fill a lap that gives it safety, and that it be not torn asunder

4 cf. vni. xxvi. 7.

5 A cord hung with gifts for the populace.

6 Entitling the holder to receive presents.



quid numerem currus ter denaque praemia palmae, quae dare non semper consul uterque solet ?

omnia sed, Caesar, tanto superantur honore, 15

quod spectatorem te tua laurus habet.


OMNIS aut vetulas habes arnicas

aut turpis vetulisque foediores.

has ducis comites trahisque tecum

per convivia porticus theatra.

sic formosa, Fabulla, sic puella es. 5


SANCTORUM nobis miracula reddis avorum

nee pateris, Caesar, saecula cana mori, cum veteres Latiae ritus renovantur harenae

et pugnat virtus simpliciore manu. sic priscis servatur honos te praeside templis 5

et casa tarn culto sub love numen habet ; sic nova dum condis, revocas, Auguste, priora :

debentur quae sunt quaeque fuere tibi.

1 Birds are, instead of being scrambled for and so torn to pieces, assigned by lot. Statius (Syh: I. vi. 75 stq. ) describes one of Domitian's Saturnalian shows, where huge clouds of birds descend " mbito volatu" among the people, birds sup- posed by Verrall (Lit. Essays, 82) to have been toy ones with tickets for presents attached.


BOOK VIII. Lxxvm-Lxxx

wins, while apart, by lot its owner. 1 Why should I count the chariots, and victory's thrice ten prizes, which both consuls are not always wont to give ? 2 But all, Caesar, is surpassed by this great glory, that thy triumph hath thee a spectator.


ALL the female friends you have are either old crones or ugly, and fouler than old crones. These, as your companions, you conduct and drag about with you through parties, colonnades, theatres. In this way, Fabulla, you are lovely, in this way young.


THOU restorest to us, Caesar, the wonders of our honoured grandsires' age, and lettest not the times of old die, now that the ancient fashions of the Latin arena are renewed and valour fights with more natural hand. 3 So also for the old-world fanes is kept their honour while thou art Governor, and the Cot 4 under a Jove so worshipped keeps its sanctity ; 5 so, while thou dost found the new, thou bringest back, Augustus, the former things : what is, and what was, are owed to thee !

2 There were thirty races. The consuls exhibited games on their entrance into office.

3 Domitian had restored pugilism in the amphitheatre.

4 The Cot (Casa Romuli) was a straw-thatched cottage on the Palatine, and was revered as the legendary dwelling of the Founder of Rome : cf. Virg. A en. viii. 654.

5 Jove is magnificently honoured, yet the humble Cot is hallowed.




NON per mystica sacra Dindymenes

nee per Niliacae bovem iuvencae,

nullos denique per deos deasque

iurat Gellia, sed per uniones.

hos amplectitur, hos perosculatur, 5

hos fratres vocat, hos vocat sorores,

hos natis amat acrius duobus.

his si quo careat misella casu,

victuram negat esse se nee horam.

eheu, quam bene mine, Papiriane, 10

Annaei faceret manus Sereni !


DANTE tibi turba querulos, Auguste, libellos

nos quoque quod domino carmina parva damus, posse deum rebus pariter Musisque vacare

scimus et haec etiam serta placere tibi. fer vates, Auguste, tuos : nos gloria dulcis, 5

nos tua cura prior deliciaeque sumus. non quercus te sola decet nee laurea Phoebi :

fiat et ex hedera civica nostra tibi.

1 Apis, the sacred Egyptian bull, representing Osiris, the husband of Isis, who was represented as a heifer: ef. n. xiv. 8.

2 An obscure allusion. Perhaps S. was notoriously a wearer of pearls. Some commentators take him for a noted thief. But M. would then hardly have mentioned his name.

'* Domitian had himself written poetry before he became emperor.




NOT by the mystic rites of Dindymene, nor by the bull, 1 the spouse of Nile's heifer, in a word by no gods and goddesses does Gellia swear, but by her pearls. These she hugs, these she kisses passion- ately, these she calls her brothers, these she calls her sisters, these she loves more ardently than her two sons. If by any chance the unhappy woman should lose them, she says she would not live even an hour. Ah, how usefully now, Papirianus, would the hand of Annaeus Serenus be employed ! 2


WHILE the throng offers to you, Augustus, its querulous petitions, the reason why we too offer to our Master a few poems, is because we know that a god can have leisure at once for business and for the Muses, and that even this wreath of song pleases you. Bear with your bards, Augustus : we are your treasured pride, we are your earlier 3 care, and your delight. Not alone does the oak 4 beseem you, or Phoebus' laurel ; 5 let there be made a civic crown for you of ivy 6 as well !

4 The corona civica of oak-leaves given to one who had preserved the life of a citizen, afterwards given to the emperor as the general preserver.

8 The crown of victory in war.

6 The distinction of a poet : cf. Virg. Eel. viii. 12.

65 VOL. II. F



HAVE, mi Torani, frater carissime. epigramma, quod extra ordinem paginarum est, ad Stertinium clarissimum virum scripsimus, qui imaginem meam ponere in bybliotheca sua voluit. de quo scribendum tibi putavi, ne ignorares Avitus iste quis vocaretur. vale et para hospitium.

Note, licet nolis, sublimi pectore vates,

cui referet serus praemia digna cinis, hoc tibi sub nostra breve carmen imagine vivat,

quam non obscuris iungis, Avite, viris : " Ille ego sum nulli nugarum laude secundus, 5

quern non miraris sed puto, lector, amas. maiores maiora sonent : mihi parva locuto

sufficit in vestras saepe redire manus."

DUM lanus hiemes, Domitianus autumnos, Augustus annis commodabit aestates, dum grande famuli nomen adseret Rheni Germanicarum magna lux Kalendarum,

1 Addressed as Avitus also in i. xvi. 1 i.e. a senator. S. was consul A.D. 92.



GREETING, my Toranius, dearest brother. The epigram which is supernumerary to my pages I have written to Stertinius, 1 a most illustrious man, 2 who wished to place my bust in his library. Concerning whom I thought I ought to write to you, that you might not be ignorant who was the Avitus there addressed. Farewell, and get ready your hospitality.

Famed, though against thy will, as a bard of sub- lime invention, to whom death long hence shall pay thy fitting meed, let this short stanza abide, I pray thee, beneath that bust of me, which thou addest, Avitus, to those of not ignoble men :

" Lo ! he am I whose light verse yields to none ; Reader, thy love, not awe, methinks I've won. Let greater men strike greater notes : I earn Enough if my small themes oft to thy hands return."


WHILE Janus shall lend winters to the year, Do- mitianus autumns, Augustus summers ; while the great day of the Germanic Kalends shall claim a mighty name from the subservient Rhine ; 3 while

3 Domitian, copying Augustus, who named August, gave the names Germanicus and Domitianus to September and October respectively, because he was made emperor in the one and was born in the other : Suet. Dom. 13.



Tarpeia summi saxa dum patris stabunt, 5

dum voce supplex dumque ture placabit matrona divae dulce luliae numen, . manebit altum Flaviae decus gentis cum sole et astris cumque luce Romana. invicta quidquid condidit manus, caeli est. 10


PAUPER amicitiae cum sis, Lupe, non es amicae

et queritur de te mentula sola nihil. ilia siligineis pinguescit adultera cunnis,

convivam pascit nigra farina tuum. incensura nives dominae Setina liquantur, 5

nos bibimus Corsi pulla venena cadi ; empta tibi nox est fundis non tota paternis,

non sua desertus rura sodalis arat ; splendet Erythraeis perlucida moecha lapillis,

ducitur addictus, te futuente, cliens ; 10

octo Syris suflfulta datur lectica puellae,

nudum sandapilae pondus amicus erit. i nunc et miseroSj Cybele, praecide cinaedos :

haec erat, haec cultris mentula digna tuis.


QUANTUM iam superis, Caesar, caeloque dedisti si repetas et si creditor esse velis,

1 cf. vi. iii. 6 ; vi. xiii.

1 The temple built by Domitian in honour of the gens Flavia : cf. ix. iii. 12.


BOOK IX. i-m

the Tarpeian rock of the Sire Supreme shall stand ; while, suppliant with prayer, and with incense, the matron shall propitiate the fair deity of Julia l now divine : the towering glory of the Flavian race 2 shall endure, coeternal with sun and stars, and with the light that shines on Rome. Whatever an un- conquered arm has founded, that is of Heaven !


ALTHOUGH you are a poor man to your friends, Lupus, you are not so to your mistress, and only your virility has no grievance against you. She, the adulteress, fattens on lewdly shaped loaves : 3 black meal feeds your guest. Setine wines are strained to inflame your lady's snow ; 4 we drink the black poison of a Corsican jar. Her favours not un- shared are bought at the price of your paternal estate ; your comrade, neglected, ploughs fields that are not his own : the adulteress is bright and shining with Eastern jewels ; your client is committed and dragged off to prison while you enjoy amours : a litter poised on eight Syrian slaves is given to your girl; your friend a naked corpse will be the burden of a pauper's bier. Go now, Cybele ! and castrate wretched paederasts : here, here is matter long since worthy of your knife !


WERE you, Caesar, to reclaim, and did you wish to be creditor for all you have already given to the

3 cf. xrv. Ixix.

4 cf. v. Ixiv. 2 ; xiv. cxvii.


grandis in aetherio licet auctio fiat Olympo

coganturque dei vendere quidquid habent, conturbabit Atlans et non erit uncia tota 5

decidat tecum qua pater ipse deum. pro Capitolinis quid enim tibi solvere templis,

quid pro Tarpeiae frondis honore potest ? quid pro culminibus geminis matrona Tonantis ?

Pallada praetereo : res agit ilia tuas. 10

quid loquar Alciden Phoebumque piosque Laconas ?

addita quid Latio Flavia templa polo ? expectes et sustineas, Auguste, necesse est :

nam tibi quod solvat non habet area lovis.

IV AUREOLIS futui cum possit Galla duobus

et plus quam futui, si totidem addideris, aureolos a te cur accipit, Aeschyle, denos ?

non fellat tanti Galla. quid ergo ? tacet.


NUBERE vis Prisco : non miror, Pau^ ; sapisti. ducere te non vult Priscus : et ille sapit.


TIBI, summe Rheni domitor et parens orbis, pudice princeps, gratias agunt urbes :

1 An uncia for every as, i.e. a penny hi the shilling.

2 cf. iv. i. 6 : iv. liv. 1.

3 Domitian regarded himself as being peculiarly under the protection, and in fact the son, of Pallas.

BOOK IX. m-vi

high gods and to heaven, then, though a great auction were held on skyey Olympus and gods were forced to sell whatever they possess, Atlas will go bankrupt, and there will not be a full twelfth : wherewith the Sire of the gods himself may settle with you. For what can he pay you in return for Capitoline temples, what for the glory of the Tarpeian oak crown ? 2 What can the Thunderer's dame pay for her two temples ? Pallas I pass by : she is your partner. 3 Why should I speak of Alcides and Phoe- bus, and the loving Spartan twins ? 4 Why of the Flavian fane, a new gift to the Latin heaven? 5 You must wait and endure, Augustus ; for to pay you Jove's money-chest has not the wherewithal.


ALTHOUGH Galla's favours may be secured for two gold pieces, and special favours if you add as much again, why does she receive ten pieces from you, Aeschylus ? Galla's self-abandonment is not so dear as that. What is, then ? Her silence.

You wish to marry Priscus; I don't wonder, Paula; you are wise. Priscus does not wish to marry you : he, too, is wise.


To thee, Conqueror supreme of Rhine, and parent of the world, O modest Prince, the cities give their

4 Castor and Pollux.

5 i.e. to the Roman Pantheon, the deified emperors : cf. ix. xxxiv. 2.



populos habebunt ; parere iam scelus non est.

non puer avari sectus arte mangonis

virilitatis damna maeret ereptae,

nee quam superbus conputet stipeni leno

dat prostitute misera mater infanti.

qui nee cubili fuerat ante te quondam,

pudor esse per te coepit et lupanari.


DICERE de Libycis reduci tibi gentibus, Afer, continuis volui quinque diebus "Have" :

"Non vacat " aut " Dormit " dictum est bis terque

reverse, iam satis est. non vis, Afer, havere: vale.


TAMQUAM parva foret sexus iniuria nostri

foedandos populo prostituisse mares, iam cunae lenonis erant, ut ab ubere raptus

sordida vagitu posceret aera puer : inmatura dabant infandas corpora poenas. 5

non tulit Ausonius talia monstra pater, idem qui teneris nuper succurrit ephebis,

ne faceret steriles saeva libido viros. dilexere prius pueri iuvenesque senesque,

at nunc infantes te quoque, Caesar, amant. 10

1 cf. n. Ix. 4 ; v. Ixxv.

2 " Vale" was said when the survivors took leave of the



thanks : population shall they have ; to bring forth is at last no crime. 1 The boy, mutilated by the grasping slave-dealer's art, does not lament the loss of his ravished manhood, nor does a needy mother give her prostituted infant the pittance which the haughty pander is to count out. The modesty which erewhile before thee not even the marriage-bed possessed, now by thy means even a brothel begins to show.


WHEN you had returned from the tribes of Libya, Afer, five days running I wanted to say " Good day ! " " He is engaged," or " He is taking a siesta," was the message when I had returned twice and three times. Enough ! Afer, you don't want a " Good day " : " Good bye." 2


As if it were small injury to our sex to prostitute our males to pollution by the people, the cradle was but now so the pander's own that a boy snatched from his mother's breast begged with infant wail for sordid coin ; bodies immature suffered unutterable outrage. 3 The Father of Italy could not endure such enormities, even he who of late succoured 4 tender youths, that cruel lust might not make barren men. Boys loved thee before, and young men, and aged sires ; but now infants, too, love thee, Caesar.

corpse at a funeral : cf. v. Ixvi. 2. "I shall look upon you as dead in future," says M.

3 Domitian revived the Lex Scantinia, against unnatural crimes : Suet. Dom. viii.

4 cf. ix. vi. 4,




NIL tibi legavit Fabius, Bithynice, cui tu

annua, si memini, milia sena dabas. plus nulli dedit ille : queri, Bithynice, noli :

annua legavit milia sena tibi.


CENES, Canthare, cum foris libenter, clamas et maledicis et minaris. deponas animos truces monemus : liber non potes et gulosus esse.


NOMEN cum violis rosisque natum,

quo pars optima nominatur anni,

Hyblam quod sapit Atticosque flores,

quod nidos olet alitis superbae ;

nomen nectare dulcius beato, 5

quo mallet Cybeles puer vocari

et qui pocula temperat Tonanti,

quod si Parrhasia sones in aula,

respondent Veneres Cupidinesque ;

nomen nobile molle delicatum 10

versu dicere non nidi volebam :

sed tu, syllaba contumax, repugnas.

dicunt Eiarinon tamen poetae,

sed Graeci quibus est nihil negatum

et qu os 'Apes "Apes decet sonare : 15

nobis non licet esse tarn disertis

qui Musas colimus severiores.

1 "You now save the sum you spent on him."

2 The honey of Hybla, in Sicily, and of Hymettus respec- tively : cf. V. xxxix. 3 ; vn. Ixxxviii. 8.

7 6

BOOK IX. ix-xi


FABIUS has bequeathed you nothing, Bithynicus, he to whom, if I remember, you used to give six thousand sesterces a year. More he gave to no man ; don't complain, Bithynicus : he has bequeathed you six thousand sesterces a year. 1

ALTHOUGH you gladly dine abroad, Cantharus, you bawl and abuse and threaten people. Discard such truculent spirits, I warn you ; you can't be both independent and a glutton.


A NAME born with the violets and the roses, after which the year's best part is called, that savours of Hybla and Attic flowers, 2 that smells of the nest of the lordly fowl; 3 a name, sweeter than nectar divine, by which Cybele's loved boy 4 and he who blends his draught for the Thunderer, would fain be called ; whereto, shouldst thou sound it in the Palatine hall, Venuses and Cupids make answer ; a name noble, soft, delicate this I wished to Utter in no rugged verse : but you, an obstinate syllable, rebel. 5 Yet poets speak of Eiarinos ; but they were Greeks, to whom nothing is denied, and whom it becomes to sound Ares short as Ares long. 6 We cannot be so versatile, who court Muses more unbending.

3 The phoenix : cf. vi. Iv. 2.

4 Attis : cf. v. xli. 2.

8 The four short syllables in Earinos will not go into M.'s metre.

6 Homer (II. v. 31) uses both quantities in one line : ^Apes, poro\oiyf, fj.tai(f>6ve, Tixe<T(irA^TO.




Si daret autumnus mihi nomen, Oporinos essem, horrida si brumae sidera, Chimerinos ;

dictus ab aestivo Therinos tibi mense vocarer : tempora cui nomen verna dedere, quis est ?

XIII NOMEN habes teneri quod tempora nuncupat anni,

cum breve Cecropiae ver populantur apes : nomen Acidalia meruit quod harundine pingi,

quod Cytherea sua scribere gaudet acu ; nomen Erythraeis quod littera facta lapillis, 5

gemma quod Heliadum pollice trita notet; quod pinna scribente grues ad sidera tollant ;

quod decet in sola Caesaris esse domo.

XIV HUNC quern mensa tibi, quern cena paravit amicum

esse putas fidae pectus amicitiae ? aprum amat et mullos et sumeii et ostrea, non te.

tarn bene si cenem, noster amicus erit.

1 The Greek adjectives expressing autumn, winter, and summer are respectively 'Orr<apiv6s, Xfifatpiv6s, and &tptv6s. " Of spring " is similarly 'Eaptv6s.

1 Acidalia was a name of Venus from a fountain in Boeotia. She was also called Cytherea from Cythera, an island off the coast of Laconia.


BOOK IX. xn-xiv


WERE Autumn to give me my name, Oporinus should I be, or if rough winter's sky, Chimerinos ; named after summer's month, to you I should be called Therinos : who is he to whom spring's season has given his name ? 1


THOU hast a name that bespeaks the season of the budding year, when Attic bees lay waste the brief- lived spring ; a name meet to be writ in colour by Acidalia's 2 pen, which Cytherea joys to embroider with her own needle; a name which letters strung of Indian pearls, which a jewel of the Heliades 3 rubbed by the fingers, should mark; which cranes with wings that write upon the skies 4 should lift to heaven ; which it beseems to be in Caesar's house alone.


THIS man, whom your table, whom your dinner has made your friend think you his heart one of loyal friendship ? 'Tis boar he loves, and mullet, and sow's paps, and oysters, not you. Were I to dine so well, he will be my friend.

8 By amber, into which the tears of the H. for the death of their brother Phaethon were turned. It became fragrant by rubbing : cf. in. Ixv. 5 ; xi. viii. 6.

4 Palamedes was said to have invented the Greek T (the Latin V) by observing the formation of cranes in flight. V begins ver (spring), and represents Earinos : cf. xni. Ixxv.




INSCRIPSIT tumulis septem scelerata virorum "Se fecisse " Chloe. quid pote simplicius ?


CONSILIUM formae speculum dulcisque capillos

Pergameo posuit dona sacrata deo ille puer tota domino gratissimus aula,

nomine qui signat tempora verna suo. felix quae tali censetur munere tellus ! 5

nee Ganymedeas mallet habere comas.


LATONAE venerande nepos, qui mitibus herbis

Parcarum exoras pensa brevesque colos, hos tibi laudatos domino, rata vota, 1 capillos

ille tuus Latia misit ab urbe puer ; addidit et nitidum sacratis crinibus orbem, 5

quo felix facies iudice tuta fuit. tu iuvenale decus serva, ne pulchrior ille

in longa fuerit quam breviore coma.


EST mihi (sitque precor longum te praeside, Caesar) rus minimum, parvi sunt et in urbe lares.

1 sua vota 0, rata voce y.

1 The words are ambiguous. " Chloe fecit " was intended to mean " C. built this tomb." M. suggests "wrought the death of her husbands."


BOOK IX. xv-xvni


ACCURSED Chloe inscribed the monuments of her seven husbands with " Chloe wrought this." What could be plainer ? l


His mirror, beauty's counsellor, and his darling locks gifts dedicated to the god of Pergamus 2 that boy 3 has offered, who, in all the palace most dear to his master, by his name denotes the time of spring. Happy the land whose worth is gauged by such a gift ! It would not choose instead even the tresses of Ganymede.


REVERED grandson of Latona, who with the magic of thy gentle herbs dost win over 4 the threads and brief distaffs of the Fates, these locks ' by his master praised thy 5 boy has sent, his vow's fulfil- ment, from Latium's city ; and to his consecrated hair has he added the bright disk, by whose judg- ment his happy beauty was assured. Do thou pre- serve his youthful bloom, that he be no fairer with long curls than with shortened locks !


1 HAVE-r-and I pray I may have it long, Caesar, beneath thy guardianship a tiny country house, and

2 Aesculapius, the god of healing, who had a temple at Pergamus in Asia Minor.

3 Earinos, Domitian's cupbearer, mentioned in Epp. xi.-xiii.

4 i.e. who dost prolong human life.

5 Perhaps Earinos came from Pergamus.




sed de valle brevi quas det sitientibus hortis

curva laboratas antlia tollit aquas : sicca domus queritur nullo se rore foveri, 5

cum mihi vicino Marcia fonte sonet. quam dederis nostris, Auguste, penatibus undam,

Castalis haec nobis aut lovis imber erit.


LAUDAS balnea versibus trecentis cenantis bene Pontici, Sabelle. vis cenare, Sabelle, non lavari.


HAEC, quae tota patet tegiturque et marmore et auro,

infantis domini conscia terra fuit. felix o, quantis sonuit vagitibus et quas

vidit reptantis sustinuitque manus ! hie steterat veneranda domus quae praestitit orbi 5

quod Rhodos astrifero, quod pia Creta, polo. Curetes texere lovem crepitantibus armis,

semiviri poterant qualia ferre Phryges : at te protexit superum pater et tibi, Caesar,

pro iaculo et parma fulmen et aegis erat. 10

1 The Aqua, Marcia was one of the great aqueducts. According to Strabo (v. 8) almost every house in Rome had water laid on ; see also Hor. Ep. i. x. 20. M.'s was an exception : cf. vin. Ixvii. 7.

  • An epigram on the building of the Flavian Temple on

the site of the house in which Domitian was born : Suet. Dom. i.



I have, too, a small dwelling in the city. But my curved pole and bucket lift with labour from a shallow valley water to bestow on the thirsty garden; the arid house complains that it is freshened by no moisture, though Marcia babbles in my ears with neighbouring fount. 1 The water thou shalt give, Augustus, to my household gods will be to me a spring of Castaly or a shower of Jove.


You extol in infinite verse the baths of Ponticus who gives good dinners, Sabellus. You wish to dine, Sabellus, not to wash !


THIS spot of earth, which now lies wholly open, and is being covered with marble and with gold, knew our lord's infant years. 2 O blessed spot ! With wail ings of how great a babe it echoed, and what hands it saw and upbore as they crept ! Here had stood the house august that made real to the world what Rhodes, what duteous Crete 3 made real to the starry heaven. Cybele's priests guarded Jove with their rattling arms, such arms as Phrygians, but half men, could wield ; 4 but thee the Sire of the gods safeguarded, and for thee, Caesar, thunderbolt and aegis stood for spear and buckler.

3 i.e. the birth of a god. Pallas (Find. 01. vii. 35) was said to have sprung from the head of Zeus at Rhodes. But some commentators think Poseidon is referred to. Zeus or Jupiter was born in Crete.

4 The Curetes (demi-gods) clashed their arms to drown the infant's cries, lest his father Cronos should hear and eat him.


G 2



ARTEMIDORUS habet puerum sed vendidit agrum ;

agrum pro puero Calliodorus habet. die uter ex istis melius rem gesserit, Aucte :

  • " Artemidorus amat, Calliodorus arat.


CREDIS ob haec me, Pastor, opes fortasse rogare

propter quae populus crassaque turba rogat, ut Setina meos consumat gleba ligones

et sonet innumera compede Tuscus ager ; ut Mauri Libycis centum stent dentibus orbes 5

et crepet in nostris aurea lamna toris, nee labris nisi magna meis crystalla terantur

et faciant nigras nostra Falerna nives ; ut canusinatus nostro Syrus assere sudet

et mea sit culto sella cliente frequens ; 10

aestuet ut nostro madidus conviva ministro,

quern permutatum nee Ganymede velis ; ut lutulenta linat Tyrias mihi mula lacernas

et Massy la meum virga gubernet equum. est nihil ex istis : superos ac sidera testor. 15

ergo quid ? ut donem, Pastor, et aedificem.


O cui virgineo flavescere contigit auro, die ubi Palladium sit tibi, Care, decus.

1 Wine was strained through snow : cf. v. Ixiv. 2 ; XIV. cxvii. 2 cf. xiv. cxxvii. and cxxix. 3 cf. x. xiii. 2.

  • Possibly Pastor (like Gellius in rx. xlvi.) made "building"

an excuse for never " giving." Friedlander explains "carry out public works for the general good " ; but this is not in the Latin.


BOOK IX. xxi-xxiu


ARTEMIDORUS possesses a young slave, but has sold liis land ; the land Calliodorus possesses in ex- change for the slave. Say, which of those two made the better bargain, Auctus ? Artemidorus has his pleasure, Calliodorus his plough.


You believe, Pastor, I perhaps ask for riches for the same reasons as the vulgar and the dense-witted crowd ask, in order that Setia's glebe may wear away my hoes, and Tuscan fields clank with countless fet- ' tered slaves ; that a hundred round Moorish tables may stand on Libyan tusks, and golden plating tinkle on my couches ; that none but large crystal cups be rubbed by my lips, and that my Falernian darken the cooling snow; 1 that Syrian slaves in Canusian 2 wool may sweat beneath my litter-pole, and my chair be crowded by full-dressed clients ; that the tipsy guest may be hot for page of mine, whom you would not barter eyen for a Ganymede ; that a mud-bespattered 'mule may soil my Tyrian cloak, and the rod of a Massylian s guide my horse. 'Tis none of those things I call to witness the high gods and heaven ! Then what ? To make presents,

Pastor, and to build. 4


O THOU whose lot has been to gleam with the Virgin's gold, 5 say, Carus, where is the prize Pallas

6 C. had won the golden olive-wreath, the prize for poetry, at the annual contest in honour of Minerva at Domitian's Alban villa : cf. iv. i. 5. This he had transferred to the Emperor's bust.



" Aspicis en domini fulgentes marmore vultus ?

venit ad has ultro nostra corona comas." Albanae livere potest pia quercus olivae, 5

cinxerit invictum quod prior ilia caput.


Quis Palatinos imitatus imagine vultus Phidiacum Latio marmore vicit ebur ?

haec mundi fades, haec sunt lovis ora sereni : sic tonat ille deus cum sine nube tonat.

non solam tribuit Pallas tibi, Care, coronam ; 5

effigiem domini, quam colis, ilia dedit.


DANTEM vina tuum quotiens aspeximus Hyllum,

luinine nos, Afer, turbidiore notas. quod, rogo, quod seel us est mollem spectare minis- trum ?

aspicimus solem sidera templa deos. avertam vultus, tamquam mihi pocula Gorgon 5

porrigat atque oculos oraque nostra petat l ? trux erat Alcides, et Hylan spectare licebat ;

ludere Mercuric cum Ganymede licet, si non vis teneros spectet conviva ministros,

Phineas invites, Afer, et Oedipodas. 10

1 tegam /3, petat. 86

BOOK IX. xxni-xxv

gave thee ? " Seest thou there our master's face bright in marble ? My crown unprompted passed to those locks." The patriot oak 1 may envy Alba's olive for that it first wreathed that unconquered



WHO, portraying in a bust Imperial features, has in Latin marble surpassed Phidian ivory? This is the aspect of a world, this the countenance of Jove in calm : so thundei's that god when he thunders in cloudless skies. Not a crown alone has Pallas granted thee, Carus ; our master's effigy which thou dost worship has she given.


As often as we have glanced at your Hyllus while he is serving wine, 'tis with a somewhat troubled eye you regard us, Afer. What, what offence, I ask you, is it to gaze on a gentle cup-bearer ? We look upon the sun, stars, temples, gods. Am I to turn away my face as if a Gorgon offered me the cup, and were assaulting my eyes and my face ? Fierce was Al- cides, and 'twas allowed to gaze on Hylas : Mercury is allowed to sport along with Ganymede. If you do not wish your guest to gaze on your youthful servants, Afer, you should invite Phineuses and Oedipuses. 2

1 The golden oak -leaf crown, the prize of the quinquennial contest in music, etc., in honour of Jup. Capitolinus : cf. iv. i. 6.

2 Both Phineus and Oedipus were blind.




AUDET facundo qui carmina mittere Nervae,

pallida donabit glaucina, Cosine, tibi, Paestano violas et cana ligustra colono,

Hyblaeis apibus Corsica mella dabit. sed tamen et parvae normulla est gratia Musae ; 5

appetitur posito vilis oliva lupo. nee tibi sit mirum modici quod conscia vatis

iudicium metuit nostra Thalia tuum : ipse tuas etiam veritus Nero dicitur aures,

lascivum iuvenis cum tibi lusit opus. 10


CUM depilates, Chreste, coleos portes

et vulturino mentulam parem collo

et prostitutis levius caput culis,

nee vivat ullus in tuo pilus crure,

purgentque saevae cana labra volsellae, 5

Curios Camillos Quintios Numas Ancos

et quidquid usquam legimus pilosorum

loqueris sonasque grandibus minax verbis,

et cum theatris saeculoque rixaris.

occurrit aliquis inter ista si draucus, 10

iam paedagogo liberatus et cuius

refibulavit turgidum faber penem,

nutu vocatum ducis, et pudet fari

Catoniana, Chreste, quod facis lingua.

1 The future emperor : cf. vni. Ixx.

2 The celebrated perfumer : cf. in. Iv. 1. Glaucina seems to have been an unguent made from the plant ylaucium (? celandine).

3 i.e. will send things and inferior things where they are not wanted. Corsican honey was bitter from the abundance of yews in the island : cf. Verg. Eel. ix. 30.


BOOK IX. xxvi-xxvn


HE who ventures to send poetry to eloquent Nerva l will present you, Cosmus, 2 with pale glaucine unguent, will give to a Paestan gardener violets and white privets, to bees of Hybla Corsican honey. 3 Yet even a humble Muse possesses some charm ; a cheap olive gives relish to a bass upon the board. And do not wonder that, conscious of the slender powers of her bard, my Thalia shrinks from your judgment ; even Nero himself 4 is said to have feared your critic ears when in youth he lightly touched for you some wanton theme.


ALTHOUGH you carry about one part of your person, Chrestus, plucked of hair, and another matching a vulture's neck, and a head smoother than prosti- tuted - , and not a single bristle sprouts on your shanks, and pitiless pluckings clear your bloodless lips, you prate of Curii, Camilli, Quinctii, Numas, Ancuses, and of all the bristly philosophers we read of anywhere, 5 and you vociferate in loud and threatening words, and quarrel with the theatres and the age. But if, in the midst of that pother of yours, there meet you, now freed from his pedagogue, some sodomite di cui turgido membro abbia il fabro sfibbiato, tu lo conduci chiamatocon un segno ; e mi vergogno dire, O Chresto, cio che fai colla tua lingua da Catone.

4 Who made verses easily : Suet. Ner. lii.

5 M. constantly reviles the hypocrisy of dissolute scoun- drels assuming the guise of philosophers : cf. i. xxiv. ; ix. xlviii. ; and Juv. ii. 3 seqq.

. 89



DULCE decus scaenae, ludorum fama, Latinus

ille ego sum, plausus deliciaeque tuae, qui spectatorem potui fecisse Catonem,

solvere qui Curios Fabriciosque graves, sed nihil a nostro sumpsit mea vita theatro 5

et sola tantum scaenicus arte feror : nee poteram gratus domino sine moribus esse :

interius mentes inspicit ille deus. vos me laurigeri parasitum dicite Phoebi,

Roma sui famulum dum sciat esse lovis. 10


SAECULA Nestoreae permensa, Philaeni, senectae

rapta es ad infernas tarn cito Ditis aquas ? Euboicae nondum numerabas longa Sibyllae

tempora : maior erat mensibus ilia tribus. heu quae lingua silet ! non illam mille catastae 5

vincebant, nee quae turba Sarapin amat, nee matutini cirrata caterva magistri,

nee quae Strymonio de grege ripa sonat. quae nunc Thessalico lunam deducere rhombo,

quae sciet hos illos vendere lena toros? 10

1 A celebrated mime or comic actor : cf. n. Ixxii. 3. He wa* also a delator, or informer.

  • Ben Jonson has evidently copied these lines in his tribute

to Shakespeare, " Th' applause, delight, the wonder of our stage." 3 cf. i. Intr. Epist.

  • My art is that of a mime, not my morals.

8 There appears to have been a fellowship of mimi (comic actors), called the "Parasites of Phoebus." At any rate mimi were so called : cf. Grub. Corp. Inscr. cccxxix. and cccxxx.


BOOK IX. xxvui-xxix


THE darling pride of the stage, the glory of the games, that Latinus l am I, the favourite of your applause, 2 who could have made a spectator of Cato, 3 who could have dissolved in laughter the stern Curii and Fabricii. But nought from Rome's theatre did my life assume ; and only through my art am I accounted of the stage ; * nor could I have been dear to my master had I not character : that God looks into the heart within. Call me, if ye will, the parasite of laurelled Phoebus, 5 so Rome but know that I am the servant of her Jove. 6


PHILAENIS, who hast measured to the full the ages of Nestor's long life, hast thou been hurried so swiftly to the nether waters of Dis ? Not as yet wert thou reckoning the long years of Euboea's Sibyl : 7 older by three months was she. Alas, what a tongue is silent ! That tongue not a thousand slave-marts used to drown, nor the throng that worships Serapis, nor the curly-headed troop of the schoolmaster at morn, nor the river bank that echoes to Strymon's flock of cranes. Who now will be cunning with Thessalian wheel to draw earthward the moon, 8 what bawd to sell this or that marriage bed*? May upon thee

8 The emperor.

7 The Sibyl of Cumae in Campania, a colony from Chalcis in Euboea. Sibyls were women inspired with prophetic power. The Cumaean Sibyl. was said to have been 700 years old when Aeneas landed, centuries before Martial.

8 Witches were supposed to have this power : cf. xu. Ivii. 17.



sit tibi terra levis mollique tegaris harena, ne tua non possint eruere ossa canes.


CAPPADOCUM saevis Antistius occidit oris Rusticus. o tristi crimine terra nocens !

rettulit ossa sinu cari Nigrina mariti et questa est longas non satis esse vias ;

cumque daret sanctam turaulis, quibus invidet, urnam, visa sibi est rapto bis viduata viro. 6


CUM comes Arctois haereret Caesaris armis

Velius, hanc Marti pro duce vovit avem. luna quater binos non tota peregerat orbes,

debita poscebat iam sibi vota deus : ipse suas anser properavit laetus ad aras 5

et cecidit sanctis hostia parva focis. octo vides patulo pendere nomismata rostro

alitis ? haec extis condita nuper erant. quae litat argento pro te, non sanguine, Caesar,

victima iam ferro non opus esse docet. 10


HANC volo quae facilis, quae palliolata vagatur, hanc volo quae puero iam dedit ante meo,

1 The last two lines are found in a Greek epigram (Anth. Pal. xi. 226) by Ammianus, a contemporary of M. . * Velius Paullus, who went with Domitian to the Sarma- tian war.

9 2

BOOK IX. xxix-xxxn

earth be light, and thou be covered with crumbling sand, that thy bones dogs may not be unable to root up ! x


ANTISTIUS RUSTICUS has died on Cappadocia's cruel shores : O land guilty of a dolorous crime ! Nigrina brought back in her bosom her dear husband's bones, and sighed that the way was all too short ; and when to the tomb she envies she was giving that sacred urn, she deemed herself twice widowed of her ravished spouse.


VELius, 2 what time he looked to join Caesar's Arctic war, for his general's sake vowed this bird to Mars. 3 The moon had not rounded full her orb twice four times over 4 when the god was claiming the vow already due. Of its own accord 5 the goose gladly hasted to the altar, and fell, a humble victim, on the sacred hearth. See you eight coins hang- ing from the fowl's open beak ? These were but now hid in its entrails. The victim, Caesar, that for thee gives fair omens with silver, not with blood, teaches us there is now no need for steel.


HER I wish for who is willing, who gads about in a mantilla, her I wish for who has already granted

8 A goose was representative of the safety of Rome.

4 The Sarmatian war did not last eight months.

5 It was a good omen when the victim went willingly to the sacrifice.



hanc volo quam redimit totam denarius alter, hanc volo quae pariter sufficit una tribus.

poscentem nummos et grandia verba sonantem 5 possideat crassae mentula Burdigalae.


AUDIERIS in quo, Flacce, balneo plausum, Maronis illic esse mentulam scito.


IUPPITER Idaei risit mendacia busti,

dum videt August! Flavia templa poli, atque inter mensas largo iam nectare fusus,

pocula cum Marti traderet ipse suo, respiciens Phoebum pariter Phoebique sororem, 5

cum quibus Alcides et pius Areas erat, " Gnosia vos" inquit "nobis monumenta dedistis :

cernite quam plus sit Caesaris esse patrem."


ARTIBUS his semper cenam, Philomuse, mereris, plurima dum fingis, sed quasi vera refers.

scis quid in Arsacia Pacorus deliberet aula, Rhenanam numeras Sarmaticamque manum,

1 Such women were called diobolarea (worth two obols) : Plaut. Poen. i. ii. 58 ; and associated with slaves. Plant. (ibid. 53) thus calls them servilicolas sordidas.


BOOK IX. xxxn-xxxv

her favours to my slave ; her I wish for whom a second sixpence purchases altogether ; l her I wish for whose single self suffices three lovers at once. One who demands moneys, and who talks in a big style, the stupid Gascon may possess.


IN whatever bath, Flaccus, you hear sounds re- sembling applause, know that there Maron's yard is to be found.


JUPITER laughed at the lying tale of his tomb on Ida as he looked on the Flavian temple of the Augustan heaven ; 2 and amid the feast when now full steeped in nectar, as with his own hand he passed to Mars his son the beaker, looking back to Phoebus and Phoebus' sister side by side, with whom were Alcides and the leal Arcadian god, 3 he said: " Ye have given me a monument at Gnossos : ye see how much more it is to be Caesar's sire ! "


BY such arts as these, Philomusus, you always earn your dinner : you invent much and retail it as truth. You know what counsel Pacorus 4 takes in his Arsacian palace ; you estimate the Rhenish

  • cf. ix. iii. 12.

3 Hercules and Mercury respectively.

4 King of Parthia, Rome's great rival in the East.



verba ducis Daci chartis mandata resignas, 5

victricem laurum quam venit ante vides, scis quotiens Phario madeat love fusca Syene,

scis quota de Libyco litore puppis eat, cuius luleae capiti nascantur olivae,

destinet aetherius cui sua serta pater. 10

tolle tuas artes ; hodie cenabis apud me

hac lege, ut narres nil, Philomuse, novi.


VIDERAT Ausonium posito- modo crine ministrum

Phryx puer, alterius gaudia nota lovis : " Quod tuus ecce suo Caesar permisit ephebo

tu permitte tuo, maxime rector" ait. "iam mihi prima latet longis lanugo capillis, p

iam tua me ridet luno vocatque virum." cui pater aetherius " Puer o dulcissime," dixit

" non ego quod poscis, res negat ipsa tibi : Caesar habet noster similis tibi mille ministros

tantaque sidereos vix capit aula mares; 10

at tibi si dederit vultus coma tonsa viriles,

quis mihi qui. nectar misceat alter erit? "


CUM sis ipsa domi mediaque ornere Subura, fiant absentes et tibi, Galla, comae,

1 i.e. you know whether corn, which comes from Egypt and Libya, is likely to be plentiful.

2 cf. ix. xxiii. 1. 3 r/. ix. xxiii. 5.


BOOK IX. xxxv-xxxvn

and Sarmatiaii armies ; the orders of Dacia's com- mander, committed to despatches, you unseal ; vic- tory's laurel ere it arrives you see ; you know how often dusky Syene is drenched by Egypt's showers ; you know how many ships set sail from Libya's shore ; l for whose brow are growing Julian olives, 2 for whom Heaven's father designs his chaplets. 3 A truce to your arts ! To-day you shall dine at my house on this condition, Philomusus, that you tell me no news ! 4


THE Phrygian boy, 5 famed darling of the other Jove, had seen Ausonia's cupbearer 6 with locks lately shorn, and said : " What thy Caesar, behold, has allowed his young attendant, that do thou, al- mighty ruler, allow thy own. Already early down lies hid by my long hair, already thy Juno laughs at me and calls me man." To whom Heaven's sire : "O sweetest boy," he said, "'tis not I refuse thy asking : 'tis very need refuses thee. My Caesar hath a thousand servants like to thee, and his hall, mighty as it is, scarce holds his youths divinely fair. But if shorn hair shall give thee face of man, what other shall there be to mix nectar for me ? "


ALTHOUGH, yourself at home, you are arrayed in the middle of the Subura, and your tresses, Galla,

4 cf. a similar description of a woman in Juv. vi. 398-412.

5 Ganymede.

6 Earinos : cf. ix. xi. to xiii. ; and, as to the cutting of the hair, ix. xvi. and xvii.



nee denies aliter quam Serica nocte reponas,

et iaceas centum condita pyxidibus, nee tecum facies tua dormiat, innuis illo 5

quod tibi prolatum est mane supercilio, et te nulla movet cani reverentia cunni,

quem potes inter avos iam numerare tuos. promittis sescenta tamen ; sed mentula surda est,

et sit lusca licet, te tamen ilia videt. 10


SUMMA licet velox, Agathine, pericula Indus,

non tamen efficies ut tibi parma cadat. nolentem sequitur tenuisque reversa per auras

vel pede vel tergo, crine vel ungue sedet ; lubrica Corycio quamvis sint pulpita ninibo 5

et rapiant celeres vela negata Noti, secures pueri neglecta perambulat artus,

et nocet artifici ventus et unda nihil. ut peccare velis, cum feceris omnia, falli

non potes: arte opus est ut tibi parma cadat. 10


PRIMA Palatine lux est haec orta TonantL optasset Cybele qua peperrsse lovem ;

hac et sancta mei genita est Caesonia Rufi : plus debet matri nulla puella suae.

1 An epigram on a juggler tossing a shield. A mistake, says M., is impossible, unless intended.


BOOK IX. xxxvn-xxxix

are manufactured far away, and you lay aside your teeth at night, just as you do your silk dresses, and you lie stored away in a hundred caskets, and your face does not sleep with you yet you wink with that eyebrow which has been brought out for you in the morning, and no respect moves you for your outworn carcass which you may now count as one of your ancestors. Nevertheless you offer me an infinity of delights. But Nature is deaf, and although she may be one-eyed, she sees you anyhow.


ALTHOUGH, Agathinus, you deftly play a game of highest risk, yet you will not achieve the falling of your buckler. 1 Though you avoid it, it follows you, and, returning through the yielding air, settles on foot or back, on hair or finger-tip. However slippery is the stage with a Corycian saffron-shower, and although rushing winds tear at the awning that cannot be spread, the buckler, though disregarded, pervades the boy's careless limbs, and wind and shower baffle the artist no whit. Although you try to miss, do what you will, you cannot be foiled : art is needed to make your buckler fall.


THIS day was the first that dawned upon the Thunderer of the Palatine, 2 a day whereon Cybele would have chosen to bring forth Jove ; on this day, too, was born Caesonia, my Rufus' 3 wife revered : no maid owes to her mother more than she. Her

2 Domitiaii, born Oct. 24.

3 Canius Rufus, the poet of Gades : cf. i. Ixi. 9 ; in. xx.

99 H 2


laetatur gemina votorum sorte maritus, 5

contigit hunc illi quod bis amare diem.


TARPEIAS Diodorus ad coronas

Romam cum peteret Pharo relicta,

vovit pro reditu viri Philaenis

illam lingeret, ut puella simplex,

quam castae quoque diligunt Sabinae. 5

dispersa rate tristibus procellis

mersus fluctibus obrutusque ponto

ad votum Diodorus enatavit.

o tardus nimis et piger maritus !

hoc in litore si puella votum 10

fecisset mea, protinus redissem.


PONTICE, quod numquam futuis, sed paelice laeva

uteris et Veneri servit arnica manus, hoc nihil esse putas ? scelus est, mihi crede, sed ingens,

quantum vix animo concipis ipse tuo. nempe semel futuit, generaret Horatius ut tres ; 5

Mars semel, ut geminos Ilia casta daret. omnia perdiderat si masturbatus uterque

mandasset manibus gaudia foeda suis. ipsam crede tibi naturam dicere rerum

"Istud quod digitis, Pontice, perdis, homo est." 10



spouse rejoices in a twofold granting of prayer : this day it has fallen to him to cherish with a double love.


WHEN Diodorus, leaving Egypt, was travelling to Rome to receive the Tarpeian crown, 1 Philaenis made a vow for the return of her husband that, as an innocent girl, she would put her lips to what 2 even chaste Sabine women love. His ship shattered by grim tempests, though plunged in the waves, and o'erwhelmed by the deep, Diodorus, to claim the vow, swam safe to land. Oh, what a very tardy and sluggish husband ! If girl of mine had made this vow on the shore, I should have returned at once ! 3


O PONTICO, il perche tu mai immembri, ma usi 1'adultera tua sinistra, e 1'amica mano serve a Ve- nere, pensi tu che ci6 sia niente ? E una scele- ragine, credimi, ma si grande e tale, che appena tu stesso la concepisci nell'animo tuo. In fatti Orazio immembr6 una volta sola perche generasse tre fig- liuoli ; Marte una volta perche la casta Ilia dasse i gemelli. L'uno e 1'altro avrebbe distrutto ogni cosa se quel masturbatore avesse abbandonato i sozzi piaceri alle sue mani. Credi che la natura stessa delle cose ti dice : " ci6 che, O Pontico, distruggi colle dita e un uomo."

1 cf. ix. xxiii. 5. 2 i.e. mentulam.

3 Without embarking from Egypt at all.




CAMPIS dives Apollo sic Myrinis,

sic semper senibus fruare cycnis,

doctae sic tibi serviant sorores

nee Delphis tua mentiatur ulli,

sic Palatia te colant amentque : 5

bis senos cito te rogante fasces

det Stellae bonus adnuatque Caesar.

felix tune ego debitorque voti

casurum tibi rusticas ad aras

ducam cornibus aureis iuvencum. 10

iiata est hostia, Phoebe ; quid moraris ?


Hie qui dura sedens porrecto saxa leone

mitigat, exiguo magnus in acre deus, quaeque tulit spectat resupino sidera vultu,

cuius laeva calet robore, dextra mero, non est fama recens nee nostri gloria caeli ; 5

nobile Lysippi munus opusque vides. hoc habuit numen Pellaei mensa tyranni,

qui cito perdomito victor in orbe iacet ; hunc puer ad Libycas iuraverat Hannibal aras ;

iusserat hie Sullam ponere regna trucem. 10

offensus variae tumidis terroribus aulae

privates gaudet nunc habitare lares,

1 A town in Mysia, in Asia Minor. In the neighbourhood was Grynium with a temple of Apollo.

2 i.e. in vocal swans. Swans were supposed to sing just before death : cf. xm. Ixxvii. 3 The Muses.

4 The insignia of the consul : cf. viu. Ixvi. 3.

5 Hercules for a time took the place of Atlas in upholding the sky : cf. vn. Ixxiv. 6.




So mayst thou, Apollo, be rich in plains of My- rina, 1 so mayst thou alway delight in hoary swans, 2 so may thy learned Sisters 3 serve thee, and thy Delphic priestess speak not falsely to any man ; so may the Palace court and love thee, if, at thy asking, our kindly Caesar's nod give quickly to Stella the twice six axes. 4 Then I, happy, and a debtor for my vow, will bring thee a victim to thy rustic altar, a steer with gold-gilt horns. The offering is born, Phoebus : why dost thou delay ?


HE who seated makes softer the hard stones by a stretched lion's skin, a huge god in small shape of bronze, and who, with face upturned, regards the stars he shouldered, 5 whose left hand is aglow with strength, his right with wine 6 no recent work of fame is he, nor the glory of Roman chisel : Lysip- pus' noble gift and handiwork you see." This deity the board of Pella's tyrant displayed, he who lies in a world he swiftly subdued ; 8 by him Hannibal, then a boy, swore at Libyan altars ; 9 he bade fierce Sulla resign his power. Vexed by the boastful threats of fickle courts, he is glad now to dwell beneath a

6 He has a club in one hand, a wine-cup in the other.

7 This and the following epigram are on a statue by Lysip- pus, a contemporary of Alexander the Great, of Hercules reclining at the banquet of the gods (epitrnpezius). Statins (Sylv. iv. vi. ) has a poem on the same subject.

8 Alexander the Great.

9 H. when a boy swore undying hatred to Rome.



utque fuit quondam placidi conviva Molorchi, sic voluit docti Vindicis esse deus.


ALCIDES modo Vindiceni rogabam

esset cuius opus laborque felix.

risit, nam solet hoc, levique nutu

" Graece numquid " ait " poeta nescis ?

inscripta est basis indicatque nomen." 5

AwriWov lego, Phidiae putavi.


MILES Hyperboreos modo, Marcelline, triones

et Getici tuleras sidera pigra poli : ecce Promethei rupes et fabula montis

quam prope sunt oculis nunc adeunda tuis ! videris inmensis cum conclamata querellis 5

saxa senis, dices " Durior ipse fuit." et licet haec addas : " Potuit qui talia ferre,

humanum merito finxerat ille genus."


GELLIUS aedificat semper : modo limina ponit, nunc foribus claves aptat emitque seras,

nunc has, nunc illas reficit mutatque fenestras : dum tantum aedificet, quidlibet ille facit,

oranti nummos ut dicere possit amico 5

unum illud verbum Gellius " Aedifico."

1 The shepherd who entertained him unawares : cf. iv. Ixiv. 30.

2 Prometheus, according to myth, moulded man out of qlay (cf. x. xxxix. 4), giving them the qualities of various



private roof; and, as he was of old the guest of gentle Molorchus, 1 so has he now chosen to be the god of learned Vindex.


I ASKED Vindex lately whose art and happy toil fashioned Alcides. He laughed for this is his way and slightly nodding, said: "Don't you, a poet, know your Greek ? The base has an inscription and shows the name." I read "of Lysippus " : I thought it was of Phidias !


A SOLDIER, Marcellinus, you had endured of late the cold of the Northern Wain, and the slow-circling stars of Getic skies : behold, how near the compass of your eyes are now Prometheus' crag, and the fabled mount ! When you shall have seen the rocks that echoed of old with his groans, you will say, " He himself was harder still." And this you may add : " He who could endure such things was fit to mould the race of man." 2


GELLIUS is always building : now he lays down thresholds, now he fits keys to doors and buys bolts, now these, now those windows he repairs and alters ; provided only he be building, 3 Gellius does anything whatever, that to a friend who asks for money he may be able to say that one word : "Building."

animals : cf. Hor. Od. i. xvi. 13. Credulity in later times saw in stones at Panope in Phocis (still smelling of human flesh !) the remnants of P. clay : Paus. x. iv. 3.

3 Friedlander punctuates "fenestras, , . . aedificet. Quid- tibf.t . . . facit"



DEMOCRITOS, Zenonas inexplicitosque Platonas

quidquid et hirsutis squalet imaginibus, sic quasi Pythagorae loqueris successor et heres ;

praependet sane nee tibi barba minor : sed, quod et hircosis serum est et turpe pilosis, - 5

in molli rigidam clune libenter habes. tu, qui sectarum causas et pondera nosti,

die mihi, percidi, Pannyche, dogma quod est ?


HEREDEM cum me partis tibi, Garrice, quartae

per tua iurares sacra caputque tuum, credidimus (quis enim damnet sua vota libenter?)

et spem muneribus fovimus usque datis ; inter quae rari Laurentem ponderis aprum 5

misimus : Aetola de Calydone putes. at tu continue populumque patresque vocasti ;

ructat adhuc aprum pallida l Roma meum : ipse ego (quis credat ?) conviva nee ultimus haesi,

sed nee costa data est caudave missa mihi. 10

de quadrante tuo quid sperem, Garrice ? nulla

de nostro nobis uncia venit apro.


HAEC est ilia meis multum cantata libellis, quam meus edidicit lector amatque togam.

1 pallida Dousa, callida codd. 106



OF Democrituses, Zenos, and enigmatic Platos, and of every philosopher shown, dirty and hirsute, on a bust, you prate as if you were successor and heir of Pythagoras ; and before your chin hangs a beard cer- tainly no less than theirs. Ma cid che tardi si senti agli ircosi, e turpemente ai pelosi, tu volontieri lo comporti rigido nelle effeminate coscie. You, who know the origins of the schools and their argu- ments, tell me this : what dogma, Pannychus, is it to be a pathic ?


SEEING that you swore, Garricus, by your sacred rites and by your head, that I was heir to a quarter of your estate, I believed you for who would willingly damn his own wishes ? and I kept warm my hope by continual presents, among which I sent you a Laurentian boar of unusual weight : you would imagine it came from Aetolian Calydon. 1 But you at once invited both people and Senate ; a bilious Rome is still belching my boar. I myself who could believe it ? was not added even as your last guest, aye, and not even a rib was given me or tail sent me. Concerning that quarter-estate of yours, what should I expect, Garricus ? Not a twelfth of my own boar came to me !


THIS is that toga much sung of in my poems, which my reader has heard of to the full, and loves. 2

1 i.e. it was as huge as the boar slain by Meleager : cf. vn. xxvii. 2. 2 cf. vin. xxviii.



Partheniana fuit quondam, memorabile vatis

munus : in hac ibam conspiciendus eques, dum nova, dum nitida fulgebat splendida lana, 5

dumque erat auctoris nomine digna sui : nunc anus et tremulo vix accipienda tribuli,

quam possis niveam dicere iure tuo. quid non longa dies, quid non consumitis anni ?

haec toga iam non est Partheniana, mea est. 10

INGENIUM mihi, Gaure, probas sic esse pusillum, carmina quod faciam quae brevitate placent.

confiteor. sed tu bis senis grandia libris qui scribis Priami proelia, magnus homo es ?

nos facimus Bruti puerum, nos Langona vivum : 5 tu magnus luteum, Gaure, Giganta facis.


QUOD semper superos invito fratre rogasti,

hoc, Lucane, tibi contigit, ante mori. invidet ille tibi ; Stygias nam Tullus ad umbras

optabat, quamvis sit minor, ire prior, tu colis Elysios nemorisque habitator amoeni 5

esse tuo primum nunc sine fratre cupis ; et si iam nitidis alternus venit ab astris

pro Polluce, mones Castora ne redeat.

1 Parthenius (himself a poet : cf. XI. i.) was Domitian's secretary, his name being derived from -xapBtvos (virgin), on which M. plays. The cloak was once young and unspotted : now it is old.

2 i.e. threadbare, and therefore chill : cf. iv. xxxiv. 2.

3 It befits my poverty.

1 08

BOOK IX. xLix-i.i

Parthenian was it once, a bard's memorable gift: 1 in this I went conspicuous as a knight, while it was new, while it brightly shone with glossy wool, and while it was worthy of its giver's name. Now it is an old crone, and one scarcely to be accepted by a dodder- ing pauper, which you may without contradiction call "snowy." 2 What does not length of days, what do ye not consume, ye years ? This toga is no longer Parthenian : it is mine. 3

You prove to me, Gaurus, that my genius is in this way a puny one, because I make poems that please by their brevity. I confess it. But you, who in twice six books write of Priam's wars in grand style, are you a great man ? I make Brutus' boy, 4 I make Langon live : you, great man as you are, Gaurus, make a giant of clay.


WHAT thou didst alway crave of the High Gods, though thy brother said nay, this has fallen to thee, Lucanus the earlier death. He envies thee ; for Tullus longed, though younger than thou, to go before thee to the Stygian shades. Thou dwellest in Elysian fields, and, denizen of that pleasant grove, now for the first time desirest to be without thy brother ; and, if Castor 5 has now come alternate from the lustrous stars in Pollux' stead, thou dost counsel him not to return again. 6

4 A statuette admired by Brutus, the assassin of Caesar : cf. II. Ixxvii. 4. Of Langon nothing is known.

6 cf. I. xxxvi. 2.

6 Another punctuation is a comma after astri* and none after Polluce. Alternus would then refer to Pollux, and not Castor.




Si credis mihi, Quinte, quod mereris,

natalis, Ovidi, tuas Aprilis

ut nostras amo Martias Kalendas.

felix utraque lux diesque nobis

signandi melioribus lapillis ! 5

hie vitam tribuit sed hie amicum.

plus dant, Quinte, mihi tuae Kalendae.


NATALI tibi, Quinte, tuo dare parva volebam munera; tu prohibes : .inperiosus homo es.

parendum est monitis, fiat quod uterque volemus et quod utrumque iuvat : tu mihi, Quinte, dato.


Si mihi Picena turdus palleret oliva,

tenderet aut nostras silva Sabina plagas, aut crescente levis traheretur harundine praeda,

pinguis et iriplicitas virga teneret avis, Care, daret sollemne tibi cognatio munus 5

nee frater nobis nee prior esset avus. nunc sturnos inopes fringillorumque querellas

audit et arguto passere veriiat ager ; inde salutatus picae respondet arator,

hinc prope summa rapax milvus ad astra volat. 10

1 M.'s friend and neighbour at Nomentum : cf. vu. xciii. He addresses to him vu. xliv. and xlv., and the following epigram.

2 A cane smeared with birdlime, which could be elongated like a fishing-rod : cf. xiv. ccxviii.




IF you believe me, Quintus Ovidius, 1 the kalends of your natal April I love 'tis your desert as much as my own of March. Happy is either morn ! and days are they to be marked by us with fairer stones. One gave me life, but the other a friend. Your kalends, Quintus, give me the more.


ON your birthday, Quintus, I was wishing to give you a small present ; you forbid me ; you are an imperious person ! I must obey your monition. Let be done what both of us wish, and what pleases both. Do you, Quintus, make me a present !


IF fieldfares were fattened for me on Picenian olives, or Sabine woodland saw my gins stretched out, or a fluttering prey were drawn down by the lengthening reed, 2 and a limed rod held fast the entangled birds, Carus, my kinship 3 would give you the customary offering, and neither brother nor grandsire would come before you. As it is, my fields listen only to useless starlings and the plaint of chaffinches, and are vernal with the shrill sparrow ; on that side the ploughman answers the magpie's call ; on this, hard by, the ravening kite towers to

3 On Feb. 22 was held the festival of the Caristia, when relations met and interchanged presents and arranged differ- ences. It was a kind of family love-feast: cf. Ov. Fast. ii. 617 ; Val. Max. n. i. 8.



mittimus ergo tibi parvae munuscula chortis, qualia si recipis, saepe propinquus eris.


LUCE propinquorum, qua plurima mittitur ales,

dum Stellae turdos, dum tibi, Flacce, paro, succurrit nobis ingens onerosaque turba,

in qua se primum quisque meumque putat. demeruisse duos votum est ; offendere plures 5

vix tutum ; multis mittere dona grave est. qua possum sola veniam ratione merebor :

nee Stellae turdos nee tibi, Flacce, dabo.


SPENDOPHOROS Libycas domini petit armiger urbis :

quae puero dones tela, Cupido, para, ilia quibus iuvenes figis mollesque puellas :

sit tamen in tenera levis et hasta manu. loricam clipeumque tibi galeamque remitto ; 5

tutus ut invadat proelia, nudus eat : non iaculo, non ense fuit laesusve sagitta,

casside dum liber Parthenopaeus erat. quisquis ab hoc fuerit fixus morietur amore.

felix, si quern tarn bona fata manent ! 1 dum puer es, redeas, dum vultu lubricus, et te

non Libye faciat, sed tua Roma virum.

1 See note to preceding epigram.

- Stella, the poet mentioned in I. vii. and other epigrams, and (perhaps) Valerius Flaccus, the author of the epic poem, the Argonautica.



the lofty stars. So I send you the small tributes of my scanty poultry-yard ; if you accept such things, you shall often be my kinsman.


ON Kinsmen's Day, 1 when many a fowl is de- spatched, while I was preparing to send fieldfares to Stella, while also to you, Flaccus, 2 there came to my mind a big and burdensome crowd, of which each one thinks himself the chief, and my particular friend. To oblige two is my wish ; to offend more is hardly safe ; to despatch gifts to many is a heavy charge. In the only way I can I will earn their pardon : neither to Stella, nor to you, Flaccus, will I give fieldfares.


SPENDOPHORUS goes, his master's armour-bearer, to Libyan cities : get ready the shafts, Cupid, to give the boy those wherewith thou dost pierce youths and soft girls ; yet in his tender hand let there be a smooth spear too. Cuirass and shield and helm I leave to thee ; that he may plunge amid the war unscathed let him go bare ; by no javelin, by no sjrtord or arrow was Parthenopaeus 3 hurt when he was not disguised by a casque. Whoever shall be pierced by this boy shall perish of love oh, happy he, over whoever so fair a fate impends ! While thou art boy, return, while thy face is perilously bright ; 4 and thee let not Libya, but thy Rome, make man !

3 A young and handsome Greek warrior, one of the " Seven against Thebes " : cf. \i. Ixxvii. 2 ; x. iv. 3.

4 A reminiscence of Hor. Od. i. xix. 8 : et mdtun nimium lubriciis aspici.



NIL est tritius Hedyli lacernis :

non ansae veterum Corinthiorum,

nee crus compede lubricum decenni,

nee ruptae recutita colla mulae,

nee quae Flaminiani secant salebrae, 5

nee qui litoribus nitent lapilli,

nee Tusca ligo vinea politus,

nee pallens toga mortui tribulis,

nee pigri rota quassa mulionis,

nee rasum cavea latus visontis, 10

nee dens iam senior ferocis apri.

res una est tamen (ipse non negabit)

culus tritior Hedyli lacernis.


NYMPHA sacri regina lacus, cui grata Sabinus

et mansura pio munere templa dedit, sic montana tuos semper colat Umbria foutes

nee tua Baianas Sassina inalit aquas, excipe sollicitos placide, mea dona, libellos ; 5

tu fueris Musis Pegasis unda meis. " Nympharum templis quisquis sua carmina donat,

quid fieri libris debeat, ipse docet." ^


IN Saeptis Mamurra diu multumque vagatus, hie ubi Roma suas aurea vexat opes,

1 The slower the progress, the greater would be the friction of the wheel, and its polish.

2 Caesius Sabinus, of Sassina, in Umbria, to whom M. presented his seventh book : cf. vu. xcvii. In ix. Ix. he sends him a wreath of roses.




NOTHING is worn smoother than Hedylus' mantles: not the handles of antique Corinthian vases, nor a shank polished by a ten-years-worn fetter, nor the scarred neck of a broken-winded mule, nor the ruts that intersect the Flaminian Way, nor the pebbles that shine on the sea beach, nor a hoe polished by a Tuscan vineyard, nor the shiny toga of a defunct pauper, nor the ramshackle wheel of a lazy l carrier, nor a bison's flank scraped by its cage, nor the tusk, now aged, of a fierce boar. Yet there is one thing he himself will not deny it : Hedylus' rump is worn smoother than his mantle.


NYMPH, Queen of the sacred mere, to whom Sa- binus 2 by pious gift has given a temple, welcome to thee and destined to endure so may hilly Umbria ever honour thy fount, and thy Sassina prize not more the waters of Baiae receive with placid brow my gift, these anxious 3 verses ; then shalt thou be to my Muse her spring of Pegasus. 4 " Whoever gives his poems to temples of the Nymphs, himself declares wjiat should be done with his books. 5 .


MAMURRA, long and often wandering in the Saepta, here where Golden Rome flings about her wealth,

3 i.e. as to its reception by the Nymph, or by Sabinus.

  • Hippocrene, the fountain of the Muses, created by the

stroke of the hoof of Pegasus.

6 i.e. to be thrown into the water. The supposed reply of the Nymph. For the same idea, cf. i. v. ; in. c. 4 ; iv. x. 6.

i 2


inspexit molles pueros oculisque comedit,

non hos quos primae prostituere casae, sed quos arcanae servant tabulata catastae 5

et quos non populus nee mea turba videt. inde satur mensas et opertos exuit orbes

expositumque alte pingue poposcit ebur, et testudineum mensus quater hexaclinon

ingemuit citro non satis esse suo. 10

consuluit nares an olerent aera Corinthon,

culpavit statuas et, Polyclite, tuas, et, turbata brevi questus crystallina vitro,

murrina signavit seposuitque decem. expendit veteres calathos et si qua fuerunt 15

pocula Mentorea nobilitata manu, et viridis picto gemmas numeravit in auro,

quidquid et a nivea grandius aure sonat. sardonychas veros mensa quaesivit in omni

et pretium magnis fecit iaspidibus. 20

undecima lassus cum iam discederet hora,

asse duos calices emit et ipse tulit.


SEU tu Paestanis genita es seu Tiburis arvis, seu rubuit tellus Tuscula flore tuo,

seu Praenestino te vilica legit in horto, seu modo Campani gloria ruris eras,

1 cf. ii. xliii. 9.

2 Connoisseurs professed to detect an odour in genuine Corinthian bronze : Petr. 50.

3 Of Sicyon, a celebrated sculptor of the fifth century B.C.



inspected and devoured with his eyes dainty boys, not those the outer stalls made public, but those who are guarded by the platforms of a secret stand, and whom the people do not see, nor the crowd of such as I. Then, sated with the view, he had tables and round covered table-tops 1 laid bare, and must needs have their high-hung glistening ivory supports brought down; and, after four measurements of a tortoise-shell couch for six, he said with a sigh that it was too small for his citrus-wood table. He took counsel of his nose whether the bronzes smelt of Corinth, 2 and condemned even your statuary, Polyclitus ; 3 and, complaining that the crystal vases were disfigured by a small piece of glass, he put his seal on ten murrine 4 articles, and set them aside. He weighed antique tankards, and any cups made precious by Mentor's 5 handiwork, and counted the emeralds set in chased gold, and every larger pearl that tinkles from *a snow-white ear. Genuine sardonyxes he looked for on every table, and offered a price for some big jaspers. When at the eleventh hour, fagged out, he was at last departing, for a penny he bought two cups and bore them off himself ! 6


WHETHER thou wert born in fields of Paestum or of Tibur, or the soil of Tusculum blushed with thy flower ; or a farmer's wife culled thee in a garden at Praeneste, or thou wert erewhile the glory of

4 Perhaps porcelain : cf. xiv. cxiii.

5 A celebrated worker in embossed metal of the fourth century B.C.: cf. in. xli. 1 ; iv. xxxix. 5.

6 He had not even a slave of his own,



pulchrior ut nostro videare corona Sabino, de Nomentano te putet esse meo.


IN Tartesiacis domus est notissima terris,

qua dives placidum Corduba Baetin amat, vellera nativo pallent ubi flava metallo

et Unit Hesperium brattea viva pecus. aedibus in mediis totos amplexa penates 5

stat platanus densis Caesariana comis, hospitis invicti posuit quam dextera felix,

coepit et ex ilia crescere virga manu. auctorem dominumque suum sentire videtur :

sic viret et ramis sidera celsa petit. 10

saepe sub hac madidi luserunt arbore Fauni

terruit et tacitam fistula sera domum :. dumque fugit solos nocturnum Pana per agros,

saepe sub hac latuit rustica fronde Dryas. atque oluere lares comissatore Lyaeo, 15

crevit et effuso laetior umbra mero ; hesternisque rubens deiecta est herba coronis

atque suas potuit dicere nemo rosas. o dilecta deis, o magni Caesaris arbor,

ne metuas ferrum sacrilegosque focos. 20

perpetuos sperare licet tibi frondis honores :

non Pompeianae te posuere manus.

1 Which produced nothing : cf. vu. xxxi. 8.

2 The Guadalquiver.

3 cf. v. xxxvii. 7 ; vm. xxviii. 6.



Campanian meads ; that thou mayst seem to my Sabinus a chaplet the more fair, let him think thou art from my Nomentan l farm.


A HOUSE renowned stands in the land of Tartessus where rich Corduba woos tranquil Baetis/ where fleeces are yellow-pale with native ore, and living gold o'erlays the Western flock. 3 In the middle of the house, shadowing all the abode, stands with dense leafage Caesar's 4 plane, which an unconquered Guest's propitious hand planted, and which then but a shoot began from that hand to grow. It seems to feel who was its creator and lord ; so green it is, and with its boughs it climbs high heaven. Ofttimes under this tree sported Fauns 5 flown with wine, and a late-blown pipe startled the still house ; and, while o'er lonely fields she fled by night from Pan, oft under these leaves the rustic Dryad 6 nestled hid. And fragrant has the dwelling been when Lyaeus held revel, and more luxuriant grown the tree's shade from spilth of wine, and the blushing flower has been scattered down from last night's wreath, and none could claim his own roses. O thou dear to the gods ! O tree of mighty Caesar ! fear not the steel and sacrilegious fires. Thou mayst hope thy leafy honours shall endure for ever : it was not Pompey's hands 7 set thee there !

4 Julius Caesar.

5 Rustic deities, half goat, half in human shape.

6 The Dryads were nymphs of the woods.

7 But those of his conqueror.




TINCTIS murice vestibus quod onmi et nocte utitur et die Philaenis, non est ambitiosa nee superba : delectatur odore, non colore.


AD cenam invitant omnes te, Phoebe, einaedi. mentula quern pascit, non, puto, purus homo est.


HERCULIS in magni voltus descendere Caesar

dignatus Latiae dat nova templa viae, qua Triviae nemorosa petit dum reg'na, viator

octavum domina marmor ab urbe legit, ante colebatur votis et sanguine largo,

raaiorem Alciden nunc minor ipse colit. hunc magnas rogat alter opes, rogat alter honores ;

illi securus vota minora facit.


ALCIDE, Latio nunc agnoscende Tonanti, postquam pulchra dei Caesaris ora geris,

si tibi tune isti vultus habitusque fuissent, cesseruni, manibus cum fera monstra tuis,

1 She wishes to drown her own peculiar odour. Tyrian- dyed garments had a rank smell : cf. iv. iv. 6.

2 Domitian dedicated a temple to Hercules with a statue hearing the features of the emperor.




BECAUSE Philaenis night and day wears garments dipped in every kind of purple, she is not ambitious or proud. She is pleased with the smell, not with the hue. 1


ALL the dissolute rascals invite you to dinner, Phoebus. He whom impurity feeds is not, I opine, a spotless person.


CAESAR, deigning to descend to the features of great Hercules, 2 gives a new temple to the Latin Way, where the traveller, on his journey to Trivia's woody realm, 3 reads the eighth milestone from the Queen City. Aforetime was Alcides worshipped with prayer and full blood of victims ; now he, the lesser, himself worships a greater 4 Alcides. Of him, the greater, one man begs large wealth, another begs honours; to him, the lesser, carelessly he makes his more trifling prayers.


ALCIDES, worthy now to be owned by the Latin Thunderer, 5 after that thou wearest the features fair of Caesar our god, if thine had been then that face and guise when savage monsters yielded to thy arms, the nations had not seen thee the serf of the

3 To the temple and grove of Diana of the Crossways ( Trivia) at Aricia .

  • The emperor. 5 Jupiter of the Capitol.



Argolico famulum non te servire tyranno 5

vidissent gentes saevaque regna pati ; sed tu iussisses Eurysthea : nee tibi fallax

portasset Nessi perfida dona Lichas ; Oetaei sine lege rogi securus adisses

astra patris summi, quae tibi poena dedit ; 10

Lydia nee dominae traxisses pensa superbae

nee Styga vidisses Tartareumque canem. nunc tibi luno favet, nunc te tua diligit Hebe ;

nunc te si videat Nympha, remittet Hylan.


UXOR cum tibi sit Formosa, pudica, puella, quo tibi natorum iura, Fabulle, trium ?

quod petis a nostro supplex dominoque deoque, tu dabis ipse tibi, si potes arrigere.


LASCIVAM tota possedi nocte puellam,

cuius nequitias vincere nulla potest. fessus mille modis illud puerile poposci :

ante preces totas primaque verba dedit.

1 Hercules was the serf of Eurystheus until he had ac- complished his twelve labours.

2 Lichas, the servant of Hercules, at the bidding of Deianeira, his wife, gave him the shirt of Nessus steeped in the poison of the hydra slain by H. It clung to him, and he burnt himself on a pyre on Mt. Oeta.



despot of Argos, 1 and enduring a cruel thrall, but thou wouldst have commanded Eurystheus ; nor would false Lichas 2 have brought to thee the guile- ful gift of Nessus ; without the ordeal of Oeta's pyre wouldst thou unvexed have won that heaven of thy Sire supreme which thy penance gave thee ; nor wouldst thou have drawn out the wool of a haughty mistress, 3 nor have viewed Styx and the Tartarean hound. 4 Now to thee is Juno kind, now thy Hebe loves thee ; now, should she see thee, the nymph will send Hylas 5 back.


WHEN you have a wife beautiful, modest, young, what is the use to you, Fabullus, of the rights b three sons bestow ? What you suppliantly ask of our Lord and God you will yourself supply if you can play the man.


POSSEDEI per tutta la notte una lasciva ragazza, le di cui malizie nessuna pu6 sorpassare. Sazio in mille maniere, dimandai quel non so che alia fanciullesca : me lo accord6 avanti d'esserne pregata, ed alle prime

3 Oraphale, queen of Lydia, who wore H.'s lion-skin while hespun her wool.

4 It was one of the labours of Hercules to fetch Cerberus from the shades.

6 A beautiful youth, the attendant of Hercules, carried off by the enamoured Nymphs : cf. v. xlviii. 5.

6 Often given, as a compliment, even to childless persons : cf. ii. xci. 6.



inprobius quiddam ridensque rubensque rogavi : 5

pollicitast nulla luxuriosa mora. sed mihi pura fuit ; tibi non erit, Aeschyle, si vis

accipere hoc munus condicione mala.


QUID tibi nobiscum est, ludi scelerate magister,

invisum pueris virginibusque caput? nondum cristati rupere silentia galli :

murraure iam saevo verberibusque tonas. tarn grave percussis incudibus aera resultant, 5

causidicum medio cum faber aptat equo : mitior in magno clamor furit amphitheatro,

vincenti parmae cum sua turba favet. vicini somnum non tota nocte rogamus :

iiani vigilare leve est, pervigilare grave est. 10 discipulos dimitte tuos. vis, garrule, quantum

accipis ut clames, accipere ut taceas ?


CUM futuis, Polycharme, soles in fine cacare. cum pedicaris, quid, Polycharme, facis ?


DIXERAT " O mores ! o tempora ! " Tullius olim, sacrilegum strueret cum Catilina nefas,

1 Some disgraceful complaisance was required in return, which M. says he refused, but which Aeschylus would not.

2 Successful lawyers were in the habit of erecting eques- trian statues of themselves in their vestibules : cf. Juv. vii. 124.


ricchieste. Fra '1 riso e la vergogna dimandai qualche cosa d'assai nefando : me lo promise senza la me- nonia interessata dilazione. Ma fu da me lasciata pura ; non lo sara da te, O Eschilo, se vuoi prendere questo dono ma a mala condizione. 1


WHAT have you to do with us, accursed pedagogue, a fellow odious to boys and girls? Not yet have crested cocks broken the hush of night, already with menacing voice and with thwacks you raise an up- roar. So heavily re-echoes brass on smitten anvils when a smith is fitting a pleader's statue astride a steed ; ' z milder in the huge amphitheatre riots the shout when its own faction acclaims the small shield. 3 We neighbours don't ask for sleep all the night ; 4 for some wakefulness is a trifle, to wake all night is no joke. Dismiss your pupils. Are you willing, you blatant fellow, to accept for holding your tongue as much as you accept for bawling ?


QUANDO immembri, O Policarmo, suoli dopo sgra- varti. Quando sei sodomizato, che fai, O Policarmo ?


"O MANNERS! O times!" cried Tully once when Catiline was planning his sacrilegious crime, 1 when

8 Parma, carried by gladiators called Thracians. Domi- tian favoured the scufarii, the carriers of the large shield. Hence a victory of the parmularius would be more unex- pected. 4 As to the noises of Rome, cf. xn. Ivii.

6 Cic. Oat. I. i. 2.



cum gener atque socer diris concurreret armis

maestaque civili caede maderet humus, cur nunc " O mores!" cur nunc "O temporal " dicis ?

quod tibi non placeat, Caeciliane, quid est? 6

nulla ducum feritas, nulla est insania ferri ;

pace frui certa laetitiaque licet, non nostri faciunt tibi quod tua tempora sordent,

sed faciunt mores, Caeciliane, tui. 10


MASSYLI leo fama iugi pecorisque maritus

lanigeri mirum qua coiere fide, ipse licet videas, cavea stabulantur in una

et pariter socias carpit uterque dapes : nee fetu nemorum gaudent nee mitibus herbis, 5

concordem satiat sed rudis agna famem. quid meruit terror Nemees, quid portitor Helles,

ut niteant celsi lucida signa poli ? sidera si possent pecudesque feraeque mereri,

hie aries astris, hie leo dignus erat. 10


LIBER, Amyclaea frontem vittate corona, qui quatis Ausonia verbera Graia manu,

clusa rnihi texto cum prandia vimine mittas, cur comitata dapes nulla lagona venit ?

atqui digna tuo si nomine munera ferres, 5

scis, puto, debuerint quae mihi dona dari.

1 Porapey married Caesar's daughter Julia.

2 The lion slain by Hercules and the ram that carried Helle respectively, afterwards two of the signs of the Zodiac.



son-in-law and father-in-law 1 were clashing in dread- ful war, and the weeping earth was drenched with civil carnage. Why do you now cry " O manners ! " why now "O times!" What is it displeases you, Caecilianus ? No savagery of captains is here, no frenzy of the sword : we may enjoy unbroken peace and pleasure. 'Tis not our " manners " that make your "times" despicable to you, but your own manners, Caecilianus, make them so.


A LION, the renown of Massy Han hills, and the husband of the fleecy flock, have allied themselves in wondrous confidence. You may yourself see them : they are stalled in one pen, and each with the other takes his social meal ; they relish not the breed of the woods, nor harmless herbs, but a young lamb sates their friendly hunger. What was the merit of the terror of Nemea, what of the carrier of Helle, 2 that they should glow, the tall sky's lustrous signs ? If both sheep and wild beasts could win by merit to heaven, this ram, this lion were worthy to become stars.


Li BE n, 3 whose brow is wreathed with an Amy- claean 4 crown, who level with an Italian arm the Grecian boxer's blows, as you are sending me a lunch shut in a wicker basket, why does no flagon come attendant on the feast ? And yet, if you were to produce a gift to match your name, 5 you know, I think, what present should have been given me !

3 To whom also vni. Ixxvii. is addressed.

4 i.e. Spartan. Pollux, the son of Spartan Leda, invented boxing. 5 Liber was also a synonym of .Bacchus.




DENTIBUS antiquas solitus producere pelles

et mordere luto putre vetusque solum, Praenestina tenes defunct! rura l patroni,

in quibus indignor si tibi cella fuit ; rumpis et ardenti madidus crystalla Falerno 5

et pruris domini cum Ganymede tui. at me litterulas stulti docuere parentes :

quid cum grammaticis rhetoribusque mihi ? frange leves calamos et scinde, Thalia, libellos,,

si dare sutori calceus ista potest. 10


EFFIGIEM tantum pueri pictura Camoni servat, et infantis parva figura manet.

florentes nulla signavit imagine voltus, dum timet ora pius muta videre pater.


NON silice duro structilive caemento

nee latere cocto, quo Samiramis longam

Babylona cinxit, Tucca balneum fecit,

sed strage nemorum pineaque conpage,

ut navigare Tucca balneo possit. 5

idem beatas lautus extruit thermas

de mat-more omni, quod Carystos invenit,

quod Phrygia Synnas, Afra quod Nomas misit

et quod virenti fonte lavit Eurotas.

sed ligna desunt : subice balneum thermis. 10

1 decepti regna 0. 128

BOOK IX. Lxxiii-Lxxv


WONT with your teeth to stretch out ancient hides, and to gnaw a shoe-sole rotten with mud and worn out, you possess the Praenestan fields of your dead patron, in which I think it shame if you ever had a garret ; and drunk, you fill to bursting your crystal with hot Falernian, and lewdly trifle with the cup- bearer of your master. But me foolish parents taught paltry letters : what is the use of teachers of grammar and rhetoric to me ? Break your worthless pens, Thalia, and tear up your books, if a shoe can give a cobbler a gift like that.


CAMONIUS' picture preserves but the image of a child, and only an infant's tiny form survives. On the face of manhood's bloom 1 a father stamped" no semblance : his love feared to see the lips that spake no more.


NOT of hard flint or laid rubble, nor of burnt brick, wherewith Semiramis girt the long walls of Babylon, has Tucca made his bath ; but of the havoc of the woods and of balks of pine, so that Tucca may go to sea in his bath ! He also, luxurious man that he is ! builds costly warm baths of every kind of marble that Carystos discovers, that Phrygian Synnas, that African Numidia has sent him, and of that which Eurotas has washed green 2 with his spring. But firewood is lacking. Put the bath under the warm bath ! 3

1 cf. ix. Ixxvi. 3-5.

2 cf. vi. xlii. 11. Laconian marble was green.

3 The wooden bath might have made a boat (1. 5), but is now to make a fire.





HAEC sunt ilia mei quae cernitis ora Camoni,

haec pueri facies primaque forma fuit. creverat hie vultus bis denis fortior annis

gaudebatque suas pingere barba genas, et libata semel summos modo purpura cultros 5

sparserat. invidit de tribus una soror et festinatis incidit stamina pensis,

apsentemque patri rettulit urna rogum. sed ne sola tamen puerum pictura loquatur,

haec erit in chartis maior imago meis. 10


QUOD optimum sit disputat convivium

facunda Prisci pagina, et multa dulci, multa sublimi refert,

sed cuncta docto pectore. quod optimum sit quaeritis convivium ? 5

in quo choraules non erit.

U-A.A. JL11

FUNERA post septem nupsit tibi Galla virorum, Picentine : sequi vult, puto, Galla viros.


ODERAT ante ducum famulos turbamque priorem et Palatinum Roma supercilium :

1 The Fates.

2 C. died in Cappadocia : cf. vi. Ixxxv. 3.




THIS face you see is that of my Camonius : this was his childish face and infant form. These features had grown manlier in twice ten years, and his beard gladly was tinging its native cheek, and darkening down, shaved but once, had newly besprent the scissors' tip. Jealous was one Sister of the Three, 1 and she cut the thread from the wool too quickly spun, and an urn gave back to the sire the ashes from afar. 2 Yet, that not alone be the picture that bespeaks a boy, in my lay shall this, a nobler likeness, be found.


Puiscus' pages fluently discuss what is the best kind of entertainment, and he .puts forward many views in a pleasant, many in a lofty style, and all with learning. Do you ask what is the best en- tertainment ? One where there will be no flute- player with his chorus. 3


AFTER burying seven husbands, Galla has married you, Picentinus ; Galla wants, I imagine, to follow her husbands. 4


ONCE Rome abhorred the henchmen and the old retinue of her chiefs, and the haughtiness of the

8 To drown conversation. The choraules accompanied a chorus, as distinguished from the auletes or the citharoedus, a single player on flute or harp : cf. v. Ivi. 8.

4 Both G. and P. were poisoners : cf. vm. xliii.

131 K 2


at nunc tantus amor cunctis, Auguste, tuorum est ut sit caique suae cura secunda domus.

tarn placidae mentes, tanta- est reverentia nostri, tarn pacala quies, tantus in ore pudor.

nemo suos (haec est aulae natura potentis) sed domini mores Caesarianus habet.


DUXERAT esuriens locupletem pauper anumque : uxorem pascit Gellius et futuit.


LECTOR et auditor nostros probat, Aule, libellos, sed quidam exactos esse poeta negat.

non nimium euro : nam cenae fercula nostrae malim convivis quam placuisse cocis.


DIXERAT astrologus periturum te cito, Munna, nee, puto, mentitus dixerat ille tibi.

nam tu dum metuis ne quid post fata relinquas, hausisti patrias luxuriosus opes,

bisque tuum deciens non toto tabuit anno, die mihi, non hoc est, Munna, perire cito ?


INTER tanta tuae miracula, Caesar, harenae, quae vincit veterum munera clara ducum,

multum oculi sed plus aures debere fatentur se tibi, quod spectant qui recitare solent.



Palatine ; but now, Augustus, all men so love those that belong to you that to each his own household is but a second care. So gentle are their tempers, so great is their respect for us, so unruffled is their calm, such modesty is in their faces ! No servant of Caesar such is the mood of. an imperial hall displays his own manners, but those only of his master.


HUNGRY, and a pauper, Gellius married a rich and old woman. He now feeds and tickles his wife.


READER and hearer approve of my works, Aulus, but a certain poet says they are not polished. 1 don't care much, for I should prefer the courses of my dinner to please guests rather than cooks.


AN astrologer said that you would quickly come to an end, Munna, and he did not lie, I think, when he said it to you. For you, in your fear of leaving anything after your death, have in extravagance ex- hausted your father's wealth, and your two millions have melted away in less than a year. Tell me, is not this, Munna, quickly coming to an end ?


AMID the mighty wonders ot your arena, Caesar, which surpasses the grand spectacles of former chiefs, there is much our eyes admit they owe you, but our ears still more, for the usual reciters are now spectators. 1

1 And cannot bore us : cf. Juv. i. 7-14.




CUM tua sacrileges contra, Norbane, furores

staret pro domino Caesare sancta fides, haec ego Pieria ludebam tutus in umbra,

ille tuae cultor notus amicitiae. me tibi Vindelicis Raetus narrabat in oris, 5

nescia nee nostri nominis Arctos erat : o quotiens veterem non infitiatus amicum

dixisti " Meus est iste poeta, meus ! " omne tibi nostrum quod bis trieteride iuncta

ante dabat lector, nunc dabit auctor opus. 10


LANGUIDIOR noster si quando est Paulus, Atili, non se, convivas abstinet ille suos.

tu languore quidem subito fictoque laboras, sed mea porrexit sportula, Paule, pedes.


FESTINATA sui gemeret quod fata Sever!

Silius, Ausonio non semel ore potens, cum grege Pierio maestus Phoeboque querebar.

" Ipse meum flevi " dixit Apollo " Linon " : respexitque suam quae stabat proxima fratri 5

Calliopen et ait " Tu quoque vulnus habes.

1 Appius Norbanus had been sent in A.D. 88 to crush the revolt of Saturninus against Domitian : cf. iv. xi. He was absent six years, and M.'s works would be Books IV. -VIII.

2 i.e. is lost to me. Porrigere pedes was said of a corpse when laid out with the feet pointing to the outer door : Pers. iii. 105 ; Horn. II. xix. 212.




WHEN your inviolate loyalty, Norbanus, in defence of your master Caesar was withstanding impious frenzy, I, secure in the Pierian shade, the wooer, as men know, of your friendship, threw off these books. Me the Rhaetian quoted to you on Vindelicia's shores, and the North was not unknowing of my name. Oh, how often, not denying your old friend, you exclaimed : " My own is that poet, my own ! " All work of mine, which during three years twice counted l your reader gave you before, its author will give you now.


IF at any time, Atilius, our acquaintance Paulus is unwell, he practises abstinence, not on himself but on his guests. ' You are suffering no doubt, Paulus, from a sudden and fictitious illness : all the same my dinner has turned up its toes. 2


BECAUSE Silius, the twofold master of the Latin tongue, 3 was lamenting the early death of his Se- verus, 4 I complained sadly to the Pierian band and to Phoebus. "I, too," said Apollo, " wept for my Linus." And he looked back to Calliope his sister, who stood next her brother, and said : " You, too, 5

3 i.e. as orator and poet : cf. vn. Ixiii.

4 S.'s younger son, for whom M. solicited the consulship (vm. Ixvi.), which, however, he never attained : Plin. Ep. in. vii. 2.

5 Calliope was the mother of Orpheus. So, too, Jupiter had lost Sarpedon, and Domitian a son ; cf. iv. iii.



aspice Tarpeium Palatinumque Tonantem : ausa nefas Lachesis laesit utrumque lovem.

nuniina cum videas duris obnoxia fatis,

jnvidia possis esonerare deos." 10


SEPTEM post calices Opimiani

denso cum iaceam triente blaesus,

adfers nescio quas mihi tabellas

et dicis " Modo liberum esse iussi

Nastam (servolus est mihi paternus) : 5

signa." eras melius, Luperce, fiet :

nunc signal meus anulus lagonam.


CUM me captares, mittebas munera nobis : postquam cepisti, das mihi, Rufe, nihil.

ut captum teneas, capto quoque munera mitte, de cavea fugiat ne male pastus aper.


LEGE nimis dura convivam scribere versus

cogis, Stella ? " Licet scribere nempe malos."


Sic in gramine florido reclinis, qua gemmantibus hinc et inde rivis

1 t e. as a witness. But M. hints that Lupercus wishes him to sign a document which he would not sign when sober.



have your wound. Mark the Thunderer of the Tar- peian and him of the Palatine : Lachesis, daring a crime, has hurt either Jove. Forasmuch as you see that deities are subject to the inflexible Fates, of jealousy you may acquit the gods."


WHEN, after seven cups of Opimian, I lie lisping amid my frequent potations, you bring me some document or other and say : " I have just bade Nasta to go free he was my father's slave put your seal." 1 Better to-morrow, Lupercus : just now my ring only seals up 2 flagons.


WHEN you were trying to catch me you used to send me presents : after you have caught me, you, Rufus, give me nothing. To hold your catch, send presents to him also when caught, that the boar, being badly fed, may not escape from its pen.


Do you by too hard a regulation compel your guest to write verses, Stella ? " Well, you are allowed to write bad ones."


So, on flower-spangled sward reclining, where in the runnels sparkling here and there the pebble is

2 To prevent theft: Plin. N.H. xxxiii. 6; Juv. xiv. 132.



curva calculus excitatur unda,

exclusis procul omnibus molestis,

pertundas l glaciem triente nigro, 5

frontem sutilibus ruber coronis ;

sic uni tibi sit puer cinaedus

et castissima pruriat puella :

infamem nimio calore Cypron

observes moneo precorque, Flacce, 10

messes area cum teret crepantis

et fervens iuba saeviet leonis.

at tu, diva Paphi, remitte, nostris

inlaesum iuvenem remitte votis,

sic Martis tibi serviant Kalendae 15

et cum ture meroque victimaque

libetur tibi Candidas ad aras

secta plurima quadra de placenta.


AD cenam si me diversa vocaret in astra

hinc invitator Caesaris, inde lovis, astra licet propius, Palatia longius essent,

responsa ad superos haec referenda darem : " Quaerite qui malit fieri conviva Tonantis : 5

me meus in terns luppiter ecce tenet."


QUAE mala sint domini, quae servi commoda, nescis, Condyle, qui servum te gemis esse diu. 1 perfundas y.

1 Wine was strained through ice or snow : ef. v. Ixiv. 2 ; xiv. cxvii.


BOOK IX. xc-xcn

tumbled by the rippling wave, with all your frets banished afar, may you with measures of dark Vine break through the ice 1 while your brow blushes with rose-stitched chaplets ; so for you alone may a fair boy-slave and a mistress most pure be eager, if, as I warn and pray you, Flaccus, you beware of Cyprus of evil name in summer's height, when the threshing-floor shall bray the rustling harvests, and the Lion's mane 2 be hot with rage. But do thou, goddess of Paphos, send back to our prayers, send back the youth unscathed ; so may March's kalends 3 be in fealty to thee, and with incense, and new wine, and victim, there be offered to thee at thy fair altars many a quarter of parcelled cake.


WERE I invited to diverse heavens to feast, on this side by Caesar's summoner, on that by Jove's, though the stars were nearer, the Palace more far, this answer would I give to be returned to the High Gods : " Seek ye one who would choose to be the Thunderer's guest; me on earth, mark ye, my Jupiter detains ! "


WHAT are a master's ills, what a slave's bless- ings" you do not know, Condylus, who groan that

2 The constellation Leo.

3 At the festival of the Matronalia men sent presents to their mistresses : cf. v. Ixxxjv. 11,



dat tibi secures vilis tegeticula somnos,

pervigil in pluma Gaius ecce iacet. Gaius a prima tremebundus luce salutat 5

tot dominos, at tu, Condyle, nee dominum. "Quod debes, Gai, redde " inquit Phoebus et illinc

Cinnamus : hoc dicit, Condyle, nemo tibi. tortorem metuis ? podagra cheragraque secatur

Gaius et mallet verbera mille pati. 10

quod nee mane vomis nee cunniim, Condyle, lingis,

non mavis quam ter Gaius esse tuus ?


ADDERE quid cessas, puer, inmortale Falernum ?

quadrantem duplica de seniore cado. nunc mihi die, quis erit cui te, Calacisse, deorum

sex iubeo cyathos fundere? "Caesar erit." sutilis aptetur deciens rosa crinibus, ut sit 5

qui posuit sacrae nobile gentis opus, nunc bis quina mihi da basia, fiat ut illud

nomen ab Odrysio quod deus orbe tulit.


SARDONICA medicata dedit mihi pocula virga, os hominis ! mulsum me rogat Hippocrates.

1 i.e. to extort confession of some offence : Juv. xiv. 21.

2 Domitian, who founded the temple of the Gens Flavia : cf. ix. i. 8 ; ix. iii. 12.

3 The six and the two tens represent respectively the names Caesar, Domitianus, and Germanicus. For this prac- tice, cf. I. Ixxi. ; xi. xxxvi. 7.


BOOK IX. xcii-xnv

you are so long a slave. Your common rush-mat affords you sleep untroubled ; wakeful all night on down, see, Gaius lies ! Gaius from early morn salutes trembling many masters ; but you, Condylus-, not even your master. " What you owe, Gaius, pay," says Phoebus, and after him Cinnamus : this no one, Condylus, says to you. Do you dread the torturer ? l By gout in foot and hand Gaius is stabbed, and would choose instead to endure a thousand blows. You do not vomit in the morning, nor are you given to filthy vice, Condylus : do you not prefer this to being your Gaius three times over ?


WHY linger, boy, to pour in the undying Falernian? Double three measures from the older jar. Now tell me who shall it be of the Gods to whom I bid thee, Calocissus, pour six measures ? " Caesar it shall be." Let the stitched rose be ten times fitted to our locks, that he be shown who laid the noble temple of his hallowed race. 2 Now give me twice five kisses to shape the name he brought from the Thracian world. 3


HIPPOCRATES 4 gave me such is his impudence^! a draught drugged with Sardinian root, 5 and asks me

4 H. of Cos was the founder of medicine. The name is here put for a doctor.

5 The herbs of Sardinia were bitter, and affected honey : Verg. Ed. vii. 41. Yet H. expects in return ordinary mulsum (wine and honey mixed).



tarn stupidus numquam nee tu, puto, Glauce, fuisti,

^aXfcea donanti xpvcrta qui dederas. dulce aliquis munus pro munere poscit amaro ? 5

accipiat, sed si potat in elleboro.


ALPHIUS ante fait, coepit nunc Olphius esse, uxorem postquam diixit Athenagoras.


NOMEN Athenagorae quaeris, Callistrate, verum.

si scio, dispeream, qui sit Athenagoras. sed puta me verum, Callistrate, dicere nomen : 5

non ego sed vester peccat Athenagoras.


CLINICUS Herodes trullam subduxerat aegro : deprensus dixit "Stulte, quid ergo bibis? "


RUMPITUR invidia quidam, carissime lull, quod me Roma legit, rumpitur invidia.

1 The Trojan, who - exchanged" armour with Diomede the Greek, xpvata. \a\Ki<av, fKar6n^oi fvieaftoiuv : Horn. 11. vi. 234. Homer remarks, Kpovltiris <f>pti>as ff\fro (deprived him of sense).


BOOK IX. xciv-xcvn

for mead wine. So great a fool even you, Glaucus, 1 never were, I fancy, who gave gold to him who gave you bronze. Does any man ask a gift of sweets for a gift of bitters? He may have it, but only if he drinks it with hellebore. 2


ATHENAGORAS was Alphius before, now he becomes Olphius after that he has married a wife. 3


" Is the name ' Athenagoras ' a real one," you ask, Callistratus. May I be hanged if I know who Athenagoras is ! But imagine, Callistratus, I men- tioned a real name : not I, but your friend Athen- agoras is at fault. 4


DOCTOR Herodes had stolen a drinking-ladle from a sick patient. When detected he said : " You fool, why then do you drink ? " 5


A CERTAIN fellow, dearest Julius, is bursting with envy ; because Rome reads me, he is bursting with

2 A supposed cure for madness : Hor. Sat. u. iii. 82, 166.

3 The point of this epigram is unknown.

4 i.e. that he has this name.

6 He professes care for his patient's health by removing the article.



rumpitur invidia quod turba semper in omni

monstramur digito, rumpitur invidia. rumpitur invidia tribuit quod Caesar uterque 5

ius mihi natorum, rumpitur invidia. rumpitur invidia quod rus mihi dulce sub urbe est

parvaque in urbe domus, rumpitur invidia. rumpitur invidia quod sum iucundus amicis,

quod conviva frequens, rumpitur invidia. 10

rumpitur invidia quod amamur quodque probamur.

rumpatur quisquis rumpitur invidia.


VINDEMIARUM Jion ubique proventus cessavit, )vidi ; pluvia profuit grandis. centum Coranus amphoras aquae fecit.


MARCUS amat nostras Antonius, Attice, Musas,

charta salutatrix si modo vera refert, Marcus Palladiae non inntianda Tolosae

gloria, quem l genuit Pacis alumna Quies. tu qui longa potes dispendia ferre viarum, 5

i, liber, absentis pignus amicitiae. vilis eras, fateor, si te nunc mitteret emptor :

grande tui pretium muneris auctor erit. multum, crede mihi, refert a fonte bibatur

quae fluit an pigro quae stupet unda lacu. 10

1 quam (Friedlander).

1 cf. ii. xcii. ; in. xcv. 6. 144

BOOK IX. xcvn-xcix

envy. He is bursting with envy because in every throng I am always pointed out with the finger, he is bursting with envy. He is bursting with envy because each Caesar gave me the right of a father of three sons, 1 he is bursting with envy. He is bursting with envy because I have a suburban farm and a small house in town, he is bursting with envy. He is bursting with envy because I am delightful to my friends, because I am often a guest, he is bursting with envy. He is bursting with envy be- cause I am loved and my works are approved. Let anyone, whoever he is, who is bursting with envy, burst ! 2


THE crop of the vineyards has not everywhere failed, Ovidius : heavy rains have been profitable. Coranus has made a hundred jars of water. 3


MARCUS ANTONIUS loves my Muse, Atticus, if only his letter of greeting says true Marcus, cultured Tolosa's indisputable glory, whom Quietude, the nursling of Peace, begot. Do you, who can put up with long journeys, go, my book, pledge of an absent friendship. A poor gift you would be, I own, if a purchaser were sending you now; the author's giving will lend you goodly value. Great is the difference, believe me, whether water is drunk from the fountain as it flows, or as it stagnates in a sluggish pool.

2 i.e. be cl d. Rumpatur Siappayflrj. The point of the

epigram seems to lie in the two senses of rumioi.

3 i.e. to mix with his wine. Coranus is probably a fraudu- lent vintner : c/. I. Ivi.


VOL. II. (.



DENARIS tribus invitas et mane togatum

observare iubes atria, Basse, tua, deinde haerere tuo lateri, praecedere sellam,

ad viduas tecum plus minus ire decem. trita quidem nobis togula est vilisque vetusque

denaris tamen hanc non emo, Basse, tribus.


APPIA, quam simili venerandus in Hercule Caesar

consecrat, Ausoniae maxima fama viae, si cupis Alcidae cognoscere facta prioris,

disce : Libyn domuit, aurea poma tulit, peltatam Scythico discinxit Amazona nodo, 5

addidit Arcadio terga leonis apro, aeripedem silvis cervum, Stymphalidas astris

abstulit, a Stygia cum cane venit aqua, fecundam vetuit reparari mortibus hydram,

Hesperias Tusco lavit in amne boves. 10

haec minor Alcides : maior quae gesserit audi,

sextus ab Albana quern colit arce lapis, adseruit possessa malis Palatia regnis,

prima suo gessit pro love bella puer ; solus luleas cum iam retineret habenas, 15

tradidit inque suo tertius orbe fuit ;

1 About two shillings, or double the usual dole (cf. in. vii. 1) of centum, quadrantes. Large doles were sometimes given: cf. IV. xxvi. 3; x. xxvii. 3.


BOOK IX. c-ci


FOR three denarii 1 you invite me, and bid me don my toga in the morning and wait in your hall, Bassus ; then closely to attend you, to walk before your chair, with you to call upon ten widows more or less. Worn indeed is my poor toga, and cheap and old yet for three denarii I cannot buy it, Bassus.


THOU Appian Way, which revered Caesar in the guise of Hercules 2 hallows, chiefest glory of Auso- nian ways, if thou desirest to know the deeds of the ancient Alcides, learn them. The Libyan he subdued, the golden apples he won ; he ungirt the Amazonian targeteer of her Scythian girdle ; he crowned the spoil of the lion's skin with Arcadia's boar ; he freed the woods from the brazen-hoofed hind, the sky from the Stymphalian birds ; from the Stygian flood he returned with its hound ; the teeming hydra he let no more grow stronger by death ; he laved in the Tuscan stream Hesperian oxen. These things wrought the lesser Alcides ; hear what that greater 3 did, whom men worship at the sixth stone from Alba's height. He redeemed the Palatine held by an evil power ; 4 his first wars he waged, a boy, for his own Jove ; 5 albeit alone he already held the reins of Julian power, he gave them up, and in a world that had been his own

2 cf. ix. Ixiv. s Domitian.

4 By the party of Vitellius after the death of that emperor. 6 He was besieged in the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus by the Vitellians.

L 2


cornua Sarmatici ter perfida contudit Histri,

sudantem Getica ter nive lavit equum ; saepe recusatos parcus duxisse triumphos

victor Hyperboreo nomen ab orbe tulit ; 20

templa dels, mores populis dedit, otia ferro,

astra suis, caelo sidera, serta lovi. Herculeum tantis numen non sufficit actis :

Tarpeio deus hie commodet ora patri.


QUADRINGENTORUM reddis mihi, Phoebe, tabellas : centum da potius mutua, Phoebe, mihi.

quaere alium cui te tarn vano munere iactes :

quod tibi non possum solvere, Phoebe, meum e'st.

GUI QUAE nova tarn similis genuit tibi Leda ministros ?

quae capta est alio nuda Lacaena eycno ? dat faciem Pollux Hiero, dat Castor Asylo,

atque in utroque nitet Tyndaris ore soror. ista Therapnaeis si forma fuisset Amyclis, 5

cum vicere duas dona minora deas, mansisses, Helene, Phrygiamque redisset in Iden

Dardanius gemino cum Ganymede Paris.

1 Though he had been proclaimed Caesar, and was in possession of Rome, he resigned the empire to his father Vespasian and his brother Titus in precedence to himself, boasting, however, patri se et fratri imperium dedisse, illos tsibi reddidisse : Suet. Dom. xiii.

2 In his three campaigns against the tribes on the Danube. As to the shattering of the horn, cf. x. vii. 6.


BOOK IX. ci-cin

remained but the third; 1 thrice he shattered the treacherous horns of Sarmatian Hister ; 2 his sweat- ing steed thrice he bathed in Getic snow ; loth to lead on triumphs oft resigned, 3 he won a victor's name from the Hyperborean world ; temples he gave the Gods, morals to the people, rest to the sword, immortality to his own kin, to heaven stars, wreaths to Jove. The Deity of Hercules sufficed not for deeds so great : let him, our God, lend his features to the Tarpeian 4 Sire !


You return me, Phoebus, my bond for four hun- dred thousand sesterces ; rather give me on loan, Phoebus, a hundred thousand. Look out for some one else to whom you may boast of so empty a gift ; what I can't pay, Phoebus, is my own. 5


WHAT new Leda 6 bore you attendants so like? What nude Spartan maid was ravished by another swan ? Pollux gives his features to Hierns, Castor

  • gives his to Asylus, and in either face their sister

Tyndaris shines clear. Had such beauty existed at Spartan Amyclae 7 when a lesser gift o'erweighed the goddesses twain, 8 thou, Helen, wouldst have stayed at home, and Dardan Paris have returned to Phrygian Ida with twin Ganymedes !

3 cf. vin. xv. 5. 4 Jup. Capitolinus.

5 cf. for a similar idea vm. xxxvii.

6 The mother of Castor and Pollux, and of Helen of Troy (Tyndaris).

? Both Therapnae and Amyclae were associated with Castor and Pollux, but the use of . Therapnaeis is hard to explain.

8 When Venus' promise to Paris of Helen overweighed the promises of Hera (Juno) and Pallas in the contest of beauty.




Si nimius videor seraque coronide longus

esse liber, legito pauca : libellus ero. terque quaterque mihi finitur carmine parvo

pagina : fac tibi me quam cupis ipse brevem.


FESTINATA prior, decimi mihi cura libelli

elapsum manibus nunc revocavit opus, nota leges quaedam sed lima rasa recenti ;

pars nova maior erit : lector, utrique fave, lector, opes nostrae : quern cum mihi Roma dedisset,

" Nil tibi quod demus maius habemus " ait. 6

' pigra per hunc fugies ingratae flumina Lethes

et meliore tui parte superstes eris. marmora Messallae findit caprificus. et audax

dimidios Crispi mulio ridet equos : 10

at chartis nee furta nocent et saecula prosunt,

solaque non norunt haec monumenta mori."

1 i.e. by reading only the short epigrams.

2 This book is not the first edition, which may have been published in 95, but an enlarged edition published in 98 after Book XI. M. afterwards issued a selection from Books X. and XI. : cf. xn. v. 1-2.



IF I seem too big a book and long, with my colo- phon delayed, read a few epigrams : I shall be a little book. Often a page of mine ends with a small poem : make me as short for yourself as you like. 1


Too hurried before, the composition of my tenth book has made me now recall the work that had slipt from my hands. 2 You will read some things you know, but polished lately by the file ; the greater part will be new ; reader, be kind to both, reader, who are my wealth ; for when Rome had given you to me, she said: "We have nothing greater to give you. By him will you escape unthankful Lethe's sluggish stream, and will in your better part survive. Messalla's marble the wild-fig sunders, and boldly the mule-driver laughs at Crispus' steeds broken in two. 3 But writings thefts do not injure, and time befriends them, and alone these monuments know riot death."

3 M. is M. Val. Messalla Corvinus, the patron of the poet Tibullus : cf. vin. iii. 5. The Crispus is probably C. Pas- sienus Crispus of the time of Claudius, and stepfather of Nero.




VERNACULORUM dicta, sordidum dentem,

et foeda linguae probra circulatricis,

quae sulpurato nolit empta ramento

Vatiniorum proxeneta fractorum,

poeta quidam clancularius spargit 5

et volt videri nostra. credis hoc, Prisce ?

voce ut loquatur psittacus coturnicis

et concupiscat esse Canus ascaules ?

procul a libellis nigra sit meis fama,

quos rumor alba gemmeus vehit pinna : 1

cur ego laborem notus esse tarn prave,

constare gratis cum silentium possit ?


Qui legis Oedipoden caligantemque Thyesten,

Colchidas et Scyllas, quid nisi monstra legis ? quid tibi raptus Hylas, quid Parthenopaeus et Attis,

quid tibi dormitor proderit Endymion ? exutusve puer pinnis labentibus ? aut qui 5

odit amatrices Hermaphroditus aquas ? quid te vana iuvant miserae ludibria chartae ?

hoc lege, quod possit dicere vita " Meum est." non hie Centauros, non Gorgonas Harpyiasque ,

invenies : hominem pagina nostra sapit. 10

sed non vis, Mamurra, tuos cognoscere mores

nee te scire : legas Aetia Callimachi.

1 Beakers with four nozzles, said to be in imitation of the nose of Vatinius, a Beneventan cobbler in Nero's thne : cf. xiv. xcvi.; Juv. v. 46. As to the sale of broken glass, c/. i. xli. 3-5.


BOOK X. in-iv


THE scurrilities of home-born slaves, low railing, and the foul insults of a hawker's tongue, which the broker of shattered Vatinian glasses l would reject as the price of a sulphur match, a certain skulking poet scatters abroad, and would have them appear as mine. Do you believe this, Priscus ? that a parrot speaks with the voice of a quail, and Canus 2 longs to be a bagpipe-player ? Far from poems of mine be black repute, poems which lustrous fame uplifts on pinions white. Why should I toil to be known so evilly when stillness can cost me nothing ?


You, who read of Oedipus and Thyestes neath a darkened sun, of Colchian witches and Scyllas of what do you read but monsters ? What will the rape of Hylas avail you, what Parthenopaeus and Attis, what the sleeper Endymion ? or the boy stript of his gliding wings ? " or Hermaphroditus who hates the amorous waters ? Why does the vain twaddle of a wretched sheet attract you ? Read this of which Life can say : " 'Tis my own." Not here will you find Centaurs, not Gorgons and Harpies : 'tis of man my page smacks. But you do not wish, Mamurra, to recognize your own manners, or to know yourself. Read the Origins of Callimachus. 3

2 A famous flute-player : cf. iv. v. 8.

3 An Alexandrine grammarian and poet of the third cen- tury B.C. who wrote an epic on the origins (Afria) of mytho- logical stories.



QUISQUIS stolaeve purpuraeve contemptor

quos colere debet laesit impio versu,

erret per urbem pontis exul et clivi,

interque raucos ultimus rogatores

oret caninas panis inprobi buccas. 5

illi December longus et madens bruma

clususque fornix triste frigus extendat :

vocet beatos clamitetque felices

Orciniana qui feruntur in sponda.

at cum supremae fila venerint horae 10

diesque tardus, sentiat canum litem

abigatque moto noxias aves panno.

nee finiantur morte supplicis poenae,

sed modo severi sectus Aeaci loris,

nunc inquieti monte Sisyphi pressus, 15

nunc inter undas garruli senis siccus

delasset omnis fabulas poetarum ;

et cum fateri Furia iusserit verum,

prodente clamet conscientia "Scripsi."


FELICES, quibus urna dedit spectare coruscum

solibus Arctois sideribusque ducem. quando erit ille dies quo campus et arbor et omnis

lucebit Latia culta fenestra nuru ?

1 i.e. of noble ladies, or of magistrates and senators.

2 Resorts of beggars : cf. n. xix. 3 ; xn. xxxii. 10, 25.

3 Where he took refuge.

4 i.e. the pauper's bier (sandapila) : cf, n. Ixxxi.; viu. Ixxv. B Ready to eat him.


BOOK X. v-vi

WHOE'ER he be who, scorner of either stole or purple/ has wounded with his wicked verse those he should respect, let him wander through the city, exile from bridge and hill, 2 and, last amid the hoarse- throated beggars, pray for dogs' morsels of vile bread. To him may December be long and winter wet, and the shutting of the archway 3 .; prolong his miserable chill ; let him call those blest, and acclaim those for- tunate, who are carried on the litter of Orcus. 4 But when the threads of his last hour have been spun, and his lingering day has come, let him feel the wrangling of dogs, 5 and flap away noxious birds with waving rags. Nor let his punishment, despite his prayers, be_ closed by death ; but now scored by the scourge of stern Aeacus, 6 now o'erwhelmed by the moun- tainous stone of restless Sisyphus, now parching amid the waters of the blabbing old man, 7 may he weary out all the fabled torments of the poets ; and when the Fury shall bid him confess the truth, may he shriek, his conscience betraying him : " I wrote it." 8


HAPPY are they to whom Fortune's urn has given to see our Captain ablaze with northern suns and stars ! 9 When shall that day be whereon plain and tree shall be radiant, and every casement dight with

6 One of the three Judges of the Shades.

7 Tantalus, whp was doomed to thirst in Tartarus for revealing the secrets of the gods.

8 M. follows in this ep. , often closely, the Ibis of Ovid.

9 This ep. was written when the new emperor, Trajan, was expected from the Rhine in A.D. 98.



quando morae dulces longusque a Caesare pulvis 5

totaque Flaminia Roma videnda via ? quando eques et picti tunica Nilotide Mauri

ibitis et populi vox erit una " Venit ? " ?


NYMPHARUM pater amniumque, Rhene,

quicumque Odrysias bibunt pruinas,

sic semper liquidis fruaris undis

nee te barbara contumeliosi

calcatum rota conterat bubulci ; 5

sic et cornibus aureis receptis

et Romanus eas utraque ripa :

Traianum populis suis et urbi,

Thybris te dominus rogat, remittas.


NUBERE Paula cupit nobis, ego ducere Paulam nolo : anus est. vellern, si magis esset anus.


UNDENIS pedibusque syllabisque

et multo sale nee tamen protervo

notus gentibus ille Martialis

et notus populis (quid invidetis ?)

non sum Andraemone notior caballo. 5

CUM tu, laurigeris annum qui fascibus intras, mane salutator limina mille teras, -

1 Previously shattered by defeat : cf. vu. vii. 3 ; ix. ci. 17.

2 Elegiacs and hendecasyllables.


BOOK X. vi-x

Latin dames ? When shall be hope's sweet delays, and the long trail of dust behind Caesar, and all Rome visible on the Flaminian Way ? When will ye come, ye knights, and ye painted Moors in your tunics of Nile, and one voice of the people go up, " Does he come ? " ?


FATHER, O Rhine, of Nymphs and of all rivers that drink the Thracian frosts, so mayst thou alway joy in limpid waters, and no insolent ox-driver's bar- barous wain trample roughly on thy head ; so mayst thou, with thy golden horns regained, 1 and a Roman stream on either bank, flow on send Trajan back to his .peoples and to his city : so doth thy Lord Tiber entreat thee.


PAULA wishes to marry me : I decline to take Paula to wife ; she is an old woman. I might be willing if she were older.


W T ITH my eleven-footed and eleven-syllabled verse, 2 and flowing, yet not froward wit, I, that Martial, who am known to the nations and to Rome's peoples (why do you envy me ?) am not known better than the horse Andraemon.


WHEN you, who usher in the year with laurelled axes, 3 tread a thousand thresholds at morning levees,

3 As consul, and the first of the year. Men of position often did not scruple to add to their income by taking the sportida: cf. Juv. i. 99. Juv. (i. 117) also alludes to the grievances in consequence of poor clients.



hie ego quid faciam ? quid nobis, Paule, relinquis,

qui de plebe Numae densaque turba sumus ? qui me respiciet dominum regemque vocabo ? 5

hoc tu (sed quanto blandius !) ipse facis. lecticam sellamve sequar ? nee ferre recusas,

per medium pugnas et prior isse lutum. saepius adsurgam recitanti carmina ? tu stas

et pariter geminas tendis in ora manus. 10

quid faciet pauper cui non licet esse client! ?

dimisit nostras purpura vestra togas.


NIL aliud loqueris quam Thesea Pirithoumque

teque putas Pyladi, Calliodore, parem. disperearn, si tu Pyladi praestare matellam

dignus es aut porcos pascere Pirithoi. " Donavi tamen " inquis "amico inilia quinque 5

et lotam, ut multum, terve quaterve l togam." quid quod nil umquam Pyladi donavit Orestes ?

qui donat quamvis plurima, plura negat.


AEMILIAE gentes et Apollineas Vercellas

et Phaethontei qui petis arva Padi, ne vivam, nisi te, Domiti, dimitto libenter,

grata licet sine te sit mihi nulla dies : sed desiderium tanti est ut messe vel una 5

urbano releves colla perusta iugo.

1 lerve quaterve Haupt, terque codd.

1 A method of applauding : cf. Juv. iii. 106. Or perhaps the allusion is to throwing kisses : cf. i. iii. 7.


BOOK X. x-xn

what can I do here ? What do you leave to us, Paulus, us who are of the herd of Numa and a teeming crowd? Shall I greet as Lord and King him who but gives me a glance ? This, and how much more blandly ! you also do. Shall I follow a litter or chair ? You don't refuse even to shoulder one, and to struggle to pass first through the middle of the mud. Shall I repeatedly rise when a man recites poems ? You are already standing, and put to your lips both hands at once. 1 What shall a poor man do, debarred from being a client ? Your purple has ousted our togas.


You talk of nothing but Theseus and Pirithous, and think yourself, Calliodorus, the peer of Pylades. May I be hanged if you are fit to hand Pylades a chamber-pot, or to feed Pirithous' swine. " Yet," you say, " I gave a friend five thousand, and a toga only three or four times washed, 2 a considerable gift." And what if Pylades never gave anything to Orestes? 3 He who gives however many gifts he makes denies more.


You are going to the peoples on the Aemilian Way, and to Apollo's Vercellae, and the fields by the Po where Phaethon died. May I perish, but I let you go willingly, Domitius, although without you no day is pleasant to me ; but I can pay the price of regret that, even for a single summer, you may ease your neck galled by the city's yoke. Go, I pray, and

2 i.e. nearly new. The phrase was apparently common : Petr. 30.

3 P. and O. already shared in common.




i precor et totos avida cute conbibe soles: o quam formosus, dum peregrinus eris !

et venies albis non adgnoscendus amicis

livebitque tuis pallida turba genis. 10

sed via quern dederit rapiet cito Roma colorem, Niliaco redeas tu licet ore niger.


CUM cathedralicios portet tibi raeda ministros

et Libys in.longo pulvere sudet eques, strataque non unas cingant triclinia Baias

et Thetis unguento palleat uncta tuo, Candida Setini rumpant crystalla trientes, 5

dormiat in pluma nee meliore Venus : ad nocturna iaces fastosae limina moechae

et madet heu ! lacrimis ianua surda tuis, urere nee miserum cessant suspiria pectus.

vis dicam male sit cur tibi, Cotta ? bene est. 10


CEDERE de nostris nulli te dicis amicis.

sed, sit ut hoc verum, quid, rogo, Crispe, facis? mutua cum peterem sestertia quinque, negasti,

non caperet nummos cum gravis area tuos. quando fabae modium nobis farrisve dedisti, 5

cum tua Niliacus rura colonus aret ?


BOOK X. xn-xiv

drink into your greedy pores the fullness of the sun- shine oh, how comely you will be while you are abroad ! And you will return not to be recognized by your white-faced friends, and a pallid crowd will envy your cheeks. But Rome will quickly efface the tan your tour will have given you, though you came home swarthy with an Egyptian's face.


ALTHOUGH a travelling-coach carries your lolling minions, and a Libyan outrider sweats in a long trail of dust, and your cushioned couches surround more than one warm bath, and your sea-bath is pale with the tinge of your perfumes ; although draughts of Setine fill to bursting your transparent crystal, and in fairer down Venus herself does not repose ; by night you lie on the threshold of a capricious mistress, and her deaf door is wet, alas ! with your tears, and sighs do not cease to scorch your unhappy breast. Do you wish me to say why it is ill with you, Cotta? Because it is well. 1


You say that you yield to none of my friends in love. Yet to make this true, what, I ask, Crispus, do you do ? When I was asking you for a loan of five thousand sesterces you refused it, although your heavy coffer could not hold your moneys. When did you give me a peck of beans, or of spelt, al- though a tenant by the Nile tills fields of yours?

1 C. is so well off he has to invent miseries.


M 2


quando brevis getidae missa est toga tempore brumae ?

argenti venit quando selibra mihi ? nil aliud yideo quo te credamus amicum

quam quod me corarn pedere, Crispe, soles. 10


DOTATAE uxori cor harundine fixit acuta, sed dum ludit, Aper. ludere novit Aper.


Si donare vocas promittere nee dare, Gai,

vincam te donis muneribusque meis. accipe Callaicis quidquid fodit Astur in arvis, aurea quidquid habet divitis unda Tagi, quidquid Erythraea niger invenit Indus in alga, 5

quidquid et in nidis unica servat avis, quidquid Agenoreo Tyros inproba cogit aheno :

quidquid habent omnes, accipe, quomodo das.


SATURNALICIO Macrum fraudare tribute

frustra, Musa, cupis : non licet : ipse petit ;

sollemnesque iocos nee tristia carmina poscit et queritur nugas obticnisse meas.

mensorum longis sed mine vacat ille libellis. 5

Appia, quid facies, si legit ista Macer ?

1 Pearls : cf. v. xxxvii. 4.

2 The phoenix : cf. vi. Iv. 2.

3 The purple of Tyre.


BOOK X. xiv-xvn

When was a short toga sent me in chill winter's season ? When did a half-pound of silver plate come to me? I see no other reason why I should believe you friend, than that you are wont> Crispus, to break wind in my presence.


His well-dowered wife's heart Aper transfixed with a sharp arrow, but it was in sport. Aper is a clever sportsman.


IF you call it bounty to promise and not to give, Gaius, I will surpass you by my bounties and offer- ings. Receive all wealth the Asturian mines in Gallician fields, all wealth rich Tagus' golden wave possesses, all the swarthy Indian discovers in Eastern seaweed, 1 and all the solitary bird 2 treasures in its nest, all Agenor's city, cheating Tyre, stores in her caldron. 8 All wealth of all men receive in your fashion of giving !


You wish in vain, Muse, to defraud Macer of his Saturnalian tribute : it can't be ; he himself asks for it, and he claims the customary jokes and no melancholy poems, and complains that my flippancies have become dumb. But at present he has time to look at the long reports of his surveyors. Appian Way, 4 what will you do if Macer reads these poems ? 5

4 Of which Macer was curator.

6 i.e. you will be neglected if M. devotes his leisure, not to reports, but to poetry.




NEC vocat ad cenam Marius, nee munera mittit, nee spondet, nee volt credere, sed nee habet.

turba tamen non dest sterilem quae curet amicum. eheu ! quam fatuae sunt tibi, Roma, togae !


NEC doctum satis et parum severunr,

sed non rusticulum tamen libellum

facundo mea Plinio Thalia

i perfer : brevis est labor peractae

altum vincere tramitem Suburae. 5

illic Orphea protinus videbis

udi vertice lubricum theatri

mirantisque feras avemque regis,

raptum quae Phryga pertulit Tonanti ;

illic parva tui domus Pedonis 10

caelata est aquilae minore pinna.

sed ne tempore non tuo disertam

pulses ebria ianuam videto :

totos dat tetricae dies Minervae,

dum centum studet auribus virorum 15

hoc quod saecula posterique possint

Arpinis quoque conparare chartis.

seras tutior ibis ad lucernas :

haec hora est tua, cum furit Lyaeus,

cum regnat rosa; cum madent capilli : 20

tune me vel rigidi legant Catones.

1 Pliny the younger, advocate and letter-writer. M. mentions him also in v. Ixxx. 13, and vu. Ixxxiv. 1.

2 i.e. the ascent up the Esquiline from the Subura. Somewhere on this path was the Lacus Orphei, one of the reservoirs of Rome, where was a statue of Orpheus sur- rounded by beasts listening to his song.




MARIUS invites no one to dinner, and sends no presents, and is surety for no one, and is unwilling to lend in fact he has nothing. Yet a crowd is at hand to court so unprofitable a friend. Alas ! what dolts, O Rome, your clients are !


THIS little book, not learned enough, nor very strict in tone, yet not all unrefined, go, my Thalia, and carry to eloquent Pliny : l short is your labour, when you have crossed the Subura, in breasting the steep path. 2 There you will at once notice Orpheus, spray- sprinkled, crowning his drenched audience, 3 and the wild beasts marvelling at his song, and the Monarch's bird 4 that bore to the Thunderer the ravished Phry- gian ; there stands the modest dwelling of your own Pedo, 5 its frieze graven with eagle of lesser wing. But take heed you give no drunken knock on Elo- quence's door at a time that is not yours ; all the day he devotes to serious study, while he prepares for the ears of the Hundred Court 6 that which time and posterity may compare even with Arpinum's pages. 7 Safer will you go at the time of the late- kindled lamps ; that hour is yours when Lyaeus is in revel, when the rose is queen, when locks are drenched. Then let even unbending Catos read me.

8 Friedlander, however, explains thcatrum "semicircular pool with steps." For tkeatrum = audience, cf (as Housman does^ Ov. Met. xi. 25.

4 Jupiter's eagle that carried off Ganymede : cf. I. vi.

s P. Albinovanus, an epic poet and epigrammatist of the Augustan age.

' cf. vi. xxxviii. 5. 7 Cicero's.




DUCIT ad auriferas quod me Salo Celtiber oras,

pendula quod patriae visere tecta libet, tu mihi simplicibus, Mani, dilectus ab annis

et praetextata cultus amicitia, tu facis ; in terns quo non est alter Hiberis 5

dulcior et vero dignus amore magis. tecum ego vel sicci Gaetula mapalia Poeni

et poteram Scythicas hospes amare casas. si tibi mens eadem, si nostri mutua cura est,

in quocumque loco Roma duobus erit. 10


SCRIBERE te quae vix intellegat ipse Modestus et vix Claranus quid rogo, Sexte, iuvat ?

non lectore tuis opus est sed Apolline libris : iudice te maior Cinna Marone fuit.

sic tua laudentur sane : mea carmina, Sexte, 5

grammaticis placeant, ut sine grammaticis.


CUR spleniato saepe prodeam mento albave pictus sana labra cerussa, Philaeni, quaeris ? basiare te nolo.

1 Learned commentators.

2 i.e. an interpreter.


BOOK X. xx-xxn


THAT Celtiberian Salo draws me to gold-bearing shores, that I fain would see on the hillside the roofs of my native land, you are the cause, Manius, dear to me from my ingenuous years, and wooed with boyhood's friendship ; than whom none else in Hi- beria's land is more sweet to me, and of genuine love more worthy. At your side could I have wel- comed the sun-parched Carthaginian's Gaetulian huts and the hospitality of Scythian steads. If your heart be as mine, if you have a mutual love for me, then, in whatever place, for us twain it will be Rome.


WHY, I ask, do you, Sextus, like writing what hardly Modestus himself, and hardly Claranus, 1 could understand ? Your books do not require a reader, but an Apollo; 2 in your judgment Cinna 3 was greater than Maro. On these terms let your books be praised by all means ; let my poems, Sextus, please commentators so as to do without commentators.


" WHY do I often go abroad with a plastered chin, and my healthy lips painted with white lead ? " Do you ask, Philaenis ? I don't want to kiss you.

8 A friend of Catullus, who wrote a long and obscure epic called Zmyrna; cf. Cat. xciv. He is 'probably "Cinna the poet " of Shak. Jul. Caes. m. Hi. 32,



IAM numerat placido felix Antonius aevo

quindecies actas Primus Olympiadas praeteritosque dies et totos respicit annos

nee metuit Lethes iam propioris aquas, nulla recordanti lux est irigrata gravisque ; 5

nulla fuit cuius non meminisse velit. ampliat aetatis spatium sibi vir bonus : hoc est

vivere bis, vita posse priore frui.


NATALES mihi Martiae Kalendae, lux formosior omnibus Kalendis, qua mittunt mihi munus et puellae, quinquagensima liba septimamque vestris addimus hanc focis acerram. 5

his vos, si tamen expedit roganti, annos addite bis precor novenos, ut nondum nimia piger senecta sed vitae tribus areis l peractis lucos Elysiae petam puellae. 10

post hunc Nestora nee diem rogabo. 2


IN matutina nuper spectatus harena Mucius, inposuit qui sua membra focis,

1 areiS Aid., aureis codd., auribusli., arcubus Housman.

2 post hoc Friedl. , Nestora Heins. , nee hora vel nethora codd.

1 i.e. seventy-five years : cf. vii. xl. 6.

2 Tacitus draws a very different picture : cf. the Index under ' ' Primus. "

  • Who ordinarily received gifts on that day : cf. v.

Ixxxiv. 11.


BOOK X. xxin-xxv


Now in his j>lacid age happy Antonius Primus reckons fifteen Olympiads gone, 1 and he looks back upon past days and the vista of his years, and fears not Lethe's wave now drawing nigh. No day, as he reviews it, is unwelcome and distressing to him, none has there been he would not wish to recall. A good man 2 widens for himself his age's span ; he lives twice who can find delight in life bygone.


MY natal kalends of March, day fairer to me than all the kalends, on .which girls, too, send 3 me a gift, for the fifty-seventh time cakes and this censer of incense I lay on your altars. To these years but so that it be expedient on my asking add, I pray, twice nine years, that I, not as yet dull with too protracted age, but when life's three courses 4 -' are run, may reach the groves of the Elysian dame. 5 Beyond this Nestor's span I will not crave even a day more.


IF Mucius, 6 whom of late you saw one morning in the arena, when he laid his hand upon the fire,

  • Boyhood, manhood, old age. Housman's conjecture

arcitbus = arcs, i.e. the four segments into which the full circle of life (100 years) is divided : cf. Manil. ii. 844-55. M., being fifty -seven, would in eighteen years have com- pleted three arcs, and not have reached the last arc of too protracted age. 6 Proserpine.

6 cf. I. xxi. ; vin. xxx. In this ep. M. takes a different view of the event, saying that the criminal representing Mucius chooses the lesser evil of losing only a limb.



si patiens durusque tibi fortisque videtur, Abderitanae pectora plebis habes.

nam cum dicatur tunica praesente molesta " Ure manum/' plus est dicere " Non facio."


VARE, Paraetonias Latia modo vite per urbes

nobilis et centum dux memorande viris, at nunc, Ausonio frustra promisse Quirino,

hospita Lagei litoris umbra iaces. spargere non licuit frigentia fletibus ora, 5

pinguia nee maestis addere tura rogis. sed datur aeterno victurum carmine nomen :

numquid et hoc, fallax Nile, negare potes ?


NATALI, Diodore, tuo conviva senatus accubat et rarus non adhibetur eques,

et tua tricenos largitur sportula nummos. nemo tamen natum te, Diodore, putat.


ANNORUM nitidique sator pulcherrime mundi, publica quern primum vota precesque vocant,

1 The people of Abdera in Thrace were, like the Boeotians, notorious for their stupidity : cf. Juv. x. 50.

2 The tunica molesta : cf. iv. Ixxxvi. 8.

8 With which a centurion kept discipline among his soldiers.

4 i.e. whose return to Rome we were expecting.


BOOK X. xxv-xxviti

seem to you enduring, and unflinching, and strong, you have the intelligence of Abdera's x rabble. For, when it is said to you, while the torturing tunic 2 is~ by you, "Burn your hand," it is the bolder thing to say " I refuse."


NOTABLE but lately with Latin vine-rod 3 mid Egypt's cities, and a captain of renown to thy hundred soldiers, yet now, O thou who wert pro- mised in vain to Ausonian Quirinus, 4 thou liest, an alien ghost, on the Lagaean shore. 'Twas not allowed me to sprinkle thy chill cheek with my tears, nor to shed rich incense on thy lamented pyre. But there is given thee a name that shall live in deathless song : nay, treacherous Nile, canst thou refuse that too ? 5


ON your birthday, Diodorus, the Senate is your guest at dinner, and few are the knights not in- vited, and your dole lavishes thirty sesterces on each guest^ 6 Yet no one, Diodorus, imagines you had a father. 7


FATHER, most fair, of the years and of the bright universe, whom first of all Gods public vows and

6 i.e. as well as his body ?

6 About double the usual dole. A larger than the usual dole was sometimes given (sportula major) : cf. vm. xlii. 1 ; ix. c. 1.

7 Non natus, a phrase expressing insignificance : cf. vm. Ixiv. 18.



pervius J exiguos habitabas ante penates, plurima qua medium Roma terebat iter :

nunc tua Caesareis cinguntur limina donis 5

et fora tot numeras, lane, quot ora geris.

at tu, sancte pater, tanto pro munere gratus, ferrea perpetua claustra tuere sera.

XXIX QUAM mihi mittebas Saturni tempore lancem,

misisti dominae, Sextiliane, tuae ; et quam donabas dictis a Marte Kalendis,

de nostra prasina est synthesis empta toga, iam constare tibi gratis coepere .puellae : 5

muneribus futuis, Sextiliane, meis.


O TEMPERATAE dulce Formiae litus, vos, cum severi fugit oppidum Martis et inquietas fessus exuit curas, Apollinaris omnibus locis praefert. non ille sanctae dulce Tibur uxoris, 5

nee Tusculanos Algidosve secessus, Praeneste nee sic Antiumque miratur ; non blanda Circe Dardanisve Caieta desiderantur, nee Marica nee Liris, nee in Lucrina lota Salmacis vena. 10

1 perciua 5-, praevius codd.

1 The old temple of Janus was near the Roman Forum, and represented Janus with two faces (Janus Geminus). Domitian built a new temple, giving Janus four faces (quadri- frons), in the Forum Transitorium : cf. vui. ii. The other three forums were the F. Romanum, F. Julii, and F. August!.


BOOK X. xxvui-xxx

prayers implore, thou, pervious once, didst afore- time inhabit a petty house, wherethrough populous Rome wore her thoroughfare. Now is thy threshold encircled with Caesarean offerings, and as many forums thou numberest, Janus, as the faces thou bearest. 1 But do thou, hallowed sire, thankful for a gift so great, guard thy iron portals with a bolt ever undrawn. 2


THE dish you used to send me at Saturn's season you have sent to your mistress, Sextilianus, and, at the cost of the toga you used to give me on the kalends named after Mars, has been bought a green dinner dress. Now your girls begin to cost you nothing : it is out of my presents, Sextilianus, you carry on your amours.


O TEMPERATE Formiae, darling shore ! When he flies from stern Mars' town, and weariedly puts off distracting cares, 'tis you Apollinaris prefers to every spot. Not so does he admire his blameless wife's darling Tibur, nor the retreats of Tusculum or Algidus, not so does he admire Praeneste and Antium ; Circe's witching headland or Dardan Caieta 3 are not longed for, nor Marica 4 nor Liris, nor Salmacis 6 bathed in the Lucrine's waters. Here

2 When the gate of the temple was shut, it was a sign that Rome was not at war.

3 Circeii and Caieta : cf. v. i. 5.

4 A Latin nymph, who had a temple and grove at Min- turnae at the mouth of the Liris in Campania.

5 Probably a spring that fell into the Lucrine lake, and bearing the same name as the spring in Caria associated with the legend of Hermaphroditus : cf. vi. Ixviii. 10. It is here alluded to under the name of the nymph S.



hie summa leni stringitur Thetis vento ;

nee languet aequor, viva sed quies ponti

pictam phaselon adiuvante fert aura,

sicut puellae non amantis aestatem

niota salubre purpura venit frigus. 15

nee saeta longo quaerit in mari praedam,

sed a cubili lectuloque iactatam

spectatus alte lineam trahit piscis.

si quando Nereus sentit Aeoli regnum,

ridet procellas tuta de suo mensa : 20

piscina rhombum pascit et lupos vernas,

natat ad magistruni delicata muraena,

nomenculator mugilem citat notum

et adesse iussi prodeunt senes mulli.

frui sed istis quando, Roma, permittis ? 25

quot Formianos inputat dies annus

negotiosis rebus urbis haerenti ?

o ianitores vilicique felices !

dominis parantur ista, serviunt vobis.


ADDIXTI servum nummis here mille ducentis,

ut bene cenares, Calliodore, semel. nee bene cenasti : mullus tibi quattuor emptus

librarum cenae pompa caputque fuit. exclamare libet : " Non est hie, inprobe, non est 5

piscis : homo est ; hominem, Calliodore, comes."


HAEC mihi quae colitur violis pictura rosisque, quos referat voltus, Caediciane, rogas ?

1 Nereus was a sea-god, and Aeolus the god of the winds. 176

BOOK X. xxx-xxxn

Ocean's surface is ruffled by a gentle breeze ; yet is not the sea-floor still, but a slumberous swell bears on the gaudy shallop with the assisting air, as from the fluttering of a girl's purple fan, when she shuns the heat, there comes refreshing cool. The line seeks not its prey in the distant sea, but the fish, descried from above, draws down the cord cast from bed or couch. If ever Nereus feel the power of Aeolus, 1 the table, safe-supplied from its own store, laughs at the storm; the fishpond feeds turbot and home-reared bass ; to its master's call swims the dainty lamprey ; the usher summons a favourite gurnard, and, bidden to appear, aged mullets put forth their heads. But when dost thou, Rome, permit to enjoy those delights ? How many days of Fo'rmiae does the year put to the credit of one tied to city business ? O happy porters and bailiffs ! Those delights are procured for your masters, they belong to you !


You sold a slave yesterday for twelve hundred sesterces, Calliodorus, that you might dine well once. You have not dined well: 2 a four-pound mullet which you bought was the ornament and chief dish of your dinner. A man may cry, "This is not a fish, not a fish, you profligate : 'tis a man ; a man, Calliodorus, is what you eat."


THIS picture which is honoured by me with violets and roses ask you, Caedicianus, whose features it

2 M. plays on the meaning of bene, "sumptuously," or " well " in a moral sense.

177 VOL. II. N


talis erat Marcus mediis Antonius annis

Primus : in hoc iuvenem se videt ore senex.

ars utinam mores animumque effingere posset ! 5 pulchrior in terris nulla tabella foret.


SIMPLICIOR priscis, Munati Galle, Sabinis,

Cecropium superas qui bonitate senem, sic tibi consoceri claros retinere penates

perpetua natae det face casta Venus, ut tu, si viridi tinctos aerugine versus 5

forte malus livor dixerit esse meos, ut facis, a nobis abigas, nee scribere quemquam

talia contendas carmina qui legitur. hunc servare modum nostri novere libelli,

parcere personis, dicere de vitiis. 10


Di tibi dent quidquid, Caesar Traiane, mereris et rata perpetuo quae tribuere velint :

qui sua restituis spoliate iura patrono (libertis exul non erit ille suis),

dignus es ut possis tutum l servare clientem : 5

ut (liceat tantum vera probare) potes.

1 tutum 5-, totum codd.

1 Referred to also in x. xxiii.

2 Epicurus (cf. vii. Ixix. 3) or Socrates.

I 7 8

BOOK X. xxxn-xxxiv

presents ? Such was Marcus Antonius Primus l in manhood's years : in this face the old man sees himself in youth. Would that art could limn his character 'and mind ! More beautiful in all the world would no painting be !


SIMPLER than the Sabines of old, Munatius Gallus, who surpass the old Athenian 2 in goodness, so may chaste Venus grant you, by your daughter's unsevered marriage tie, to keep your alliance with her father-in-law's illustrious house, if you, when perchance malicious envy shall call mine verses steeped in poisonous gall, thrust that envy from me, as you do, and urge that no man writes such poems who is read. This measure my books learn to keep, to spare the person, to denounce the vice.


MAY the gods grant you, Caesar Trajanus, what- e'er you deserve, and be willing to confirm for all time what they have bestowed. You, who give back to the plundered patron his rights (no more will he be his own freedman's exile), 3 are worthy of power to keep the client safe, power which may you only be allowed to prove it true ! you have.

3 Trajan had forbidden clients and freedmen to bring ac- cusations against their patrons : Plin. Pan. 42. M. now pleads for the client.




OMNES Sulpiciam legant puellae uni quae cupiunt viro placere ; omnes Sulpiciam legant mariti uni qui cupiunt placere nuptae. non haec Colchidos adserit furorem, 5

diri prandia nee refert Thyestae ; Scyllam, fuisse credit: sed castos docet et probos amores, lusus delicias facetiasque.

cuius carmina qui bene aestimarit, 10

nullam dixerit esse nequiorem, nullam dixerit esse sanctiorem. tales Egeriae iocos fuisse udo crediderim Numae sub antro. hac condiscipula vel hac magistra 15

t esses doctior et pudica, Sappho : sed tecum pariter simulque visam durus Sulpiciam Phaon amaret. frustra : namque ea nee Tonantis uxor nee Bacchi nee Apollinis puella 20

erepto sibi viveret Caleno.


INPROBA Massiliae quidquid fumaria cogunt, accipit aetatem quisquis ab igne cadus,

a te, Munna, venit : miseris tu mittis amicis per freta, per longas toxica saeva vias ;

1 Medea. 2 cf. in. xlv. 1. *

1 One of the native Italian Camenae, or Muses, said to

have been the wife of Nilnia, an early king of Rome : cf. vi.

xlvii. 3. . The grot was at the Porta Capena, or at Aricia. 4 cf. x. xxxviii.


BOOK X^ xxxv-xxxvi


LET all young wives read Sulpicia, who wish to please their lords alone ; let all husbands read Sul- picia, who wish to please their brides alone. She claims not as her theme the frenzy of the Colchian dame, 1 nor does she recount Thyestes' dreadful feast ; 2 Scylla and Byblis she does not believe ever were ; but she describes pure and honest love, toyings, endearments, and raillery. He who shall weigh well her poems will say no maid was so roguish, will say no maid was so modest. Such I would believe were Egeria's 3 pleasantries in Numa's dripping grot. With her as your school-mate, or with her as your teacher, you would have been more learned, Sappho, and have been chaste ; but coy Phaon, had he seen her with Sappho and by her side, would have loved Sulpicia. In vain ; for neither as the Thunderer's spouse, nor as Bacchus' or Apollo's mistress, were her Calenus taken from her, would she live. 4


WHATEVER Massilia's vile smoke-rooms store, 5 what- ever jar acquires its age from the fire, comes from you, Munna ; to your wretched friends you consign over the sea, over long roads, deadly poison, and not

5 Wine was matured by being kept over the heat of the furnace, but at Massilia the process appears to have been overdone, and a taste of smoke clung to the wine : cf. in. Ixxxii. 23 ; xui. cxxiii.



nee facili pretio sed quo contenta Falerni 5

testa sit aut cellis Setia cara suis. non venias quare tarn longo tempore Romam,

haec puto causa tibi est, ne tua vina bibas.


IURIS et aequarum cultor sanctissime legum,

veridico Latium qui regis ore forum, municipi, Materne, tuo veterique sodali

Callaicum mandas si quid ad Oceanum . an Laurentino turpis in litore ranas 5

et satius tenues ducere credis acus, ad sua captivum quam saxa remittere mullum,

visus erit libris qui minor esse tribus ? et fatuam summa cenare pelorida mensa

quosque tegit levi cortice concha brevis 10

ostrea Baianis quam non liventia testis,

quae domino pueri non prohibente vorent ? hie olidam clamosus ages in retia volpem

mordebitque tuos sordida praeda canes : illic piscoso modo vix educta profundo 15

inpedient lepores umida lina meos. dum loquor ecce redit sporta piscator inani,

venator capta maele superbus adest : omnis ab urbano venit ad mare cena macello.

Callaicum mandas si quid ad Oceanum . 20

1 M. proceeds to compare, with regard to advantages, Laurentum with Spain, whither he is no\r returning. He is


BOOK X. xxxvi-xxxvn

at an easy price, but at one which would satisfy a crock of Falernian or Setine, dear to its own cellars. Why you do not come to Rome after such an interval this is, I think, your reason : you shun drinking your own wines.


MOST conscientious student of law and of just statutes, who with your truthful tongue rule the Latin forum, if you have any commission, Maternus, to the Spanish ocean for your townsman and old comrade or 1 do you think it better on Laurentum's shore to pull up ugly frogs and thin needle-fish, 2 than to return to its own rocks the captive mullet which shall seem to you of less than three pounds ? and to dine on a tasteless Sicilian lobster set at the top of the table, and on fish which with a smooth coating a small shell covers, 3 than on oysters that do not envy the shell-fish of Baiae, and which slaves devour, unforbid by their master ? Here with shouts you will drive into your toils a stinking vixen, and the foul quarry will bite your hounds ; there the net, scarce drawn just now from the deep that teems with fish, will, all dripping, enmesh my own hares. While I speak, see, your fisherman comes home with empty creel, your huntsman is at hand, exulting in a badger caught ! all your dinner by the sea comes from the city market. If you have any commission to the Spanish ocean

supposed to be at Laurentum paying a farewell visit to Maternus.

2 From the marshes of Laurentum.

8 Probably mussels (mituli) : cf. ill. Ix. 4.




O MOLLES tibi quindecim, Calene,

quos cum Sulpicia tua iugales

indulsit deus et peregit annos !

o nox omnis et hora, quae notata est

cans litoris Indici lapillis ! 5

o quae proelia, quas utrimque pugnas

felix lectulus et lucerna vidit

nimbis ebria Nicerotianis !

vixisti tribus, o Calene, lustris :

aetas haec tibi tota conputatur 10

et solos numeras dies mariti.

ex illis tibi si diu rogatam

lucem redderet Atropos vel unam,

malles quam Pyliam quater senectam.


CONSULE te Bruto quod iuras, Lesbia, natam.

mentiris. nata es, Lesbia, rege Numa ? sic quoque mentiris. namque, ut tua saecula narrant,

ficta Prometheo diceris esse luto.


SEMPER cum mihi diceretur esse secreto mea Polla cum cinaedo, inrupi, Lupe. non erat cinaedus.


MENSE novo lani veterem, Proculeia, maritum deseris atque iubes res sibi habere suas.

1 cf. VL Iv. 3. 2 Fifteen years.

3 One of the Fates. * i.e. the age of Nestor. 184



OH, those fifteen years, rapturous to you, Calenus, those wedded years which, along with your Sulpicia, the god accorded and accomplished! O nights and hours, each marked with the precious pebbles of India's shore ! Oh, what conflicts of endearments, what rivalry of love between you did your happy couch witness, and the lamp o'ersated with showers of Nicerotian l perfume ! You have lived, O Calenus, three lustres : 2 this is all the life you sum, and you count your married days alone. Of them should Atropos 3 restore you even one long asked for, you would choose it rather than four spans of Pylian 4 old age.


You swear, Lesbia, you were born when Brutus was consul : you lie. Were you born, Lesbia, when Numa was king ? There, too, you lie ; for as your generations declare you are said to be fashioned of Promethean clay. 6


SINCE my Polla was always being reported to me

as consorting in secret with a , I broke in

upon them, Lupus. He was not a 6


IN Janus' opening month you abandon your old husband, Proculeia, and bid him keep his own

8 i.e. incredibly old. P. fashioned the human race out of clay : cf. ix. xlv. 8. 6 i.e. but much worse.


quid, rogo, quid factum est? subiti quae causa doloris, nil mihi respondes ? dicam ego, praetor erat :

constatura fuit Megalensis purpura centum 5

milibus, ut nimium munera parca dares,

et populare sacrum bis milia dena tulisset. discidium non est hoc, Proculeia : lucrum est.


TAM dubia est lanugo tibi, tarn mollis ut illam

halitus et soles et levis aura terat. celantur simili ventura Cydonea lana,

pollice virgineo quae spoliata nitent. fortius inpressi quotiens tibi basia quinque, 5

barbatus labris, Dindyme, fio tuis.


SEPTIMA iam, Phileros, tibi conditur uxor in agro. plus nulli, Phileros, quam tibi reddit ager.

QUINTE Caledonios Ovidi visure Britannos et viridem Tethyn Oceanumque patrem,

ergo Numae colles et Nomentana relinquis otia, nee retinet rusque focusque senem ?

1 Tuas res tibi habeto was the legal formula of divorce.

2 In honour of Cybele, the Great Mother of the Gods. It was scenic, and held in April.

1 86


property. 1 What, I ask, what is the matter ? What is the reason of this sudden resentment ? Do you answer me nothing ? I will tell you : he was praetor. The purple robe of the Megalensian 2 festival was likely to cost a hundred thousand sesterces, should you give even a too thrifty show, and the Plebeian festival 3 would have run off with twenty thousand. This is not divorce, Proculeia : it is good business.


So shadowy is the down on thy cheeks, so soft that a breath, or the sun, or a soft breeze, rubs it away. With such a fleecy film are veiled ripening quinces, that gleam brightly when plucked by maiden fingers. Whenever I have too strongly impressed upon thy cheek five kisses, I become, Dindymus, bearded from thy lips.


ALREADY, Phileros, your seventh wife is being buried on your land. Better return than yours, Phileros, land makes to no man. 4


QUINTUS OVIDIUS, purposing to visit the Caledonian Britons, and green Tethys, and father Ocean, can' it be you desert the hills of Numa and Nomentan ease, and do not your fields and fireside hold you

3 The Ludi Plebeii, held in November in the Flaminian Circus.

  • i.e. he succeeds to their estates : cf. n. Ixv. 4; v. xxxvii.




gaudia tu differs : at non et stamina differt 5

Atropos atque omnis scribitur hora tibi.

praestiteris caro (quis non hoc laudet ?) amico ut potior vita sit tibi sancta fides ;

sed reddare tuis tandem mansure Sabinis

teque tuas numeres inter amicitias. 10


Si quid lene mei dicunt et dulce libelli, si quid honorificum pagina blanda sonat,

hoc tu pingue putas et costam rodere mavis, ilia Laurentis cum tibi demus apri.

Vaticana t>ibas, si delectaris aceto : 5

non facit ad stomachum nostra lagona tuum.


OMNIA vis belle, Matho, dicere. die aliquando et bene ; die neutrum ; die aliquando male.


VITAM quae faciunt beatiorem,

iucundissime Martial is, haec sunt : .

res non parta labore sed relicta ;

non ingratus ager, focus perennis ;

lis numquam, toga rara, mens quieta ; 5

vires ingenuae, salubre corpus ;

prudens simplicitas, pares amici,

convictus facilis, sine arte mensa ;

1 One of the Fates.

2 i. e. whom you promised to accompany.

3 Consider yourself as well as your friends.

4 This person requires (like Baeticus in in. cxxvii.) his edibles to be full-flavoured. Pliny (N.H. xv. 32 and 33) con-



back in your old age ? Enjoyment you put off, but Atropos l does not also put off her spinning, and every hour is scored against you. You will have shown to your dear friend 2 who would not praise this? that your sacred word is more to you than life ; yet return to your Sabine farm, and there at length abide, and count yourself one of your own friends. 3


IF my little books contain anything delicate and toothsome, if my flattering page has any ring of eulogy, this you call tasteless 4 and prefer to gnaw a rib, although I offer you the loin of a Laurentine boar. You may drink Vatican if you are pleased with vinegar : my wine-jar does not suit your stomach.


You- want all you say to be smart, Matho. Say sometimes what also is good ; say what is middling ; say sometimes what is bad.


THE things that make life happier, most genial Martial, are these : means not acquired by labour, but bequeathed ; fields not unkindly, an ever blazing hearth ; no lawsuit, the toga seldom worn, a quiet mind ; a free man's strength, 5 a healthy body ; frankness with tact, congenial friends, good-natured guests, a board plainly spread ; nights not spent

trasts the pinguis sapor of olives, bay-leaves, walnuts, and almonds with (inter alia) the sweetness of figs and the softness (lenitas) of milk.

6 i.e. the natural strength of a gentleman, not the coarse strength of a labourer : cf. in. xlvi. 6 ; vi. xi. 6.



nox non ebria sed soluta curis,

non tristis torus et tamen pudicus ; 10

somnus qui facial breves tenebras :

quod sis esse velis nihilque malis ;

summum nee metuas diem nee optes.


NUNTIAT octavam Phariae sua turba iuvencae,

et pilata redit tiamque subitque+ cohors. 1 temperat haec thermas, nimios prior hora vapores

halat, et inmodico sexta Nerone calet. Stella, Nepos, Cani, Cerialis, Flacce, venitis ? 5

septem sigma capit, sex sumus, adde Lupum. exoneraturas ventrem mihi vilica malvas

adtulit et varias quas habet hortus opes, in quibus est lactuca sedens et tonsile porrum,

nee dest ructatrix mentha nee herba salax ; 10 secta coronabunt rutatos ova lacertos

et madidum thynni de sale sumen erit. gustus in his ; una ponetur cenula mensa,

haedus inhumani raptus ab ore lupi, et quae non egeant ferro structoris ofellae 15

et faba fabrorum prototomique rudes ;

1 redit iam subiitque cohors Paley.

1 The goddess Isis, whose temple was closed at the eighth hour : cf. Boissier, Rel. Rom. vol. ii. ch. 2 (3).

4 Leeks were of two kinds (cf. in. xlvii. 8), capitatum, where the bulbs were allowed to grow ou the top of the



in wine, but freed from cares, a wife not prudish and yet pure ; sleep such as makes the darkness brief: be content with what you are, and wish no change ; nor dread your last day, nor long for it.


HER crowd of priests announces to the Egyptian heifer l the eighth hour, and the praetorian guard now returns to camp and another takes its place. This hour tempers the warm baths, the hour before breathes heat too great, and the sixth is hot with the excessive heat of Nero's baths. Stella, Nepos, Canius, Cerialis, Flaccus, do you come ? My crescent couch takes seven : we are six, add Lupus. My bailiff's wife has brought me mallows that will un- load the stomach, and the various wealth the garden bears ; amongst which is squat lettuce and clipped leek, 2 and flatulent mint is not wanting nor the sa- lacious herfr; 3 sliced eggs shall garnish lizard-fish 4 served with rue, and there shall be a paunch drip- ping from the tunny's brine. Herein is your whet : the modest dinner shall be served in a single course a kid rescued from the jaws of a savage wolf, 5 and meat-balls to require no carver's knife, and beans, the food of artisans, and tender young sprouts ;

stalk, and sectile, tonsile, or sectivum, where the stalks were cut young : cf. xi. lii. 6 ; see Mayor on Juv. iii. 293. 8 Eruca, or rocket : cf. in. Ixxv. 3.

  • A poor fish : cf. vn. Ixxviii. 1.
  • i.e. damaged, and thus cheaper. But the flesh of an

animal that bad been mangled by a wolf or other savage beast was supposed to be more tender: ef. in. xlvii. 11; Plut. Symp. ii., qndest. 9.



pullus ad haec cenisque tribus iam perna superstes

addetur. saturis mitia poma dabo, de Nomentana vinum sine faece lagona,

quae bis Frontino consule trima 1 fuit. 20

accedent sine felle ioci nee mane timenda

libertas et nil quod tacuisse velis : de 'prasino conviva meus venetoque loquatur,

nee faciunt 2 quemquam pocula nostra reum.


CUM potes amethystinos trientes et nigro madeas Opimiano, propinas modo conditum Sabinum et dicis mihi, Cotta, " Vis in auro ? " quisquam plumbea vina volt in auro ? 5

FRANGAT Idumaeas tristis Victoria palmas,

plange, Favor, saeva pectora nuda manu ; mutet Honor cultus, et iniquis munera flammis

mitte coronatas, Gloria maesta, comas, heu facinus ! prima fraudatus, Scorpe, iuventa 5

occidis et nigros tarn cito iungis equos. curribus ilia tuis semper properata brevisque

cur fuit et vitae tarn prope meta tuae ?

1 trima Heins, prima codd. * facient ft.

1 Friedlander (Int. p. 65) states that Frontinus was made "consul for the second time along with Trajan on Feb. 20, 98." But can bis = iteruml Housman takes it with trima, and Athenaeus, i. 27 B, says that the wine was " fit for drinking after five years." To read prima would make M. offer an undrinkable wine : cf. i. cv.



to these a chicken, and a ham that has already sur- vived three dinners, shall be added. When you have had your fill 1 will give you ripe apples, wine without lees from a Nomentan flagon, which was three years old in Frontinus' second consulship. 1 To crown these shall be jests without gall, and a freedom not to be dreaded the next morning, and no word you would wish unsaid ; let my guest converse of the Green and the Blue ; 2 my cups do not make any man a defendant.


ALTHOUGH you drink from cups of amethyst and are drenched with dark Opimian, you give me to drink Sabine 3 just laid down, and say to me, Cotta : " Will you drink in gold ? " Does any man wish to drink leaden wines 4 in gold ?

LET Victory sadly break her Idumaean 5 palms ; beat, Favour, with cruel hand thy naked breast ; let Honour change her garb ; and do thou, sorrowful Glory, cast on the cruel flames the offering of thy crowned locks. Ah, crime of fate ! Robbed, Scorpus, 6 of thy first youth, art thou fallen, and so soon dost yoke Death's dusky steeds ! That goal, whereto thy car sped ever in brief course; and swiftly won, why to thy life also was it so nigh ?

2 Factions of the charioteers in the circus.

3 A cheap wine : cf. Hor. Od. i. xx. 1. Opimian was a celebrated vintage of Caecuban : cf. i. xxvi. 7 ; in. xxvi. 3.

4 i.e. worthless ones : cf. I. xcix. 15 (bad coin).

5 Idume was S. of Judaea, and was celebrated for its palms. 6 cf. X. liii.




SIDERA iam Tyrius Phrixei respicit Agni

Taurus et alternum Castora fugit hiemps ; ridet ager, vestitur humus, vestitur et arbor,

Ismarium paelex Attica plorat Ityn. quos, Faustina, dies, quales tibi Roma fRavennaef l 5

abstulit ! o soles, o tunicata quies ! o nemus, o fontes solidumque madentis harenae

litus et aequoreis splendidus Anxur aquis, et non unius spectator lectulus undae,

qui videt hinc puppes fluminis, inde maris ! 10

sed nee Marcelli Pompeianumque, nee illic

sunt -triplices thermae nee fora iuncta quater, nee Capitolini summum penetrale Tonantis

quaeque nitent caelo proxima templa suo. dicere te lassum quotiens ego credo Quirino : 15

"Quae tua sunt, tibi habe: quae mea, redde mihi."


THELYN viderat in toga spadonem, damnatam Numa dixit esse moecham.


ILLE ego sum Scofpus, clamosi gloria Circi, plausus, Roma, tui deliciaeque breves,


1 The Sun is in Gemini, having passed through Aries and Taurus. May has begun.

  • Philomela (the nightingale) laments Itys, whom her

sister Procne (the swallow) slew.




Now looks the Tyrian bull back on the star of Phryxus' ram, and winter has fled from Castor in Pollux' place ; l smiling is the field, earth is putting on her garb, the tree too its garb, the Attic adulteress mourns for Thracian Itys. 2 What days, Faustinus, what fair days of Ravenna 3 has Rome robbed you of ; O sunny hours, O rest in tunic clad ! O thou grove, O ye founts, and thou shore of firm moist sand, and Anxur gleaming in the ocean waves, and the couch that views more waters than one, that marks on this side the river's* ships, on that the sea's ! Aye, and no theatres of Marcellus and of Pompey are there, nor there are the three warm baths, 5 nor the four forums joined, nor the august shrine of the Capitoline Thunderer, and the temples that gleam nigh their own heaven. 6 How often do I fancy you in your weariness saying to Quirinus : "What is yours keep to yourself; what is mine restore to me."


NUMA saw the eunuch Thelys in a toga, and said he was a convicted adulteress. 7


THAT Scorpus am I, the glory of the clamorous Circus, thy applause, O Rome, and thy short-lived

8 Perhaps the name of his villa (Paley). But the text is corrupt.

4 The canal following the course of the Appian Way : cf. x. Iviii. 4. 6 Agrippa's, Nero's, and Titus'.

of the Ge

6 The temple of the Gens Flavia : cf. ix. i. S. cf. ii. xxxix. 2.

195 o 2


invida quern Lachesis raptum trieteride nona, dum numerat palmas, credidit esse senem.


M ENS AS, Ole, bonas ponis, sed ponis opertas. ridiculum est : possum sic ego habere bonas.


ARUECTUM quotiens Marulla penem pensavit digitis diuque mensa est, libras scripula sextulasque dicit ; idem post opus et suas palaestras loro cum similis iacet remisso, quanto sit levior Marulla dicit. non ergo est manus ista, sed statera.


Tons, Galle, iubes tibi me servire diebus

et per Aventinum ter quater ire tuum. eximit aut reficit dentem Cascellius aegrum ;

infestos oculis uris, Hygine, pilos ; non secat et tollit stillantem Fannius uvam ;

tristia servorum stigmata delet Eros ; enterocelarum fertiir Podalirius Hermes :

qui sanet ruptos die mihi, Galle, quis est ?

1 One of the Fates. 196


darling. Me, snatched away in my ninth three years' span, jealous Lachesis, 1 counting my victories, deemed old in years.


You lay out, Olus, handsome tables, but you lay them out covered. Absurd ! I can possess in this fashion handsome tables.


OGNI volta che Manilla ha pesato colle dita 1'eretto membro, e lungo tempo lo misurato, ne dice le libre, gli scrupoli ed i grani. Parimenti dopo 1'opera e le sue giostre, quando giace simile ad un rilasciato cuojo, Marulla dice di quanto sia piu leggiero. Questa dunque non e una mano ma una stadera.


ALL day, Gallus, you bid me serve you, and thrice, four times to mount your Aventine. Cascellius draws or stops the decayed tooth ; the hairs that wound the eyes you, Hyginus, sear ; without cutting Fan- nius heals a suppurating uvula; the degrading brands on slaves Eros obliterates ; of hernia Hermes is held a very Podalirius. 2 Who is there, Gallus, to mend the ruptured? 3

2 The physician of the Greek camp before Troy. 8 i.e. those broken down (cf. ix. Ivii. 4) by fatigue. There is a play on ruptos.

I 97



ARGENTI libram mittebas ; facta selibra est, sed piperis. tanti non emo, Sexte, piper.


ANXURIS aequorei placidos, Frontine, recessus

et propius Baias litoreamque domum, et quod iiihumanae Cancro fervente cicadae

non novere nemus, flumineosque lacus dum colui, doctas tecum celebrare vacabat 5

Pieridas ; nunc nos maxima Roma terit. hie inihi quando dies meus est ? iactamur in alto

urbis, et in sterili vita labore perit, dura suburban! dum iugera pascimus agri

vicinosque tibi, sancte Quirine, lares. 10

sed non solus amat qui nocte dieque frequentat

limina nee vatem talia damna decent, per veneranda mihi Musarum sacra, per omnes

iuro deos, et non officiosus amo.


CONSUMPTA est uno si lemmate pagina, transis,

et breviora tibi, non meliora, placent. dives et ex omni posita est instructa macello

cena tibi, sed te mattea sola iuvat. non opus est nobis nimium lectore guloso ; 5

hunc volo, non fiat qui sine pane satur.

1 M. ironically assumes that the pepper must be as valu- able as the plate formerly sent.




A POUND of silver plate you used to send me ; it has become half a pound, and of pepper too ! I don't buy pepper so dear, 1 Sextus.


THE calm retreat, Faustinus, of Anxur by the sea, and a nearer Baiae, and a house by the shore, and the wood which the troublesome 2 cicadas have not discovered when Cancer flames, and the fresh-water canal while I frequented these I had leisure along with you for allegiance to the learned Muses ; now mightiest Rome wears us out. Here when is a day my own ? I am tossed on the deep ocean of the city, and life is wasted in sterile toil while I main- tain 3 stubborn acres of suburban land and a house near to you, holy Quirinus. But he is not alone a lover who day and night haunts thresholds, and such loss of time ill befits a poet. By the Muses' rites, to be hallowed by me, by all the gods I swear : careless client as I am, I love you yet.


IF a column is taken up by a single subject, you skip it, and the shorter epigrams please you, not the better. A meal, rich and furnished from every market, has been placed before you, but only a dainty attracts you. I have no need of a reader too nice : I want him who is not satisfied without bread.

2 An English traveller compares the chirping of the cicada in Italy to the "scream of the corn-craik."

3 i.e. spend more on it than it brings in : c/I x. xcvi. 7 ; or, " live on the produce of": cf. ix. Ixxx. 2.




IURA trium petiit a Caesare discipulorum adsuetus semper Munna docere duos.


Hie festinata requiescit Erotion umbra, crimine quam fati sexta peremit hiemps.

quisquis eris nostri post me regnator agelli, manibus exiguis annua iusta dato :

sic lare perpettio, sic turba sospite solus 5

flebilis in terra sit lapis iste tua.


LUDI magister, parce simplici turbae :

sic te frequentes audiant capillati

et delicatae diligat chorus mensae,

nee calculator nee notarius velox

maiore quisquam circulo coronetur. 5

albae Leone flammeo calent luces

tostamque fervens lulius coquit messem.

cirrata loris horridis Scythae pellis,

qua vapulavit "Marsyas Celaenaeus,

ferulaeque tristes, sceptra paedagogorum, 10

cessent et Idus dormiant in Octobres :

aestate pueri si valent, satis discunt.


MARMORA parva quidem sed non cessura, viator, Mausoli saxis pyramidumque legis.

1 M. parodies the jus trium liberorum : cf. u. xci. 6 ; ix. xcvii. 6.

2 cf. on the same subject v. xxxiv. and xxxvii,




MUNNA, who was accustomed always to teach two, begged of Caesar the rights attached to three pupils. 1


HERE in too early gloom rests Erotion whom, by crime of Fate, her sixth winter laid low. Whoe'er thou shalt be, the lord after me of my little field, to her tiny ghost pay thou year by year thy rites. So may thy roof-tree continue, so thy household live unscathed, and in thy fields this -gravestone alone call forth a tear ! 2


SCHOOLMASTER, spare your simple flock ; so in crowds may curly-headed boys listen to you, and a dainty bevy round your table be fond of you, and no arith- metic master or rapid shorthand teacher be ringed with a larger circle. The glaring days glow beneath flaming Leo, and blazing July ripens the parched grain. Let the Scythian's hide, thonged with brist- ling lashes, with which Marsyas 3 of Celaenae was scourged, and the alarming ferules, sceptres of pedagogues, rest and sleep till October's Ides. In summer if boys are well, they learn enough.


A MARBLE, O traveller, you read small in truth, but one that shall not give place to the stones of

3 A famous piper who challenged Apollo to a musical contest on the terms that the loser should be dealt with as the winner chose. His statue stood in the Forum : cf. n. Ixiv. 8.



bis mea Romano spectata est vita Tarento et nihil extremos perdidit ante rogos :

quinque dedit pueros, totidem mihi luno puellas, 5 cluserunt omnes lumina nostra manus.

contigit et thalami mihi gloria rara fuitque una pudicitiae mentula nota meae.


CONTIGERIS regina meos si Polla libellos, non tetrica nostros excipe fronte iocos.

ille tuus vates, Heliconis gloria nostri, Pieria caneret cum fera bella tuba,

non tamen erubuit lascivo dicere versu 5

" Si nee pedicor, Cotta, quid hie facio ? "


CUM te municipem Corinthiorum

iactes, Charmenion, negante nullo,

cur frater tibi dicor, ex Hiberis

et Celtis genitus Tagique civis ?

an voltu similes videmur esse ? 5

tu flexa nitidus coma vagaris,

Hispanis ego contumax capillis ;

levis dropace tu cotidiano,

hirsutis ego cruribus genisque ;

os blaesum tibi debilisque lingua est, 10

nobis ilia fortius loquentur : l

1 iliaf. loquentur Haupt, filia f. loquetur ; Friedlander suggests loqumtiur.

1 cf. Lib. Spect. i. 5. 202


Mausolus l and of the Pyramids. Twice was my life approved at Roman Tarentos, 2 and ere my pyre at last was lit it forfeited no virtue. Five sons, as many daughters Juno gave me ; the hands of all closed my eyes. And rare honour fell to my wedded lot : one spouse alone was all that my pure life knew.


POLLA, 3 queen of women, if you shall handle my little volumes, with no frowning look greet my jests. He, your own bard, the glory of our Helicon, although on Pierian trump he made resound wild wars, yet did not blush to write in playful verse : " If I am not a Ganymede, Cotta, what do I here?"f


SEEING that you boast yourself a townsman of the Corinthians, Charmenion and no one denies it why am I called "brother" by you, I, who was born of the Iberians and Celts, and am a citizen of Tagus? Is it in face we look alike ? You stroll about sleek with curled hair, my locks are Spanish and stiff; you are smoothed with depilatory daily, I am one with bristly shanks and cheeks ; your tongue lisps, and your utterance is feeble ; my guts will speak in

  • A spot in the Campus Martius, where was an altar of

Dis (Pluto) : cf. iv. i. 8. The Ludi Saeculares were cele- brated here, and had been held by Claudius in A.D. 47, and by Domitian in 88. Noble ladies (yvvdiicfs 4-iriffijfj.oi : Zos. n. v.) took part, and possibly they were bound to be of acknowledged character and virtue.

3 The wife of Lucan the poet : c/. vn. xxi.

4 This line does not appear in Lucan's extant works.



tarn dispar aquilae columba non est

nee dorcas rigido fugax leoni.

quare desine me vocare fratrem,

ne te, Charmenion, vocem sororem. 15


Quis, rogo, tain durus, quis tarn fuit ille superbus

qui iussit fieri te, Theopompe, cocum ? hanc aliquis faciem nigra violare culina

sustinet, has undo polluit igne comas ? quis potius cyathos aut quis crystalla tenebit ?

qua sapient melius mixta Falerna manu ? si tarn sidereos manet exitus iste ministros,

luppiter utatur iam Ganymede coco.


PVRRHAE filia, Nestoris noverca, quam vidit Niobe puella canam, Laertes aviam senex vocavit, nutricem Priamus, socrum Thyestes, iam cornicibus omnibus superstes, hoc tandem sita prurit in sepulchre calvo Plotia cum Melanthione.


CUM tibi non Ephesos nee sit Rhodos aut Mitylene, sed domus in vico/ Laelia, patricio,

1 "Brother" and "sister" were often used in a disreput- able sense : cf. n. iv. 3 ; Tib. in. i. 26.



stronger tone : a dove is not so unlike an eagle,, nor a timid doe a savage lion. Wherefore cease to call me " brother " lest 1 call you, Charmenion, " sister" ! *


WHO was he, I ask, so harsh, who was he so insolent that bade you, Theopompus, become a cook ? Is this a face any man endures to mar with black kitchen-soot, these the locks he pollutes with greasy flame ? Who in your stead will hold the ladles, or who the crystal cups ? From whose hand shall the blended Falernian take sweeter savour? If such an end as that await attendants so heavenly- bright, let Jupiter now employ his Ganymede as cook.


PYRRHA'S daughter, Nestor's step-mother, one whom Niobe, when a girl, saw as an old crone, old Laertes called his grandmother, Priam his nurse, Thyestes his mother-in-law, Plotia, having now outlived all the crows, 2 is laid in this tomb at last, and by the side of bald Melanthion itches with lust.


ALTHOUGH your home is not Ephesus, nor Rhodes, nor Mitylene, but a house, Laelia, in Patrician street, 8

2 Crows were said to outlive nine (Hes. apud Plut. De Def. Or. xi.), or at least five (Arist. Av. 609) generations of men.

3 Under the Esquiline in the middle of Rome : cf. vii. Ixxiii. 2.



deque coloratis numquam lita mater Etruscis,

durus Aricina de regione pater, Kvpte p-ov, fjii\i p.ov, i/w^i; p.ov congeris usque, 5

pro pudor ! Hersiliae civis et Egeriae. lectulus has voces, nee lectulus audiat omnis,

sed quern lascivo stravit arnica viro. scire cupis quo casta modo matrona loquaris ?

numquid, cum crisas, blandior esse potes ? 10

tu licet ediscas totam referasque Corinthon

non tamen omnino, Laelia, Lais eris.


CUSTODES das, Polla, viro, non accipis ipsa. hoc est uxorem ducere, Polla, virum.


QUOD mihi vix unus toto liber exeat anno

desidiae tibi sum, docte Potite, reus. iustius at quanto mirere quod exeat unus,

labantur toti cum mihi saepe dies, non resalutantis video nocturnus amicos, 5

gratulor et multis ; nemo, Potite, mihi. nunc ad luciferam signat mea gemma Dianam,

nunc me prima sibi, nunc sibi quinta rapit.

1 i.e. Roman, not Greek. H. was the wife of Romulus. E. of Nuina, kings of Rome.

3 Juvenal (vi. 192-5) seems to have copied the last two sentences.

3 A celebrated Corinthian courtesan.



and though your mother was one of the sunburnt Etruscans, and never rouged, your sturdy father one from the district of Aricia, you are continually he'ap- ing on me in Greek "my lord/' "my honey/' "my soul" shameful! although you are a fellow-citizen of Hersilia and Egeria. 1 Let a couch hear such phrases, nor even every couch, but only that which his mistress has laid out for an amorous paramour. 2 You want to know how you are to speak as a chaste matron ? Can you be more alluring when your ges- tures are lewd ? You may learn by heart and repro- duce all the ways of Corinth, yet nohow, Laelia, will you be a Lais. 3


You set watchers over your husband, Polla, but do not receive them yourself. This, Polla, is to take your husband to wife. 4


BECAUSE scarcely one book of mine is published in a whole year, I am by you, learned Potitus, accused of laziness. But how much mgre justly should you wonder that one is published at all, when often whole days of mine slip away. Before daybreak I call on friends who do not return my call, and I offer congratulations to many : no one, Potitus, offers them to me. Now my signet-ring seals a document at the temple of Diana the Light-bringer ; 5 now the first hour, now the fifth hurries me off. Now consul

4 Husbands often set watchers over their wives : cf. Tac. Ann. xi. 35. To return the compliment, says M., is to convert a husband into a wife : cf. viu. xii.

5 On the Aventine (cf. vi. Ixiv. 13), far from M.'s house on the Esquiline.



mine consul praetorve tenet reducesque choi-eae ;

auditur toto saepe poeta die. 10

sed nee causidico possis inpune negare,

nee si te rhetor grammaticusve rogent. balnea post decumam lasso centumque petuntur

quadrantes. net quando, Petite, liber ?


QUISQUIS laeta tuis et sera parentibus optas

fata, brevem titulum marmoris huius ama. condidit hac caras tellure Rabirius umbras ;

nulli sorte iacent candidiore senes : bis sex lustra tori nox mitis et ultima clusit, 5

arserunt uno funera bina rogo. hos tamen ut primis raptos sibi quaerit in annis.

inprobius nihil his fletibus esse potest.


FRUSTRA, Blariditiae, venitis ad me

adtritis miserabiles labellis :

dicturus dominum deumque non sum.

iam non est locus hac in urbe vobis ;

ad Parthos procul ite pilleatos 5

et turpes humilesque supplicesque

pictorum sola basiate regum.

non est hie dominus sed imperator,

sed iustissimus omnium senator,



or praetor detains me, and his escorting band j 1 often a poet is listened to a whole day long. Then also you cannot with impunity refuse a pleader, nor if a rhetorician or grammarian were to ask you. After the tenth hour, fagged out, I make for the baths and my hundred farthings. 2 When, Potitus, shall a book be written ?


WHOE'ER thou art who for thy parents prayest for a happy and a late death, regard with love this marble's brief inscription. In this earth Rabirius has hidden dearly-loved shades : with fairer lot none of the old lie in death. Twice six lustres of wedded life one night, kindly and their latest, closed ; on one pyre two bodies burned. Yet he looks for them as if they had been snatched away from him in early years : naught more unwarranted can be than such a lament.


IN vain, O ye Flatteries, ye come to me, wretched creatures with your shameless lips ; I think not to address any man as Master and God. 3 No longer in this city is there place for you ; fly far off to the turbaned Parthians, and kiss base, crawling and suppliant as ye are the soles of bedizened kings. No master is here, but a commander, aye, a senator most just of all, 4 by whose means rustic Truth with

1 i.e. escorting a magistrate home from some function ; cf. II. Ixxiv. 2 ; xi. xxiv. 1.

2 cf. in. vii. 3.

3 A title assumed by Domitian, now dead. 4 Trajan.

209 vol.. n. P


per quern de Stygia domo reducta est 10

siccis rustica Veritas capillis. hoc sub principe, si sapis, caveto verbis, Roma, prioribus loquaris.


LITTERA facundi gratum mihi pignus amici

pertulit, Ausoniae dona f severaf l togae, qua non Fabricius, sed vellet Apicius uti,

vellet Maecenas Caesarianus eques. vilior haec nobis alio mittente fuisset ; 5

non quacumque manu victima caesa litat : a te missa venit : possem nisi munus araare,

Marce, tuum, poteram nomen amare meum. munere sed plus est et nomine gratius ipso

officium docti iudiciumque viri. 10


IAM parce lasso, Roma, gratulatori,

lasso clienti. quamdiu salutator

anteambulones et togatulos inter

centum merebor plumbeos die toto,

cum Scorpus una quindecim graves hora 5

ferventis auri victor auferat saccos ?

non ego meorum praemium libellorum

(quid enim merentur ?) Apulos velim campos ;

non Hybla, non me spicifer capit Nilus,

nee quae paludes delicata Pomptinas 10

1 sera (pro severa) y, superba Heins.

1 F. is a type of early simplicity ; A. and M. of modern luxury.



her unperfumed locks has been brought home from her abode by Styx. Under such a prince, if thou art wise, beAvare, O Rome, to speak the words thou didst before.


THE letter of my eloquent friend has brought me a welcome pledge of love, the staid gift of an Italian toga, which not Fabricius, 1 but Apicius would have been glad to wear, glad too Maecenas, Caesar's knight. Less prized would it have been if another sent it : 'tis not the victim slain by every hand that wins favour. By you 'tis sent and comes ; if I could not love your gift, Marcus, I could love at least my own name. 2 But more than the gift, and more welcome than the name itself, is the attention and judgment of a learned man.


AT length spare, O Rome, the weary congratu- lator, the weary client ! How long, at levees, among the escort and the full-dressed throng, shall I earn a hundred worthless farthings 3 in a whole day, whereas in a single hour, Scorpus, a winner of the race, bears off fifteen bags of gleaming gold ? I would not as reward for my little books for what do they de- serve ? wish for Apulian plains ; * nor does Hybla or corn-bearing Nile allure me, nor the dainty Setine

2 M.'s name was perhaps embroidered on the toga. Or M. may mean, "I value the gift as coming from another Marcus."

3 The usual client's dole.

4 Celebrated for wool : cf. n. xlvi. 6 ; vni. xxviii. 3.

2 1 1 p 2


ex arce clivi spectat uva Setini.

quid concupiscam quaeris ergo ? dormire.


MILIA viginti quondam me Galla poposcit

et, fateor, magno non erat ilia nimis. annus abit : "Bis quina dabis sestertia/' dixit.

poscere plus visa est.quam prius ilia mihi. iam duo poscenti post sextum milia mensem 5

mille dabam nummos. noluit accipere. transierant binae forsan trinaeve Kalendae,

aureolos ultro quattuor ipsa petit, non dedimus. centum iussit me mittere nummos ;

sed visa est nobis haec quoque summa gravis. 10 sportula nos iunxit quadrantibus arida centum ;

hanc voluit : puero diximus esse datam. inferius numquid potuit descendere ? fecit.

dat gratis, ultro dat mihi Galla : nego.


Hoc, Fortuna, tibi videtur aequum ? civis non Syriaeve Parthiaeve, nee de Cappadocis eques catastis, sed de plebe Remi Numaeque verna, iucundus probus innocens amicus, lingua doctus utraque, cuius unum est sed magnum vitium quod est poeta, pullo Maevius alget in cucullo : cocco mulio fulget Incitatus.

1 The noises of Rome are described in xn. Ivii. 2t2


grape which from the hill's crest looks on the Pomp- tine marshes. Do you ask, then, what I long for ? To sleep. 1


GALLA formerly demanded of me twenty thousand sesterces, and I allow she was not too dear. A year goes by : " You will give ten thousand ? " she said ; she appeared to me to be demanding more than before. Then after six months, when she demanded two thousand, I offered a thousand : she would not accept them. Two, or perhaps three kalends had passed, and voluntarily she herself asked for four gold pieces : 2 I did not give them. She bade me send her a hundred sesterces, but this sum, too, seemed to me stiff. A starveling allowance of a hundred farthings allied me with a patron : this she wanted; I said I had given them to my slave. Could she come down to lower depths ? She achieved this. Galla offers me her favours for nothing, offers of her own accord : I decline.


DOES this, Fortune, seem to you to be fair ? Here is a citizen, not of Syria or Parthia, no knight from Cappadocian slave-stands, but home-born, one of the crowd of Remus and of Numa, a friend pleasant, honest, blameless, learned in either tongue, whose one fault and that a great one is that he is a poet : 'tis Maevius, 3 who shivers in a black cowl. Incitatus, the mule-driver, shines in scarlet.

2 The aureolus was a gold coin worth 25 denarii, intrin- sically about a pound of British money. Four, in terms of sesterces, would be 400.

3 Perhaps Martial means himself.




NEQUIUS a Caro nihil umquam, Maxime, factum est quam quod febre perit : fecit et ilia nefas.

saeva nocens febris saltern quartana fuisset : * servari medico debuit ilia 2 suo.


IBIS litoreas, Macer,- Salonas ;

ibit rara fides amorque recti

et quae, cum comitem trahit pudorem,

semper pauperior redit potestas.

felix auri ferae colone terrae, 5

rectorem vacuo sinu remittes

optabisque moras, et exeuntem

udo, Dalmata, gaudio sequeris.

nos Celtas, Macer, et truces Hiberos

cum desiderio tui petemus. 10

sed quaecumque tamen feretur illinc

piscosi calamo Tagi notata,

Macrum pagina nostra nominabit :

sic inter veteres legar poetas,

nee multos mihi praeferas priores, 15

uno sed tibi sim minor Catullo.


AD lapidem Torquatus habet praetoria quartum ; ad quartum breve rus emit Otacilius.

1 fuiases /3. 2 ilia 5-, ille codd.

1 C. was a specialist in quartan fever, and should have been allowed to die by his own particular disease. With the



NOTHING more scandalous, Maximus, was ever done by Carus than his dying of fever, and it too com- mitted an outrage. The cruel, fatal fever should have been at least a quartan ! That malady should have been reserved for its own doctor. 1


You will go, Macer, to Salonae 2 by the sea ; with you will go rare loyalty and love of right, and power, which, with moderation in its train, ever returns the poorer. Happy dweller in that gold- bearing land, you will send home your Governor with empty pouch, and will beg him to linger, and as he goes you, Dalmatian, will speed him with a tearful joy. I, Macer, will seek the Celts and fierce Hiberians, longing the while for you. Yet, whatever page of mine shall be wafted from thence, scored with a reed-pen from fish-teeming Tagus, it shall speak of Macer's name. So may I be read among the old poets, and you prefer not many to me, but may I be to you less than Catullus alone !


AT the fourth milestone Torquatus possesses a palace : at the fourth Otacilius bought a narrow

reading ille in 1. 4 the meaning is that the disease should have taken the mild form of a quartan (cf. Juv. iv. 57), and the patient been left for his own doctor to kill.

2 The capital of Dalmatia, where M. was going as governor. He had been (cf, x. xvii.) curator of the Appian Way.



Torquatus nitidas vario de marmore thermas

extruxit ; cucumam feeit Otacilius. disposuit daphnona suo Torquatus in agro ; 5

castaneas centum sevit Otacilius. consule Torquato viei fuit ille magister,

non minor in tanto visus honore sibi. grandis ut exiguam bos ranam ruperat olim,

sic, puto, Torquatus rumpet Otacilium. 10


PLORAT Eros, quotiens maculosae pocula mtirrae

inspicit aut pueros nobiliusve citrum, et gemitus imo ducit de pectore quod non

tota miser coemat Saepta feratque domum. quam multi faciunt quod Eros ! sed lumine sicco 5

pars maior lacrimas ridet et intus habet.


CUM duo venissent ad Phyllida mane fututum et nudam cuperet sumere uterque prior,

promisit pariter se Phyllis utrique daturam, et dedit : ille pedem sustulit, hie tunicam.


  • .- . ....-;...,, ..:. *.., -.., , # ^

Si quid nostra tuis adicit vexatio rebus, mane vel a media nocte togatus ero

1 Cucuma, literally, is a large seething pot.

2 Augustus divided Rome into regions and districts (Suet.



field. Torquatus built warm baths bright with variegated marble : Otacilius set up a geyser. 1 On his land Torquatus laid out a laurel-grove : Otacilius planted a hundred chestnuts. When Torquatus was consul the other was a vestryman, 2 in such a dignity deeming himself no lesser man. Just as the huge ox in the fable caused the frog to burst himself, so, I think, Torquatus will burst Otacilius.


EROS weeps whenever he inspects cups of spotted 3 murrine, or slaves, or a citrus-wood table finer than usual, and heaves groans from the bottom of his chest because he wretched man cannot buy up the whole Saepta 4 and carry it home. How many act like Eros ! But with dry eyes the greater part laugh at his tears and havethem in their hearts.


Dui essendo venuti da Fillide di mattina per immembrarla, e 1'uno e 1'altro desiderando goderla nuda il primo, Fillide promise darsi in una volta a tutti e due, e si diede. Quello sollevo il piede, questo la tunica.


IF my discomfort bring any advantage to your affairs, at daybreak, or after midnight 1 will don my

Aug. 30), each of the latter being put under four vici magistri chosen from the vicinity.

3 Transparency or paleness was a defect : cf. iv. Ixxxv. 2.

  • cf. n. xiv. 5.



stridentesque feram flatus Aquilonis iniqui et patiar nimbos excipiamque nives.

sed si non fias quadrante beatior uno per gemitus nostros ingenuasque cruces,

parce, precor, fesso vanosque remitte labores qui tibi non prosunt et mini, Galle, nocent.


RAROS colligis hinc et hinc capillos

et latum nitidae, Marine, calvae

campum temporibus tegis comatis ;

sed moti redeunt iubente vento

reddunturque sibi caputque nudum 5

cirris grandibus hinc et inde cingunt.

inter Spendophorum Telesphorumque

Cydae stare putabis Hermerotem.

vis tu simplicius senem fateri,

ut tandem videaris unus esse ? 10

calvo turpius est nilril comato.


M i H A Hi>. quare dormitum non eat Afer ? accumbat cum qua, Caediciane, vides.


I AM senior Ladon Tiberinae nauta carinae proxima dilectis rura paravit aquis.

1 S. and T. are beautiful boys referred to in ix. Ivi.; xi. 218


toga, and bear the whistling blasts of the harsh North wind, and endure the storm-clouds and wel- come the snow. But if you don't become richer by a single farthing through my groans and the servile tortures of a free man, be merciful, I pray, to my weariness, and remit these useless labours that don't help you, Gallus, and hurt me.


FROM the one side and the other you gather up your scanty locks and you cover, Marinus, the wide expanse of your shining bald scalp with the hair from both sides of your head. But blown about, they come back at the bidding of the wind, and return to themselves, and gird your bare poll with big curls on this . side and on that. You would think the Hermeros of Cydas is standing between Spendo- phorus and Telesphorus. 1 Will you, please, in simpler fashion confess yourself old, so as after all to appear a single person ? Nothing is more unsightly than a bald man covered with hair. 2


Do you wonder why Afer does not go to bed ? You see, Caedicianus, the lady with whom he reclines at table.


Now grown old, Ladon, the master of a boat on Tiber, bought some land near his beloved stream.

xxvi. Hermeros is unknown, and may he someone so called on account of his ugliness and baldness. 2 cf. v. xlix. on a similar subject.



quae cum saepe vagus premeret torrentibus undis Thybris et hiberno rumperet arva lacu,

emeritam puppim, ripa quae stabat in alta, inplevit saxis opposuitque vadis.

sic nimias avevtit aquas, quis credere posset ? auxilium domino mersa carina tulit.

NEMO nova caluit sic inflammatus arnica,

flagravit quanto Laurus amore pilae. sed qui primus erat lusor dum floruit aetas,

nunc postquam desit ludere, prima pila est.


OCTOBRES age sentiat Kalendas

facundi pia Roma Restituti :

linguis omnibus et favete votis ;

natalem colimus, tacete lites.

absit cereus aridi clientis, 5

et vani triplices brevesque mappae

expectent gelidi iocos Decembris.

certent muneribus beatiores :

Agrippae tumidus negotiator

Cadmi municipes ferat lacernas ; " 10

pugnorum reus ebriaeque noctis

cenatoria mittat advocato ;

1 cf. II. xliii. 6. L. is now good for nothing. Or perhaps the allusion may be to his dilapidated appearance through poverty.



As Tiber often o'erflowing was drowning it with rushing waters, and with a winter flood usurping the tilled fields, he filled with stones his boat, now past service, that stood on the high bank, and opposed it as a barrier to the waters. So he averted the deluge. Who could believe it ? The sinking of his ship brought succour to its owner !


No man has been so inflamed with ardour for a new mistress as Laurus has been fired with the delight of playing at ball. But he, who was a prime player while life was in its bloom, now he has ceased to play is a prime dummy. 1


COME, let duteous Rome recognise October's kalends, the birthday of eloquent Restitutus 2 r with all your tongues, and in all your prayers, utter well- omened words ; we keep a birthday, be still, ye law- suits ! Away with the needy client's wax taper ! and let useless three-leaved tablets and curt napkins wait for the jollity of cold December. 3 Let richer men vie in gifts : let Agrippa's 4 pompous tradesman bring mantles, the fellow-citizens of Cadmus 5 ; let the de- fendant in a charge of assault and drunkenness at night send his counsel dinner-suits. Has a slandered

2 An advocate, perhaps the Claudius R. spoken of by Pliny (Ep. m. ix. 16) as " vir exercitatus et vigilans, et quamlibet subitis paratus."

3 " Away with rubbishy gifts : let every one send his best ! "

4 In the Saepta where were fashionable shops : cf. n. xiv. 5; ix. lix. 1. B i.e. Tyrian.



infamata virum puella vicit ?

veros sardonychas, sed ipsa tradat ;

mirator veterum senex avorura 15

donet Phidiaci toreuma caeli ;

venator leporem, colonus haedum,

piscator ferat aequorum rapinas.

si mittit sua quisque, quid poetam

missurum tibi, Restitute, credis ? 20


OMNES persequeris praetorum, Cotta, libellos ; accipis et ceras. officiosus homo es.


I UNO labor, Poly elite, tuus et gloria felix, Phidiacae cuperent quam meruisse manus,

ore nitet tanto quanto superasset in Ide iudice convictas non dubitante deas.

lunonem, Polyclite, suam nisi frater amaret, 5

lunonem poterat frater amare tuam.


QUID vellis vetulum, Ligeia, cunnum ?

quid busti ciueres tui lacessis ?

tales munditiae decent puellas

(nam tu iam nee anus potes videri) ;

istud, crede mihi, Ligeia, belle 5

non mater facit Hectoris, sed uxor.

1 cf. iv. xxxix. 4.

2 This ep. is unintelligible (Friedlander). It depends on the meaning of libellos.



young wife defeated her husband ? Let her bestow, and with her own hands, genuine sardonyxes. Let the old admirer of ancient days give chased plate of Phidias' chisel, 1 the hunter a hare, the farmer a kid, the fisher bring the spoil of the sea. If every man send his own peculiar gift, what do you think, Re- stitutus, a poet will send you ?


You run after all the announcements of trials be- fore the Praetor, Cotta, and you accept note books. You are an attentive person ! 2


JUNO, thy work, Polyclitus, bringing thee proud glory, such as the hands of Phidias might be eager to have won, shines in beauty such as on Ida would have o'ercome the goddesses condemned by no hesi- tating judge. 3 Did not her brother 4 love his own Juno, Polyclitus, that brother might well have loved this Juno of thine !


WHY, Ligeia, do you depilate your aged charms ? Why do you stir the ashes of your dead self? Such trickings befit young girls (for you cannot now seem to be even an old crone) ; that which you do, Ligeia, believe me, is not pretty in Hector's mother, only

3 Paris, who adjudged Venus to be more beautiful than Juno or Minerva.

4 Jupiter.



erras si tibi cunnus hie videtur,

ad quern mentula pertinere desit.

quare si pudor est, Ligeia, noli

barbam vellere mortuo leoni. 10


OMNES eunuchos habet Almo nee arrigit ipse : et queritur pariat quod sua Polla nihil.


MARI, quietae cultor et comes vitae,

quo cive prisca gloriatur Atina,

has tibi gemellas barbari decus luci

conmendo pinus ilicesque Faunorum

et semidocta vilici manu structas 5

Tonantis aras horridique Silvani,

quas pinxit agni saepe sanguis aut haedi,

dominamque sancti virginem deam templi,

et quern sororis hospitem vides castae

Martem meavum principem Kalendarum, 10

et delicatae laureum nemus Florae,

in quod Priapo persequente confugit.

hoc omne agelli mite parvuli numen

seu tu cruore sive ture placabis,

" Ubicumque vester Martialis est/' dices 15

" hac ecce mecum dextei'a litat vobis

absers sacerdos ; vos putate praesentem

et date duobus quidquid alter optabit."

1 i.e. do not seek to stir passion now dead. 224

BOOK X. xc-xcii

in his wife. You are mistaken if you think those are charms, when gallantry has ceased to concern itself with them. So, if you have any shame, Ligeia, forbear to pluck the beard of a dead lion. 1


ALMO has eunuchs all about him, and he himself is inefficient, and yet he complains that his Pol la produces nothing.

MAHIUS, votary of that quiet life you shared with me, citizen in whom ancient Atina makes her boast, these twin pines, the ornament of an untrimmed wood, I commend to you, 2 and the holm-oaks of the Fawns, and the altars, built by my bailiff's unprac- tised hand, of the Thunderer and of shaggy Sil- vanus, that oft the blood of lamb or goat has stained ; and the virgin goddess, 3 queen of her hallowed shrine, and him whom you see, his pure sister's guest, Mars, who rules my birthday kalends ; and the laurel grove of dainty Flora, whereinto she fled when Priapus pursued. To all these gentle deities of my small field, whoe'er they be, whom you propitiate, whether with blood or incense, you shall say : " Wherever your Martial is, behold, by this right hand with me he sacrifices to you, an absent priest. Deem ye that he is here, and grant to both whatever either shall pray for ! "

2 Martial, being about to return to Spain, commends to M. the Nomentan farm, and the duty of keeping up its sacred rites. 3 Diana.





Si prior Euganeas, Clemens, Helicaonis oras pictaque pampineis videris arva iugis,

perfer Atestinae nondum vulgata Sabinae carmina, purpurea sed modo culta toga.

ut rosa delectat metitur quae pollice primo, sic nova nee mento sordida charta iuvat.


NON mea Massy] us servat pomaria serpens, regius Alcinoi nee mihi servit ager,

sed Nomentana securus germinal hortus arbore, nee furem plumbea mala timent.

haec igitur media quae sunt modo nata Subura mittimus autumni cerea poma mei.


INKANTEM tibi vir, tibi, Galla, remisit adulter. hi, puto, non dubie se futuisse negant.


SAEPE loquar minium gentes quod, Avite, remotas

miraris, Latia factus in urbe senex, auriferumque Tagum sitiam patriumque Salonem

et repetam saturae sordida rura casae.

1 Euganei was the old name of the inhabitants of Venetia. Helicaon was the son of Antenor who founded Patavium (Padua).

a iugum is regularly used by Coluniella of the trellis to which the vine shoots were fastened. 3 cf. I. Ixvi. 8.


- BOOK X. xciu-xcvi


IF before me, Clemens, you shall behold Helicaon's Euganean shores, 1 and the fields decked with vine- clad trellises, 2 carry to Sabina of Atesta poems, un- published as yet, and that too newly arrayed in purple wrapper. As the rose delights us that is first plucked by the finger, so a sheet pleases when 'tis new and unsoiled by the chin. 3


No Massylian serpent 4 guards my orchard, nor does the royal plantation of Alcinous 5 serve my wants, but my garden burgeons in security with its Nomentan fruit-trees, and my poor fruits dread no thief. So I send you these yellow apples of my autumn crop, freshly grown in the midst of the Subura/'


YOUR husband, Galla, has sent you back the babe, your lover has sent it back. They, 1 think, in no doubtful fashion deny connection.


You often wonder, Avitus, 7 why I speak overmuch of nations very far off, though I have grown old in Latium's city, and long for gold-bearing Tagus and my native Salo, and look back to the rough fields of

4 That guarded the golden apples of the Hesperides : cf. xni. xxxvii. 6 cf. vn. xlii. 6.

8 i.e. bought thereby M., as his own farm at Nomentum produced nothing worth sending : cf. vn. xxxi. 12.

7 cf. ix. i. Ep.

227 2


ilia placet tellus in qua res parva beatum 5

me facif et tenues luxuriantur opes : pascitur hie, ibi pascit ager ; tepet igne maligno

hie focus, ingenti lumine lucet ibi ; hie pretiosa fames conturbatorque macellus,

mensa ibi divitiis ruris operta sui ; 10

quattuor hie aestate togae pluresve teruntur,

autumnis ibi me quattuor una tegit. i, cole nunc reges, quidquid non praestat amicus

cum praestare tibi possit, Avite, locus.


DUM levis arsura struitur Libitina papyro, dum murram et casias flebilis uxor emit,

Jam scrobe, iam lecto, iam pollinctore parato, heredem scripsit me Numa : convaluit.


ADDAT cum mihi Caecubum minister

Idaeo resolutior cinaedo,

quo nee filia cultior nee uxor

nee mater tua nee soror recumbit,

vis spectem potius tuas lucernas 5

aut citrum vetus Indieosque denies ?

suspectus tibi ne tamen recumbam,

praesta de grege sordidaque villa

tonsos horridulos mdes pusillos

hircosi mihi filios subulci. 10

perdet te dolor hie : habere, Publi,

mores non potes hos et hos ministros.


BOOK X. xcvi-xcvm

a fruitful country-house. That land is dear to me wherein small means make me rich, and a slender store is luxury. The soil is maintained l here, there it maintains you ; here your hearth is scarcely warm with its grudging fire, with a mighty blaze it shines there. Here hunger is dear and the market makes you bankrupt, there stands a table covered with its own country's wealth. Here four togas or more grow threadbare in a summer, there during four autumns one covers me. Go to, now ! and pay court to great men, when a place can afford you, Avitus, whatever a friend does not afford !


WHILE the lightly-heaped pyre was being laid with papyrus for the flame, 2 while his weeping wife was buying myrrh and casia, when now the grave, when now the bier, when now the anointer was ready, Numa wrote me down his heir, and got well !


WHEN an attendant more voluptuous than the cupbearer of Ida 3 pours out my Caecuban, one than whom your daughter or wife, or mother or sister, is no smarter as she reclines at table, do you wish me instead to look at your lamps, or at your antique table of citrus- wood and its ivory legs ? Neverthe- less, that I may not be suspected by you at your table, produce for me from the throng in your rough farm- stead some short-haired, unkempt, clownish, puny fel- lows, sons of a malodorous swineherd. This jealousy of yours will betray you ! You cannot, Publius, possess such morals and such servants at once.

1 cf. x. Iviii. 9. 2 cf. vin. xliv. 14. 3 Ganymede.




Si Romana forent haec Socratis ora, fuissent lulius in Saturis qualia Rufus habet.


QUID, stulte, nostris versibus tuos misces ? cum litigante quid tibi, miser, libro ? quid congregare cum leonibus volpes aquilisque similes facere noctuas quaeris ? habeas licebit alterum pedem Ladae, 5

inepte, frustra crure ligneo curris.


ELYSIO redeat si forte remissus ab agro

ille suo felix Caesare Gabba vetus, qui Capitolinum pariter Gabbamque iocantes

audierit, dicet " Rustice Gabba, tace."


QUA factus ratione sit requiris,

qui numquam futuit, pater Philinus ?

Gaditanus, Avite, dicat istud,

qui scribit nihil et tamen poeta est.


MUNICIPES, Augusta mihi quos Bilbilis acri monte creat, rapidis quern Salo cingit aquis,

1 Possibly on a portrait of R. as a frontispiece to his Satires. The portrait is as ugly as Socrates. Others, however, suggest t'n Satyris "amid a group of satyrs."


BOOK X. xrix-cin


IF this face of Socrates had been a Roman's, it would have been just what Julius Rufus presents in his Satires. 1


WHY, you fool, do you mix your verses with mine ? What have you, wretched fellow, to do with a book that is at odds with you ? 2 Why do you try to herd foxes with lions, and to make owls like eagles ? You may possess one foot as swift as Ladas, 3 yet, you stupid, you run in vain with a leg of wood.


IF, by chance sent back from the Elysian fields, the old Gabba, 4 fortunate in his master, Caesar, were to return, he who hears Capitolinus 6 and Gabba in a jesting match will say : "Boorish Gabba, hold your tongue ! "


Do you ask how it comes that Philinus, who never sleeps with his wife, is yet a father? Gaditanus must answer that, Avitus : he writes nothing, and yet he is "a poet."


FELLOW-TOWNSMEN, the children of Augustan Bil- bilis on its keen hillside, which Salo girds with

2 cf. i. liii. 3.

8 A celebrated Spartan i-unner, and winner at Olympia : cf. ii. Ixxxvi. 8.

4 The jester of the Emperor Augustus : cf. i. xli. 16.

5 Trajan's jester.



. ecquid laeta iuvat vestri vos gloria vatis ?

nam decus et nomen famaque vestra sunius, nee sua plus debet tenui Verona Catullo 5

meque velit dici non minus ilia suum. quattuor accessit tricesima messibus aestas,

ut sine me Cereri rustica liba datis, moenia dum colimus dominae pulcherrima Roinae :

mutavere meas Itala regna comas. 10

excipitis placida reducem si mente, venimus ;

aspera si geritis corda, redire licet.


I NOSTRO comes, i, libelle, Flavo

longum per mare, sed faventis undae,

et cursu facili tuisque ventis

Hispanae pete Tarraconis arces :

illinc te rota toilet et citatus 5

altam Bilbilin et tuum Salonem

quinto forsitan essedo videbis.

quid mandem tibi quaeris ? ut sodales

paucos, sed veteres et ante brumas

triginta mihi quattuorque visos 10

ipsa protinus a via salutes

et nostrum admoneas subinde Flavum

iucundos mihi nee laboriosos

secessus pretio paret salubri,

qui pigrum faciant tuum parentem. 15

haec sunt. iam tumidus vocat magister

castigatque moras, et aura portum

laxavit melior : vale, libelle :

navem, scis, puto, non moratur unus.



hurrying waters, does the glad renown of your bard delight you ? For I am your glory and repute, and your fame, and his own Verona owes no more to elegant Catullus, and would wish me to be called no less her own son. A thirtieth summer has been added to four harvests since without me you offered to Ceres rustic cakes, while I have so- journed within the fair walls of mistress Rome ; the realm of Italy has grizzled my locks. If you greet me with gentle will on my return, I come to you ; if you carry churlish hearts, I can go back. 1


Go, fellow wayfarer of my Flavus ; go, little book, over the wide sea but when the wave befriends you and, on easy course and with breezes all your own, seek the heights of Spanish Tarraco. From there the wheel will carry you, and, rapidly borne, you will perchance at the fifth stage see high-set Bilbilis and your Salo. Ask you what is my charge to you ? That you greet, even as you are on the way, my comrades few are they, but old ones, and last seen by me now thirty and four winters back and now and then remind my Flavus that he procure for me at a wholesome price some retreat, pleasant and not hard to keep up, which may make a lazy man of your begetter. This is my charge. Already the skipper calls in blustering tones, and is blaming the delay, and a fairer wind has opened the har- bour. Farewell, little book : you know, I think, one passenger does not delay a vessel.

1 M. appears to anticipate jealousy : cf. xii. Kp.

2 33



Quo tu, quo, liber otiose, tendis

cultus Sidone l non cotidiana ?

numquid Parthenium videre ? certe :

vadas et redeas inevolutus.

libros non legit ille sed libellos ; 5

nee Musis vacat, aut suis vacaret.

ecquid te satis aestimas beatum,

contingunt tibi si manus minores ?

vicini pete porticum Quirini :

turbam non habet otiosiorem 10

Pompeius vel Agenoris puella,

vel primae dominus levis carinae.

sunt illic duo tresve qui revolvant

nostrarum tineas ineptiarum,

sed cum sponsio fabulaeque lassae 15

de Scorpo fuerint et Incitato.


TRISTE supercilium durique severa Catonis frons et aratoris filia Fabricii

1 sindone &.

1 He probably read these on behalf of the Emperor. The Temple of Quirinus near M.'s house ; cf. x. Iviii. 10.

f. i 236

The references are respectively to the Portion Pompeii (cf. II. xiv. 10) ; the Porticus Europae (cf. n. xiv. 15) ; and


WHERE, where are you going, idle book, smart in purple not of every day? Can it be to. see Parthenius ? No doubt : go and return unopened ; publications he does not read, only petitions, 1 nor has he leisure for the Muses, or he would have leisure for his own. Do you not think yourself fortunate enough if lesser hands may await you ? Make for Quirinus' Colonnade 2 hard by ; a crowd more idle not Pompey contains, nor Agenor's daughter, nor the in- constant captain of the first ship. 3 There are two or three there who may unroll my twaddle, fit only for worms, but only when the bet and languid tales about Scorpus and Incitatus 4 are done with.


FORBIDDING frowns, and rigid Cato's brow austere, and the daughter of Fabricius 5 the ploughman, and

the Porticus Argonautarum (cf. n. xiv. 6). Jason is called levis because of his conduct to Medea.

4 Charioteers : cf. x. 1. and X. Ixxvi. 9.

5 Fabricius, a type of the old Roman simplicity of life. On account of their poverty, his daughters were dowered by the Senate.



et personati fastus et regula morum,

quidquid et in tenebris non sumus, ite foras.

clamant ecce mei "lo Saturnalia" versus : et licet et sub te praeside, Nerva, libet.

lectores tetrici salebrosum ediscite Santram : nil mihi vobiscum est : iste liber meus est.


NON urbana mea tantum Pimpleide gaudent

otia, nee vacuis auribus ista dainus, sed meus in Geticis ad Martia signa pruinis

a rigido teritur centurione liber, dicitur et nostros can tare Britannia versus. 5

quid prodest ? nescit sacculus ista meus. at quam victuras poteramus pangere chartas

quanta que Pieria proelia flare tuba, cum pia reddiderint Augustum numina terris,

et Maecenatem si tibi, Roma, darent I 1 10


SACRA laresque Phrygum, quos Troiae maluit heres quam rapere arsuras Laomedontis opes,

scriptus et aeterno mine primum luppiter auro et soror et summi filia tota patris,

1 darent Heins., daret codd.

1 Who succeeded to the Empire in Oct. 96 A.D., this book being published at the Saturnalia in December.

2 A Roman grammarian in the time of Julius Caesar. He wrote a treatise on famous men, and a grammatical work, De verborum antiquitate. He is mentioned by later writers, including Jerome.


BOOK XI. n-iv

masked Conceit, and Propriety, and all things which in our private lives we are not, get ye gone ! See, my verses cry " Ho for the Saturnalia ! " 'tis allowed, and under you, Nerva, 1 our Governor, 'tis our joy as well. Ye strait-laced readers, learn by heart rugged Santra 2 : I have nothing to do with you : this book is mine !


'Tis not city idleness alone that delights in my Muse, nor do I give these epigrams to vacant ears, but my book, amid Getic frosts, beside martial stand- ards, is thumbed by the hardy centurion, and Britain is said to hum my verses. What profit is it ? My money-bag knows nothing of that. But what im- mortal pages could I frame, and of wars how mighty could I blow my Pierian trump, if the kindly deities, now they have restored Augustus 3 to earth, were also, Rome, to give you a Maecenas !


YE sacred symbols and native gods of Phrygia, whom Troy's heir 4 chose to rescue rather than Lao- medon's wealth doomed to the fire, and thou, Jupiter, now for the first time depicted in everlasting gold, 5 and thou, sister and daughter all his own 6 pf the

s i.e. the Emperor Nerva.

  • Aeneas at the burning of Troy.

6 Some representation of Jupiter placed by Nerva in the Temple on the Capitol. Aeterno = never again to be destroyed by fire.

6 Juno and Minerva, the latter being "all his own," as having sprung from his head.



et qui purpureis iam tertia nomina fastis, lane, refers Nervae, vos precor ore pio :

hunc omnes servate ducem, servate senatum ; moribus hie vivat principis, ille suis.

TANTA tibi est recti revereiitia, Caesar, at aequi

quanta Numae fuerat : sed Numa pauper erat. ardua res haec est, opibus non tradere mores

et, cum tot Croesos viceris, esse Numam. si redeant veteres, ingentia nomina, patres, 5

Elysium liceat si vacuare nemus, te colet invictus pro libertate Camillus,

aurum Fabricius te tribuente volet ; te duce gaudebit Brutus, tibi Sulla cruentus

imperium tradet, cum positurus erit ; 10

et te private cum Caesare Magnus amabit,

donabit totas et tibi Crassus opes, ipse quoque infernis revocatus Ditis ab umbris

si Cato reddatur, Caesarianus erit.


UNCTIS falciferi senis diebus, regnator quibus inperat fritillus, versu ludere non laborioso

1 Ne'rva being consul for the third time. The consular records were kept in the Temple of Janus : cf. vm. Ixvi. 11. '- The legendary second king of Rome.

3 The conqueror of Veii, and rescuer of Rome from the Gauls.

4 Who refused the presents of Pyrrhus, king of Epirus.

8 M. credits S. with patriotism. As a fact S. abdicated the dictatorship in B.C. 79 at the height of his power, as he


BOOK XI. iv-vi

Almighty Sire, and thou, Janus, who for the third time now addest Nerva's name to the annals of the purple, 1 'tis to you I pray with pious utterance. This our Chief preserve ye all, preserve ye the Senate ; by its Prince's pattern may it live, he by his own !

As great is thy reverence for right and justice, Caesar, as was Numa's, but Numa 2 was poor. 'Tis a hard task this, not to sacrifice manners to wealth, and, though thou hast surpassed many a Croesus, to be a Numa. Were our sires of old, mighty names, to return, were it allowed to empty the Elysian grove, to thee Camillus, 3 liberty's unconquered champion, will pay his court, gold at thy giving will Fabricius 4 accept, in thee as captain will Brutus be glad, to thee bloody Sulla will resign his power when he shall seek to lay it down ; 5 and thee the Great Captain, allied with Caesar, only a private citizen, will love, and Crassus will bestow on thee all his wealth. Cato, 7 too, himself, were he called back to return from the nether shades of Dis, will be Caesar's partizan.


ON the old Scy the- bearer's 8 feastful^ days, whereof the dice-box 9 is king and lord, you, cap- had exterminated all his opponents and superstitiously fearing to trespass further on the kindness of Fortune, whose child he regarded himself.

" A member of the first Triumvirate (Pompey, Crassus and Caesar) and on of the richest Romans.

7 Who committed suicide rather than submit to Julius .Caesar.

8 Saturn, who gave his name to the Saturnalia.

9 Gambling was allowed at the Saturnalia: cf. v. Ixxxiv. 5.




permittis, puto, pilleata Roma.

risisti ; licet ergo, non vetamur. . 5

pallentes procul hinc abite curae ;

quidquid venerit obvium loquamur

morosa sine cogitatione.

misce dimidios, puer, trientes,

quales Pythagoras dabat Neroni, 10

misce, Dindyme, sed frequentiores :

possum nil ego sobrius ; bibenti

succurrent mihi quindecim poetae.

da nunc basia, sed Catulliana :

quae si tot fuerint quot ille dixit, 15

donabo tibi Passerem Catulli.


I AM certe stupido non dices, Paula, marito,

ad moechum quotiens longius ire voles, " Caesar in Albanum iussit me mane venire,

Caesar Circeios." iam stropha talis abit. Penelopae licet esse tibi sub principe Nerva : 5

sed prohibet scabies ingeniumque vetus. infelix, quid ages ? aegram simulabis amicam ?

haerebit dominae vir comes ipse suae, ibit et ad fratrem tecum matremque patremque.

quas.igitur fraudes ingeniosa pares? 10

diceret hystericam se forsitan altera moecha

in Sinuessano velle sedere lacu. quanto tu melius, quotiens placet ire fututum,

quae verum mavis dicere, Paula, viro !

1 The pilleum, or cap of liberty worn by manumitted slaves (cf. n. Ixviii. 4) was also generally worn at the Saturnalia. It was a symbol of licence. Thus, on the death of Nero, the common people assumed it, and ran about the whole city : Suet. Nero Ivii.


BOOK XI. vi-vn

clad l Rome, allow me, I wot, to trifle in verse un- toilsome. You have smiled : I may then, I am not forbidden. Ye pallid cares, far hence away ! what- ever comes to my mind let me speak without wrinkled meditation. Blend, boy, cups half and half, such as Pythagoras - offered Nero ; blend them, thou, Dindymus, 3 and that more oft ; nothing sober can I do : as I drink a fifteen-poets power will bear me up. Give me kisses now, and by Catullus's measure ; if they be as many as he said, I will give thee a Sparrow of Catullus. 4


Now at least you will not say, Paula, to your dolt of a husband, every time you want to go to a lover at a distance, " Caesar bade me come in the morning to his Alban villa, Caesar bade me come to Circeii." Now such a manoeuvre is off. 'Tis lawful for you to be a Penelope under Nerva as chief, but your itch and inveterate bent forbid you. Unfortunate woman, what will you do ? Will you pretend the sickness of a friend ? Your husband in person will cling to his dame's skirts, and will go with you to brother and mother and father. What fraud then would your ingenuity devise ? Another wanton would perhaps say she is hysterical, and wished to sit in Sinuessa's baths. How much better is your practice whenever you have a mind to stray ! You, Paula, prefer to tell your husband the truth !

2 Nero's cupbearer, with whom he went through the form of marriage : cf. Suet. Nero xxix. ; Tac. Ann. xv. 37.

8 M.'s attendant : cf. X. xlii.

4 C. asked Lesbia for thousands of kisses (Cat. v. 7-9) ; he also wrote a poem (Cat. iii.) on the death of her sparrow.

243 R 2



LAPSA quod externis spirant opobalsama truncis,

ultima quod curvo quae cadit aura croco ; poma quod hiberna maturescentia capsa,

arbore quod verna luxuriosus ager ; de Palatinis dominae quod Serica prelis, 5

'sucina virginea quod regelata manu ; amphora quod nigri, sed longe, fracta Falerni,

quod qui Sicanias detinet hortus apes ; quod Cosmi redolent alabastra focique deorum,

quod modo divitibus lapsa corona comis : 10

singula quid dicam ? non sunt satis ; omnia misce :

hoc fragrant pueri basia mane mei. scire cupis nomen ? si propter basia, dicam.

iurasti. nimium scire, Sabine, cupis.


CLARUS fronde lovis, Romani fama coturni, spirat Apellea redditus arte Memor.


CONTULIT ad saturas ingentia pectora Turnus. cur non ad Memoris carmina ? frater erat.


TOLLK, puer, calices tepidique toreumata Nili et mihi secura pocula trade manu

1 Which was sprinkled about the theatre or amphitheatre : cf. v. xxv. 8 ; viu. xxxiii. 4.

2 He swears too eagerly, and M. withholds the name.


BOOK XI. vni-xi


BREATH of balm shed from foreign trees, of the last effluence that falls from a curving jet of saffron; 1 perfume of apples ripening in their winter chest, of the field lavish with the leafage of spring ; of Augusta's silken robes from Palatine presses, of amber warmed by a maiden's hand ; of a jar of dark Falernian shattered, but far off, of a garden that stays therein Sicilian bees ; the scent of Cosmus' alabaster boxes, and of the altars of the gods ; of a chaplet fallen but now from a rich man's locks why should I speak of each ? Not enough are they : mix them all ; such is the fragrance of my boy's kisses at morn. Would you learn his name? If the kisses only make you ask, I will tell you. You have sworn. You want to know too much, Sabinus! 2


ILLUSTRIOUS in Jove's leafage, 3 Memor, the glory of the Roman buskin, breathes here, rendered by Apelles' art.


TuRNUs 4 brought to Satire a mighty intellect, why not to Memor's song? He was his brother.


AWAY, boy, with chalices and embossed glasses from the warm Nile, and offer me with fearless hand the

3 cf. iv. i. 6. Menior was a tragic poet, and brother of Turnus in the next epigram.

4 >/. vn. xcvii. 8. As to Meir.or see preceding epigram. Turnus would not compete with his own brother.



trita patrutn labris et tonso pura ministro ;

anticus mensis restituatur honor, te potare decet gemma qui Mentora t'rangis 5

in scaphium moechae, Sardanapalle, tuae.


lus tibi natorum vel septem, Zoile, detur, dum matrem nemo det tibi, nemo patrem.


QUISQUIS Flaminiam teris, viator,

noli nobile praeterire marmor.

urbis deliciae salesque Nili,

ars et gratia, lusus et voluptas,

Romani decus et dolor theatri 5

atque omnes Veneres Cupidinesque

hoc sunt condita, quo Paris, sepulchro.


HEREDES, nolite brevem sepelire colonum : nam terra est illi quantulacumque gravis.


SUNT chartae mihi quas Catonis uxor et quas horribiles legant Sabinae :

1 Not by the ringleted minion of the day.

2 cf. iv. xxxix. 5 ; ix. lix. 16.

  • cf. ii. xci. 6.

4 He is a mere terrae filius, a homo non luduis, i.e. of no account : cf. vin. Ixiv. 18.


BOOK XI. xi-xv

cups worn by our father's lips and cleansed by a short- haired attendant : l let its old-world honour be given back to the board. It becomes you to drink from a jewelled cup, who break up Mentor's 2 handiwork to shape. Sardanapallus, an utensil for your mistress.


LET the rights of a father of sons, 3 even of seven, be granted you, Zoilus provided no man assign you a mother, no man a father. 4


WHOE'ER thou art, traveller, that treadest the Flaminian Way, give heed not to pass by a noble monument. The delight of the city and the wit of Nile, incarnate art and grace, frolic and joy, the fame and the affliction of Rome's theatre, and all the Venuses and Cupids, 5 are buried in this tomb where Paris 6 lies.


YE heirs, do not bury the dwarf farmer; for any earth would be heavy upon him. 7


I HAVE writings that Cato's wife and that grim Sabine dames might read ; I wish this little book

5 An echo of Catullus, iii. 1.

6 A famous actor of mimes, put to death by Domitian because of an intrigue with Domitia, the Empress : cf. Suet. Dom. iii.

7 A common wish was "sit tibi terra levis": cf. v. xxxiv. 9; ix. xxix. 11.



hie totus volo rideat libellus

et sit nequior omnibus libellis.

qui vino madeat nee erubescat 5

pingui sordidus esse Cosmiano,

ludat cum pueris, amet puellas,

nee per circuitus loquatur il l;nn.

ex qua nascimur, omnium parentem,

quam sanctus Numa mentulam vocabat. 10

versus hos tamen esse tu memento

Saturnalicios, Apollinaris :

mores non habet hie meos libellus.


Qui gravis es nimium, potes hinc iam, lector, abire

quo libet : urbanae scripsimus ista togae ; iam l mea Lampsacio lascivit pagina versu

et Tartesiaca concrepat aera manu. o quotiens rigida pulsabis pallia vena, 5

sis gravior Curio Fabricioque licet ! tu quoque nequitias nostri lususque libelli

uda, puella, leges, sis Patavina licet, erubuit posuitque meum Lucretia librum,

sed coram Bruto ; Brute, recede : leget. 10


NON omnis nostri nocturna est pagina libri : invenies et quod mane, Sabine, legas.

1 IK i in y.

1 cf. in. lv. 1. 2 The second legendary king of Rome. 3 The same caution is found in i. iv. 8.

  • i.e. Priapean, L. being a town on the Hellespont where

Priapus was worshipped.


BOOK XI. xv-xvn

to laugh from end to end, and be naughtier than all my little books. Let it be drenched in wine and not ashamed to be stained with rich Cosmian l unguents ; let it play with the boys, love the girls, and in no roundabout phrase speak of that where- from we are born, the parent of all, which hallowed Numa 2 called by its own name. Yet remember that these verses are of the Saturnalia, Apollinaris : this little book does not express 3 my own morals.


You, reader, who are too strait-laced, can now go away from here whither you will : I wrote these verses for the citizen of wit ; now my page wantons in verse of Lampsacus, 4 and beats the timbrel with the hand of a figurante of Tartessus. 5 Oh, how often will you with your ardour disarrange your garb, 6 though you may be more strait-laced than Curius and Fabricius ! You also, O girl, may, when in your cups, read the naughtiness and sportive sallies of my little book, though you may be from Patavium. 7 Lucretia 8 blushed and laid down my volume ; but Brutus was present. Brutus, go away : she will read it.


NOT every page of my book is for reading at night ; you will find, too, what you may read in the morning," Sabinus.

5 i.e. of a female dancer from Gades : cf. v. Ixxviii. 26.

6 For the idea cf. Catullus, xxxii. 11.

7 Where the women had the reputation of chastity : cf. vi. xlii. 4. 8 Put here as symbolical of chastity.

9 i.e. when you are sober.




DONASTI, Lupe, rus sub urbe nobis ;

sed rus est mihi mains in fenestra.

rus hoc dicere, rus potes vocare ?

in quo ruta facit nemus Dianae,

argutae tegit ala quod cicadae, 5

quod formica die comedit uno,

clusae cui folium rosae corona est ;

in quo non magis invenitur herba

quam Cosmi folium piperve crudum ;

in quo nee cucumis iacere rectus

iiec serpens habitare tola possit.

urucam male pascit hortus unam,

consumpto moritur culix salicto,

et talpa est mihi fossor atque arator.

non boletus hiare, non mariscae lo

ridere aut violae patere possunt.

finis mus populatur et colono

tamquam sus Calydonius timetur,

et sublata volantis ungue Procnes

in nido seges est hirundinino ; 'JO

et cum stet sine falce mentulaque,

non est dimidio locus Priapo.

vix implet cocleam peracta messis,

et mustum nuce condimus picata.

errasti, Lupe, littera sed una : "25

nam quo tempore praedium dedisti,

mallem tu mihi prandium dedisses.

1 " A leaf of rue " seems to have been proverbial for a narrow space : Petr. 37, 58 ; cf. also xi. xxxi. 17.

2 The swallow.


BOOK XI. xvin


You have given me, Lupus, a suburban farm, but I have a bigger farm in my window. A farm can you call this, style this a farm, wherein a plant of rue 1 forms a grove of Diana, which the wing of a shrill cicala covers, which an ant eats up in a single day ; for which a shut rose's petal would be a canopy ; wherein grass is no more found than a leaf for Cosmus' per- fumes or green pepper ; wherein a cucumber cannot lie straight, nor a snake harbour its whole length ? The garden gives short commons to a single cater- pillar ; a gnat, when it has consumed the willow, expires, and a mole is my ditcher and ploughman. No mushroom can swell, no figs can split, or violets expand. My borders a mouse ravages, and is feared by the tenant as much as a Calydonian boar, and my crop, lifted by the claws of flying Procne, 2 lies in a swallow's nest ; and, though he stands shorn of his sickle and his appurtenances, there is no room by half for Priapus. My harvest, when gathered, hardly fills a snail-shell, and we store the must in a pitch-sealed nut. You have made a mistake, Lupus, but only by one letter ; for when you gave me a fee I would you had given me a feed. 3

3 Lupus gave a praedium (land), and M. wanted a prandium (lunch), the difference being the letter n. "Fee" in law means an estate in land that descends to the holder's heir ; here used in the. sense of landed property.




QUAEUIS cur nolim te ducere, Galla ? diserta es. saepe soloecismum mentula nostra facit.


CAESARIS Augusti lascivos, livide, versus

sex lege, qui tristis verba Latina legis : "Quod futuit Glaphyran Antonius, hanc inihi poenani

Fulvia constituit, se quoque uti futuam. Fulviam ego ut futuam ? quod si me Manius oret 5

pedicem, faciam ? non puto, si sapiam. ' Aut futue, aut pugnemus ' ait. quid quod mihi vita

carior est ipsa mentula ? signa canant ! ' absolvis lepidos nimirum, Auguste, libellos,

qui scis Romana simplicitate loqui. 10


LYDIA tarn laxa est equitis quam culus aeni,' quam celer arguto qui sonat acre trochus,

1 ~cf. Juv. vi. 456, soloecismum liceat fecisse marito, of the husband of a learned wife. But here M. adds an obscene sense.

2 A beautiful hetaera, whose charms procured her son Archelaus at the hands of Antony the kingdom of Cappadocia.

3 These lines are historically interesting as giving the explanation attributed to Octavius of the origin of the civil war between him and Antony, namely, pique on the part of Fulvia, Antony's wife, at the rejection by Octavius of her advances. Montaigne (iii. 12) refers to them as showing for how small causes great emperors will go to .war.

The scene between Fulvia and Octavius was depicted on a


BOOK XL xix-xxi


Do you ask why I am loth to marry you, Galla ? You are a blue-stocking. My manhood often com- mits a solecism. 1


READ six wanton verses of Caesar Augustus, you spiteful fellow, who with a sour face read words of Latin :

" Because Antony handles Glaphyra, 2 Fulvia has ap- pointed this penalty for me, that I, too, should handle her. I to handle Fulvia ? What if Manius were to implore me to treat him as a Ganymede ? Am I to do it ? I trow not, if I be wise. ' Either handle me or let us fight,' she says. And what that my person is dearer to me than my very life ? Let the trumpets sound." 3

You justify for certain my sprightly little books, Augustus, who know how to speak with Roman bluntness. 4


LYDIA is as widely developed as the rump of a bronze equestrian statue, as the swift hoop that re- sounds with its tinkling rings, 5 as the wheel so often

cameo by Arellius, probably the painter mentioned by Pliny, N.H. xxxv. 37, as having outraged his art by depicting prostitutes. Fulvia is represented as sitting nude upon a bed, and holding Octavius by the arm. He is in full armour, and is beckoning to two soldiers in the rear. The cameo has been reproduced in a rare book published at the Vatican Press in 1786, and entitled "Monumens de la vie privee des douze Ce'sars d'apres une suite de pierres gravies sur leur regne."

4 As to Augustus's plain speech, cf. Suet. Aug. Ixix.

5 cf. xiv. clxviii.



quam rota transmisso totiens inpacta petauro,

quam vetus a crassa calceus udus aqua, quam quae rara vagos expectant retia turdos, 5

quam Pompeiano vela negata Noto, quam quae de pthisico lapsa est armilla cinaedo,

culcita Leuconico quam viduata suo, quam veteres bracae Brittonis pauperis, et quam

turpe Ravennatis guttur onocrotali. 10

hanc in piscina dicor futuisse marina.

nescio ; piscinam me futuisse puto.


MOLLIA quod nivei duro teris ore Galaesi

basia, quod nudo cum Ganymede iaces, (quis negat?) hoc nimiumst. sed sit satis; inguina saltern

parce fututrici sollicitare manu. levibus in pueris plus haec quam mentula peccat 5

et faciunt digiti praecipitantque virum : inde tragus celeresque pili mirandaque matri

barba, nee in clara balnea luce placent. divisit natura marem : pars una puellis,

una viris genita est. utere parte tua. 10

1 A very obscure line, which may mean "so of ten struck by the acrobat in his flight." The nature of the petaurum has never been clearly known ; sometimes it seems to be a kind of springboard or seesaw, sometimes a wheel suspended in the air : cf. n. Ixxxvi. 7. The performance was dangerous : Fest. xiv. a.v. Pttaurista, quoting Arist. Fr. 234.


BOOK XI. xxi-xxn

struck from the extended springboard, 1 as a worn- out shoe drenched by muddy water, as the wide- meshed net that lies in wait for wandering fieldfares, as an awning that does not belly to the wind 2 in Pompey's theatre, as a bracelet that has slipped from the arm of a consumptive catamite, as a pillow widowed of its Leuconian stuffing, 8 as the aged breeches of a pauper Briton, and as the foul throat of a pelican 4 of Ravenna. This woman I am said to have embraced in a marine fishpond : I don't know ; I think I embraced the fishpond itself.


THAT with your hard mouth you rub the soft lips of white-cheeked Galaesus, that you consort with a naked Ganymede, 'tis too much who denies it ? but let that be enough ; at least refrain from waking passions with lascivious hand. Towards beardless boys this is a greater sinner than your yard, and your fingers create and hasten manhood. Thence comes a goatish odour, and quick-springing hair, and a beard, a wonder to mothers, and baths in broad day are displeasing. Nature has separated the male : one part has been produced for girls, one for men. Use your own part.

2 cf. ix. xxxviii. 6. 3 cf. xiv. clix.

4 Described by Pliny, N.H. x. 66. By "throat" M. means the large pouch under the mandibles (the alterius uteri genus of Pliny's description), where the pelican stores its catch of fish previously to consumption.




NUBERE Sila mihi nulla non lege parata est ;

sed Silam nulla ducere lege volo. cum tamen instaret, " Deciens mihi dotis in auro

sponsa dabis " dixi ; " quid minus esse potest ? nee futuam quamvis prima te nocte maritus, o

communis tecum nee mihi lectus erit ; complectarque meam, nee tu prohibebis, amicam,

ancillam mittes et mihi iussa tuam. te spectante dabit iiobis lasciva minister

basia, sive meus sive erit ille tuus. 10

ad cenam venies, sed sic divisa recumbes

ut non tangantur pallia nostra tuis. oscula rara dabis nobis et non dabis ultro,

nee quasi nupta dabis sed quasi mater anus, si potes ista pati, si nil perferre recusas, 15

invenies qui te ducere, Sila, velit."


DUM te prosequor et dbnuiin reduco,

aurem dum tibi praesto garrienti,

et quidquid loqueris facisque laudo,

quot versus poterant, Labujle, nasci !

hoc damnum tibi non videtur esse, 5

si quod Roma legit, requirit hospes,

non deridet eques, tenet senator,

laudat causidicus, poeta carpit,

propter te perit ? hoc, Labulle, verum est ?

hoc quisquam ferat ? ut tibi tuorum 10

sit maior numerus togatulorum,

librorum mihi sit minor meorum ?


BOOK XI. xxm-xxiv


SILA is ready to marry me on any terms, but on no terms am I willing to take Sila to wife. Yet, when she urged me : " You shall bring me, as bride's dower, in gold a million sesterces," I said: "What can be smaller than that ? And I will have no marital re- lations with you even on the wedding-night, nor shall my bed be the same as yours ; and I will embrace my mistress, and you shall not forbid me, and, if bidden, you shall send me your own maid. Before your eyes an attendant shall give me wanton kisses, whether he is my own or yours. You shall dine with me, but you shall recline so apart from me that my robe is not touched by yours. Kisses you shall give me but rarely, and you shall not give them uninvited ; and you shall not give them like a bride, but like an aged mother. If you can suffer that, if there be nothing you refuse to endure you will find a man, Sila, who is willing to marry you ! "


WWLE I escort you and bring you home, while I lend my ear to your babbling, and praise whatever you say and do, how many verses, Labullus, might have seen the light ! Does not this seem to you an injury if, what Rome reads, the stranger asks for, the knight does not laugh at, the senator knows by heart, the pleader praises, the poet carps at this because of you is lost ? Is this fair, Labullus ? Is this what any man would endure ? That the number of your wretched clients should increase, of my books the number decrease ? 'Tis now almost thirty



triginta prope iam diebus una est

nobis pagina vix peracta. sic fit

cum cenare domi poeta non vult. 15


ILLA salax nimium nee paucis nota puellis stare Lino desit mentula. lingua, cave.


O MIHI grata quies, o blanda, Telesphore, cura,

qualis in amplexu non fuit ante meo, basia da nobis vetulo, puer, uda Falerno,

pocula da labris facta minora tuis. addideris super haec Veneris si gaudia vera, 5

esse negem melius cum Ganymede lovi.


FKRREUS es, si stare potest tibi mentula, Flacce,

cum te sex cyathos orat arnica gari, vel duo frusta rogat cybii tenuemve lacertum

nee dignam toto se botryone putat ; cui portat gaudens ancilla paropside rubra 5

allecem, sed quam protinus ilia voret ; aut cum perfricuit frontem posuitque pudorem,"

sucida palliolo vellera quinque petit, at mea me libram foliati poscat arnica

aut virides gemmas sardonychasve pares, 10

nee nisi prima velit de Tusco Serica vico

aut centum aureolos sic velut aera roget. nunc tu velle putas haec me donare puellae ?

nolo, sed his ut sit digna puella volo.

1 The foliatum or nardinum was a choice compound of nard, inyrrh, and other aromatic herbs: cf. Plin. N.Jf. xiii. 2.


BOOK XI. xxiv-xxvii

days, and scarce a single page has been finished. This is the result when a poet does not wish to dine at home !


QUELLA troppo salace mentola, rie nota^a poche ragazze, cessa stare a Lino : guardati, O lingua.


O THOU, my pleasant solace, O thou, Telesphorus, my soothing care, whose peer has never yet lain in my embrace, give me kisses, boy, dewy with aged Falernian, give me the cup that has minished beneath thy lips. If, to crown these, thou shalt add love's true joys, then should I say Jove's lot with Ganymede is not more blest.


You are a man of iron if you can show any amorous power, Flaccus, when your mistress prays you for six helpings of fish-pickle, or asks for two slices of tunny, or a skinny lizard-fish, and does not think her- self worth a whole bunch of grapes a woman to whom her maid delightedly carries anchovy sauce in a dark earthenware platter, to be immediately gulped down ; or, who, when she has hardened her brow and laid aside all shame, solicits five greasy skins to make a small mantle. But let my mistress demand of me a pound of nard, 1 or emeralds, or a pair of sardonyxes, and not look at any but prime silk from the Tuscan street, or let her beg a hundred gold coins just as if they were pence. Now do you imagine I am willing to give these things to a girl ? I am not ; but that a girl should be worthy of these things, I do wish.


s 2



INVASIT medici Nasica phreneticus Eucti et percidit Hylan. hie, puto, sanus erat.


LANGUIDA cum vetula tractare virilia dextra

coepisti, iugulor pollice, Phylli, tuo : nam cum me murem, cum me tua lumina dicis,

horis me refici vix puto posse decem. blanditias nescis : " Dabo " die " tibi milia centum 5

et dabo Setini iugera culta soli ; accipe vina domum pueros chryseudeta mensas."

nil opus est digitis : sic mihi, Phylli, frica.


Os male causidicis et dicis olere poetis. sed fellatori, Zoile, peius olet.


ATREUS Caecilius cucurbitarum

sic illas quasi filios Thyestae

in partes lacerat secatque mille.

gustu protinus has edes in ipso,

has prima feret alterave cena, ,5

has cena tibi tertia reponet,

hinc seras epidipnidas parabit.

hinc pistor fatuas facit placentas,


BOOK XI. xxvm-xxxi


NASICA, "a madman," attacked Doctor Euctus's Hylas and outraged him. This fellow was, I imagine, sane !


WHEN you begin to paw my apathetic person with your antediluvian hands, I am murdered by that finger of yours, Phyllis ; for when you call me "mouse," when you call me "light of your eyes," I can scarcely, I think, get over it in ten hours. Blan- dishments you know nothing of : say, " I will give you a hundred thousand sesterces," and " I will give you well-tilled acres of Setine land ; accept wines, a town house, slaves, enamelled dishes, tables." I don't require your thumbing : scratch me in this way, Phyllis.


VILELY smells, you say, the breath of lawyers, and of poets. 1 But that of a - , Zoilus, smells worse !


CAECILIUS is a very Atreus to gourds : he so mangles them and cuts them into a thousand pieces, just as if they were the sons of Thyestes. 2 Gourds you will eat at once even among. the hors d'ceuvre, gourds he will bring you in the first or second course, these in the third course he will set again before you, out of these he will furnish later on your dessert. Out of these the baker makes insipid cakes, and out of

1 From anxiety as to their cases or poems, like the rei of iv. iv. 8 ? 2 See note to in. xlv. 1.



hinc et multiplices struit tabellas

et notas caryotidas theatris. 10

hinc exit varium coco minutal,

ut lentem positam fabamque credas ;

boletos imitatur et botellos,

et caudam cybii brevesque maenas.

hinc cellarius experitur artes, 15

ut condat vario vafer sapore

in rutae folium Capelliana.

sic inplet gabatas paropsidesque

et leves scutulas cavasque lances.

hoc lautum vocat, hoc putat venustum, 20

unum ponere ferculis tot assem.


NEC toga nee focus est nee tritus cimice lectus

nee tibi de bibula sarta palude teges, nee puer aut senior, nulla est ancilla nee infans,

nee sera nee clavis nee canis atque calix. tu tamen adfectas, Nestor, dici atque videri 5

pauper, et in populo quaeris habere locum, mentiris vanoque tibi blandiris honore.

non est paupertas, Nestor, habere nihil.


SAEPIUS ad palmam prasinus post fata Neronis pervenit et victor praemia plura refert.

i nunc, livor edax, die te cessisse Neroni : vicit nimirum non Nero, sed prasinus.

1 Possibly rare sweetmeats named after a famous maker ; cf. Cosmianum in xi. xv. 6 and xn. Iv. 7. The cellaring, by the use of various flavours, makes bits of gourd taste like the famous Capelliana.

2 A play on the two meanings of ponere, to serve up and to spend.



these he constructs sweets of all shapes, and dates such as the theatres know well. From these are turned out the cook's various mincemeats, so that you believe lentils and beans are set before you ; he imitates mushrooms and black-puddings, and tunny's tail, and tiny sprats. On these the store-keeper tries his art, with various flavours wrapping up cunning man ! Capellian sweetmeats l in a leaf of rue. So he fills his platters, and side-dishes, and polished saucers, and hollow plates. This he calls sumptuous, this he fancies elegant in so many courses to lay out 2 one penny !


You have neither toga, nor fire, nor bug-haunted bed, nor have you a mat stitched of thirsty rushes, nor boy, nor older slave; you have no maid, nor infant, nor door-bolt, nor key, nor dog, nor cup. 3 Yet you aim, Nestor, at being called, and seeming a poor man, and look to having a place among the people. You are a fraud, and flatter yourself with an empty honour. It is not poverty, Nestor, to have nothing at all. 4


OFTENER after Nero's 5 death the green charioteer reaches the goal, and as winner bears off more prizes. Go to now, grudging envy, 6 say you yielded to Nero ! 'Twas not Nero, I wot, who won, but the Green.

3 Imitated from Cat. xxiii. 1-2. 4 But sheer beggary. 8 i.e. Domitian, the calvus Nero of Juv. iv. 38. He favoured the green faction of the charioteers. 8 i.e. of a rival charioteer.




AEDES emit Aper sed quas nee noctua vellet esse suas ; adeo nigra vetusque casa est.

vicinos illi nitidus Maro possidet hortos. cenabit belle, non habitabit Aper.


IGNOTOS mihi cum voces trecentos, quare non veniam vocatus ad te miraris quererisque litigasque. solus ceno, Fabulle, non libenter.


GAIUS hanc lucem gemma mihi lulius alba

signat, io, votis redditus ecce meis : desperasse iuvat veluti iam rupta sororum

fila ; minus gaudent qui timuere nihil. Hypne, quid expectas, piger? inmortale Falernum 5

funde, senem poscunt talia vota cadum : quincunces et sex cyathos bessemque bibamus,



ZOILE, quid tota gemmam praecingere libra te iuvat et miserum perdei'e sardonycha ?

anulus iste tuis fuerat modo cruribus aptus : non eadem digitis pond era conveniunt.

1 The numbers represent the letters in the three names respectively, cf. note to ix. xciii. 8.


BOOK XI. xxxiv-xxxvn


APER bought a house, but one that not even an owl would wish its own, so dark and tumbledown is the cottage. Next door to him fashionable Maro owns gardens. Aper will dine but not lodge nicely.


ALTHOUGH you invite three hundred guests un- known to me, you wonder why, when invited, I don't come to you, and you complain and quarrel with me. 'Tis no pleasure to me, Fabullus, to dine alone.


GAIUS JULIUS marks this day for me with a white stone : ho ! see he comes, given back to my vows ' Glad am I that I despaired, as though the Sisters' threads were already snapped : they rejoice less who have known no fear. Hypnus, why linger, you lag- gard ? Pour the immortal Falernian : such vows as mine call for an olden jar. Measures five and six and eight let us drink, that the name " Gaius Julius Proculus " be summed up. 1


ZOILUS, why do you like to .set your jewel in a whole pound of gold, and to overwhelm your un- happy sardonyx ? That ring of yours was lately suited to your shanks ; 2 the same weight does not suit fingers.

2 Z. had been a slave, and is now a knight : cf. in. xxix.




MULIO viginti venit modo milibus, Aule. miraris pretium tarn grave ? surdus erat.


CUNARUM fueras motor, Charideme, mearum

et pueri custos adsiduusque comes, iam mihi nigrescunt tonsa sudaria barba

et queritur labris puncta puella meis ; sed tibi non crevi l : te noster vilicus horret, 5

te dispensator, te domus ipsa pavet. ludere nee nobis nee tu permittis amare ;

nil mihi vis et vis cuncta licere tibi. corripisj observas, quereris, suspiria ducis,

et vix a ferulis temperat ira tua. 10

si Tyrios sumpsi cultus unxive capillos,

exclamas " Numquam fecerat ista pater " ; et numeras nostros adstricta fronte trientes,

tamquam de cella sit cadus ille tua. desine ; non possum libertum ferre Catonem. 15

esse virum iam me dicet arnica tibi.


FORMOSAM Glyceran amat Lupercus et solus tenet imperatque solus, quam toto sibi mense non fututam cum tristis quereretur et roganti causam reddere vellet Aeliano, respondit Glycerae dolere dentes.

1 crevit Tj8V. 266



A MULE-DRIVER was lately sold, Aulus, for twenty thousand sesterces. Do you wonder at so heavy a price ? He was deaf. 1


You were the rocker of my cradle, Charidemus, and guardian of my boyhood, and my constant com- panion. By now the napkin grows black from the shav- ings of my beard, and my mistress complains of being pricked by my lips. But to you I have not grown : from you my steward shrinks, at you my treasurer, at you my very house is in a panic ! You don't allow me to frolic, nor do you allow me to woo : you wish me to have o liberty, and wish to have all liberty yourself. You take me up, watch me, grumble, heave sighs, and your wrath scarce keeps your hand off the ferule. If I have put on a purple dress or anointed my hair, you cry out : " Never did your father do that " ; and with knitted brow you count my cups, as if the jar they came from were one from your own cellar. Desist : I cannot stand a freedman Cato. That I am now a man my mistress will inform you.


LUPERCUS loves the beautiful Glycera, and he is her sole possessor and her sole ct>mmander. When he was sadly regretting that for a whole month he had not enjoyed her favours, and wished to give the reason to Aelianus who asked him, he replied that Glycera had the toothache. 2

1 And so could not hear the talk of those in the carriage : cf. xn. xxiv. 8.

2 There appears to be an obscene inference here.




INDULGET pecori nimium dum pastor Amyntas

et gaudet fama luxuriaque gregis, cedentis oneri ramos silvamque fluentem

vicit, concussas ipse secutus opes, triste nemus dirae vetuit superesse ruinae 1

damnavitque rogis noxia ligna pater, pingues, Lygde, sues habeat vicinus lollas :

te satis est nobis adnumerare pecus.


VIVIDA cum poscas epigrammata, mortua ponis lemmata, qui fieri, Caeciliane, potest?

mella iubes Hyblaea tibi vel Hymettia nasci, et thyma Cecropiae Corsica ponis api !


DEPRENSUM in puero tetricis me vocibus, uxor,

corripis et culum te quoque habere refers, dixit idem quotiens lascivo luno Tonanti !

ille tamen grandi cum Ganymede iacet. incurvabat Hylan posito Tirynthius arcu :

tu Megaran credis non habuisse natis ? torquebat Phoebum Daphne fugitiva : sed illas

Oebalius flammas iussit abire puer.

1 ruinae de Rooy, rapinae codd.

1 The acorns. 268



Too eager to indulge his charge, and proud of the fame and fatness of his herd, their keeper Amyntas broke the boughs that yielded to his weight, and the down-streaming foliage, himself following the spoil l he shook to earth. His sire forbade the ill- omened tree survive such dread ruin, and condemned the fatal timber to the funeral pyre.

Lygdus, 2 let neighbour lollas have his swine fat : 'tis enough for me that you keep well the reckoning of my herd.


ALTHOUGH you call for lively epigrams you set lifeless themes. How is that possible, Caecilianus ? You bid Hyblan or Hymettian honey be made for you, and serve up to the Cecropian bee Corsican thyme 3 !


Tu, moglie, con arrabiate parole rimbrotti me sorpreso con ragazzo, ed adduci che anche tu hai il culo. Quante volte Giunone non disse lo stesso a Giove Tonante ! con tutto cio esso giace col grande Ganimede. Tirinzio, deposto 1'arco, incurvava Ila ; credi tu che Megara non avesse natiche ? Dafne fuggitiva torrnentava Febo ; ma il ragazzo Oebalio fece partire quelle fiamme. Quantunque Briseide

2 The swineherd of the writer, who is warned not to be venturesome like A., but to be content with not losing the swine. M. means that L.'s life is too precious to be risked.

3 Which produced the inferior honey of Corsica : cf. ix. xxvi. 4.



Briseis multum quamvis aversa iaceret,

Aeacidae projnor levis amicus erat. 10

parce tuis igitur dare mascula nomina rebus

teque puta cunnos, uxor, habere duos.


OKBUS es et locuples et Bruto consule natus :

esse tibi veras credis amicitias ? sunt verae, sed quas iuvenis, quas pauper habebas.

qui novus est, mortem diligit ille tuam.


INTRASTI quotiens inscriptae limina cellae,

seu puer adrisit sive puella tibi, contentus non es foribus veloque seraque,

secretumque iubes grandius esse tibi : oblinitur minimae si qua est suspicio rimae

punctaque lasciva quae terebrantur acu. nemo est tarn teneri tarn sollicitique pudoris

qui vel pedicat, Canthare, vel futuit.


IAM nisi per somnum non arrigis et tibi, Maevi, incipit in medios meiere verpa pedes,

truditur et digitis pannucea mentula lassis nee levat extinctum sollicitata caput.

quid miseros frustra cunnos culosque lacessis ? summa petas : illic mentula vivit anus.

1 i.e. you are incredibly old : cf. x. xxxix. 1. 270

BOOK XI. xLin-xLvt

giaeesse molto aversa, 1'imberbe amico era piu con- tiguo ad Eacide. Contieniti dunque di dar nomi mascolini alle cose tue, ed immaginati, O moglie, d'aver due c ni !


You are childless and rich and were born in the consulship of Brutus : l do you imagine you have true friendships? True friendships there are, but those you possessed when young, those when poor. The new friend is one who has an affection for your death.


WHENEVER you have passed the threshold of a placarded cubicle, whether it be a boy or a girl who has smiled on you, you are not satisfied with a door and a curtain and a bolt, and you require that greater secrecy should be provided for you. If there be any suspicion of the smallest chink it is plastered up, as also the eyelets that are bored by a mischievous needle. No one is of a modesty so tender and so anxious, Cantharus, who is either a or a . 2


Di gia non arrigi che in sogno, ed il tuo pene, O Mevio, incommincia pisciarti fra i piedi, e la corrugata mentola e provocata dalle stanche dita, ne sollicitata rizza 1' estinto capo. A che inutilmente importuni i poveri c ni e culi ? Va in alto : cola una vecchia mentola vive.

2 i.e. whose tastes are not abnormal.




OMNIA femineis quare dilecta catervis

balnea devitat Lattara ? ne futuat. cur nee Pompeia lentus spatiatur in umbra

nee petit Inachidos limina ? ne futuat. cur Lacedaemonio luteum ceromate corpus 5

perfundit gelida Virgine ? ne futuat. cum sic feminei generis contagia vitet,

cur lingit cunnum Lattara ? ne futuat.


Sn.ius haec magni celebrat monimenta Maronis,

iugera facundi qui Ciceronis habet. heredem dominumque sui tumulive larisve

non alium mallet nee Maro nee Cicero.


IAM prope desertos cineres et sancta Maronis nomina qui coleret, pauper et unus erat.

1 f Silius optataef succurrere censuit umbrae, Silius et 2 vatem, non minor ipse, colit.

1 illius, Lindsay, orbatae Ribbeck, ut patriae Postgate, o pittas Lindsay, en tantae Gilbert, censuit umbrae Heins., cenis ut diabrae (vel diabrae) y.

2 filius ut Ribbeck. minor ipse colit Heins. , minus ipse tulit y.

1 cf. n. xiv. 10 ; xi. i. 11.

2 i.e. of Isis : cf. ij. xiV. 7. This temple is called by Juv.




WHY does Lattara avoid all the baths affected by crowds of women ? that he may not be tempted. Why does he not idly stroll in the shade of Pompey's Porch, 1 nor resort to the threshold of the daughter of Inachus ? 2 that he may not be tempted. Why does he plunge in the cold Virgin water his body yellow with Lacedaemonian ointment?. 3 that he may not be tempted. Seeing that he so avoids the contagion of the generation of women, why is Lattara a woman's ? That he may not be tempted.


SILIUS, who possesses the land which was eloquent Cicero's, honours this monument of great Maro. 4 As heir and owner of his tomb or dwelling no other would either Maro or Cicero choose.


To honour the ashes, now well-nigh abandoned, and the sacred name of Maro was there but one, 5 and he was poor. Silius resolved to rescue the regretted dead : and Silius no less himself a poet honours the bard.

(vi. 489) " Isiacae nacraria lenae," as being the resort of prostitutes, * cf. vn. xxxii. 9.

4 Silius the poet, who was a rich man and possessed one of Cicero's villas, had bought the ground on which Vergil's tomb stood. Pliny says (Ep. iii. 7) that he kept Vergil's birthday more religiously than his own, and regarded his tomb in the light of a temple.

5 t. e. the owner of the ground before Silius bought it.




NULLA est hora tibi qua non me, Phylli, furentem

despolies : tanta calliditate rapis. nunc plorat speculo fallax ancilla relicto,

gemma vel a digito vel cadit aure lapis ; nunc furtiva lucri fieri bombycina possunt, 5

profertur Cosmi nunc mihi siccus onyx ; , amphora nunc petitur nigri cariosa Falerni,

expiet ut somnos garrula saga tuos ; nunc ut emam grandemve lupum mullumve bilibrem,

indixit cenam dives arnica tibi. 10

sit pudor et tandem veri respectus et aequi :

nil tibi, Phylli, nego ; nil mihi, Phylli, nega.


TANTA est quae Titio columna pendet

quantam Lampsaciae colunt puellae.

hie nullo comitante nee molesto

thermis grandibus et suis lavatur.

anguste Titius tamen lavatur. 5


CENABIS belle, luli Cerialis, apud me ;

condicio est melior si tibi nulla, veni. octavam poteris servare ; lavabimur una :

scis quam sint Stephani balnea iuncta mihi.

1 cf. vii. liv. 4.

2 See note to xi. xvi. 3.



THERE is not an hour comes amiss to you, Phyllis, for plundering me in my infatuation : with such cun- ning do you rob me. Now your lying maid laments because a mirror has been left behind, or a jewel drops from your finger, or a stone from your ear ; at one time silks lost by theft may be a means of profit, at another there is shown to me an empty casket of Cosmus' perfume ; now a crumbling jar of dark Falernian is asked for that a chattering wise-woman may exorcise your dreams ; l now, to induce me to buy, either a huge bass or a two-pound mullet, a rich woman friend has proposed a dinner at your house. Let there be some moderation and at length some regard for fairness and justice. I deny nothing to you, Phyllis : deny nothing, Phyllis, to me.


Si grande e la colonna che pende a Tizio quanto quella che le zitelle Lampsiache 2 venerano. Costui senza compagno ne molestato si lava in ampie terme e nelle sue : con tutto ci6 angustamente Tizio si lava.


You will dine nicely, Julius Cerialis, at my house ; if you have no better engagement, come. You will be able to observe the eighth hour; 3 we will bathe together : you know how near Stephanus' baths are

3 The usual hour for dining in summer, the bath being taken before : cf. x. xlviii. 1. There were sundials at the baths.

27? T 2


prima tibi dabitur ventri lactuca movendo 5

utilis, et porris fila resecta suis, raox vetus et tenui maior cordyla lacerto,

sed quam cum rutae frondibus ova tegant ; altera non derunt tenui versata favilla,

et Velabrensi massa coacta foco, 10

et quae Picenum senserunt frigus olivae.

haec satis in gustu. cetera nosse cupis ? mentiar, ut venias : pisces, conchylia, sumen,

et chortis saturas atque paludis aves, quae nee Stella solet rara nisi ponere cena. 15

plus ego polliceor : nil recitabo tibi, ipse tuos nobis relegas licet usque Gigantas,

rura vel aeterno proxima Vergilio.


CLAUDIA caeruleis cum sit Rufina Britannis

edita, quam Latiae pectora gentis habet ! quale decus formae ! Romanam credere matres

Italides possunt, Atthides esse suam. di bene quod sancto peperit fecunda marito, 5

quod sperat generos quodque puella nurus. sic placeat superis ut coniuge gaudeat uno

et semper natis gaudeat ilia tribus.


UNGUENTA et casias et olentem funera murrain turaque de medio semicremata rogo

,* Porrum stctivum : cf. x. xlviii. 9. 2 cf. xm. xxxii. 276


to me. First, there will be given you lettuce useful for relaxing the bowels, and shoots cut from their parent leeks ; L then tunny salted and bigger than a small lizard-fish, and one too which eggs will garnish in leaves of rue. Other eggs will not be wanting, roasted in embers of moderate heat, and a lump of cheese ripened over a Velabran hearth, 2 and olives that have felt the Picenian frost. These are enough for a whet : do you want to know the rest ? I will deceive you to make you come : fish, mussels, sow's paps, and fat birds of the poultry -yard and the marsh, which even Stella is not used to serve except at a special dinner. More I promise you : I will recite nothing to you, even although you yourself read again . your "Giants" straight through, or your " Pastorals " that rank next to immortal Virgil.


THOUGH Claudia R,ufina 3 has sprung from the woad- stained Britons, how she possesses the feelings of the Latin race ! What grace of form has she ! Mothers of Italy may deem her Roman, those of Attica their own. May the Gods bless her in that she, a fertile wife, has borne children to her constant spouse, in that she hopes, though youthful still, for sons- and daughters-in-law. So may it please the Gods above she should joy in one mate alone, and joy ever in three sons !


THE unguents and casia, and myrrh that smells of funerals, and the frankincense half-burned snatched

8 Probably the Claudia Peregrina of iv. xiii.


et quae de Stygio rapuisti cinnama lecto,

inprobe, de turpi, Zoile, redde sinu. a pedibus didicere manus peccare protervae. 5

non miror furem, qui fugitivus eras.


HORTATUR fieri quod e Lupus, Urbice, patrem,

ne credas ; nihil est quod minus ille velit. ars est captandi quod nolis velle videri ;

ne facias optat quod rogat ut facias, dicat praegnantem tua se Cosconia tantum : 5

pallidior fiet iam pariente Lupus, at tu consilio videaris ut usus amici,

sic morere ut factum te putet esse patrem.


QUOD nimium mortem, Chaeremon Stoice, laudas,

vis animum mirer suspiciamque tuum ? hanc tibi virtutem fracta facit urceus ansa,

et tristis nullo qui tepet igne focus, et teges et cimex et nudi sponda grabati, 5

et brevis atque eadem nocte dieque toga, o quam magnus homo es qui faece rubentis aceti

et stipula et nigro pane carere potes ! Leuconicis agedum tumeat tibi culcita lanis

constringatque tuos purpura pexa toros, 10

dormiat et tecum modo qui dum Caecuba miscet

convivas roseo torserat ore puer :