VVV (journal)  

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Kunstformen der Natur (1904) by Ernst Haeckel
Kunstformen der Natur (1904) by Ernst Haeckel
VVV was a journal devoted to the dissemination of Surrealism, published in New York City from 1942 through 1944.

Only three issues of VVV were ever produced. However, it provided an outlet for European Surrealist artists, temporarily displaced from their home countries by World War II, to communicate with American artists.

VVV was the direct product of the leading Surrealists of the day. The journal was edited by David Hare in collaboration with Marcel Duchamp, André Breton, and Max Ernst. VVV's editorial board also enlisted a number of associated thinkers and artists, including Aimé Césaire, Philip Lamantia, and Robert Motherwell. Each edition focused on "poetry, plastic arts, anthropology, sociology, (and) psychology," and was lavishly illustrated by a wide range of Surrealist artists, including Giorgio de Chirico, Claude Levi-Strauss, Roberto Matta, and Yves Tanguy.

The journal was experimental in format as well as in content. Editions of VVV contained fold-out pages, differently sized sheets and types of paper, and bold typography and color. The second issue's back cover featured one of Duchamp's "readymades" : a cutout female figure "imprisoned" by a piece of actual chicken wire.

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