From The Art and Popular Culture Encyclopedia
"In 1619 twenty Africans were brought to the English colony of Jamestown, Virginia. From then on, people of Sub-Saharan Africa, kidnapped and sold into slavery by Arabs and other black Africans (sometimes as a result of inter-tribal warfare), were brought to the United States involuntarily by slave traders from many European nations as well as the United States from 1619 through 1806 until the trade was delcared illegal."
In 1619 Italian freethinker Lucilio Vanini is burnt at the stakes, Ludovico Carracci dies from natural causes. Charles Le Brun, Gédéon Tallemant des Réaux and Cyrano de Bergerac are born. Galileo Galilei publishes his pamphlet Discourse on Comets and Claude d'Esternod his L'Espadon satyrique.
Art and culture
- Theodor de Bry's Theatrum Orbi
- January – James I of England's Banqueting House, Whitehall in London is destroyed by fire. Inigo Jones is commissioned to design a replacement.
- March – Battle of Sarhu: Manchu leader Nurhaci is victorious over the Ming forces.
- March 20 – Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor dies, leaving the Holy Roman Empire without an official leader, to deal with the Bohemian Revolt.
- May 8 – The Synod of Dort has its final meeting.
- May 13 – Dutch statesman Johan van Oldenbarnevelt is executed in The Hague, after having been convicted of treason.
- May 30 – Jan Pieterszoon Coen, Governor General of the Dutch East Indies, conquers Jayakarta, and renames it Batavia.
- June 10 – Thirty Years' War – Battle of Sablat: Protestant forces are defeated.
- June 21 – Dulwich College founded by Edward Alleyn, in Dulwich, London.
- July 30 – In Jamestown, Virginia, the first representative assembly in the Americas, the House of Burgesses, convenes for the first time.
- August – The first African slaves are brought to North America, on an English privateer ship, to the English Colony of Point Comfort, Virginia.
- August 5 – Thirty Years' War: Battle of Věstonice – Bohemian forces defeat the Austrians.
- August 10 – The Treaty of Angoulême ends the civil war between Louis XIII of France and his mother, Marie de' Medici.
- August 26 – Frederick V of the Palatinate is elected King of Bohemia by the states of the Bohemian Confederacy.
- August 28 – Ferdinand II, Archduke of Austria and King of Bohemia, is elected Holy Roman Emperor by the prince-electors.
- October 8 – Thirty Years' War – The Treaty of Munich is signed by Ferdinand II and Maximilian I, Elector of Bavaria.
- November 16 – William Parker School, Hastings, England, is founded by the will of Reverend William Parker.
- November 23 – Thirty Years' War: Battle of Humenné – Polish Lisowczycy troops assist the Holy Roman Emperor by defeating a Transylvanian force, forcing Gabor Bethlen to raise his siege of Vienna.
- December 4 – Thirty-eight colonists from England disembark in Berkeley Hundred, Virginia from the Margaret of Bristol and give thanks to God (considered by some to be the first Thanksgiving in the Americas).
- Jahangir grants a British mission important commercial concessions at Surat, on the west coast of India.
- Salé Rovers declare the port of Salé on the Barbary Coast to be the Republic of Salé, independent of the Sultan of Morocco, with the Dutch-born corsair Jan Janszoon as president.
- The Danish–Dutch whaling settlement of Smeerenburg is founded in Svalbard.
- An expedition in Sri Lanka, led by Filipe de Oliveira, deposes and executes the last Jaffna king (Cankili II), putting an end to the Jaffna Kingdom.
- A Spanish expedition sails around Tierra del Fuego, mapping the coast and discovering the Diego Ramírez Islands.
- January 10 – Philip Sidney, 3rd Earl of Leicester, English politician (d. 1698)
- January 14
- January 17 – Johanna Elisabeth of Nassau-Hadamar, by marriage Princess of Anhalt-Harzgerode (d. 1647)
- January 21
- January 24 – Yamazaki Ansai, Japanese philosopher (d. 1682)
- January 30 – Michelangelo Ricci, Roman Catholic cardinal, mathematician (d. 1682)
- February 1 – Robert Phelips, English politician (d. 1707)
- February 2 – Walter Charleton, English natural philosopher (d. 1707)
- February 9 – Queen Inseon, Korean royal consort (d. 1674)
- February 15 – Tsugaru Nobuyoshi, Japanese daimyō (d. 1655)
- February 24
- February 26 – Francesco Morosini, Doge of Venice from 1688 to 1694 (d. 1694)
- February 28 – Giuseppe Felice Tosi, Italian composer (d. 1693)
- March 2 – Marcantonio Giustinian, 107th Doge of Venice (d. 1688)
- March 5 – Joseph Ames, English naval commander (d. 1695)
- March 6 – Cyrano de Bergerac, French soldier and poet (d. 1655)
- March 13 – Tobias Lohner, Austrian Jesuit theologian (d. 1697)
- March 15 – Jean Le Vacher, French Lazarist missionary and French consul (d. 1683)
- March 20 – Georg Albrecht, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth-Kulmbach (d. 1666)
- March 25 – Peter Mews, English Royalist theologian and bishop (d. 1706)
- March 28 – Maurice, Duke of Saxe-Zeitz (1657–1681) (d. 1681)
- April 2
- April 11 – Abraham van der Hulst, Dutch admiral (d. 1666)
- April 21 – Jan van Riebeeck, Dutch founder of Cape Town (d. 1677)
- April 30 – Johannes Spilberg, Dutch painter (d. 1690)
- May 20 – Abiezer Coppe, English "Ranter" and pamphleteer (d. 1672)
- May 24 (bapt.) – Philips Wouwerman, Dutch painter (d. 1668)
- May 26 – King Pye Min of Burma (d. 1672)
- June 13 – Jan Victors, Dutch painter (d. 1676)
- June 14 (bapt.) – Sir Jeffrey Hudson, English court dwarf (d. 1682)
- June 24 – Rijcklof van Goens, Dutch colonial governor (d. 1682)
- July 3 – Hyojong of Joseon, 17th king of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea (1649-1659) (d. 1659)
- July 27 – Sir Henry Felton, 2nd Baronet, English Member of Parliament (d. 1690)
- August 5 – Thomas Hall, English politician (d. 1667)
- August 6 – Barbara Strozzi, Italian singer and composer (d. 1677)
- August 7 – Anna Catherine Constance Vasa, Polish princess, daughter of King Sigismund III Vasa (d. 1651)
- August 15
- August 21 – Sir John Borlase, 1st Baronet, English politician (d. 1672)
- August 28
- August 29 – Jean-Baptiste Colbert, French minister of finance (d. 1683)
- September 20 – Sophie Elisabeth Pentz, daughter of Christian IV of Denmark (d. 1657)
- September 21 – Sir John Wray, 3rd Baronet, English politician (d. 1664)
- October 8 – Philipp von Zesen, German poet (d. 1689)
- October 10
- October 14 – Sir John Bright, 1st Baronet, English politician (d. 1688)
- October 16 – Johann Friedrich König, German Lutheran theologian (d. 1664)
- October 18 – Jean Armand de Maillé-Brézé, French admiral (d. 1646)
- October 27 – Frederick Louis, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken (d. 1681)
- November 5 – Philip de Koninck, Dutch painter (d. 1688)
- November 7 – Gédéon Tallemant des Réaux, French writer known for his Historiettes (d. 1692)
- November 14 – Thomas Howard, 3rd Earl of Berkshire, English politician, earl (d. 1706)
- November 25 – Henry Mildmay, English politician (d. 1692)
- December 10 – Thomas Dyke, English politician (d. 1669)
- December 13 – Andrij Savka, Lemko bandit (d. 1661)
- December 17 – Prince Rupert of the Rhine, Bohemian-born Royalist commander in the English Civil War (d. 1682)
- December 28 – Antoine Furetière, French writer (d. 1688)
- December 31
- Donald Cargill, Scottish Covenanter (d. 1681)
- Gu Mei, politically influential Chinese courtesan, poet and painter (d. 1664)
- Samuel Collins, English doctor and author (d. 1670)
- Francisco Fernández de la Cueva, 8th Duke of Alburquerque, Spanish military officer and viceroy (d. 1676)
- Willem Kalf, Dutch painter (d. 1693)
- Kumazawa Banzan, Japanese philosopher (d. 1691)
- Shalom Shabazi, Jewish Yemeni rabbi and poet (d. c. 1720)
- Wang Fuzhi, Chinese philosopher (d. 1692)
- January 7 – Nicholas Hilliard, English miniature painter (b. c. 1547)
- January 11 – Diane de France, Duchess of Angoulême (b. 1538)
- January 15 – Thomas Clinton, 3rd Earl of Lincoln, English politician (b. 1568)
- January 20 – Éléonore de Bourbon, Dutch princess (b. 1587)
- February 3 – Henry Brooke, 11th Baron Cobham, English conspirator (b. 1564)
- February 9 – Lucilio Vanini, Italian philosopher (b. 1585)
- February 12 – Pierre de Larivey, Italian-born French dramatist (b. 1549)
- February 16 – William Couper, Scottish bishop of Galloway (b. 1568)
- March 2
- March 5 – Demeter Naprágyi, Hungarian Catholic archbishop (b. 1564)
- March 13 – Richard Burbage, English actor (b. c. 1567)
- March 15
- March 18 – Chō Tsuratatsu, Japanese samurai (b. 1546)
- March 20
- April 5 – Alexander Home, 1st Earl of Home, Scottish nobleman (b. 1566)
- April 10 – Thomas Jones, Anglican Archbishop of Dublin (b. c. 1550)
- April 16 – Denis Calvaert, Flemish painter (b. 1540)
- April 18 – Taj Bibi Bilqis Makani, Mughal empress (b. 1573)
- April/May – William Larkin, English court portrait painter (b. early 1580s)
- May – John Overall, English bishop (b. 1559)
- May 13 – Johan van Oldenbarnevelt, Dutch statesman (b. 1547)
- May 21 – Hieronymus Fabricius, Italian anatomist (b. 1537)
- May 23 – Stephen Soame, Lord Mayor of London (b. 1540)
- June 18 – Martin Fréminet, French painter (b. 1567)
- July 2 – Francis II, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg (1586–1619) (b. 1547)
- July 22 – Lawrence of Brindisi, Italian saint (b. 1559)
- July 24 – Nabeshima Naoshige, Japanese samurai (b. 1537)
- August 3 – Dorothy Percy, Countess of Northumberland, younger daughter of Walter Devereux (b. c. 1564)
- August 19
- August 29 – Ferdinando Taverna, Italian Catholic cardinal (b. 1558)
- August 30 – Shimazu Yoshihiro, Japanese samurai and warlord (b. 1535)
- September – Hans Lippershey, Dutch lensmaker (b. 1570)
- September 3 – John Gordon, Scottish bishop (b. 1544)
- September 7
- October 9 – Joseph Pardo, Italian rabbi and merchant (b. c. 1561)
- October 14 – Samuel Daniel, English poet (b. 1562)
- October 18 – Petrus Gudelinus, Belgian jurist (b. 1550)
- October 19 – Fujiwara Seika, Japanese philosopher (b. 1561)
- November 13 – Ludovico Carracci, Italian painter (b. 1555)
- December 23 – John Sigismund, Elector of Brandenburg from the House of Hohenzollern (b. 1572)
- December 29
- Bagrat VII of Kartli (b. 1569)
- François d'Amboise, French jurist and writer (b. 1550)
- Thomas Stephens, English Jesuit missionary in Portuguese India (b. c. 1549)
- Caterina Vitale, Maltese pharmacist (b. 1566)