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Chauvinism in its original and primary meaning, is an exaggerated, bellicose patriotism and a belief in national superiority and glory. By extension it has come to include an extreme and unreasoning partisanship on behalf of any group to which one belongs, especially when the partisanship includes malice and hatred towards rival groups. Jingoism is the British parallel form of this French word. A contemporary use of the term in English is in the phrase male chauvinism.

Because "chauvinism" is most often heard in this context, it is often mistakenly believed to refer exclusively to "male chauvinism" such as anti-feminism and sexism. It is an eponym of a possibly fictional French soldier Nicolas Chauvin who was credited with many superhuman feats in the late 18th century.

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