From The Art and Popular Culture Encyclopedia
In physics, fundamental interactions (sometimes called interactive forces) are the ways that the simplest particles in the universe interact with one another. An interaction is fundamental when it cannot be described in terms of other interactions.
The four known fundamental interactions, all of which are non-contact forces, are electromagnetism, strong interaction, weak interaction (also known as "strong" and "weak nuclear force") and gravitation. With the possible exception of gravitation, these interactions can usually be described, in a set of calculational approximation methods known as perturbation theory, as being mediated by the exchange of gauge bosons between particles. However, there are situations where perturbation theory does not adequately describe the observed phenomena, such as bound states and solitons.
- People: Isaac Newton, James Clerk Maxwell, Albert Einstein, Sheldon Glashow, Abdus Salam, Steven Weinberg, Gerardus 't Hooft, David Gross, Edward Witten, Howard Georgi