From The Art and Popular Culture Encyclopedia
A gender role is a set of societal norms dictating what types of behaviors are generally considered acceptable, appropriate or desirable for a person based on their actual or perceived sex. These are usually centered around opposing conceptions of femininity and masculinity, although there are myriad exceptions and variations. The specifics regarding these gendered expectations may vary substantially among cultures, while other characteristics may be common throughout a range of cultures. There is ongoing debate as to what extent gender roles and their variations are biologically determined, and to what extent they are socially constructed.
Various groups have led efforts to change aspects of prevailing gender roles that they believe are oppressive or inaccurate, most notably the feminist movement.
The term 'gender role' was first coined by John Money in 1955 during the course of his study of intersex individuals to describe the manners in which these individuals express their status as a male or female, in a situation where no clear biological assignment exists.
- "Let a Woman Be a Woman, and Let a Man Be a Man" (1969)
- Anima and animus
- Butch and femme
- Civil and political rights
- Going Dutch
- Feminization (sociology)
- Gender advertisement
- Gender equality
- Gender studies
- Men's movement
- Portrayal of women in video games
- Sex and gender distinction
- Sexual inversion (sexology)
- Sociology of gender
- Western stereotype of the male ballet dancer