From The Art and Popular Culture Encyclopedia
The Gestapo was the official secret police of Nazi Germany and German-occupied Europe. Hermann Göring first formed the unit in 1933. Beginning on 20 April 1934, it was under the administration of SS national leader, Heinrich Himmler who in 1936 was appointed Chief of German Police (Chef der Deutschen Polizei) by Hitler. In 1936, Himmler made it a suboffice of the Sicherheitspolizei (SiPo) ("Security Police"). Then from 27 September 1939 forward, it was administered by the Reichssicherheitshauptamt (RSHA) ("Reich Main Security Office") and was considered a sister organization of the Sicherheitsdienst (SD) ("Security Service"). According to historian Rupert Butler, "From its creation in 1933 until its death in May 1945, anyone living in Nazi controlled territory lived in fear of a visit from the Gestapo...".
- Glossary of Nazi Germany
- Geheime Feldpolizei, the secret military police service of the Wehrmacht.
- Organization for Vigilance and Repression of Anti-Fascism – Fascist Italy's civilian intelligence service.
- Tokkō – may be thought of as Japan's version of the Gestapo.
- HIPO Corps, established in Denmark in 1944 by the Gestapo.
- Stasi, the East German equivalent