From The Art and Popular Culture Encyclopedia
"It was left to literature, such as Primo Levi's If This Is a Man (1947) or Robert Antelme's The Human Race (1947) to describe what poetry, according to Theodor Adorno, could not describe."--Sholem Stein
"The fact that, after having been ignored or repressed for decades, the memory of the Holocaust has been transformed today into a kind of civil religion in the Western world, sometimes protected by the law, shows the profound isolation of anti-Semitic discourse and ideas."--The End of Jewish Modernity (2016) by Enzo Traverso
"[ Hitler ] applied to Europe colonialist procedures which until then had been reserved exclusively for the Arabs of Algeria, the 'coolies' of India and the 'niggers' of Africa." --Discourse on Colonialism (1950) by Aimé Césaire
The Holocaust (from the Greek holókauston from olon "completely" and kauston "burnt") is the term generally used to describe the killing of approximately six million European Jews during World War II, as part of a program of deliberate extermination planned and executed by the National Socialist regime in Germany led by Adolf Hitler.
Other groups were persecuted and killed by the regime, including the Roma, Soviet POWs, disabled people, gay men, Jehovah's Witnesses, Catholic Poles, and political prisoners. Many scholars do not include these groups in the definition of the Holocaust, defining it as the genocide of the Jews, or what the Nazis called the "Final Solution of the Jewish Question." Taking into account all the victims of Nazi persecution, the death toll rises considerably: estimates generally place the total number of victims at nine to 11 million.
The Holocaust in art and literature
As one of the defining events of the 20th century, and one of the most stark examples of human brutality in modern history, the Holocaust has had a profound impact on art and literature over the past 60 years.
Involvement of other countries and nationals
- General: Évian Conference, Bermuda Conference, International response to the Holocaust, Voyage of the Damned, Struma.
- Collaborators: The response of individual states.
- Rescuers: Aristides de Sousa Mendes, Chiune Sugihara, List of people who assisted Jews during the Holocaust, List of Righteous Among the Nations by country, Luiz Martins de Souza Dantas, Hugh O'Flaherty, Raoul Wallenberg, Rescue of the Danish Jews, Resistance during the Holocaust, Righteous Among the Nations, Witold Pilecki, Żegota.
Aftermath and historiography
- General discussion: After the Holocaust, Aftermath of World War II, Denazification.
- Legal response: Command responsibility, Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, Doctors' Trial, German war crimes, Nuremberg Trials, Trial of Adolf Eichmann, War crimes of the Wehrmacht.
- Victims: List of victims of Nazism.
- Survivors: List of famous Holocaust survivors, Sh'erit ha-Pletah, Wiedergutmachung.
- Memorials: Holocaust memorials, Yom HaShoah, Yad Vashem.
- Cultural, political, and scholarly responses: Holocaust denial, Holocaust theology, The Holocaust in art and literature.
- For the issue of where responsibility for the Holocaust lies: The Holocaust (responsibility), Command responsibility, and for an account of the historiographical positions: Functionalism versus intentionalism and Historikerstreit.
- For further resources: Holocaust (resources).
- Antiziganism, Aryanization, Bereavement in Judaism, Friedrich Kellner, Ilse Koch, International Holocaust Cartoon Competition, Irma Grese, List of composers influenced by the Holocaust, Jews outside Europe under Nazi occupation, Phases of the Holocaust
- List of composers influenced by the Holocaust
- Auschwitz, the Holocaust in art and literature, Emergency Rescue Committee, historical and philosophical interpretations of the Holocaust
- International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance