From The Art and Popular Culture Encyclopedia
Joachim Patinir, also called de Patiner (c. 1480 – 5 October 1524), was a Flemish Northern Renaissance history and landscape painter from the area of modern Wallonia. He was probably the uncle of Herri met de Bles, with whom he helped establish a distinct style of Northern Renaissance landscapes. Patinir was the friend of not only Dürer, but with Quentin Metsys as well, with whom he often collaborated. The Temptation of St Anthony (Prado) was done in collaboration with Metsys. He is the inventor of the 'Weltlandschaft'.
Originally from Dinant or Bouvignes in present-day Belgium, Patinir became registered as a member of Antwerp's painters’ guild Guild of Saint Luke in 1515, where he spent the rest of his life. He may have studied with Gerard David at Bruges, who had been registered as a guild member in the same year as Patinir. In 1511, Patinir is believed to have travelled to Genoa with David and Adrien Ysenbrandt.
In 1521, Patinir’s friend Albrecht Dürer attended his second wedding and painted his portrait. Dürer called Patinir "der gute Landschaftmaler" ("a good painter of landscapes"), thus creating a neologism translated later into the French. Patinir let his landscapes dwarf his figures, which were often painted by other artists. Such specialization was common in the Low Countries at the time to meet the demand. His immense vistas combine observation of naturalistic detail with lyrical fantasy, the prime example of which is his The Flight into Egypt (Museum of Antwerp). The rocks in his landscapes are inspired in his native Dinant. The farther features are painted with a green and blue palette to express the dimming caused by air. Other examples of his work include The Rest on the Flight into Egypt (Prado), The Baptism of Christ (Vienna), St. John at Patmos (National Gallery, London), Landscape with the Shepherds (Antwerp), and Rest by the Way (Minneapolis Institute of Arts). There is also a triptych attributed to him called The Penitence of St. Jerome.
There are only five paintings signed by Patinir, but many other works have been attributed to him or his workshop with varying degrees of probability. The ones that are signed read: Opus Joachim D. Patinier, the “D” in his signature signifying Dionantensis (“of Dinant”), which may attest to his provenance from this town. The exhibition at the Madrid Prado Museum contained 22 pictures excluding those whose state did not allow their transportation.
Patinir was a pioneer of landscape as an independent genre and he was the first Flemish painter to regard himself primarily as a landscape painter. Patinir was the friend of not only Dürer, but with Quentin Metsys as well, with whom he often collaborated. The Temptation of St Anthony (Prado) was done in collaboration with Metsys.
Landscape with Charon Crossing the Styx