John Money  

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John William Money (8 July 19217 July, 2006) was a psychologist and sexologist well-known for his research into sexual identity and biology of gender. Money identified several influential concepts and terms during his career, including gender identity, gender role, gender-identity/role, and lovemap. He was awarded in the Magnus Hirschfeld Medal in 2002 from the "German Society for Social-Scientific Sexuality Research".

Money was a professor of pediatrics and medical psychology at Johns Hopkins University from 1951 until his death. While there Money was involved with the Sexual Behaviors Unit, which ran studies on sex reassignment surgery.

Money is best-known for his involvement in the sex reassignment of David Reimer, in what later became known as the "John/Joan" case. Money reported that he successfully reassigned Reimer as female after a botched 1966 infant circumcision. In 1997, Milton Diamond reported that the reassignment had failed, that Reimer had never identified as female or behaved typically feminine. At age 14, Reimer refused to see Money again, threatening suicide if he were made to go. Reimer began living as male, and at 15, with a different medical team, he sought a mastectomy, testosterone therapy and a phalloplasty. Later he married a woman who had children from a previous marriage and lived as a man until his suicide at age 38.


  • Money, John. Hermaphroditism: An Inquiry into the Nature of a Human Paradox. Thesis (Ph.D.), Harvard University, 1952.
  • Money, John. The Psychologic Study of Man (1957) Thomas: ASIN B0007E4LMC
  • Money, John. A Standardized Road-Map Test of Direction Sense (1965) Academic Therapy Publications: ASIN B0006WTB2K
  • Money, John. Sex Errors of the Body and Related Syndromes: A Guide to Counseling Children, Adolescents, and Their Families , 2nd ed. Baltimore: P.H. Brooks Publishing Company, 1994. ISBN 1-55766-150-2
  • Money, John, and Anke Ehrhardt. Man & Woman, Boy & Girl: Gender Identity from Conception to Maturity. Northvale, N.J.: Jason Aronson, 1996. Originally published: Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1972. ISBN 1-56821-812-5
  • Money, John, and Patricia Tucker. Sexual Signatures on Being a Man or a Woman. (1975) Little Brown & Co: ISBN 0-316-57825-8
  • Money, John. Love and Love Sickness: the Science of Sex, Gender Difference and Pair-Bonding, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1980. ISBN 0-8018-2317-X, ISBN 0-8018-2318-8 (pbk.)
  • Money, John. The Destroying Angel: Sex, Fitness & Food in the Legacy of Degeneracy Theory, Graham Crackers, Kellogg’s Corn Flakes & American Health History. Buffalo, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 1985. ISBN 0-87975-277-7
  • Money, John. Lovemaps: Clinical Concepts of Sexual/Erotic Health and Pathology, Paraphilia, and Gender Transposition in Childhood, Adolescence, and Maturity. New York: Irvington, 1986. ISBN 0-8264-0852-4
  • Money, John. Venuses Penuses: Sexology, Sexosophy, and Exigency Theory. Buffalo, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 1986. ISBN 0-87975-327-7
  • Money, John. Gay, Straight, and In-Between: The Sexology of Erotic Orientation. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988. ISBN 0-19-505407-5
  • Money, John. Vandalized Lovemaps: Paraphilic Outcome of 7 Cases in Pediatric Sexology. (1989) Prometheus Books: ISBN 0-87975-513-X
  • Money, John, and H. Musaph (eds). Biographies of Gender and Hermaphroditism. (1991) Elsevier Publishing Company: ISBN 0-444-81403-5
  • Money, John, Gordon Wainwright, and David Hingsburger. The Breathless Orgasm: A Lovemap Biography of Asphyxiophilia. (1991) Prometheus Books: ISBN 0-87975-664-0
  • Money, John. The Kaspar Hauser Syndrome of "Psychosocial Dwarfism": Deficient Statural, Intellectual, and Social Growth Induced by Child Abuse. Prometheus Books, 1992. ISBN 0-87975-754-X
  • Money, John. The Adam Principle: genes. genitals, hormones, and gender: Selected readings in sexology. Buffalo, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 1993. ISBN 0-87975-804-X
  • Ronald W. Keyes and John Money. The Armed Robbery Orgasm: A Lovemap Autobiography of Masochism. (1993) Prometheus Books: ISBN 0-87975-856-2
  • Money, John. Principles of Developmental Sexology. New York: Continuum, 1994. ISBN 0-8264-1026-X
  • Money, John. Reinterpreting the Unspeakable: Human Sexuality 2000 : The Complete Interviewer and Clinical Biographer, Exigency Theory, and Sexology for the Third. New York: Continuum, 1994. ISBN 0-8264-0651-3
  • Money, John. Gendermaps: Social Constructionism, Feminism, and Sexosophical History. New York: Continuum, 1995. ISBN 0-8264-0852-4
  • Money, John. The Lovemap Guidebook: A Definitive Statement. Continuum, 1999. ISBN 0-8264-1203-3
  • Krivacska, James J., and John Money, eds. The Handbook of Forensic Sexology: Biomedical & Criminological Perspectives. (1994) Prometheus: ISBN 0-87975-883-X

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