From The Art and Popular Culture Encyclopedia
Neurology is a branche of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system. To be specific, neurology deals with the diagnosis and treatment of all categories of conditions and disease involving the central and peripheral nervous system; or, the equivalent meaning, the autonomic nervous systems and the somatic nervous systems, including their coverings, blood vessels, and all effector tissue, such as muscle.
A neurologist is a physician specializing in neurology and trained to investigate, or diagnose and treat neurological disorders. Neurologists may also be involved in clinical research and clinical trials. While neurology is a non-surgical specialty, its corresponding surgical specialty is neurosurgery. Neurology, being a branch of medicine, differs from neuroscience, which is the scientific study of the nervous system in all of its aspects.
Thomas Willis (1621 – 1675) played an important part in the history of neurology and psychiatry. Jean-Martin Charcot is considered one of the fathers of neurology. Polish neurologist Edward Flatau greatly influenced the developing field of neurology. He published a human brain atlas in 1894 and wrote a fundamental book on migraines in 1912.