Northern France (Baedeker guide)  

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"M. Montmédy (Hot. de la Gare; Croix d'Or), a fortress of the second class, with 2733 inhab., is picturesquely situated on the Chiers. The rocky and isolated hill (Mons Medius) from which the name is derived is occupied by the citadel. Montmédy was taken by Louis XIV. from the Spaniards in 1657. It was bombarded by the Germans in Sept. 1870, after Sedan; and returning in December, they forced it to capitulate by reducing it to a heap of ruins. — The church of Avioth, 4Y2 M. to the N., is a fine Gothic edifice of the 13-14th centuries."--Northern France, from Belgium and the English channel to the Loire, excluding Paris and its environs : handbook for travellers (1889) by Baedeker

"The history of France, properly so called, begins at the end of the fifth century of the Christian era, when Clovis I. (481-511), son of Childeric, king of the Ripuarian Franks of Tournay, expelled the Romans from Northern Gaul (ca. 496), embraced Christianity, and united all the Franks under his sway."--Northern France, from Belgium and the English channel to the Loire, excluding Paris and its environs : handbook for travellers (1889) by Baedeker

English and American tourists are apt to confine their interest in Northern France to the districts through which they are whirled by the express-trains from the N. seaports to Paris: but the more leisurely traveller will find much to arrest his attention and employ his time pleasantly in various parts of the country coming within the scope of this Handbook. Though N. France is less richly gifted with natural beauty than those parts of the country which border on the Alps or the Pyrenees, it still affords much attractive scenery in Normandy, Brittany, the valley of the Seine, the Vosges, and the Ardennes. On the other hand it is extremely rich in architectural monuments of the greatest importance, containing an unparalleled series of magnificent Gothic churches at Rouen, Amiens, Beauvais, Caen, Chartres, Tours, Rheims, Bourges, Orleans, Troyes, and Laon, while the Romanesque style is well illustrated in the abbey-churches of Caen and in many smaller examples. The ancient Abbey of Mont St. Michel is, perhaps, the most picturesque edifice in France. Among secular edifices may be mentioned the magnificent Palais de Justice at Rouen, the Renaissance chateaux of Blois and Chambord, the mediaeval castles of Pierrefonth, Coucy Chateau Oaillard, and Rambures, the mansion of Jacques Cceur at Bourges, and the quaint old houses of Lisieux, Rouen, etc. The art collections of Lille are worthy of a great capital, and those of Douai, Caen, Valenciennes, Bennes, Nantes, Dijon, and Besancon are also of considerable value. The busy commercial harbour of he Havre and the military ports of Cherbourg and Brest deserve a visit, while Nancy, the ancient capital of Lorraine, has a special interest for the histonca student. Lastly, mention must be made of the imposing antiquarian relics of Carnac."--Northern France, from Belgium and the English channel to the Loire, excluding Paris and its environs : handbook for travellers (1889) by Baedeker


Northern France, from Belgium and the English channel to the Loire, excluding Paris and its environs : handbook for travellers (1889) is a Baedeker guide on Northern France.


Full text[1]


The chief object of the Handbook for Northern France, which now appears for the third time and corresponds with the sixth French edition , is to render the traveller as nearly as possible independent of the services of guides, commission- naires, and innkeepers, and to enable him to employ his time and his money to the best advantage.

Like the Editor's other Handbooks, it is based on personal acquaintance with the country described, a great part of which has been repeatedly explored with the view of assuring accuracy and freshness of information. The Editor begs to tender his grateful acknowledgments to travellers who have sent him information for the benefit of the Handbook, and hopes they will continue to favour him with such communi- cations, especially when the result of their own experience.

On the Maps and Plans the utmost care has been bestow- ed, and it is hoped that they will often be of material service to the traveller, enabling him at a glance to ascertain his bearings and select the best routes.

A short account of the ordinary approaches to Northern France for English and American travellers will be found in the Introduction.

Heights and Distances are given in English measure- ment. It may, however, be convenient to remember that 1 kilometre is approximately equal to 5/s Engl. M., or 8 kil. = 5 M. (nearly) . See also p. xxiii.

In the Handbook are enumerated both the first-class hotels and those of humbler pretension. The latter may often be selected by the 'voyageur en garcon' with little sacrifice of real comfort, and considerable saving of expenditure. Those which the Editor believes to be most worthy of commenda- tion, are denoted by asterisks ; but doubtless there are many of equal excellence among those not so distinguished. It should, however, be borne in mind that hotels are liable to


constant changes, and that the treatment experienced by the traveller often depends on circumstances which can neither be foreseen nor controlled. Although prices generally have an upward tendency, the average charges stated in the Hand- book will enable the traveller to form a fair estimate of his expenditure.

To hotel-proprietors, tradesmen, and others the Editor begs to intimate that a character for fair dealing and cour- tesy towards travellers forms the sole passport to his com- mendation, and that advertisements of every form are strictly excluded from his Handbooks. Hotel -keepers are also warned against persons representing themselves as agents for Baedeker's Handbooks.


I. Language. Money. Expenses. Season. Passports. Custom House. Octroi.

Language. A slight acquaintance with French is indispensable for those who desire to explore the more remote districts of Northern France, but tourists who do not deviate from the beaten track will generally find English spoken at the principal hotels and the usual resorts of strangers. If, however, they are entirely ignorant of the French language , they must be prepared occasionally to submit to the extortions practised by porters, cab-drivers, and others of a like class , which even the data furnished by the Handbook will not always enable them to avoid.

Money. The decimal Monetary System of France is extremely convenient in keeping accounts. The Banque de France issues Banknotes of 5000, 1000, 500, 200, 100, and 50 francs, and these are the only banknotes current in the country. The French Gold coins are of the value of 100, 50, 20, 10, and 5 francs ; Silver coins of 5, 2, 1, Y21 ar,d V5 franc; Bronze of 10, 5, 2, and 1 centime (100 centimes = 1 franc). 'Sou'1 is the old name, still in common use, for 5 centimes ; thus, a 5-franc piece is sometimes called 'une piece de cent sous', 2 fr. = 40 sous, 1 fr. = 20 sous, lj% fr. = 10 sous. Italian, Belgian, Swiss, and Greek gold coins are received at their full value, and the Austrian gold pieces of 4 and 8 florins are worth exactly 10 and 20 fr. respectively. Belgian, Swiss, and Greek silver coins (except Swiss coins with the seated figure of Helvetia) are also current at full value; but Italian silver coins, with the exception of the 5-lira pieces, should be refused. The only foreign copper coins current in France are those of Italy and occa- sionally the English penny and halfpenny, which nearly correspond to the 10 and 5 centime piece respectively.

English banknotes and gold are also generally received at the full value in the larger towns, except at the shops of the money- changers, where a trifling deduction is made. The table at the begin- ning of the book shows the comparative value of the French, English, American, and German currencies, when at par. Circular Notes or Letters of Credit, obtainable at the principal English and American


banks, are the most convenient form for the transport of large sums ; and their value, if lost ot stolen, is recoverable.

The traveller should always be provided with small change (petite monnaie), as otherwise he may be put to inconvenience in giving gratuities, purchasing catalogues, etc.

Expenses. The expense of a tour in Northern France depends of course on the tastes and habits of the traveller ; but it may be stated generally that travelling in France is not more expensive than in most other countries of Europe. The pedestrian of moderate require- ments, who is tolerably proficient in the language and avoids the beaten track as much as possible, may limit his expenditure to 10-12 fr. per diem, while those who prefer driving to walking, choose the dearest hotels, and employ the services of guides and commis- sionnaires must be prepared to spend at least 20-30 fr. daily. Two or three gentlemen travelling together will be able to journey more economically than a solitary tourist, but the presence of ladies generally adds considerably to the expenses of the party.

Season. Most of the districts described in this Handbook may be visited at any part of the year, but winter is, of course, the least pleasant season, while spring and autumn are on the whole prefer- able to summer , especially when a large proportion of the tra- veller's time is spent in the cities and larger towns. The bathing- season at the watering-places on the N. coast generally lasts from June to September. Excursions in the elevated region of the Vosges are not possible, or at least pleasant, except in summer.

Passports are now dispensed with in France, but they are often useful in proving the traveller's identity, procuring admission to museums on days when they are not open to the public, obtaining delivery of registered letters, etc. Pedestrians in a remote district will often find that a passport spares them much inconvenience and delay.

Foreign Office passports may be obtained through C. Smith and Sons, 63 Ch'iring Cross; Buss, 440 West Strand; E. Stanford, 26 Cockspur St., Charing Cross ; or W. J. Adams, 59 Fleet St. (charge 2s. ; agent's fee 1*. 6d.).

Sketching, photographing, or making notes near fortified places sometimes exposes innocent travellers to disagreeable suspicions or worse, and should therefore be avoided.

Custom House. In order to prevent the risk of unpleasant de- tention at the 'douane' or custom-house, travellers are strongly re- commended to avoid carrying with them any articles that are not absolutely necessary. Cigars, tobacco, and matches are chiefly sought for by the custom-house officers. The duty on cigars amounts to about 13s., on tobacco to 6-10s. per lb. Articles liable to duty should always be 'declared'. Books and newspapers occasionally give rise to suspicion and may in certain cases be confiscated. The examination of luggage generally takes place at the frontier-stations, and travellers


should superintend it in person. Luggage registered to Paris is examined on arrival there.

Octbot. At the entrance to the larger towns an 'Octroi', or muni- cipal tax, is levied on all comestibles, but travellers' luggage is usu- ally passed on a simple declaration that it contains no such articles. The officials are, however, entitled to see the receipts for articles liable to duty at the frontier.

II. Routes to Northern France.

The quickest and easiest routes from England to Northern France are offered by the express through-services from London to Paris (see below). The steamers on the other routes, which are on the whole cheaper and may be more convenient for some travellers, will generally be found fairly comfortable. Particulars as to the days and hours of starting, which are liable to vary, may be found in Bradshaw's Continental Railway Ouide (monthly; 2s.). Most vis- itors to France from the United States will probably travel via Eng- land, but. those who prefer to proceed direct have opportunities by the weekly steamers of the Compagnie Oenerale Transatlantique from New York to Le Havre, the weekly steamers of the Hamburg- American Line from New York to Cherbourg, the monthly steamers of the Char- geurs Reunis from New Orleans to Le Havre, etc.

a. Express Routes from London to Paris.

Via Dover and Calais. Express thrice daily, starting from Charing Cross, Cannon Street, Victoria, Holborn Viaduct, and St. Paul's stations, in 71/2-10 hrs.; fares ll. 16s. iid., 11. 19s. 8d., and 11. 5s. &d. (3rd cl. by night service only), return-tickets, valid for one month, il. lis. 9d., 3l. 9s. 10d., and ll. — From London to Calais, 3-4 hrs., fares ll. 10s. 2d., 11. Is. 7d., lis. Gd. — From Dover to Calais, V/t-l3^ hr., fares 10s., 8s.

Via Folkestone and Boulogne. Express twice daily from Charing Cross and Cannon St. stations, in 8-10 hrs., fares 11. 12s., ll. 16s., and ll. Is. 9d. (3rd cl. by afternoon service only), return-tickets, valid for a month, il. 9s. 9d„ 31. 5s. 8d., ll. 17s. 5d. — From London to Boulogne, 372-4V2 hrs., fares ll. 13s. Gd., ll. Os. 10d., lis. Gd. — From Folkestone to Boulogne, l>/2- 2 hrs., fares 8s., 6s.

Via Newhaven and Dieppe. Express twice daily from Victoria and London Bridge stations in 9-10 hrs.; fares 34s. Id., 25s. Id., 18s. Id. (3rd cl. by night service only), return-tickets, valid for a month, 11. 18s. 3d., 11. Is. 3d., ll. 13s. 3d. — From London to Dieppe, b^li-G^lt hrs., fares ll. 4s. Id., 17s. Id., lbs. 2d. — From Newhaven to Dieppe, 3'/2-4'/- Qr3-i fares 1*«. Id., Its. Id.

Via Southampton and Le Havee. Express from Waterloo station (daily, except Sun.), in 12V2-14 hrs., fares ll. 13s. 10d., 11. is. lOd. (no 3rd cl.), return -tickets, valid for a month, 11. 16s. Sd., 11. Os. Sd. — From London to Le Havre, 10-12 hrs., ll. 8s. id., 11. Os. lOd. — From Southampton to Le Havre, 7-8 hrs., fares 23s., 17s.

b. Other Routes.

From Newhaven to Caen via Ouistreham, steamer thrice weekly in 7 hrs. ; fares about 15s. Gd., 8s. Gd. — From London to Caen, ll'/a-lS'/s hrs., fares 25s., 2is., 13s. return-ticket 3Ss., 32s., 20s.


From Southampton to St. Malo, steamer every Mon., Wed., & Frid. in 12 hrs.; returning every Mon., Wed., & Frid. Fares 23s., 17s., return- tickets, valid for two months; 35s., 25s. Fares from London to St. Malo, 35s., 25s., return-tickets 52s., 39s. 6d.

From Southampton to Cherbourg, every Tues., Thurs., & Sat., in 7 hrs., returning every Mon., Wed., & Frid. Fares 20s., 14s., return-tickets, valid for two months, 33s., 23*. ; from London to Cherbourg, 29s. 6<J., 20s., return- tickets 45s., 30s.

From Jersey to St. Malo (3 hrs.), every Mon. & Thurs. (returning every Tues. & Frid.), and to Granville (2V'-> hrs.). every Wed. & Sat. (returning every Mon. & Thurs.). Fares in each case 8s., 5s., return-tickets, valid for a month, 12s., 7s. 6d. ; from London to Granville 35s., 25s., return-tickets 52s., 39s. Gd. The Channel Islands (Jersey) are reached by daily steamer from Southampton or from Weymouth.

From London to Boulogne direct. Bennett Steamship Co., thrice weekly in 9-10 hrs. (6 hrs.' river passage) ; fare 10s., return 17s. 6d. — New Palace Steamers Co., four times weekly in the season ; return-fares 13s. 6d., lis. 6d.

To Dunkirk. Steamers every few days from London (Wapping) in 10-12 hrs. (fare 10s., return 15s.); every week from Leith (25s., return 40s.) and from Hull (about 24 hrs.); and every fortnight from Liverpool.

Steamers also sail at intervals of a week or longer from Liverpool to Le Havre; from Liverpool to La Rochelle; from Goole to Boulogne; from Leith to Calais; etc. (see 'Bradshaw').

III. Plan of Tour.

The traveller is strongly recommended to sketch out a plan of his tour in advance, as this, even though not rigidly adhered to, will be found of the greatest use in aiding him to regulate his movements, to economise his time, and to guard against overlook- ing any place of interest. English and American tourists are apt to confine their interest in Northern France to the districts through which they are whirled by the express-trains from the N. seaports to Paris: but the more leisurely traveller will find much to arrest his attention and employ his time pleasantly in various parts of the country coming within the scope of this Handbook. Though N. France is less richly gifted with natural beauty than those parts of the country which border on the Alps or the Pyrenees, it still affords much attractive scenery in Normandy, Brittany, the valley of the Seine, the Vosges, and the Ardennes. On the other hand it is extremely rich in architectural monuments of the greatest importance, containing an unparalleled series of magnificent Gothic churches at Rouen, Amiens, Beauvais, Caen, Chartres, Tours, Rheims, Bourges, Orleans, Troyes, and Laon, while the Romanesque style is well illustrated in the abbey-churches of Caen and in many smaller examples. The ancient Abbey of Mont St. Michel is, perhaps, the most picturesque edifice in France. Among secular edifices may be mentioned the magnificent Palais de Justice at Rouen, the Renaissance chateaux of Blois and Chambord, the mediaeval castles of Pierrefonth, Coucy Chateau Oaillard, and Rambures, the mansion of Jacques Cceur at Bourges, and the quaint old houses of Lisieux, Rouen, etc. The art collections of Lille are worthy of a great capital, and those of Douai, Caen, Valenciennes, Bennes, Nantes, Dijon, and Besancon are also of considerable value. The busy commercial harbour of he Havre and the military ports of Cherbourg and Brest deserve a visit, while Nancy, the ancient capital of Lorraine, has a special interest for the histonca student. Lastly, mention must be made of the imposing antiquarian relics of Carnac.

The following short itineraries give an idea of the time required lor a visit to the most attractive points. Paris is taken as the starting- point in each case, but the tourist starting from London will find no Uiinculty in adapting thearrangement to his requirements by begin- ning at the places most easily reached from England. An early start is supposed to be made each morning, butno night-travelling is assumed 1 he various tours given below are arranged so that they may be combined into one comprehensive tour of two months (comp. Maps") rhe tourist should carefully consult the railway time-tables in order to guard against detention at uninteresting junctions.

a. A Week in Picardy and Artois. ^

Prom Paris to Beauvais and Amiens (RR. 3, 1 2) iiv

  • rom Amiens to Arras and Douai (R. 9) '?
  • rom Douai to Valenciennes and Lille (R. 11) tu 9

From Lille to SI. Omer, and Calais (RR. 11,1) /2"f

t rom Calais to Boulogne and Abbeville (R. 1) 7

"om Abbeville back to Paris (R. 1), 0r to Dievve fR R)'tn

connect with the following tour . PP. . ' . j

b. Three Weeks in Normandy and Brittany. n

^ *??£ *° R°%n £r from Loudon t0 DiePP* ^ Xouen, R. 4) ^

ana at Jiouen (R. 5) . . . mi q

From Rouen to Le Havre (R. 6) '2~?

From Le Havre to Trouville by sea (R. 6) J

From Trouville to Caen and at Caen (RR. 23,' 22) 19

  • rom Caen to Bayeux and Cherbourg (R. 21) i },f

From Cherbourg to Coutances (R. 24) . . 7

From Coutances to Avranches and Oranville (RR.'24 25) ' 1-1 iL

vJZ «7r?fC,he! io„Mont st- Michel and St. Male (R. 30) '. '. ' 1-JiK

From St. Malo to £«. Stow and Guingamp (R. 30) 1

  • rom Guingamp to Morlaix and £res< (R. 29) i

Irom Brest to Quimper (R. 34) . J

From Quimper to Pannes (R. 34) '. }

From Vannes to Nantes (R. 34) . f

From Nantes to Angers (R. 31) . 7

From Angers to Le Mans (R. 31) . . . 7

From Le Mans to Chartres and Paris (R. 28) ....'....'. 1-2

~ 16V2-211/S

c A Fortnight in the Orleanais, Touraine, Berry,

Nivernais, and Burgundy. _

From Paris to Organs and Blois (R. 35) . iju

From Blois to Chambord (R. 35) 1'1 '5

From Blois to Jtm&oise and Tow™ (r'. 35) in/

frroCmrTrT/?m^ToUrS t0 C/,i™» and J«*« (»■' 35)" .' " ! .' ' fcL'J

™m iours t0 Chenonceaux and JSouraes (R. 35) ?,

From Bourges to ilfaur* (R. 57) -J

From Nevers to Autun (R. 56) |



From Autun to Dijon (R. 56) J

Excursion from Dijon to Besangon (R. 48) ,

From Dijon to Auxerre and Sens (RR. 42, 41) l-l'/J

From Sena to Fontainebleau and Paris (RR. 56, 55) ... • _•_ _■ _±

A. A Fortnight in Champagne and Lorraine (the Vosges).

From Paris to Troyes (R. 39) \

From Troyes to Ghaumont and Langres (R. 39) , t ,

From Langres to Belfort and Besangon (RR. 39, 48) l-l'/a

From Besancon , via, Belfort , Lure, and Aillevillers, to Plorn-

bieres (RR." 48, 35, 42) 1

From Plombierea to Remiremonl and Bvssang {St. Maurice;

RR. 42, 47) 1

Ascent of the Walsche Belchen (R. 47) llt-i.

From St. Maurice to Epinal and Qirardmer (R. 47) I-IV2

From Gerardmer to the Schluchl and Hoheneek (R. 47) 1

From Gerardmer to St. Dii, LunMlle, and Nancy (RR. 40, 45) l-l'/a

From Nancy to Tout and Chdlons-sur-Marne (R. 19) 1

From Chalons to Epernay (or St. Hilaire-au-Temple) and Rheims

(R. 6) 1-2

From Rheims to Laon or Soissons (R. 15) 1

From Laon to Soissons and Paris (R. 15), or from Soissons to

Laon, Tergnier, and Amiens, to connect with Route a. (RR. 15, 1) 1-1 '/if

121/2-16 The pedestrian is unquestionably the most independent of trav- ellers, and to him alone the beautiful scenery of some of the more remote districts is accessible. For a short tour a couple of flannel shirts, a pair of worsted stockings, slippers, the articles of the toilette, a light waterproof, and a stout umbrella will generally be found a sufficient equipment. Strong and well-tried boots are essential to comfort. Heavy and complicated knapsacks should be avoided; a light pouch or game-bag is far less irksome, and its position may be shifted at pleasure. A more extensive reserve of clothing should not exceed the limits of a small portmanteau, which can be easily wielded, and may be forwarded from town to town by post.

IV. Railways. Diligences.

The districts treated in this Handbook are served mainly by the lines of the Nord, Est, Ouest, Paris-Lyon-Mediterranee, and Orleans railways, and to a smaller extent by the Government lines (Reseau de I'Etat).

The fares per English mile are approximately: 1st cl. 18 c, 2nd cl. 12 c, 3rd cl. 8 c, to which a tax of ten per cent on each ticket costing more than 10 fr. is added. The mail trains ('trains rapides' ) generally convey first-class passengers only, and the express trains (Hrains express') first-class and second-class only. The first class carriages are good, but the second-class are often poor and the third-class on the Nord and Ouest lines are rarely furnished with cushioned seats. Generally speaking, however, the rolling-stock has been considerably improved within recent years; and corridor-coaches (voitures d, couloir) are found in some trains on the Est system. In


winter all the carriages are heated. The trains are generally provided with smoking carriages , and in the others smoking is allowed un- less any one of the passengers objects. Ladies' compartments are also provided. The trains invariably pass each other on the left, so that the traveller can always tell which side of a station his train starts from. The speed of the express-trains is about 35-45 M. per hour, but that of the ordinary trains is very much less.

Before starting, travellers are generally cooped up in the close and dusty waiting-rooms, and are not admitted to the platform until the train is ready to receive them ; nor is any one admitted to the station to take leave of friends without a platform-ticket (10 c), which may usually be obtained from the ticket-checker. Tickets for intermediate stations are usually collected at the 'sortie' ; those for termini, before the station is entered. Travellers within France are allowed 30 kilogrammes (66 Engl, lbs.) of luggage free of charge ; those who are bound for foreign countries are allowed 25 kilogr. only (55 lbs.) ; 10 c. is charged for booking. On the Belgian, Swiss, and Alsatian lines all luggage in the van must be paid for. In all cases the heavier luggage must be booked, and a ticket procured for it; this being done, the traveller need not enquire after his 'impedi- menta'until he arrives and presents his ticket at his final destination (where they will be kept in safe custody, several days usually gratis). Where, however, a frontier has to be crossed, the traveller should see his luggage cleared at the custom-house in person. At most of the railway-stations there is a consigne, or left-luggage office, where a charge of 10 c. per day is made for one or two packages, and 5 c. per day for each additional article. Where there is no consigne, the employes will generally take care of luggage for a trifling fee. The railway-porters (facteurs) are not entitled to remuneration, but it is usual to give a few sous for their services. — Interpreters are found at most of the large stations.

Dog Tickets cost 30 c. for 20 kilometres (1272 M.) or less, and 5 c. for each additional 3 kil. (l3/4 M.), with 10 c. for booking.

There are no Refreshment Rooms (Buffets) except at the principal stations; and aa the viands are generally indifferent, the charges high, and the stoppages brief, the traveller is advised to provide himself be- forehand with the necessary sustenance and consume it at his leisure in the railway-carriage. Baskets containing a cold luncheon are sold at some of the buffets for 3-4 fr.

Sleeping Carriages (Wagons-Lits) are provided on all the main lines, and the 'Compagnie Internationale des Wagons-Lits' has an oftice at Paris (Place de l'Ope'ra 3). Dining Cars (Wagons-Restaurants) are also run in the chief day expresses (dej. 372, D. 4-5 fr.); 2nd cl. dining-cars on the Le Havre and Le Mans lines (dej. 2'/4, D. 3V2 fr.). Wine is extra (half-a-hottle, 1 fr.).

Pillows and Coverlets may be hired at the chief stations (1 fr.).

The most trustworthy information as to the departure of trains is contained in the Indicateur des Chemins deFer, published weekly, and sold at all the stations (75 c). There are also separate and less bulky time-tables ('Livrets Chaix') for the different lines: du Nord, de l'Est, de l'Ouest, etc. (40 c).

B.grnMUfg'a TJnrthern Franca. 3rd Edit. b


Railway-time is always that of Paris, but the clocks in the in- terior of the stations, by which the trains start, are purposely kept five minutes slow. Belgian (Greenwich or West Europe) railway time is 4min. behind, and 'MidEurope' time (for Germany, Switzer- land, and Italy) 56 min. in advance of French railway-time.

Return-tickets (Billets d'aller el retour) are issued by all the railway-companies at a reduction of 20-25 per cent or even more. The length of time for which these tickets are available vary with the distance and with the company by which they are issued; those issued on Sat. and on the eves of great festivals are available for three days or for four days if Mon. be a festival. The recognised festivals are New Year's Day, Easter Monday, Ascension Day, Whit- Monday, the 'Fete Nationale' (July 14th), the Assumption (Aug. 15th), All Saints' Day (Nov. 1st), and Christmas Day.

Excursion Trains ('Trains de Plaisir ) should as a rule be avoided, as the cheapness of their fares is more than counterbalanced by the discomforts of their accommodation.

Circular Tour Tickets ('Billets de Voyages Circulaires ) are of two kinds, viz. 'h itineraires fixes' (routes arranged by the railway company), and 'h itineraires facultatifs' (routes arranged to meet the wishes of individual travellers). The former will often be found convenient as they are issued at reduced fares, with liberal arrange- ments as to breaking the journey, but they are not usually granted to third-class passengers. The latter, though issued for all three classes, are now subject to a variety of conditions which practically cancel the ostensible advantages, except in the case of journeys of considerable length. Tourists, before purchasing one of these 'facul- tatif ' tickets, should carefully study the explanatory sections in the 'Indicateur', or apply for information to a tourist-agent or other authority. Holders of such tickets must present themselves at the ticket-office of the original starting-place and of every station where the journey is broken and apply for an ordinary ticket in addition.

The following are some of the expressions with which the railway traveller in France should he familiar : Railway-station , la gare (also Pembarcadere) ; booking-office, le guichet or bureau; first, second, or third class ticket, itn billet de premiere, de seconde, de troisieme classe; to take a ticket, prendre un billet; to register the luggage, /aire enregistrer les bagages; luggage-ticket, bulletin de bagage; waiting-room, salle d'attente; refreshment room, le buffet (third-class refreshment-room, la buvette); platform, le perron, le troltoir; railway-carriage, le wagon; compartment, le compartiment, le coupi ; smoking compartment, fumeurs ; ladies' compartment, dames seules ; guard, conducleur ; porter, facleur; to enter the carriage, monter en wagon; take your seats! en voilure! alight, descendre; to change carriages, changer de voilure; express train to Calais, le train express pour Calais, Pexpress de Calais.

Diligences. The French Diligences, now becoming more and more rare, are generally slow (5-7 M. per hour), uninviting, and inconvenient. The best seats are the three in the Coupe, beside the driver, which cost a little more than the others and are often engaged several days beforehand. The fnterieur generally contains six places,


and in some cases is supplemented by the Rotonde, a less com- fortable hinder-compartment, which, however, affords a good retro- spective view of the country traversed. The Imperiale, Banquette, or roof affords the best view of all and maybe recommended in good weather. It is advisable to book places in advance if possible , as they are numbered and assigned in the order of application. The fares are fixed by tariff and amount on an average to about l1/^ per mile (coupe" extra). — For short distances the place of the dili- gences is taken by Omnibuses, equally comfortless vehicles, in which, however, there is no distinction of seats. Those which run in con- nection with the railways have a fixed tariff, but in other cases bar- gaining is advisable. — Hotel Omnibuses, see p. xxi.

Hired Carriages (Voitures de Louage) may be obtained at all the principal resorts of tourists at ckarges varying from 12 to 20 fr. per day for a single-horse vehicle and from 25 to 30 fr. for a carriage- and-pair, with a pourboire to the driver of 1-2 fr. The hirers almost invariably demand more at first than they are willing to take, and a distinct understanding should always be come to beforehand. A day's journey is reckoned at about 30 M., with a rest of 2-3 hrs. at midday. — Saddle Horses, Asses, and Mules may also be hired.

V. Cycling.

Cycling is a popular amusement in France , and the cyclist's wants are everywhere fairly well provided for. On and after May 1st, 1899, cyclists entering France with their machines must obtain from the customs-agent a cycle-permit (60 c), which must be carried on the person and produced whenever required. If, however, the cyclist remains more than three consecutive months in France, he must apply for an official metal badge, to be fixed on the steering-post. These badges are delivered free on payment of the necessary fees and the annual tax (6 fr.). Each cycle must have a badge for each seat, and must, moreover, be furnished with a lamp and a bell or horn.

Cyclists in France will find it advantageous to join the Touring Club de France (5 Rue Coq-Heron, Paris), the annual subscription to which is 6 fr. (5s.), including a copy of the monthly Gazette. The club publishes an Annuaire (1 fr.), with a list of cyclists' hotels, repairers, representatives, etc., and also a series of Itineraries (5 c. each). Members of the British Cyclists' Touring Club (47 Victoria St., London, S.W.) also enjoy special privileges.

English riders should remember that the rule of the road in France is the reverse of that in England: keep to the right on meeting, to the left in overtaking another vehicle.

VI. Hotels, Restaurants, and Cafes. Hotels. Hotels of the highest class, fitted up with every modem convenience, are found only in the larger towns and in the more



fashionable watering-places, where the influx of visitors is great. In other places the inns generally retain their primitive provincial characteristics, which might prove rather an attraction than other- wise were it not for the shameful defectiveness of the sanitary ar- rangements. The beds, however, are generally clean, and the cuisine tolerable. It is therefore advisable to frequent none but the leading hotels in places off the beaten track of tourists, and to avoid being misled by the appellation of 'Grand-Hotel', which is often applied to the most ordinary inns. Soap is seldom or never provided.

The charges of provincial hotels are usually somewhat lower than at Paris, but at many of the largest modern establishments the tariff is drawn up on quite a Parisian scale. Lights are not generally charged for, and attendance is often included in the price of the bedroom. It is prudent, though not absolutely necessary, to enquire the charges in advance. The following are the average charges: room 1V2-3 fr. ; breakfast or 'premier dejeuner', consisting of 'cafe' au lait', with bread and butter, l-iy4 fr. ; luncheon or 'deuxieme dejeuner', taken about 11 a.m., 2-3 fr. ; dinner, usually about 6 p.m., 2'/4-4 fr. Wine, beer, or cider (the ordinary beverage of Normandy and Brittany) is generally included in the charge for dinner, except in a few towns in the north-west. Beer is not often met with at table d'hote except in the second-class hotels of such towns as Bou- logne and Le Havre. The second dejeuner will probably be regarded as superfluous by most English and American travellers, especially as it occupies a considerable time during the best part of the day. A slight luncheon at a cafe, which may be had at any hour, will be found far more convenient and expeditious. Attendance on the table d'hote is not compulsory, but the charge for rooms is raised if meals are not taken in the house, and the visitor will scarcely obtain so good a dinner in a restaurant for the same price. In many hotels visitors are received 'en pension' at a charge of 6-7 fr. per day and upwards (premier dejeuner extra). The usual fee for attendance at hotels is i fr. per day, if no charge is made in the bill; if service is charged, 50 c. a day in addition is generally expected.

When the traveller remains for a week or more at a hotel, it is advisable to pay, or at least call for the account, every two or three days, in order that erroneous insertions may be at once detected. Verbal reckonings are objectionable, except in some of the more remote and primitive districts where bills are never written. A waiter's mental arithmetic is faulty, and the faults are seldom in favour of the traveller. A habit too often prevails of presenting the bill at the last moment, when mistakes or wilful impositions cannot easily be detected or rectified. Those who intend starting early in the morning should therefore ask for their bills on the previous evening.

English travellers often impose considerable trouble by ordering things almost unknown in French usage ; and if ignorance of the


language be added to want of conformity to the customs, misunder- standings and disputes are apt to ensue. The reader is therefore recommended to endeavour to adapt his requirements to the habits of the country, and to acquire if possible such a moderate proficiency in the language as to render himself intelligible to the servants.

Articles of Value should never be kept in the drawers or cup- boards at hotels. The traveller's own trunk is probably safer ; but it is better to entrust them to the landlord, from whom a receipt should be required, or to send them to a banker. Doors should be locked at night.

Travellers who are not fastidious as to their table-companions will often find an excellent cuisine, combined with moderate charges, at the hotels frequented by commercial travellers (voyageurs de com- merce, commis-voyageurs).

Many hotels send Omnibuses to meet the trains, for the use of which ifa-i fr. is charged in the bill. Before taking their seats in one of these, travellers who are not encumbered with luggage should ascertain how far off the hotel is, as the possession of an omnibus by no means necessarily implies long distance from the station. He should also find out whether the omnibus will start immediately without waiting for another train.

Restaurants. Except in the largest towns, there are few pro- vincial restaurants in France worthy of recommendation to tourists. This, however, is of little importance, as travellers may always join the table d'hote meals at hotels, even though not staying in the house. He may also dine cl la carte, though not so advantageously, or he may obtain a dinner H prix fixe (3-6 fr.) on giving ^"Va hr.'s notice. He should always note the prices on the carte beforehand to avoid overcharges. The refreshment-rooms at railway-stations should be avoided if possible (comp. p. xvii) ; there is often a restau- rant or a small hotel adjoining the station where a better and cheaper meal may be obtained.

Cafes. The Cafe is as characteristic a feature of French pro- vincial as of Parisian life and resembles its metropolitan prototype in most respects. It is a favourite resort in the evening, when people frequent the cafe' to meet their friends, read the newspapers, or play at cards or billiards. Ladies may visit the better-class cafe's without dread, at least during the day. The refreshments, consisting of coffee, tea, beer, Cognac, liqueurs, cooling drinks of various kinds (sorbet, orgeat, sirop de groseille or de framboise, etc.), and ices, are gen- erally good of their kind, and the prices are reasonable.

VII. Public Buildings and Collections.

The Churches, especially the more important, are open the whole day; but, as divine service is usually performed in the morning and evening, the traveller will find the middle of the day or the after- noon the most favourable time for visiting them. The attendance of


the sacristan or 'Suisse' is seldom necessary; the usual gratuity is Y2 fr. Many of these buildings are under the special protection of Government as '■Monuments Historiques', and the Ministere des Beaux-Arts has caused most oi these to be carefully restored. It is perhaps not altogether superfluous to remind visitors that they should move about in churches as noiselessly as possible to avoid disturbing those engaged in private devotion, and that they should keep aloof from altars where the clergy are officiating. Other inter- esting buildings, such as palaces, chateaux, and castles often belong to the municipalities and are open to the public with little or no formality. Foreigners will seldom find any difficulty in obtaining access to private houses of historic or artistic interest or to the parks attached to the mansions of the noblesse.

Most of the larger provincial towns of France contain a Musve, generally comprising a picture-gallery and collections of various kinds. These are generally open to the public on Sun., and often on Thurs. also, from 10 or 12 to 4; but strangers are readily admitted on other days also for a small pourboire. The accounts of the col- lections given in the Handbook generally follow the order in which the rooms are numbered, but changes are of very frequent occur- rence.

VIII. Post and Telegraph Offices.

Post Office. Letters (whether 'poste restante' or to the traveller's hotel) should be addressed very distinctly, and the name of the department should be added after that of the town. The offices are usually open from 7 a.m. in summer, and 8 a.m. in winter, to 9 p.m. Poste Restante letters may be addressed to any of the provincial offices. In applying for letters, the written or printed name, and in the case of registered letters, the passport of the addressee should always be presented. It is, however, preferable to desire letters to be addressed to the hotel or boarding-house where the visitor intends residing. Letter-boxes (Boites aux Lettres) are also to be found at the railway-stations and at many public buildings, and stamps (timbres-poste) may be purchased in all tobacconists' shops. An ex- tract from the postal tariff is given below; more extensive details will be found in the Almanack des Postes et Telegraphes.

Ordinary Letters within France, including Corsica and Algeria, 15 c. per 15 grammes prepaid; for countries of the Postal Union 25 c. (The silver franc and the bronze sou each weigh 5 grammes ; 15 grammes, or three of these coins, are equal to 1/i oz. English.) — Registered Letters (lettres recommandles) 25 c. extra.

Post Cards 10 c. each, with card for reply attached, 20 c.

Post Office Orders (mandats de poste) are issued for most countries in the Postal Union at a charge of 25 c. for every 25 fr. or fraction of 25 fr. the maximum sum for which an order is obtainable being 500 fr. ; for Great Britain, 20 c. per 10 fr., maximum 252 fr.

Printed Papers (imprimis sous bande): 1 c. per 5 grammes up to the weight of 20 gr. ; 5 c. between 20 and 50 gr. ; above 50 gr. 5 c. for each 50 gr. or fraction of 50 gr. ; to foreign countries 5 c. per 50 gr. The


wrapper must be easily removable, and must not cover more than one- third of the packet.

Parcels not exceeding 22 lbs. in weight may be forwarded at a moderate rate (60 c.-i fr. 25 c.) within France. There is also a parcel-post between France and various foreign countries, parcels up to 11 lbs. being conveyed at a uniform rate : viz. to Germany, Belgium, Switzerland, 1 fr. 10 c. ; Spain, Italy, 1 fr. 35 c. ; Great Britain, Austria, Netherlands, 1 fr. 60 c. ; etc. These parcels must be sealed. All parcels should be handed in at the rail- way-station or at the offices of the parcel-companies, not at the post-offices.

Telegrams. For the countries of Europe and for Algeria tele- grams are charged for at the following rates per word : for France, Algeria, and Tunis 5 c. (minimum charge 50 c) ; Luxembourg, Switzerland, and Belgium 12'/2 c-i Germany, 15 c; Netherlands, 16 o. ; Great Britain, Austria-Hungary, Italy, Spain, and Portugal 20 c; Denmark 24^2 c- ; Sweden 28 c; Eoumania, Servia, etc., 28'/2 c. ; Norway 36 c. ; Russia in Europe 40 c; Greece b3l/%-67 c; Turkey 53 c. ; New York 1 fr. 25 c. ; Chicago 1 fr. 55 c.

Telephonic Communication between the principal towns, etc.; enquire at the telegraph-offices.

IX. Weights and Measures. (In use since 1799.)

The English equivalents of the French weights and measures are given approximately.

Millier = 1000 kilogrammes = 19 cwt. 2 qrs. 22 lbs. 6 oz. Kilogramme , unit of weight , = 2l/s lbs. avoirdupois =

27/io lt>s. troy. Quintal = 10 myriagrammes = 100 kilogrammes = 220 lbs. Hectogramme (Ykj kilogramme) = 10 de'cagrammes = 100 gr. = 1000 decigrammes. (100 grammes = 3'/5 oz. ; 15 gr. = 1/2 °z- ; 10 gr. = 1/3 °z- ; l1^ gr. = 1k oz.)

Myriametre = 10,000 metres = 6'/5 Engl, miles.

Kilometre = 1000 metres = 5 furlongs = about 5/8 Engl. mile.

Hectometre = 10 decametres = 100 metres.

Metre, the unit of length, the ten-millionth part of the sphe- rical distance from the equator to the pole = 3,0784 Paris feet = 3,281 Engl, feet = 1 yd. 373 in.

De'cimetre (710 metre) = 10 centimetres = 100 millimetres.

Hectare (square hectometre) = 100 ares = 10,000 sq. metres

= 2Y2 acres. Are (square decametre) = 100 sq. metres. Deciare = tyio are = 10 sq. metres. Centiare = Y,oo are = 1 sq. metre.

Hectolitre = 1/10 cubic metre = 100 litres = 22 gallons. De'calitre = YiOO cubic metre = 10 litres = 2'/5 gals. Litre, unit of capacity, = l3/4 pint; 8 litres = 7 quarts.


The following terms of the old system of measurements are still sometimes used : —

Livre = '/2 kilogramme = l'/,o lb.

Pied = 1/3 metre = 13 in.

Aune = iy5 metre = 1 yd. 11 in.

Toise = 19/10 metre = 2 yds. 4 in.

Lieue = 2y2 miles.

Arpent = iy25 acre.

Se'tier = li/2 hectolitre = 33 gals.

The thermometers commonly used in France are the Centigrade and Reaumur's. The freezing point on both of these is marked 0°, the boiling-point of the former 100°, of the latter 80°, while Fahren- heit's boiling-point is 212° and his freezing-point 32°. It may easily be remembered that 5° Centigrade = 4°Re'aumur = 9° Fahrenheit, to which last 32° must be added for temperatures above freezing. For temperatures below freezing the number of degrees obtained by converting those of Centigrade or Re'aumur into those of Fahrenheit must be subtracted from 32. Thus 5° C = 4° R. = 9 + 32 = 41° F. ; 20° C = 16° R. = 36 + 32 = 68° F. Again, - 5° C = - 4° R. = 32 — 9 = 23° F. ; - 20°C = - 16° R. = 32 - 36 = - 4«F.

X. Historical Sketch.

Merovingians. The history of France, properly so called, begins at the end of the fifth century of the Christian era, when Clovis I. (481-511), son of Childeric, king of the Ripuarian Franks of Tournay, expelled the Romans from Northern Gaul (ca. 496), embraced Christianity, and united all the Franks under his sway. The Merovingian Dynasty, which he founded and which took its name from Meroveus, the father of Childeric, rapidly degenerated. The Frankish state was several times divided among different princes of the line, and this gave rise to long civil wars and finally to a deadly rivalry between Eastern France, or Australia, and Western France, or Neustria. The family of Pepin, heads of the 'Leudes' or great vassals of Austrasia and hereditary 'Mayors of the Palace', first of Austrasia, and afterwards also of Neustria and Burgundy, took advantage of this state of affairs to seize for themselves the supreme power, after Charles Martel had saved the country from the Saracenic invasion by the great victory of Poitiers (732).

Carlo vingians. The first king of this dynasty was Pepin the Short (le Bref), who assumed the crown in 752. His son —

Charlemagne (768-814), from whom the dynasty is named by his able administration and by his victories over the Arabs Lombards, Saxons, Avars, etc., founded a vast empire, which, how- ever, lasted but little longer than that of Clovis. After the death of his son —


Louis I. (le Debonnaire; 814-840), his realms were divided by the Treaty of Verdun (843) between Louis the Oerman, who be- came King of Germany; Lothaire, who got Italy, Burgundy, and Lotharingia or Lorraine ; and —

Charles II. the Bald (le Chauve; 840-877), who ruled over France. He and his three successors Louis II. the Stammerer (le Begue; 877-879), Louis III. (879-882), and Carloman (879-884) proved themselves weak and incapable rulers, who were able neither to protect their kingdom from the inroads of the Normans nor their regal power from encroachments at the hands of the feudal nobles.

Charles III. the Fat (le Qros; 884-887), son of Louis the German and himself Emperor of Germany, succeeded Carloman in 884, but left the care of defending Paris from the Normans to Count Odo or Eudes, Duke of France and Count of Paris, in whose favour he was deposed in 887. Odo was the ancestor of the Capetian fam- ily (see below).

Charles IV. (le Simple; 898-923), son of Louis le Begue, suc- ceeded Eudes and acquiesced in the establishment of the duchy of Normandy. He also was overthrown by the nobles, who put in his place, first, Robert (922-923), brother of Eudes, and then Raoul (923-936), Robert's son-in law. Three other CaTlovingians then bore the title of King; Louis IV. (d'Outremer; 936-954), son of Charles the Simple ; Lothaire (954-986) ; and Louis V. (le Fai- neant; 986-987); but these monarchs possessed less real power than their great subjects Hugh the Great, son of Robert, and Hugh Capet.

Capetians. Hugh or Hugues Capet, grand-nephew of Count Eudes, was declared king of France in 987 and founded the Third or Capetian Dynasty, which furnished France for eight centuries with an unbroken line of monachs, under whom the country ad- vanced to greatness and independence.

Robert II. (le Pieux), 996.

Henri I., 1031.

Philip I., 1060. During the reigns of these three monarchs France suffers from feudal dissensions and wars with the Dukes of Normandy. William, Duke of Normandy, conquers England, 1066. First Crusade under Godfrey de Bouillon, 1096.

Louis VI. (le Gros; 1108-37) encourages the growth of the Communes as a check upon the power of the nobles. Suger, abbot of St. Denis, the king's minister.

Louis VII. (le Jeune; 1137-80) foolishly leaves his kingdom to take part in the Second Crusade (1147), and is further guilty of the great political blunder of divorcing Eleanor of Guienne and Poitou, who marries Henry Plantagenet, afterwards Henry II. of England, taking with her as her dowry extensive possessions in France.

Philip II. (Auguste; 1180-1223) undertakes the Third Crusade, in company with Richard Coeur-de-Lion, 1189. On his return he at-


tacks the English possessions in France, occupies Normandy, Maine, and Poitou, and defeats the English, Flemish, and German troops at Bouvines in 1214.

Louis VIII. (le Lion; 1223-26) makes fresh conquests in the S. of France.

Louis IX. (St. Louis; 1226-70) engages in the Seventh and Eighth Crusades, the former in Egypt, where he loses the battle of Mansourah and is taken prisoner (1249), the latter against Tunis, where he dies (1270).

Philip III. (le Hardi; 1270-85) acquires Provence by inherit- ance.

Philip IV- (le Bel; 1285-1314) continues the struggle with England. Defeat of Courlrai (1302). Victory of Mons-en-Puelle (1304) and conquest of Flanders. Financial embarrassments, exac- tions, debased coinage, disputes with Boniface VIII., suppression of the order of Knights Templar, and removal of the papal seat to Avignon. The Parlement, or court of justice, becomes the central machine of government, and the Pouvoir Public, or Legal and Con- stitutional Power, grows at the expense of the feudal and ecclesi- astical powers. The Etats-Generaux, or Estates General, are con- voked for the first time.

Louis X. (le Hutin or the Quarrelsome; 1314-16).

Philip V. (le Long; 1316-22) and —

Charles IV. (le Bel; 1322-28) are able administrators, but do not show so firm a front towards the nobles as Philip IV. With Charles IV. the direct line of the Capetians ends, and the crown passes to his cousin, Philip of Valois.

House of Valois. Philip VI. (1328-50) defeats the Flemings at Cassel (1328). The ' Guerre de CentAns\ or Hundred Years' War with England (1337-1453), begins, in consequence of the rival pre- tensions arising from the second marriage of Eleanor of Guienne (see above). Battle of Crecy (1346). Edward III. of England be- comes master of Calais.

John II. (le Bon; 1350-64) is defeated and taken prisoner by the English at Poitiers in 1356. Treaty of Bretigny (1360), con- firming the loss of the country to the S. of the Loire.

Charles V. (le Sage; 1364-80). Battle of Cockerel (1364). The English expelled by Bertrand du Guesclin.

Charles VI. (1380-1422) becomes insane in 1392. Defeat of the Flemings under Artevelde at Rosbeck (1382). War with the Armagnacs and Burgundians. The French under the Constable d'Albret defeated by Henry V. of England at Agincourt or Azincourt (1415). Paris occupied by the English, 1421.

Charles VII. (1422-61). The siege of Orleans raised by Joan of Arc (1429). Coronation at Rheims. Joan burned at Rouen as a witch (1431). The English expelled from the whole of France ex- cept Calais.


Louis XI. (1461-83) breaks up the Ligue du Bien Public, which his hasty and sweeping leforms had called into existence. He sub- sequently displays greater astuteness, and considers no means un- fair that aid him to deal a mortal blow at the feudal system. He effects great things in administrative reform and territorial unity, and puts France in a condition to aspire to foreign conquests. His chief acquisitions are Burgundy, Franche-Comte", Artois, and Provence.

Charles VIII. (1483-98) marries Anne of Brittany, whose duchy is thereby united with the French crown, and makes a temporary conquest of Naples (1495), on which he has hereditary claims.

Louis XII. (le Pere du Peuple; 1493-1515), first king of the younger branch of the House of Valois, conqueror of Milan and (in alliance with the Spaniards) of Naples. Having quarrelled with his Spanish allies, he is defeated by them on the Oarigliano in 1503, on which occasion Bayard is present. The League of Cambrai is formed for the purpose of expelling the Venetians from the main- land of Italy. The Venetians defeated at Agnadello (1509); but they succeed in destroying the League, and in forming the Ligue Sainte for the purpose of expelling the French from Italy. They defeat the French at Ravenna, 1512.

Francis I. (1515-47), second-cousin and son-in-law of Louis XII., defeats the Swiss at Marignano, and recovers the Duchy of Milan (1515). Four wars with Charles V. for the possession of Burgundy and Milan. Francis defeated and taken prisoner at Pavia (1525). Francis encourages art. The absolute power of the throne increases.

Henri II (1547-59), husband of Catherine de Medicis, accident- ally killed at a tournament. Metz, Toul, and Verdun annexed to France (1556). Final expulsion of the English.

Francis II. (1559-60), husband of Mary Stuart of Scotland.

Charles IX., brother of Francis II. (1560-74). Regency of Catherine de Medicis, the king's mother. Beginning of the Religious Wars. Louis de Conde, Antoine de Navarre, and Admiral Coligny, leaders of the Huguenots; Francois de Guise and Charles de Lor- raine command the Roman Catholic army. Massacre of St. Bartho- lomew, 24th August, 1572.

Henri III (1574-90), brother of his two predecessors, flees from Paris, where a rebellion had broken out, by the advice of his mother, Catherine de Medicis (d. 1588); assassinated at St. Cloud by Jac- ques Cle"ment, a Dominican friar.

House of Bourbon. — Henri IV (1589-1610), first monarch of the House of Bourbon, defeats the Roman Catholic League at Ar- ques in 1589, and at Ivry in 1590, becomes a Roman Catholic in 1593, captures Paris in 1594. Sully, his minister. Religious toler- ation granted by the Edict of Nantes (1598). Henry, divorced from Margaret of Valois in 1599, marries Marie de Medicis the following year; assassinated by Ravaillac in 1610.


Louis XIII. (1610-43), a feeble monarch, is at first dependent on his mother Marie de Medicis, the regent: she is banished to Co- logne, where she dies in 1642. Richelieu, his minister (d. 1642). English fleet defeated at Re (1627) ; La Rochelle taken from the Huguenots. France takes part in the Thirty Years' "War against Austria.

Louis XIV. (1643-1715) succeeds to the throne at the age of five, under the regency of his mother, Anne of Austria. Ministers: Mazarin (d. 1661), Louvois (d. 1691), and Colbert (d. 1683). Gen- erals: Turenne (d. 1675), Condi (d. 1686), Luxembourg (d. 1695).

War of the Fronde against the court and Mazarin. Conde (Due d'Enghien) defeats the Spaniards at Rocroy in 1643, and at Lens in Holland in 1645. Turenne defeats the Bavarians at Freiburg and at Nordlingen (1644). Submission of the Fronde. Peace of the Pyrenees, with Spain (1659).

Death of Mazarin (1661). The king governs alone.

Louis marries Maria Theresa (1660). After the death of his father-in-law, Philip IV. of Spain, Louis lays claim to the Low Countries. Turenne conquers Hainault and part of Flanders (1667) Conde occupies the Franche Comte. Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, in consequence of the Triple Alliance (1668).

War with Holland, Passage of the Rhine (1672). Occupation of the provinces of Utrecht and Guelderland. Victories of Turenne over the Imperial army at Sinzheim, Ensisheim, Muhlhausen (1674), and Tiirkheim (1675). Death of Turenne at Sassbach (1675).

Admiral Duquesne defeats the Dutch fleet near Syracuse (1676). Marshal Luxembourg defeats William of Orange at Montcassel (1677). Peace of Nymwegen (1678). Strassburg occupied (1681). Occupation of Luxembourg. Revocation of the Edict of Nantes (1685). Louis marries Mme. de Maintenon (1685). Devastation of the Palatinate (1688). Marshal Luxembourg defeats the Imperial troops aXFleurus (1690) and William of Orange at Steenkerke (1692) and Neerwinden (1693). The French fleet under Admiral Tour- ville defeated by the English at La Rogue (1692). Peace of Ryswyk (1697).

Spanish War of Succession (1701). Victory of Vendome atLwz- zara (1702), and of Tallard at Speyer (1702). Taking of Landau (1702). Victory at Hochstadt (1703): defeat at Hochstadt, or Blen- heim (1704), by the Duke of Marlborough and Prince Eugene of Savoy. Marshal Villars defeated by Prince Eugene at Turin (1705), and by Marlborough and the Prince at Ramillies (1709), Oudenaerde (1708), and Malplaquet (1709). Peaces of Utrecht (1713) and Ra- stadt (1714).

This reign is the golden age of French literature , illuminated by such names as Corneille, Racine, Moliere, Lafontaine, Boileau, Bossuet, Fenelon, Descartes, Pascal, La Bruyere, and Mme. de Sevigne.


Louis XV. (1715-74). Duke of Orleans regent till 1723. Louis marries Marie Lesczinska of Poland (1725). The king takes no in- terest in public affairs and leads a life of the most pronounced selfishness and debauchery. The chief power is in the hands of the Due de Bourbon (1723-26), Cardinal Fleury (1726-43), the crea- tures of La Pompadour (1745-62) and La Dubarry , the king's mistresses, and the Due de Choiseul (1758-62). Austrian War of Succession (1740-48). Defeat at Dettingen t>y George II. of England (1743). Defeat of the Dutch and English at Fontenoy (1745), of the Austrians under Charles of Lorraine at Rocoux (1746), and of the Allies near Lae/felt ( Law f eld) in 1747. Taking of Maastricht and Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748). Naval war against England.

The Seven Years' War (1756-63). Duke of Cumberland defeated by Marshal d'Estre'es at Hastenbeck (1757). The French under Prince de Soubise defeated the same year by Frederick the Great at Rossbach, and in 1758 at Crefeld, by the Duke of Brunswick. The latter defeated by Marshal Broglie at Bergen (1760). The French defeated at Minden (1759), etc. Peace of Paris (1763), by which France loses Canada and her other possessions in North America. Acquisition of Lorraine (1766) and Corsica (1768).

During this reign the moral ruin of the monarchy is consummat- ed and financial ruin becomes unavoidable. Voltaire, Rousseau, and Diderot are the most influential authors and the great leaders of the literary revolution.

Louis XVI. (1774-93), married to Marie Antoinette, daughter of Francis I. and Maria Theresa. American War of Independence against England (1776-83). Exhaustion of the finances of France; Vergennes, Turgot, Necker, Calonne, Brienne, and Necker (a second time), ministers of finance.

1789. Revolution. Assembly of the States General at Versail- les, 5th May. Their transformation into a Constituent Assembly, 17th June. Oath of the Jeu de Paume, 20th June. Creation of the National Guard, 13th July. Storming of the Bastille, 14th July. The 'Femmes de la Halle' at Versailles, 5th Oct. Confiscation of eccle- siastical property, 2nd Nov.

1790. National fete in the Champ-de-Mars, 14th July.

1791. The Emigration. The royal family escape from Paris, but are intercepted at Varennes, 22nd June. Oath to observe the Con- stitution, 14th Sept. Assemblee Legislative.

1792. War with Austria, 20th April. Storming of the Tuileries, 10th Aug. The king arrested, 11th Aug. Massacres in Sept. Can- nonade of Valmy against the Prussians, 20th Sept. The National Convention opened, and royalty abolished, 21st Sept.

Republic proclaimed, 25th Sept. Custine enters Mayence, 21st Oct. Battle of Jemappes against the Austrians, 6th Nov. Conquest of Belgium.


1793. Louis XYI. beheaded, 21st Jan. Republican reckoning of time introduced, 22nd Sept. +. Reign of Terror. The queen beheaded, 16th Oct. Worship of Reason introduced, 10th Nov. Loss of Belgium.

1794. Jourdan's victory at Fleurus, 16th June. Belgium re- conquered. Robespierre's fall and execution, 27th July.

1795. Conquest of Holland by Pichegru. Bonaparte commander of the troops of the Convention against the Royalists under Danican, 4th Oct. Directory established, 27th Oct.

1796. Bonaparte's successes in Italy (Montenotte, Millesimo, Lodi, Milan, Castiglione, Bassano, and Arcole).

1797. Victory at Rivoli, 17th Jan. Taking of Mantua, 2nd Feb. The Austrians commanded by Archduke Charles, at first victorious, are defeated by Bonaparte. Peace of Campo Formio, 17th Oct. Change in the Directory on 18th Fructidor (4th Sept.).

1798. Bonaparte in Egypt. Victory of the Pyramids, 21st July. Defeated by Nelson at the battle of the Nile (Aboukir), 1st Aug.

1799. Bonaparte invades Syria. Acre defended by Sir Sidney Smith. Victory of Aboukir, 25th July. French armies repulsed in Germany, Switzerland, and Italy. Bonaparte returns to France. Fall of the Directory, 9th Nov. Establishment of the Consulate, 24th Dec. Bonaparte First Consul.

1800. Bonaparte's passage of the St. Bernard, 13-16th May. Victories at Piacenza, Montebello, Marengo, and Hohenlinden. At- tempt to assassinate Napoleon at Paris, 23rd Dec.

1801. Peace of LunMlle with Germany, 9th Feb. Concordat, 15th July.

1802. Peace of Amiens with England, 27th March. Bonaparte (with Cambaceres and Lebrun) elected Consul for life, 2nd Aug.

1804. First Empire. Napoleon I. proclaimed Emperor by the Senate, 18th May; crowned by Pope Pius VII., 2nd Dec.

1805. Renewal of war with Austria. Capitulation of Vim, 17th Oct. Defeat of Trafalgar, 21st Oct. Battle of AusUrlitz, 2nd Dec. Peace of Pressburg, 26th Dec.

1806. Establishment of the Rhenish Confederation, 12th July.

t The year had 12 months: Vendemiaire (month of the vendage, or vintage) from 22nd Sept. to 21st Oct., Brumaire [brume, fog) 22nd Oct. to 20th Nov., and Frimaire (frimat, hoar-frost) 21st Nov. to 30th Dec, were the three autumn-months; — Nivose (neige, snow) 2ist Dec. to 19th Jan., Pluviose (?'«»«, rain) 20th Jan. to 18th Feb., and Ventfise (vent, wind) 19th Feb. to 20th March, winter-months ; — Germinal (germe, germ), 21st March to 19th April, Floreal (fleur, flower) 20th April to 19th May, and Prairial (prairie, meadow) 20th May to 18th June, spring-months? — Messldor (moisson, harvest) 19th June to 18th July, Thermidor (therme, warmth) 19th July to 17th Aug., and Fructidor (fruit, fruit) 18th Aug. to 16th Sept. summer-months. — Each month had 30 days, and consisted of 3 decades weeks being abolished. At the close of the year there were 5 jours com- plementairet, 17th Sept. to 21st. — The republican calendar was discon- tinued by a decree of 9th Sept., 1805.


War with Prussia. Battles of Jena and Auerstadt, 14th Oct. Entry into Berlin, 27th Oct. Continental blockade.

1807. War with Russia and Prussia. Battles of Eylau and Friedland. Treaty of Tilsit, 8th July. Occupation of Lisbon, 30th Nov.

1808. War in Spain, in order to maintain Joseph Bonaparte on the throne. Code Napoleon promulgated.

1809. Conquest of Saragossa, 21st Feb. Renewed war with Austria. Battle of Eckmiihl, i9th-23rd April. Vienna entered, 13th May. Battles of Aspern, or Essling, and Wagram, 5th and 6th July. Peace of Vienna, 14th Oct. Abolition of the temporal power of the pope.

1810. Marriage of Napoleon with Marie Louise, daughter of Francis II. of Austria, 11th March. Napoleon at the height of his power.

1812. Renewed war with Russia. Battles of Smolensk and the Moskowa. Moscow entered, 15th Sept. Retreat begun, 19th Oct. Passage of the Beresina. ■ — ■ Wellington's victory at Salamanca.

1813. Battles of Lulzen, Bautzen, Grossbeeren, Dresden, Katz- bach, Kulm, Leipsic (16-18th Oct.), Hanau, etc.

1814. Battles of Brienne, La Iiothiere, Montmirail, Laon, Arcissur-Aube, and Paris. Entrance of the Allies into Paris, 31st March. Abdication of the Emperor, 11th April. His arrival at Elba, 4th May.

1814. Restoration. Louis XVIII. proclaimed king, 6th April. First Treaty of Paris, 30th May.

1815. Napoleon's return from Elba; at Cannes on 1st, and at Paris on 20th March. Battles ofLigny and Waterloo, 16th and 18th June. Second entrance of the Allies into Paris, 7th July. Second Peace of Paris, 20th Nov. Napoleon banished to St. Helena, where he dies (5th May, 1821).

1823. Spanish campaign, to aid Ferdinand VIIL, under the Due d'Angouleme, son of Charles X.

1824. Charles X.

1830. Conquest of Algiers.

1830. Revolution op July (27th-29th) and fall of the Bourbons.

House of Orleans. Louis Philippe elected King, 7th Aug. Continued war in Africa; consolidation of the French colony of Algeria.

1848. Revolution op February (23rd and 24th).

1848. Republic. Sanguinary conflicts in Paris, 23rd to 26th June. Louis Napoleon, son of the former king of Holland, elected President, 10th Dec.

1851. Dissolution of the Assemble'e; Coup d'Etat, 2nd Dec.

1852. Second Empire. Napoleon III. elected emperor by ple- biscite, 2nd Dec.

1854. War with Russia. Crimean Campaign. — 1855. Capture


of Sevastopol, 8th Sept. — 1856. Peace of Paris, 30th March. — 1859. War with Austria. Battles of Magenta (4th June) and Sol- ferino (24th June). Peace of Villafranca, 11th July. — 1862. Mexican Expedition. — 1867. Dispute with Prussia about Luxem- bourg.

1870. AVar with Prussia. Declaration of war, 19th July. Battles in August: Weissenburg (4th), Worth (6th), Spicheren (6th), Borny, Rezonville, and Gravelotte (14th, 16th, 18th), Beaumont (30th). Battle of Sedan, 1st Sept. Surrender of Napoleon III.

Republic proclaimed, 4th Sept. Capitulation of Strassburg, 27th Sept., and of Metz, 27th Oct. Battles near Orleans, 2nd -4th Dec

1871. Battle of St. Quentin, 19th Jan. Capitulation of Paris, 28th Jan. The Germans enter Paris, 1st March.

1871. Communist Insuiuuxtton, 18th March. Seat of govern- ment removed to Versailles, 20th March. Second siege of Paris, 2nd April. Peace of Frankfort, 10th May, resigning Alsace and part of Lorraine to Germany. Paris occupied by the Government troops, 25th May. — The Communist insurrection finally quelled, 28th May. — M. Thiers, who had been chief of the executive since 17th Fib., appointed President of the Republic, 31st Aug.

1873. Death of Napoleon III., 9th Jan. — Marshal MucMahon appointed President instead of M. Thiers, 14th May. Final eva- cuation of France by the German troops, 16th Sept.

1875. Republican Constitution finally adjusted, 25th Feb.

1878. Universal Exhibition, at Paris.

1879. M. Jules Orevy becomes President. The Chambers of the Legislature return from Versailles to Paris.

1881. Expedition to Tunis. — 1882-8"). Expeditions to Tongking and Madagascar.

1887. M. Sadi Cam' d becomes President in place of M. Gre'vy, 3rd Dec. — 1889. Universal Exhibition, at Paris.

1894. Assassination of President Carnot, by the Italian Caserio, 24th June. M. J. Casimir Perier elected president two days later. — 11S95. Resignation of Casimir Perier and election of M. Felix Faure to the presidency, Jan. loth and 17th. Expedition to Madagascar and annexation of that island.

1899. Death of President Faure, Feb. 16th. M. Emile Loubet elected president, Feb. 18th.

XI. Political Geography.

Population. At the census taken in March, 1896, France, ex- cluding her seamen and colonies, contained 38,517,975 inhab., including 1,027,491 foreigners, most of whom were Belgians, Italians, Spaniards, or Germans. The annual increase of popula- tion in France is smaller than in any other country of W. Europe,


only 175,027 persons having been added to her population since 1891.

Constitution and Government. France has been a Republic since Sept. 4th, 1870. The legislative power is vested in a National Assembly, consisting of a Chamber of Deputies and a Senate. The former consists of 580 members elected by universal suffrage for four years. The Senate contains 300 members, elected indirectly through electoral colleges and holding office for nine years, one- third submitting to re-election every three years. The executive power is confided by the Assembly to a President of the Republic, elected for seven years, and every act of the President must be countersigned by one of the ten responsible Ministers.

Civil Administration. Prance is divided into 86 Departments, or 87, including the small Territory of Delfort , forming the sole fragment of Alsace left to France after the war of 1870-71. The departments are subdivided into 362 Arrondissements, 2899 Cantons, and 36,170 Communes. At the head of each department is a Prefect (Prefel), over each arrondissement a Sub-Prefect (Sous-Prefet), and over each commune a Maire, each of whom is assisted by a council. The cantons have no special civil administration.

The departments were formed in 1790 to replace the 32 old pro- vinces, the retention of which perpetuated the diversity of manners and customs, while they were separated from each other by barriers for internal revenue and had legal institutions of the most flagrant discrepancy. As a rule the size of the departments varies between 2000 and 3000 sq. M. ; their Aames are taken from their chief rivers or other striking natural features. In the following table we follow the order of the river-basins, beginning in the N.E. The correspond- ence between the old provinces and the departments formed out of them is only approximately exact.

Ancient Provinces & Corresponding Modern Departments.












Le Mans

| Territory of



ILe Mans















| C'anlal


Flandre (Flinders)





| Lille

| Creuze






\Pas-de- Calais

| Arras

1 Correze















1 C'haumont Troyes






Baedeker's Northern France. 3rd Edit.










I Marne



La Rochelle

J Ardennes

| Mezieres








1 Charenle




1 Charente- Infir.

|La Rochelle

Seine-d- Oise



Bordeaux -



Haules Pyrin.








Tarn-d-- Garonne



















St. L6







Ile-d- Vilaine





jSt. Brieuc




[ Quimper







Loire Infir.

| Nantes

Haute- Loire

Le Puy






















I Bo urges

Haute- Garonne













1 Vesou'l





Loir-tk- Cher


Bourgogne (Burg.)




















Prove ce


1 Loire

ISt. Etienne


1 Marseille











Comte de Foix


1 Savoie








'Is ere

1 Grenoble

\Pyrinies- Orient.


j Hautes-A Ipes


Comte de Nice


| Dr6me

1 Valence

| A Ipes-Marit.


Etat d'Avignon


Corse (Corsica)



| Avignon

| Corse


The Etat d'Avignon, Savoy, and Nice were not old French provinces, the first having been acquired in 1791 and the other two in 1860.

Army. The whole of France is divided into nineteen Military Regions (Regions de Corps d'Armee), each under a general of divi- sion, while Paris has a separate military government.

Military service is compulsory on every Frenchman, not declared unfit, between the ages of 20 and 45. The Army is divided into an Active Army and a Territorial Army, each with its Reserve. On


a peace-footing the former consists of 540,000 men and the latter of 800,000 men, forming a total of 1,340,000. On a war-footing these totals rise to 1,800,000, 2,000,000, and 3,800,000.

Navy. For naval purposes France is divided into five Prefectures Maritimes, the seats of which are Cherbourg, Brest, Lorient, Roche- fort, and Toulon. The fleet consists of about 300 war vessels in commission, including 26 ironclads and 35 crusers. These are manned by 71,000 sailors and marines, a total that can be raised to 120,000 in time of war.

Justice. Each canton contains a Justice de Paix or Justice of the Peace; each arrondissement & Tribunal of the First Instance ; and each department a Cour d' Assises, or criminal court. Above these are 26 Cours d'Appel, or courts of appeal, in the principal towns, and the Cour de Cassation, or supreme court of appeal, at Paris. There are also Commercial, Military, and Naval Courts in places where such tribunals have been found desirable.

Education. Education is compulsory on all children between six and thirteen years. In the budget a sum of about 130 million francs (5,200,000f.) is set down for the Minister of Public Instruc- tion, nearly two-thirds being allotted to elementary education.

The Higher Education is entrusted to seventeen Universities, which until 1896 were known as 'acade'mies universitaires'. Two of these universities (those of Paris and Bordeaux) have the five fac- ulties of theology, law, medicine, science, and letters; three (Lyons, Nancy, Lille) have four faculties, eight have three, two have two, and two (Marseilles and Rouen) have one faculty only. There are also 'Facultes' of Protestant Theology at Paris and Montauban, and Roman Catholic Institutes at Paris, Angers, Lyons, and Lille.

Secondary Education is imparted by about 100 Lycees and 250 Colleges Communaux, including 30 lyce'es and 30 colleges for girls. In addition to these there still exist about 350 private colleges and 350 ecclesiastical colleges.

There is at least one Elementary School in each commune, irre- spective of private schools.

The educational work of each department is presided over by an Inspecteur d'Academie, and each arrondissement has an Inspecteur d' Instruction Primaire.

In addition to the above-mentioned schools and colleges are numerous Technical and Special Institutions.

Religion. All religions are equal by law, and three sects, viz. Roman Catholics, Protestants, and Jews, receive grants from govern- ment, the items in the budget under this head amounting to 45 or E0 million francs. The overwhelming majority of the inhabitants of France proper, or about 37 millions out of 38'/2 millions, are reckon- ed as Roman Catholics. The hierarchy of the Koman Catholic churcli embraces 17 Archbishops and 67 Bishops, whose sees are generally

xxxvi XII. MAPS.

(not always) coextensive with the departments. The sees of the archbishops are at Aix, Albi, Auch, Avignon, Besancon, Bordeaux Bourges, Cambrai, Ohambe'ry, Lyons, Paris, Rheims, Rennes, Rouen, Sens, Toulouse, and Tours. The regular clergy number about 55,000.

The Protestants, who number about 600,000, are divided into Lutherans and Calvinists , the former governed by a General Con- sistory, the latter by a Central Council, both sitting at Paris. The Lu- therans are most numerous in the E., the Calvinists in the S. provinces.

The number of Jews in France does not exceed 60,000.

XII. Maps.

The best maps of France have hitherto been the Cartes de VEtat- Major, or Ordnance Maps of the War Office. One series of these is on a scale of 1:80,000, and includes 273 sheets, each 2y2 ft- long and 1 '/a ft- wide, while another, reduced from the above, is on a scale of 1 : 320,000 and consists of 33 sheets (1 for 16 of the others) or 27 for France proper. These may be had either engraved on steel (2fr. per sheet) or lithographed (50 c). The engraved maps are con- siderably clearer in the mountainous regions, but the lithographs are good enough for ordinary use. The larger scale map is also issued in quarter sheets (1 fr. engraved; 30 c. lithographed), which are intended ultimately to supersede the larger sheets.

As, however, these maps were executed entirely in black and were, besides, becoming antiquated, the War Office has undertaken two new series, which are printed in five colours, one on a scale of 1 : 50,000 (not now sold to the public) and one on a scale of 1 : 200,000. The sheets of the latter (iy2 fr. each) are 25y2 in. long and 16 in. wide, and each corresponds to four of the first-men- tioned map.

Other maps (all in several colours) are those issued by the Min- istry of the Interior in 1891-94 (1 : 100,000; 80 c. per sheet), by the Ministry of Public Works (1 : 200, 000 ; 40 c. per sheet), showing the elevations, and by the Depot des Fortifications (1 : 500,000; l1^ fr. per sheet).

All these maps may be obtained in the chief tourist-resorts, but it is advisable to procure them in advance. The following shops in Paris have always a full supply on hand: Barrere, Rue du Bac 4; Baudoin, Rue et Passage Dauphine 30.

The catalogue of the Service Geographique de l'Arme'e (1 fr.) contains key -plans of its maps, including also those of Algeria, Tunis, and Africa generally (parts sold separately 10 c; Algeria and Tunis, 25 c). Barrere's catalogue (gratis) lias key-plans of the 1:80,000, 1:200,000, and 1:320,000 maps; and key-plans of the 1:100,000 map may be obtained at Hachette's Boulevard St. Germain 0; and of the Public Works map at DelaTave's' Rue Soufflot 15.

Wagner * Debes, Leipzig




1. From Calais to Amiens and Paris 3

I. From Calais to Amiens 6

a. Via Boulogne and Abbeville 6

From Calais to Dunkirk, 6. — From Boulogne to St. Omer, 10. — From Boulogne to Arras, 10. — From Rang-

du- Fliers -Verton to Berck, 11. — ;From Noyelles to St. ValeTy-sur-Somme; to Le Crotoy, 11, 12. — From Abbeville to Be'thune; to Dompierre-sur-Authie(Cre'cy), 13 ; to En, 14. — From' Longpre to Le Triport ; to Canaples, 15.

b. Via Hazebrouck and Arras 15

From Watten to Gravelines, 15. — From Berguette to

St. Omer, 17. — From Hazebrouck to Ypres; to Hond- schoote, 17, 18. — From Bully- Grenay to Brias; to Violaines, 18. — From Lens to Armentieres; to Liber- court, 18. — From Arras to Doullens. From Acbiet to Marcoing via Bapaume, 21.

c. Via Anvin, St. Pol, Frtfvent, and Doullens ... 22 II. From Amiens to Paris 24

a. Via Creil 24

From St. Just to La-Rue-Saint- Pierre and to Beauvais, 24.

— From Clermont to Beauvais; to Compiegne, 25.

b. Via Beauvais 25

2. Amiens 25

From Amiens to Rouen; to Beaucamp-le-Vieux, 31.

3. From Paris to Beauvais and Le Treport (Mers) ... 31 I. From Paris to Beauvais 31

a. Via, Montsoult and Beaumont 31

From Beaumont to Creil; to Hermes, 32.

b. Via Chantilly and Creil 32

From Beauvais to Gournay, 35. — From Beauvais to Gisors, 36.

II. From Beauvais to Le Treport 36

From Eu to Ault and Onival, 37.

4. From Dieppe to Paris 38

a. Via Rouen 41

I. From Dieppe to Rouen 41

From Dieppe to St. Valery-en-Caux and Cany ; to Le Treport, 41.

II. From Rouen to Paris 41

From St. Pierre-en -Vauvray to Les Andelys , 42. — From Vernon to Gisors; to Pacy-sur-Eure, 43.

b. Via Gisors and Pontoise 45

From Gisors to Pont-de-1'Arche, 47.

5. Rouen 48

Baedeker's Northern France. 3rd Edit. 1


Environs of Rouen ; Bonaecours, 58. — From Rouen to Le Havre by the Seine, 59. — From Rouen to Orle'ans, via. Elbeuf, Dreux, and Chartres, 59.

6. From Le Havre to Paris via Rouen 60

Ste. Adresse. From Le Havre to Etretat and Fecamp, 64. — From Breaute-Beuzeville to Lillebonne (Tancar- ville), 64. — From Jlotteville to Cleres and to Monle- rolier-Buchy, 65. — From Barentin to Caudebec, 65.

7. Watering-Places between Dieppe and Le Havre ... 65 I. From Rouen (Paris) to St. Valery-en-Caux and to

Veules 65

II. From Rouen (Paris) to Veulettes. Les Petites Dalles 66

III. From Rouen (Paris) to Fe'camp 67

Valmont. From Flcamp to Etretat, 69.

IV. From Rouen (Paris) to Etretat 69

Yport; Vaucottes, 69. — From Etretat to Le Havre, 71.

8. From Paris to Cambrai 71

a. Via Oreil, St. Quentin, and Busigny 71

b. Via Creil, St. Just, and Pe'ronne 71

From Montdidier to Albert, 72. — From Cambrai to Douai; to Bavay (Dour), 74.

9. From Amiens to Arras, Douai, and Valenciennes . . 74

From Douai to Orchies and Tournai ; to Pont-a-Marcq, 78. — From Somain to Peruwelz viaAnzin, 78. — Walks and Excursions near Valenciennes, 82. — From Valen- ciennes to Maubeuge; to Mons, 82.

10. From Arras (Paris) to Dunkirk 82

From Bergues to Hondschoote, 83. — Halo-les-Bains. From Dunkirk to Furnes, 86.

11. From Douai and Valenciennes to Lille and Courtrai . 86 I. From Douai to Lille 86

II. From Valenciennes to Lille 86

From St. Aniand to Blanc-Misseron ; to Tournai, 87. III. From Lille to Courtrai 87

From Tourcoing to Menin, 88.

12. Lille 88

From Lille to Tournai; to Bethune; to Ypres, 97.

13. From Calais to Chalons-sur-Marne (Bale) via Amiens,

Laon, and Rueims 97

14. From Calais to Nancy (Strassburg) via Lille, Valen-

ciennes, Hirson, and Longuyon 99

From Armentieres to Berguette and to Comines, 99. — From Hirson to Amagne-Lucquy, 100.

15. From Paris to Namur (Liege, Cologne) 100

a. Via. St. Quentin and Maubeuge (Mons-Brussels). . 100

From Chantilly to Cre'py-en-Valois, 101. — From Com- piegne to Roye ; to Soissons; to Villers-Cotterets via,

Pierrefonds; to Cre'py-en-Valois; to Amiens, 102, 103.

From Chauny to Laon via Coucy-le- Chateau, 104. —

From St. Quentin to Guise; to Roisel, 106. From

Busigny to Hirson, 106. — From Le Cateau to Cambrai ■

CALAIS. 1. Route. 3

to Valenciennes, 106. — FromMaubeuge to Mons (Brus- sels); to Hirson, 107.

b. Via Soissons, Laon, and Anor 108

From Anizy to Premontre, 108. — From Laon toLiart; to Valenciennes, 110.

c. Via Soissons, Rheims, and Mezieres Ill

Montherme and its Environs; the Valley of the Semoy, 112. — From Revin to Kocroi, 113. — From Dinanl to Rochefort. Han-sur-Lesse, 114.

16. From Paris to Rheims Hi

a. Via. Meaux and La Ferte-Milon 114

b. Via, Soissons 115

c. Via Epernay 117

17. Rheims 118

18. From Paris to Metz 122

a. Via Chalons and Frouard 122

From Pompey to Nomeny, 123.

b. Via, Chalons and Verdun 124

From Conflans-Jarny to Briey; to Honiecourt-Jceuf, 126.

c. Via Rheims and Verdun 126

d. Via Rheims and Mezieres-Charleville 127

From Bazancourt to Challerange, 127. — From Amagne- Lucquy to Revigny. Apremont, 127. — From Sedan to Bouillon; to Lerouville (Nancy), 131. — From Mont- medy to Virton, 132. — From Longuyon to Luxembourg, 132. — From Longuyon to Nancy, 133. — Battlefields at Metz, 135. — From Metz to Strassburg, 135.

19. From Paris to Nancy (Strassburg) 136

I. From Paris to Chalons-sur-Marne 136

From Bondy to Aulnay-les-Bondy, 136. — From Lagny to Villeneuve-le-Comte. Jouarre, 137. — From Chateau- Thierry to Romilly, 138. — From Epernay to La Fere- Champenoise (Romilly), 139.

II. From Chalons-sur-Marne to Nancy 142

From Vitry-le-Francois to Jessains, 142. — From Revigny to St. Dizier; to Haironville ; to Triaucourt, etc., 143. — From Bar-le-Duc to Clermont-en-Argonne, 144.

20. Nancy 146

From Nancy to Chateau-Salins (Vic; Saargemiind), 152.

1. From Calais to Amiens and Paris.

183 M. to 212 M. Railway in 33/4-ll hrs., according to the route selected. The shortest route is via, Boulogne, Abbeville, and Creil (fares 33 fr. 15, 22 fr. 40, 14 fr. 65 c); the longest, seldom taken, via Hazebrouck and Arras (fares 35 fr. 50 c, 24 fr., 15 fr. 65 c). The alternative routes given below may be combined to suit individual convenience. — From London to Calais, see p. xiii,

Calais. — Stations. Calais- Maritime (PI. C, 2), for the English traffic ; Calais-Ville, or Oare Centrale (PI. B, 5), for all trains except those of the Anvin line ; Calais-Marie, or Ancienne Gare (PI. B, 3), not used for passenger traffic; Oare des Fontinettes (PI. B, 7); und Calais- St- Pierre (PI. A, 6), for the Anvin line.


4 Route 1. CALAIS. From Calais

Hotels. Grand Hotel, Place Richelieu (PI. B, 4), new, B. l'A, d<5j. 21/; > D. 3fr. ; Terminus, at the Gare Maritime; Buffet - Hotel , at the Gare Oentrale ; de Flandre, Rue Leveux (PI. B, 4) ; Dessin, Rue Amiral-Cour- bet 5 (PI. C, 3) ; du Sauvage, Rue de Guise 22 ; dd Commerce, Rue Royale 51 (PI. B, 4); de Londres, Rue de la Cloche 7 (PI. B, 3). — Cafes. Bellevue, de France, du Globe, Place d'Armes; Grand Cafi, at St. Pierre, corner of the Boulevard Jacquart and the Rue Lafayette.

Post & Telegraph Offices, Place Richelieu (Calais ; PI. B, 4) and Boule- vard Pasteur (St. Pierre; PI. C, 6).

Cabs. Per drive, 1-2 pers. 90 c, 3 pers. ifr. 20, 4 pers. 1 fr. 60 c. ; per hour, l1/?, 2, or 2V2 fr- ; double fare after 11 p.m.

Tramways. 1. From the Place d"Armes (PI. B, C, 3) to the Pont St. Pierre (PI. E, 6). 2. From the Boulevard Jacquart (PI. C, 5, 6) to the former Gare de «. Pierre (PI. A, 6). 3. From the Boul. Jacquart to the Gare des Fonti- nettes (PI. B, 7). 4. From the Pont St. Pierre (PI. E, 6) to the Halte St. Pierre (comp. PI. F, 8). 5. From the Place d'Armes (PI. B, C, 3) to the Casino (sea- baths ; PI. A, B, 2), in the season. Fares, 10-15 c. — A tramway also runs from Calais to Guines, via. Pont-du-Leu, Coulogne, l'Ecluse-Carree, and Banc-Valois (p. 22; fares 15-60 c).

Steamboat to Dover (for London, p. xiii), thrice daily; fares 13 fr. 15, 10 fr. 60 fr.

British Consul, C. A. Payton, Esq.; Vice-Consul , E. H. Blomefield, Esq. — U. S. Consul, C. W. Shepard, Esq.

English Church (Holy Trinity), Rue du Moulin-Brule (PI. C,6); minister. Rev. M. H. Umbers, M. A. — Wesleyan Chapel, Rue du Temple. Services at both at 11 a.m. and 6.30 p.m.

Calais, a town with 56,940 inhab., including St. Pierre-les- Calais, and a fortress of the first class, derives its chief importance from its harbour and its traffic with England , to which it is the nearest port on the French coast. The chalk cliffs and castle of Dover, 18 M. distant, are visible in clear weather. About 260,000 travellers pass through the town annually ; and in addition there is a brisk trade in timber, coal, etc. Calais contains 1500 English residents, chiefly engaged in its tulle-manufactories (p. 5).

Calais played a prominent part in the early wars between France and England. Its harbour was the rendezvous for the fleet of the Dauphin Louis, whose aid had been invited by the discontented English barons against King John. In 1346-47, after the battle of Crecy, Edward III. blockaded the town by land and sea and starved it into surrender after a desperate resistance of eleven months. He consented to spare the town on condition that six noble citizens should place themselves, clad in their shirts and with halters about their necks, at his absolute disposal; and it was only by the urgent intercession of his queen, Pkilippa of Hainault, that he was induced to spare the lives of the unfortunate men, at whose head was the patriotic Enstache de St. Pierre. Calais remained in the hands of the English for two hundred years, in spite of many attempts to retake it, and became an important mart of English traders. In 1558, however, the Duke of Guise with 30,000 men succeeded in finally expelling the small English garrison (500 men) after a siege of seven days. Queen Mary of England felt the loss of the town so acutely that she asserted the name 'Calais' would be found engraven on her heart after her death. In 1560 Mary Stuart set sail from Calais to assume the Scottish crown; and in 1814 Louis XVIII. landed here on his return to his kingdom. The Spaniards made themselves masters of Calais in 1596, but the treaty of Vervins in 1598 restored it per- manently to France.

The Harbour, which is accessible at all states of the tide, has been more than doubled in size by extensive new works, recently completed at a cost of 2,400, 0001. The Old Harbour, with the former


to Amiens. CALAIS. 1. Route. 5

railway-station, lies nearest to the Place d' Amies; the imposing

  • New Harbour farther to the E. The new Gare Maritime (PI. 0, 2),

or Maritime Station, where passengers from England find the train for Paris waiting, is situated on the N.E. side of the Avant-Port (PI. B, 0, 2), and is connected by a short branch-line skirting the new harbour with the Gare Centrale (see below).

The old Hotel de Ville (PI. B, C, 3), in the Place d'Armes, the centre of the old town, was erected in 1740 on the site of a former building of which the tower still remains (15th cent.). It is adorned with bronze busts (1636) of the Ducde Guise, 'liberateurde Calais en 1558', and Richelieu, the founder of the citadel in 1634. On the bal- cony is a bust of Eustache de St. Pierre. The Hotel de Ville contains a small Musee (paintings, antiquities, natural history, etc.) ; open 10 to 4 or 5 on Tues., Thurs., Sat., .Sun., and holidays. — To the left is a massive square Watch Tower, the foundation of which i.-i referred to 810, and which was used as a lighthouse until 1848.

The church of Notre-Dame (PI. C, 4), approached by the street of the same name leading to the E. from the Place d'Armes, was almost completely rebuilt during the English occupation of the town, and it has undergone considerable renovation since 1866. The N. side is partly concealed by a reservoir; the spire is un- pleasing. The high -altar, with a fine reredos in Italian marble (1624-28), decorated with statues, high reliefs, and an Assumption by Seghers, the iron choir-screen, and a Descent from the Cross by Rubens (V), in the left transept, are the chief objects of interest in the interior.

At the end of the Rue de Guise, which begins to the left of the Hotel de Ville, is the Hotel de Guise (PI. B, C, 4), in the English Tudor style, originally founded by Edward III. as a guildhouse for the woolstaplers , and presented to the Duke of Guise after his capture of the town. The Place Richelieu leads hence towards the Gare Centrale, passing the Jardin Richelieu, (PI. C, 4), in which a Monument to Eustache de St. Pierre and his Companions (p. 4), by Rodin, was erected in 1895. On the opposite side of the street is the Hotel des Posies, with the Public Library (20,000 vols.) on the first floor (open daily, except Sun., 10-1 and 4-9; closed in Sept.).

The Sea-Bathing Establishment (PI. A, B, 2) is situated beyond the old harbour. When the tide is out the water is very shallow for a lung distance from the shore.

The Gare Centrale (PI. B, 5), or principal railway-station, lies between Calais proper and St. Pierre, and has approaches from both. Near it, on the St. Pierre side, are a pretty Park and the Place Centrale (PI. C, 5), in which a new Hotel de Ville is to he erected.

St. Pierbe-les-Calais is the industrial and commercial part of Calais. Its prosperity is due chiefly to its extensive manufacture of tulle and lace, an industry which was introduced from Notting- ham in 1818. The Church of St. Pierre (Pl.D, 7), built in 1862-70

6 Route 1. BOULOGNE-SUR-MER. From Calai

in the style of the 13th cent., and the Hotel de Ville (1858-64) are both situated in the Place Crevecoeur. The Church of the Sacred Heart (PI. B, 6) is a Gothic church of still more recent date.

From Calais to Dunkirk, 29 M., railway in l-l>/2 hr. (fares 5 fr. 25, 3 fr. 55, 2fr. 30 c). This branch skirts the town on the E. and S.E., passing the suburban stations of Fontinettes and St. Pierre. The district traversed is flat and intersected by canals. — 15 M. Gravelines (Casino Hutel; des Messageries ; du Commerce), an uninteresting town with 5900 in- hab., is strongly fortified and has a port on the Aa, near its embouchure in the North Sea. In the middle ages it belonged to the Counts of Flanders. In 1558 the French were defeated on the sands of Gravelines by the Spaniards under Egmont, who was assisted by the broadsides of an English fleet of ten sail; but exactly one hundred years later the town was finally joined to France. The Spanish Armada was defeated and put to flight by the English fleet in 1588 off Gravelines. A large quantity of eggs and similar produce is annually shipped to England from this port. — I872 M. Bour- bourg is the junction for the line from Watten to Gravelines fp. 15). 21 M. Loon-Plage is an unpretending bathing-place. — At (28 M.) Coudekerque- Branehe our line coalesces with the line from Hazebrouck (p. 17). — 29 M. Dunkirk, see p. 83.

I. From Calais to Amiens, a. Via Boulogne and Abbeville.

102 M. (1033/4 M. from the Gare Maritime). Railway in 2-5Vs hrs. (fares 18 fr. 60, 12 fr. 55, 8 fr. 15 c. ; or 18 fr. 90, 12 fr. 80, 8 fr. 30 c). — From Boulogne to Amiens, 76'/2 M., in l3/t-Sl/i hrs. (fares 14 fr., 9 fr. 35, G fr. 10 c).

After leaving Calais we pass (ii/iM.~) Les Fontinettes and { 1^2 M.J St. Pierre (see above), with its handsome tower, beyond which di- verges the line to Anvin (p. 22). — 4*/2 M. Frethun. — As the train approaches (10 M.) Caffiers, we enjoy a line view to the left. — 15Y2 M. Marquise (Grand Cerfj, a small town with important iron foundries and marble-quarries, is situated in the 'Vallee Heureuse', a favourite point for excursions from Boulogne.

About 5Vs M. and 7 M. to the W. are the small sea-baths of Arrible- tettse and Audresselles, at the former of which James II. landed in 1689 on his flight from England. About 5V2 M. to the N. lies Wissant (Hotel des Bains), another small sea-bathing place, between Cap Gris-Nez and Cap Blanc-Nez.

21 Y2 M. Wimille- Wimereux. At Wimereux (Hotel de la Manche ; des Bains ; sea-baths) is a ruined harbour, excavated in 1803 at Napoleon I. 's orders. — The train now comes in sight of the Colonne de la Grande Armee, marking the situation of Napoleon's camp (p. 10). Beyond a tunnel, l/2 M. long, we enter the station of —

25V2 M. Boulogne-Tintelleries (see below), where passengers to Boulogne by through - trains to and from Amiens alight. Other trains pass through another tunnel, cross the Liane by means of a curved viaduct, and enter the Qrande Oare of —

25 V2 M. Boulogne-Sur-Mer. — Stations. Grande Gare(Pl.~D, E,4), or central station, on the left bank of the Liane, near the Arriere Port; Oare Maritime (PI. I>, 2), a little to the N., for the English traffic; Boulogne- Tintelleries (PI. F, 2), for the express trains between Calais and Paris.

Hotels. Near the baths: Hotel des Bains de Mer (PI. a; D, 1) D. 7 fr.; South-Eastern Hotel (PI. a; D, 1), enlarged in 1897: de' la Plage

Grare et imprime par

Wagner & Debe s, Leipzig

to Amiens. BOULOGNE-SUR-MER. 1. Route. 7

(PI. a; D, 1); de la Marine (PI. b; D, 2), all in the Boul. Ste. Beuve ; de Folkestone (PI. c; D, 2), Quai Gambetta 74; de Paris (PI. d; D, 2), Hot. Windsor (PI. e; D, 2), Quai Gambetta (Nos. 66 & 62); Beret, Rue de Boston 90 , at the end next the douane (PI. D, 2). — In the town : Hotel des Bains et de Bellevue (PI. f; E, 3), Quai Gambetta and Rue Victor Hugo 69, R. 3-6, L. & A. l'/z, B. l'/i, dej. 31/2, 1>. 5, pens. 8-15 fr.; Christol (PI. g ; E, 3), Place Frederic Sauvage 14, near the station ; Meu- rice et de l'Univers (PI. i, k ; E, 2-3), Rue Victor Hugo (Nos. 26 & 35), R. 2-5, pens. 10-12, omn. 1/2 fr.; Continental (PI. m; E, 3), Rue Victor Hugo 25; do Louvre (PI. n; D, 3), near the railway-station; British Hotel (PI. 1; E, 3), Rue Faidherbe 27, etc. There are also numerous Maisons MeubUes, Pensions, and furnished apartments.

Restaurants. Casino, d6j. 4, D. 5 fr. ; HStel de Flandre, Quai Gam- betta 52, dej. 2, D. 2'/2 fr.; Hdlel dm Port, Quai Gambetta 34, dej. 21/2, D. 3 fr. ; others in the Rue Monsigny, near the theatre ; also at the above- named hotels and at the railway-stations.

Cafes. Or. Cafe" de Boulogne, Continental, Rue Adolphe Thiers 63 and 53 ; others in the Rue Monsigny, etc.

Cabs. From 6 a.m. to midnight, per drive l'/u fr., per hour 2 fr. ; from midnight to 6 a.m. 2 fr. and 2:/2 fr. ; outside the town, per hour 272 fr.

Tramway to theEtablissement des Bains from the Coin-Menteur(Pl.E,3) 10 c, from the Place Dalton (PI. F, 3) 15 c.

Steamboat to Folkestone (for London, see p. xiii), twice daily; fares about 12 fr. 60, 10 fr. 10 c. — Excursion steamers on Sun. and holidays in summer, 75 c. for trip of 1 hour.

Bathing Establishment on the beach on the right bank of the Liane (p. 8). Sea-hath, incl. machine, 1 fr. ; bath in the swimming-bath 50 c; subscription for 12 baths 9 fr. or 572 fr. ; ladies' bathing costumes 25 c, drawers 15 c, peignoirs 10 or 25 c, towel 5 or 10 c. — Hot Baths, 1 fr.

Casino. Admission, per day 1 fr., week 10, fortnight 17, month 29 fr.; double tickets 19, 32, or 54 fr., etc. Adm. to Theatre, 4 fr. Subscription to both (16 theatrical performances), 22, 39, or 67 fr. ; double ticket 39, 67, 111 fr. ; etc See the gratuitous 'Guide Programme'.

Golf links (18 holes) at Mayville.

Post & Telegraph Offices (PI. E, 3), Rue du Pot-d'Etain 12.

British Vice-Consul, H. F. Farmer, Esq., Rue Wissocq 14. — American Consul, Paul Molevx, Rue de la Gare 8. — Bankers. Banque de France, Rue Victor Hugo 46; Sociiti Qinirale. Rue Faidherbe 73; Adam & Co., Rue Victor Hugo 6 (also Lloyd's agents). — Merridew's Library, Rue Victor Hugo 60.

Physicians. Dr. Carr , Rue Faidherbe 69 ; Dr. Philip , Rue Victor Hugo 33; Dr. Docker, homeopath, Rue Marignan 13. — Dentists. Mr. Hill- man, Rue Ad. Thiers 29; Mr. Manton, Grande Rue 14; Mr. McConaghy, Rue Victor Hugo 44.

English Churches. Holy Trinity, Rue de la Lampe; Rev. James Wilson, M. A. -, services at 11 and 7.30. — St. John's, Rue des Vieillards ; Rev. W. W. King Ormsby. — New Wesleyan Methodist Church, Grande Rue 70 ; Rev. J. Gaskin ; services at 11 and 7.

Boulogne-sur-Mer, so called to distinguish it from Boulogne-sur- Seine near Paris, the Bononia (?) or Oessoriacum of the Romans, is an important seaport and commercial town , situated on the Liane, with a population of 46,800, of whom over 1000 are English resi- dents. Its numerous schools enjoy a high reputation. Boulogne is an important herring-port and exports large quantities of salted fish ; and it is the chief centre in France for the manufacture of steel pens, introduced from England in 1846. The town is divided into the Haute Ville, or old town on the height to the E., and

8 Route 1. BOULOGNE-SUR-MER. From Calais

the much larger Basse Ville, including the harbour. The part of the Basse Villeion the left or W. hank of the Liane, on which is the principal railway-station (see below) , is known as Capecure. Its church of St. Vincent-de-Paul (Pl.D, 4, 5) is a modern Gothic edifice in the style of the 13th century.

The Harbour, especially the E. part near the Douane (PI. D, 2), presents a very busy scene. Boulogne stands next to Marseilles, Le Havre, and Bordeaux among the seaports of France. Its commercial importance is increasing, and in 1879 extensive operations were begun with the view of enlarging the port, but their completion has been deferred owing to the lack of funds. Within the port new stone quays have been built and the harbour deepened to enable vessels to arrive and start at low water. The Bassin a flot, a large semicircular basin on the left bank of the Liane, was constructed by Napoleon to accommodate the flotilla which was to convey his troops to England (see p. 10). The Building Slips and the Batteries defend- ing the entrance to the harbour are both situated on the W. bank. The West Pier stretches into the sea for a distance of 765 yds.

The Gare Maritime (PI. D, 2), on the quay of the Folkestone steamers (p. 7), is connected with the principal Railway Station (PL D, E, 4) by a short branch-line. On the right bank of the Liane, immediately beyond the Pont Marguet (PL E, 3), is a bronze statue, by Lafrance, of Frederic Sauvage (Pl.E, 3), who was among the first to use screw propellers for steamboats. — Thence the Quai Oambetta leads to the N. to the Halle (PL E, 3), in the small square adjoining which is a statue of Edward Jenner (1749-1823), the dis- coverer of vaccination, by Eug. Paul.

The Fish Market is held early in the morning in the Halle IP1. E, 3). The fishermen and their families occupy a separate quarter ('la Beurriere') on the W. side of the town, and form one-tenth of the population. They partly adhere to the picturesque costume of their ancestors, and they differ somewhat in character and customs from the other inhabitants of the town.

Farther along the busy quay is the Douane (PL D, 2), or custom house, near which is a large salt-warehouse.

The *Etablissement de Bains, with its Garden and handsome Casino (PL D, 1, 2), occupies the rest of the space between the E. Pier and the cliffs. The garden is open to visitors., but non- subscribers pay 20 c. for admission on concert -days (subscrip., see p. 7). The beach is sandy and very hot in summer. The Etablissement contains a swimming-bath for use when the sea is too rough for bathing. — The foot of the cliffs, beyond the casino, is skirted by the Boulevard Ste. Beuve, named in honour of the eminent critic (1819-55), who was born at Boulogne.

The East Pier, or Jetee de I' Est (PL B, C, 1, 2), which extends 650 yds. into the sea, is a favourite promenade, especially at full tide, when the steamers enter or leave the port, and on summer even- ings. In clear weather the South Foreland lights are visible ; the revolving white and red light to the N. at Cap Gris-Nez is very di-

to Amiens. BOULOGNE-SUR-MER. 1. Route. 9

stinct. — On the cliff is the ruined Tour d'Odre ("lurris aniens' ; PI. D, 1), a Roman beacon-tower, built under Caligula in 40 A.D. — The modern Gothic church of St. Pierre-des-Marins (PI. E, 2), with a lofty spire, is in the style of the 14th century.

We now retrace our steps to visit the town. The Rue Victor Hugo (PL E, 3), running almost parallel with the haTbour, and its continuation, the Rue Nationale, contain the principal shops. The Rue Adolplie Thiers, running parallel to the Rue Victor Hugo, begins at the Place Dalton (PI. F, 3), in which rises the church of St. Nicholas, of the 17-18th centuries. The Orande Rue ascends from this point to the Haute Ville.

The Museum (PI. F, 3), in the Grande Rue, contains ethnograph- ical and historical collections, some Egyptian antiquities, and a few pictures (open in summer daily, except Tues., 11-4; in winter on Sun., Wed., Thurs., and Sat.). The Public Library, on the second floor, contains 55,000 vols, and 300 MSS. (open daily, except Frid., 10-4).

At the top of the Grande Rue, on the left, is the Sous-Prefecture (PI. F, 3), the pretty Square in front of which is adorned with a rolossal bust of Henri II., by David, commemorating the restoration of the town to France by the English in the reign of that monarch (J550). In the Boulevard Mariette, farther on, is a bronze statue of Aug. Mariette (PI. G, 2), the eminent Egyptologist, who was a native of Boulogne (1821-81), by Jacquemart. A little to the N. is a public park known as Les Tintelleries (PI. F, 2), where concerts are given in summer. A monument in this park, by Thomas, commemorates the first successful balloon-voyage from France to England, achieved in 1886 by Fr. Lhoste. Close by is the Boulogne -Tintelleries Station (p. 6) on the line to Calais.

The Haute Ville (PI. F, G, 2, 3) is enclosed by ramparts, dating from the 13th cent., 430 yds. long, 350yds. broad, and flanked with round turrets, 55 ft. high. Of its four gateways, the Porte des Dunes, the Porte Oayole, and the Porte de Calais, are still extant, and the S.W. gate has also been re-opened for foot-passengers. — We enter by the Porte des Dunes, flanked by two massive round towers, within which, to the left, are situated the modem Palais de Justice (PI. F, 3) and (a little farther on) the Hotel de Ville (PI. G, 3), erected in 1734 on the site of an ancient castle, where the crusader Godfrey de Bouil- lon was born in 1065.

In the Rue de Lille, which leads from the Hotel de Ville to the Porte de Calais, is the Cathedral of Notre-Dame (PI. G, 2), a building in the degraded Italian style, erected in 1827-66 on the site of a Gothic church which was destroyed in 1793. The lantern sur- mounting the dome is crowned with a colossal statue of the Virgin, which forms the most conspicuous point in the whole town. Ex- tensive *View, comprising the 'dunes', the plateau traversed by the railway to Calais, in the foreground Napoleon's Column, and in the

10 Route 1. MONTREUIL-SUR-MER. From Calais

distance, in clear weather, the white cliffs of the English coast. The entrance to the staircase is by a door to the right, in the interior of the church (adm. 1 fr. ; custodian at the S. portal).

The interior contains an elaborate high - altar, executed in Rome at the expense of Prince Torlonia ; a fine monument to Mgr. Haffreingue ; six chapels adorned with frescoes by Soulaeroix; and a Lady Chapel, which U resorted to by pilgrims. The Crypt (adm. 1 fr), dating partly from the 12th cent., contains some old tombs and some antiquities found in digging the foundations of the church.

The Chateau (PI. G, 2), in which Louis Napoleon was confined after the attempted insurrection of 1840, is the ancient citadel of Boulogne, and dates from the 13th century. It is now converted into barracks and an artillery depot (no admission). — The Cemetery of the Haute Ville (beyond PI. G, 2) contains the graves of Sir Harris Nicolas, Basil Montague, and numerous other Englishmen.

In 1804 Napoleon I. assembled an army of 172,000 infantry and 9000 cavalry on the table-land to the N. of Boulogne, under the command of Marshals Soult, Ney, Davoust, and Victor, and collected in the harbour a flotilla of 2413 craft of various dimensions, for the purpose of invading England and establishing a republic there. The troops were admirably drilled, and only awaited the arrival of the fleets from Antwerp, Brest, Cadiz, and the harbours of the Mediterranean, which had been in the course of formation for several years for this express purpose. Their union was prevented by the English fleet under Sir Robert Calder ; and the victory of Nelson at Trafalgar, on 22nd Oct., 1805, completed the discomfiture of the undertaking.

Napoleon's Column, or the Colonne de la Grande- Armie, a Doric column, constructed by Marquise, 172ft. in height, situated 2 M. from Boulogne on the road to Calais (comp. PI. G, 1), was founded in 1804 to commemorate the expedition against England, the first stone being laid by Marshal Soult in the presence of the whole army. The first empire left the monument unfinished, and in 1821 Louis XVIII. caused the work to be resumed, intending that the column should commemorate the restoration of the Bourbons ; but it was not completed till 1841, when its original destination was revived. The summit is occupied by a statue of the emperor, one of Bond's finest works. The pedestal is adorned with reliefs in bronze, fepresenting emblems of war. The view from the top resembles that rom Notre-Dame (custodian Vafr.). Model in the museum (p. 9).

From Boulogne to St. Omee, 40 M., railway in i^ls-2 hrs. (fares 6 fr. 65, 4 fr. 90, 3 fr. 20 c). — This line diverges to the left from that to Paris at (5!/2 M.) Hesdigneul, the third station (p. 11), and ascends the pretty valley of the Liane. — 10 M. Samer, with 2160 inhab.; 1572 M. Desvres, with 4700 inhab., formerly fortified. The railway skirts a range of picturesque hills. — 20 M. Lottinghem carries on the active preparation of phosphates, exported to England and Brittany for manure. — 28'/2 M. Lum- bres, the junction of the line from Calais to Anvin (p. 23) ; 37 M. Arqttes, the junction of a line to Berguette (p. 18). We then pass under the canal from Aire to St. Omer beside the hydraulic lift (p. 17; to the left), and join the line from Calais via Arras. — 40 M. St. Omer, see p. 15.

From Boulogne to Arras, 79 M , railway in 2V2-33/4 hrs. (fares 14 fr. 45, 9 fr. 70, 6 fr. 30 c). — At (171/2 M.) Etaples (p. 11) this line diverges from the railway to Amiens.

23V2 M. Montreuil-sur-Mer ("Hdtel de France), an ancient little town with 3560 inhab., is situated on a hill now 9 M. from the sea, though, as the name indicates, it was formerly on the coast. Montreuil was at one time fortified, and traces of its citadel still remain. The Church is a hand- some Gothic building, and the Hospital, recently rebuilt, has a fine chapel in the style of the 16th century. — About l'/a M. from the town, at the

to Amiens. BERCK. 1. Route. 11

village of Neuville-sons-Montreuil, is the Chartreuse de Neuville or de Notre- Dame-des-Pris, a large Carthusian monastery resembling the Grande Char- treuse near Grenohle. The convent of the order, founded here in the 14th cent., was partly destroyed and sold at the Revolution, but was repur- chased and almost completely rebuilt in 1872-75 in the Gothic style. Ladies are not admitted except to a waiting-room and chapel at the entrance, but gentlemen are shown the large chapel, the refectory, etc., and may even sleep in the convent, sharing the frugal meals and attending, if they choose, the religious services of the monks. — From Montreuil-sur-Mer a line runs to (10 M.) Rang-du-Fliers- Verton (see below), and another to (4672 M.) Aire-sur-la-Lys (p. 17) via (25 M.) Fruges (p. 23) and (39 M.) Thirouanne, a large village to the S. of the site of the important mediaeval town of that name (the Tartienna of antiquity), which was fortified by Francis I. but destroyed by Charles V. in 1553 in revenge for the loss of the 'three bishoprics' (1552).

Beyond Montieuil the Arras line ascends the valley of the Ganehe to (38 M.) Hesdin (Hotel de France), a small town founded by Charles V. in 1554, after the destruction of Vieil Hesdin, 2'/2 M. farther up the valley. From Hesdin roads lead to (12 M.) Crecy (p. 13) and to Agincourt (p. 23). — 43 M. Blangy-sur-Ternoise, 3'/2 M. to the S.E. of Agincourt (p. 23). — 49 M. Anvin (p. 23). 52 M. Wavrans. 55 M. St. Pol (p. 23). — The train ascends the valley of the Scarpe. — 70 M. Mont-Saint-Eloi, a village on a height to the right, with a church with two tall towers (18th cent.) and other relics of an ancient abbey. The railway then turns to the left, and joins the line from Paris to Arras. — 79 M. Arras, see p. 19.

Quitting Boulogne, the train traverses the valley of the Liane. At (263/4 M.) Outreau the line from the Grande Gare joins that from Boulogne-Tintelleries (p. 6). To the left are the town of Boulogne and the bridge over the Liane on the line to Calais. Several large cement-works are passed. 28Y2 M. Pont-de-Briques ; 31 M. Hesdig- neul (junction for St. Omer, see p. 10). From (42'/2 M.) Etaples (Hot. de la Gare ; Rendezvous des Artistes), the junction for Arras (see p. 10), a diligence plies 8 times daily to (3^2 M.) he Touquet or Paris-Plage (Grand Hotel ; des Bains ; de Paris), a hathing-place of recent origin. — The train crosses the Bate de la Canche by a viaduct. 4672 M. St. Josse. — 49y2 M. Bang-du-Fliers-Verton.

Fkom Rang-du-Flieks-Vebton to Bekck, 4'/2 M., railway in 14-18 min. (fares 70, 55, 40 c). Berck (Gr. H6tel de Berck et de la Plage, de Londres, de France et des Bains, Grand Hdtel, H6t. de Paris, Continental, etc.), a small sea-bathing place with 7000 inhab., a Kursaal, etc., is rapidly growing in popularity. Two Hospitals for children have been built in this healthy spot.

The name of (53*/2 M.) Conchil-le-Temple is a reminiscence of the Knights Templar. The Authie is crossed. 56 M. Quend-Fort- Mahon is the station for Fort Mahon and St-Quentin-Plage, two small bathing-places of recent formation. — 60 M. Rue (Hot. des Voyageurs), a small town , injured by the encroachments of the Authie and the Male. The beautiful Chapelle du St. Esprit, adjoining the church, is a relic of an older church dating from the 13-16th cent.

66 M. Noyelles, situated in the midst of a dreary expanse of sand, is connected by a branch-railway with (7 M.) Forest-V Abbaye (p. 13). In the vicinity is the ford of Blanchetaque, where Edward III. crossed the Somme before the battle of Crecy (see p. 14).

A branch-railway runs from Noyelles, along an embankment washed by the sea at high tide, to (4 M.) St. Valery-sur-Somme ('Hdtel de France), a town with 3550 inhabitants. From this little port William the Conqueror

12 Route 1. ABBEVILLE. From Calais

set sail for England on Sept. 27th, 1066. Some of the ancient fortifications still remain. At low tide the wet sands at the mouth of the Somme may be crossed on foot (two ferries, 20 and 15 c.) to (3/4 hr.) Le Crotoy (see below). — From St. Valery the line goes on to (8'/2 M.) Cayeux (Hot. des Bains ; du Commerce), a frequented sea-bathing resort.

Another branch-railway runs from Noyelles to (5 M.) Le Crotoy (Hdlel Delant; de la Marine; dm Crotoy), an unpretending sea-bathing place, with a small harbour and some remains of its old fortifications.

To the right as we proceed stretches the wide hay at the mouth of the Soinuie, crossed hy the branch-line to St. Valery (see above). Beyond (69 M.) Port-le- Grand we cross the canalized Somme.

74 M. Abbeville (Hotel de France, Rue de l'H6tel-de-Ville ; de la Tele-de-Boeuf, Rue St. Gilles ; *de la Oare; Cafes in the Place de l'Amiral-Courbet), an ancient fortress and an important cloth- manufacturing town, with 19,670 inhab., is situated on the Somme, on which there is a small harbour.

Abbeville was of sufficient importance under Hugh Capet to receive a girdle of ramparts, and it was the rendezvous for the leaders of the first two crusades. At the marriage of Eleanor of Castile to Edward I. in 1272 it passed to England , and it remained with little interruption under English dominion for nearly 200 years. After a short period under the dukes of Burgundy, it fell finally to France in 1477. In 1514 the marriage of Louis XII. with Mary Tudor, sister of Henry VIII., was cele- brated at Abbeville; and in 1527Wolsey and Francis I. signed here their alliance against Charles V.

The most interesting building in the town is the Church of St. Vulfran, a Gothic edifice of the 15th and 16th cent., completed in the 17th cent, on a smaller scale. The handsome facade has two towers terminating in platforms, and three portals in the Renaissance style, with richly decorated doors, though deprived of many of their statues. The exterior of the nave is adorned with elegant buttresses and two open galleries with balustrades. The windows are surmounted by truncated gables. To the N. is a tower adjoining a wall, which was intended, according to the original plan, to form part of the transept.

The effect of the interior is much less pleasing than that of the exterior. The nave is narrow, and the arches, injured by the sinking of the foundations, have required to be extraneously supported. Contrary to the usual rule, the choir is the least ancient part, dating from the 17th century. The rich triforium in the Flamboyant style is remarkable. The first chapel on the left has a fine Renaissance altar-piece, and the tlr'rd chapels on each side contain good sculptures (15-16th cent.). The Chapelle de Notre Dame des Merciers, at the end of the S. aisle, contains a large gilded Gothic canopy, in front of a recess filled by a sculptured group of the Madonna upon clouds, surrounded with angels. The altar at the end of the choir has a curious antependium (15th cent ) painted on a gold ground. In the sacristy is a silver Madonna of 1624 on a pedestal of 1568 1 also a 16th cent, evangelium.

The Hotel Dieu, behind the church, partly dates from the 14-15th centuries. — The Place de l'Amiral-Courbet, farther on, is embel- lished with a monument to Admiral Courbet (1819-85), who was a native of the town, by Falguiere and Mercie. — Lesueur, the composer (1760-1837), who was born near Abbeville, is commemorated by a bronze statue, by Rochet, in the Place St. Pierre.

to Amiens. ST. RIQUIER. 1. Route. 13

In the public garden at the end of this Place is the Musee d' Ab- beville et du Ponthieu (open on Thurs., Sun., and holidays, 12 to 4 or 5 ; at other times on application) , containing natural history collections, paintings, engravings, sculptures, etc. The Public Lib- rary, in an adjoining building, contains 38,000 vols, and 230 MSS. — The Eglise du St. Sepulcre, to the left from the Place St. Pierre, dates from the 15th century.

The Rue Boucher-de-Perthes, the first on the left as we quit the Place de l'Amiral-Courbet by the Rue St. Gilles, is called after the learned geologist and antiquarian of that name (1788-1868), whose house , in this street, is now occupied by the small Musee Boucher-de-Perthes, consisting of a library and collections of paint- ings, sculpture, furniture, porcelain, botanical specimens, flint axe- heads, and prehistoric implements in bone (adm. as to the preced- ing Musee; closed on Mon.).

The church of St. Gilles, at the end of the Rue St. Gilles, possesses a beautiful Flamboyant portal. No. 83 in this street is a handsome old house with caryatides, bas-reliefs, etc.

The Monts de Caubert, to the S. of Abbeville, were the site of an immense Roman camp, capable of accommodating 14 legions, no trace of which, however, now remains.

Fkom Abbeville to Bethune, 58',/2 M., railway in 2-2J/2 hrs. (fares 10 fr. 55, 7 fr. 10, 4 fr. 65 c). — The line crosses the railway from Abbe- ville to Amiens, and skirts the ramparts on the S.E. side of the town, near St. Gilles. — 8 M. St. Riquier (HSlel de VAnge-Gabriel), an ancient town, was formerly highly celebrated for its abbey, which was founded towards the end of the 4th cent, and enjoyed the special favour of Dagobert, Charle- magne, and Hugh Capet. It has, however, never recovered from its frequent destruction at the hands of Normans, Burgundians, French, Ger- mans, and English. In 1536 a determined attack on the town by the troops of Charles V. was valorously repulsed, chiefly through the bravery of the women, who mingled with the soldiers on the walls, encouraging them to resist. One heroine, named Becquetoille, is said to have captured a hostile flag with her own hands. The abbey was rebuilt after a fire in the 18th cent. ; it is now occupied by a seminary and is comparatively un- interesting. The adjoining * Church of St. Riquier is, however, a most notable example of Gothic architecture in the 15th and 16th centuries. The facade and W. tower are lavishly adorned with sculpture , though the soft nature of the stone has unfortunately withstood the ravages of the weather very poorly. The vaulting of the interior deserves special notice, as do also some of the statues, the fonts, the bas-reliefs on the walls, the choir-stalls, and the high-altar , with a large wooden statue of Christ by Girardon. The Salle de la Tre'sorerie is adorned with ten frescoes from the life of St. Riquier , with inscriptions in old French , and with a kind of Dance of Death, entitled 'the Three Dead and the Three Living'. The treasury is still rich.

20 M. Auxi-le-Ch&teau (Hot. St. Martin), a small town on the Authie, with the scanty ruins of a chateau, referred to the 12th century. — 28>/2M. Frivent; 38'/2 M. St. Pol. For these two stations and the connecting railway, see p. 23. 43 M. Brias is the junction for Bully-Grenay (p. 18). The railway now descends the valley of the Clarence. Beyond (57 M.) Fouquereuil we join the Calais and Arras line, i1/* M. on this side of Bithune (p. 18).

Feom Abbeville to Dompiebee-sue-Authie (Cre"cy), 19 M., local rail- way joining the branch from Noyelles (p. 11) at (10>/2 M.) Forest-V Abbmje. It then traverses the Forest of Cricy to (15 M. ; l'/3 hr. from Abbeville; 2 fr. 70, 2 fr. 10, 1 fr. 50 c.) Crecy-en-Ponthieu (HStel du Canon-d'Or), a

14 Route 1. ORfiCY. From Calais

hamlet famous for the victory won on Aug. 26th, 1346, by Edward III. of England over Philip of Valois, King of France.

The English army, after marching through Normandy and threatening Paris, had been compelled to fall back towards the N.E. before a much superior force. But after forcing his way over the Somme at the ford of Blanchetaque (p. 11), Edward III. decided to hazard a battle, and selected a favourable spot. The English, encamped on the field, took up their position betimes, ate, drank, and rested, and awaited quietly the onslaught of the French. The latter marched from Abbeville, but the haughty French nobles brooked no discip- line, and their advance was disorderly and confused. 'The Englishmen'1, says Froissart, 'who were in three 'battles' (divisions) lying on the ground to rest them, as soon as they saw the Frenchmen approach, they rose upon their feet, fair and easily, without any haste, and arranged their battles'. The first division was commanded by the Prince of Wales — Edward, the Black Prince, — assisted by the Earls of Warwick and Oxford ; the second was under the Earls of Northampton and Arundel ; while the third, commanded by Ed- ward III., was held as a reserve on a little hill surmounted by a windmill (only recently destroyed), to the W. of the present village. The French king sent the Genoese cross-bowmen, about 15,000 in number, forward to the at- tack. Bvit they were wearied with their inarch, the afternoon sun shone in their eyes, and they were awed by the rigid stillness which reigned in the English ranks until the first flight of bolts from the cross-bows fell among them. 'Then the English archers stepped forth one pace, and let fly their arrows so wholly and so thick, that it seemed snow.' The Genoese turned to flee, but only to be met by the French men-at-arms, who at the com- mand of the enraged Philip, dashed in among them, cutting them down. The deadly shower of cloth-yard shafts was kept up by the English; the armour of the knights was pierced, their horses became unmanageable, many fell both horse and men, and the confusion spread. The Irish and Welsh who formed a great part of Edward's forces, armed with long knives, now forced their way into the mele'e and, stabbing the French horses, brought many knights to the ground. In the meantime, the Counts of Alencon and Flanders at the head of their knights forced their way to the Black Prince's line and pressed him hard. A message was sent to Edward III., asking for help. 'Is my son hurt, or dead, or on the earth felled?' asked the king. 'No, Sire', was the reply, 'but he is hardly matched, wherefore he hath need of your aid'. 'Return to them that sent you, replied Edward, 'and say to them that they send no more to me for any ad- venture that falleth, as long as my son is alive; and also say to them that they suffer him this day to win Ms-spurs; for if God be pleased, I will that this day be his, and the honour thereof, and to them that be about him.'

The French finally gave way and fled, leaving the English masters of the field. King Philip rode with but five barons to the castle of Labroye, and thence to Amiens. The slaughter was very great. Froissart says that 11 princes, 80 bannerets, 1200 knights, and 30,000 footmen were slain on the French side. One of the eleven princes was the blind King John of Bohemia, whose crest (the now familiar 'Prince of Wales's Feathers') and motto ('ich dien') were adopted by the Black Prince. Several of his knights , fastening his horse's bridle securely to their own , had led him into the fight to 'strike one more good blow'; all were killed, and their horses were found after the battle still tied together. Various estimates are given of the respective forces on this occasion ; the English could not have numbered more than 25,000, while the French army was about 100,000 strong. After the battle Edward III. continued his march to the N.E., and laid siege to Calais (p. 4). A tradition (probably erroneous) says that this was the first battle in which cannons were used (on the side of the English). — To the W. of the village is a cross marking the spot where the body of John of Bohemia is said to have been found.

Another branch-line runs from Abbeville to (28 M.) Eu (p. 36) and joins the line to Le Triport (p. 37).

On leaving Abbeville, the railway passes beneath the line to

Bethune (p. 13). 8572 M- Pont-Remy, a large industrial village,

to Amiens. ST. OMER. 1 . Route. 1 5

with a castle, dating in part from the 14th or 15th cent., which played an important part in the Hundred Years' War with England. — 841/2 M. Longpre. The Camp de I'Etoile, 21/2 M. to the E.N.E., is perhaps the most interesting Roman camp in France.

From Longpre to Le Treport, 35'/2 M., railway in lVa-2Vs hrs. (fares 6 fr. 40, 4 fr. 30, 2 fr. 80 a). — 41/2 M. Airainei (Poste), on the river of the same name, has two interesting churches. About 2V2 M. from (IIV2 M.) Oisemont is the large Chdteau de Rambures, a well-preserved mediaeval stronghold. At (25 M.) Longroy- Gamaehes we join the line to Le Treport via Beauvais (p. 33).

The branch-railway from Longpre to (11 M.) Canaples joins here the line from Amiens to Doullens, Frevent, etc. (p. 23). Near (7 M.) Sl-Liger- Us-Domart, on this branch-line, is Berteaucourl-les-Sames, with a Roman- esque abbey-church containing interesting sculptures.

We pass under the line to Canaples. — 89 M. Hangest. — 93'/2M. Picquigny , a small town with a rained castle of the 16th century. About l3/4 M. to the N.E. lies the Camp de Tirancourt or Grand- Fort, an ancient Roman camp.

96 M. Ailly-sur-Somme ; 97V2 M. Dreuil. The line now emerges from the valley of the Somme. ■ — IOO74 M. St. Roch, a suburban sta- tion for Amiens (p. 25). Traversing two short tunnels, and a cutting, we now skirt the boulevards on the S. side of (102M.) Amiens(j>. 25).

b. Via Hazebrouck and Arras.

120»/2 M. (122V4 M. from the Gare Maritime). Railway in 7-7'/2 hrs. (fares 21 fr. 95, 14 fr. 85, 9 fr. 60 c. or 22 fr. 30, 15 fr. 5, 9 fr. 75 c).

Calais, see p. 3. — l1/^ M. Les Fontinettes (p. 6) ; 2^2 M. Pont- de-Coulogne ; 5^2 M. Les Attaques. — The line diverges from that via Boulogne, crosses the Canal de Guines, skirts the canal from Ard- res to Gravelines, and crosses the canal from St. Omer to Calais. To the left is the Pont Sans-Pareil, a bridge built in 1752, with four branches spanning the two last-named canals. — 7y2M. Pont-d 'Ard- res, whence a diligence plies to (3 M.) the little town of Ardres, which has another station on the railway from Calais to Anvin (p. 23). I2V2M. Audruicq. — 2OV2M. Watten.

A branch - railway runs from Watten to (13 M.) Gravelines (p. 6), joining the line from Calais to Dunkirk at (9 M.) Bourbourg (p. 6).

A marshy district, intersectedby numerous canals, is now traversed.

25M. St. Omer. — Hotels. Hotel de la Porte-d'Or et d'Angle- terre, Rue St. Bertin 13; do Commerce, Rue Notre-Dame 4; *des Vota- geurs, Rue du St. Sepulcre, unpretending but inexpensive; de France, Grande Place. — Cafes, in the Grande Place. — Post & Telegraph Office, at the corner of the Rue Allent and Rue de Valliele.

St. Omer is an industrial and commercial town with 21,480 in- hab., situated in a marshy district on the Aa, which joins the Canal de Neuf-Fosse near the station.

Founded in the 7th cent, by St. Audomare or Omer,Bishop of The'rouanne (p. 11), the town long formed part of Flanders, and was often besieged, pil- laged, and burnt. It, however, successfully resisted two attacks by the English (1337 and 1339) and no less than eight by the French. Louis XIV. captured the town in 1677, since which date it has belonged to France. St. Omer, like Boulogne, was made the seat of a bishop in 1559, in place

16 Route 1. ST. OMER. From Calais

of Therouanne ; bat the see was suppressed in 1801. A number of English families reside at St. Omer, for purposes of education and retrenchment.

Until recently St. Omer was a fortress of the first class, and the demolition of the fortifications has made way for extensive alter- ations, begun in 1892. At present the town is entered from the station by means of two gates, the Porte de Lyzel to the left, and the Porte de Dunkerque to the right. Entering by the former, we pass the arsenal and a square with a bronze statue of Jacqueline Robins, a heroine of 1710, resembling Jeanne Hachette of Beau- vais (p. 33). Farther on are the ruins of St. Bertin, the sole relic of the powerful abbey founded in 640 by St. Bertin, a monk of Luxeuil. These consist of an immense tower, 190 ft. high, and nine arches, which belonged to a church begun in 1326 and finished in 1520, on a site previously occupied by two earlier churches. Chil- deric III. died in this abbey after 752, and Thomas Becket also found a temporary asylum here on his way to Pontigny in 1164.

The long Rue St. Bertin leads hence to the centre of the town. On the left is the College St. Bertin, a handsome modern Gothic erec- tion in brick. Farther on is the Coste Military Hospital, in a building erected after various fires (the last in 1826) on the site of a college founded in 1592 by English Jesuits for the training of the Roman Catholic youth of Great Britain. Dr. Alban Butler (d. 1773), author of 'Lives of the Saints', was director of this institution, and Daniel O'Connell was one of its most famous pupils. On the right, beyond the Sous-Prefecture, is the Church of St. Denis, rebuilt in 1706-14, but still retaining its original tower of the 13th century.

The * Church of Notre-Dame, a large and handsome building dating chiefly from the 13-15th cent., lies to the left, beyond the end of the Rue St. Bertin. There are four portals: one on the W., one on the N. side of the nave, near the massive W. tower (160 ft. high), and one at each end of the transept. The most elaborate is the S. portal, the tympanum of which is adorned with a Last Judgment.

The church contains numerous works of art. The chapels which fringe the nave are enclosed by heavy screens of the 17th and 18th cent., and contain good paintings and bas-reliefs. In the S. aisle is a group of the 13th cent., representing Christ between the Virgin and St. John, known as the 'Grand Dieu de Therouanne because it was brought from the cath- edral of that town (p. 11) in 1553. The same aisle contains a Descent from the Cross by Rubens, spoiled by restoration, and two modern tombs of ecclesiastics. In the nave, to the left, is the tomb of St. Omer, with bas- reliefs dating from the 13th cent. ; and to the right, the tomb of Eustache de Croy (d. 1538), Bishop of Arras, with very interesting statue and ornamenta- tion. The organ-loft, restored since its erection in the 18th cent., deserves at- tention. The pulpit and the confessionals are excellent specimens of wood- carving. In the second chapel on the right: G. de Crayer, Job; in the third, A. de Vitez, St. Aldegonda receiving her nun's veil from heaven. On the same side, farther on, are some good modern reliefs. One of the finest parts of the interior is the Chapelle Notre Dame des Miracles, in the S. transept, the large gilded altar of which (18th century) is surmounted by a wooden figure of the Virgin, executed in the 12th century. On the right is a paint- ing of St. George and the dragon, by Ziegler; and opposite the altar is Christ before Pilate, a large canvas by Van Opstal. Above the latter are

to Amiens. HAZEBROUCK. 1. Route. 17

three small high reliefs, painted and gilded. On the right side of the choir- screen (reliefs) is a painting by Van Dyck ('Bender unto Csesar the things that are Csesar's') and near it, on one of the pillars, an ex voto offering of Dean De Lalaing (d. 1533), consisting of a bas-relief in alabaster and stone, representing the Hebrew Children in the Fiery Furnace. Opposite is a fine painting with side wings ; and opposite the apsidal chapel is an ex voto of Delibourg, Christ descending from the Cross to the altar during a celebration of the Communion. Adjoining the left side of the choir-screen is the tomb of St. Erkembode, an archaic (perhaps Byzantine) bas-relief dat- ing from the 7th or 8th century. The N. transept contains monuments and coloured and gilded reliefs corresponding to those on the S., a clock of the 16th cent., and a group of the Crucifixion. In the chapel to the right are some interesting 13th cent, slabs. The left aisle and its chapels also con- tain votive offerings and paintings.

The Rue Notre-Dame conducts us from the chief portal to the Grande Place. Here rises the Hotel de Ville, a modern edifice, which also contains the Theatre and a small gallery of paintings belonging to the Musee. The Musee itself is installed in the old Hotel du Bail- lage (18th cent.), in the same square, to the right. It includes collec- tions of natural history, art, faience, and some ancient and modern sculptures, including a bronze statue, by Raggi, of the Duke of Or- leans, son of Louis Philippe. The Rue de Dunkerque, which leads hence straight across the town to the station, passes at some distance to the right of the Church of St. Sepulcre, a building of the 13-14th cent., with a tower and spire 170ft. high. In the interior is an Entombment by Gasp, de Crayer.

About l3/4 M. to the S.E., on the Canal de Neuf-Fosse, is the Ascenseur des Fontinettes or cTArques (station, p. 10), a remarkable hydraulic lift, constructed in 1883-88, by means of which canal-boats are enabled to avoid five locks and thus to shorten their journey very considerably. The strncture consists mainly of two enormous metal caissons, containing sufficient water to float the boats, and so connected that when one is filled or emptied the other rises or falls owing to the difference in weight. The difference of level thus surmounted is about 40 ft. At the top the caissons are connected with a canal carried over the railway.

The Direct Line from St. Omer to (I672 M.) Berguette is 5>/2 M. shorter than the railway via Hazebrouck, but is not traversed by trains for Arras. — At (3 M.) Argues we diverge from the line from St. Omer to Boulogne (p. 10). — 12 M. Aire-sur-la-Lys (Clefd'Or; H6t. d'Angleterre), a fortified town with 8450 inhab., is situated at the confluence of the Lys with three other streams, and at the junction of three canals. The church of St. Pierre (15-18th cent.) has a handsome tower, and is richly decorated in the in- terior. The HStel de Ville, with a belfry, dates from the 18th cent.; the handsome ffdtel du Baittage or Corps de Garde from the 16th century. — From Aire to Berck via Montreuil-sur-Mer, see pp. 11, 10.

From St. Omer to Boulogne, see p. 10.

Near (29^2 M.) Benescure the line to Boulogne (p. 10) diverges to the right. Our line approaches Hazebrouck from the W., leaving the railway to Dunkirk on the left.

3772 M. Hazebrouck (Buffet-Hotel, at the station ; du Nord, Place de la Gare), with 12,570 inhab., on the Bourre, is an impor- tant railway-junction, at the intersection of lines to Arras, Dunkirk (p. 83), Lille (p. 88), Calais, and Ypres. The Church of St. Eloi (16th cent.) has an elegant and conspicuous tower, 260 ft. high.

From Hazebrouck to Ypres, 20 M., railway in I-I1/3 hr. (fares 2 fr. 95. 2 fr. 20, 1 fr. 50 c). — 7'/2 M. Godewaersvelde, the last Frenrh station,

Baedeker's Northern Frnnr*p. 3rd T?.i\u 2

18 Route 1. LENS. From Calais

situated at the foot of the Mont des Cats, on which is a modern convent of Trappist monks. The night may be spent in the convent, and the following day devoted to excursions to the Mont Jfoir and the Mont de Lille, sandy and wooded hills on the Belgian frontier. — At (9 M.J Abeele, the first Belgian station , the custom-house examination is made. — 20 M. Ypres (TSte d'Or), with a very interesting cathedral and cloth-hall. See Baedeker's Belgium and Holland.

From Hazebkohck to Hondschoote, 22 M., railway via, Steenwoorde, Rexpoede, etc.

Beyond Hazebrouck the train enters the Forest of Nieppe. ■il^M- Steenbecque ; 44 M. Thiennes, beyond which two canals are crossed. — 47 M. Berguette.

Railway from Berguette to Armentieres, see p. 99; to St. Omer, p. 17.

51 M. Lillers (Hot. Lemoine), with 7800 inhab., has a curious church in the Transition style. Artesian wells derive their name from the district of Artois, where the earliest (still pointed out; 65 ft. deep) is said to have been sunk at Lillers in the 12th century. — At (571/2 M.) Fouquereuil the railway to Abbeville diverges to the right (p. 13).

59 M. Bethune (Hotel du Nord; Lion d'Or), a manufacturing and commercial town with 11,600 inhab., is situated at the junction of two canals. It was the capital of an ancient barony and was one of the fortresses of Artois. The peace of Utrecht united it to France in 1713. The chief objects of interest are the Belfry, of the 14th cent., and the Church of St. Vaast, of the 16th cent., with columns of the 13th century. — Railway to Lille, see p. 97; to Abbeville, see p. 13.

62M. Noeux. — 65'/2M. Bully-Qrenay has important coal-mines.

Branch-railways run hence to (lD'^M.) Brias (St. Pol and Abbeville; p. 13) and to (6 M.) Violaines (p. 97).

70 M. Lens (Hotel de France), an ancient town with 17,230 inhab., situated on the Souchez or Deule, was formerly fortified, and was frequently captured in the wars of the 15th, 16th, and 17th cent- uries. Conde' gained an important victory over the Spaniards in the neighbourhood in 1648. Lens lies at the centre of the coal-fields of the Pas de Calais, which have an area of 190 sq. M. and yield 5,000,000 tons of coal per annum, employing 25,000 hands.

From Lens (Areas) to Akmentieres , 20 M. , railway in I-IV3 hr. (fares 3 fr. 70, 2 fr. 50, 1 fr. 65 c). — 3>/2 M. Pont - a - Yendin, the junction for &fi M.) Violaines (p. 97) ; 7 M. Bauvin-Provin, the junction of a line to Hinin - Liitard (see below); 10 M. Don-Sainghin (p. 97); ll]/2 M. Wavrin (p. 97). — 20 M. Armentieres, see p. 99.

Fkom Lens to Libekcoukt, II.1/2 M., railway in 1/2 lr. (see p. 86). — The line forks at (5]/2 M.) Hinin- Liitard, an ancient town with 12,000 in- hab., the one branch leading to Libercourt (p. 86), and the other pro- ceeding via (41/2 31.) Courrieres, the church of which contains a magni- ficent tomb of one of the Montmorency family, and (Vfe M.) Carvin, an industrial town with 8600 inhab. (p. 86), to (10 M.) Bauvin-Provin (see above).

Another local line runs from Lens to (33'/2 M.) Fr&vent (p. 23) via, Aubigny (p. 24).

Near (76 M.) Farbus-Vimy the railway to Carvin diverges to the left (see above). The line now traverses the valley of the Scarpe by means of a viaduct and embankments, and joins the railway from Douai before reaching Arras.

to Amiens. ARRAS. 1. Route. 19

83M. Arras. — Hotels. Du Commerce, Rue Gambetta, dej. 3, D. 3'/2fr"-! incl. wine; de l'Univeks, Place de la Croix Rouge, R. , L., & A. 2i/z-5, B. 1, dej. 2V2, D. 23/4, omn. i/2-3A fr. ; du Petit St. Pol, Place du Theatre, R. 2, dej. 3, D. 3V2 fr., incl. wine. — Cafes in the Place du Theatre; Buffet at the station. — Post Office, Rue de la Gouvernance, near the theatre.

Arras, formerly fortified, with 26,150 inhab., situated on the right bank of the Scarpe, the ancient capital of Artois, is now the chief town of the Departement du Pas-de-Calais, and the seat of a bishop. Its grain-trade is very considerable.

Arras was the capital of the Gallic tribe of the Atrebatet, under the name of S emetacum or Nemetocenna. It seems to have been famous for its woollen cloth as early as the 4th cent., the madder of which grows luxur- iantly in the neighbourhood, providing an excellent dye-material. In the middle ages the tapestry-hangings of Arraa had a high reputation, and many of them are still preserved, especially in England, where the name of the town itself was used as their common name. The manufacture has long been extinct. The town followed the fortunes of the Pays d'Artois, of which it was the capital, passing by marriage from the house of France to Burgundy , Flanders , Burgundy again , Germany , and Spain. After the battle of Agincourt (1415) the English and French signed the treaty of peace at Arras. It was many times captured and recaptured in the wars between France and Burgundy and Germany, and in 1477 Louis XI. punished its repugnance to the French yoke with great severity, changing the name of the town to 'Franchise'. The Peace of Arras , in 1482, marks an epoch in French history, determining the N. frontier of France at the expense of the feudal state of Burgundy. Arras was finally incor- porated with France in 1640. — Arras was the birthplace of Maximilien Robespierre (175S-94) and his younger brother Joseph (1763-94), and of Joseph Lebon, originally a cure, who organized the 'Terror in Arras and distinguished himself by his cruelties.

The Station, in the new quarter that has sprung up since the de- molition of the fortifications, stands at one end of a broad thorough- fare traversing the town under various names (Rue Gambetta, Rue Ernestale, Rue St. Aubert, etc.). On the left side of the Rue Gam- betta rises the pretty modern Tour des Ursulines, the spire of which was overthrown by a storm in 1876. The tower, which is in the Transition style, was built in imitation of the smaller tower of La Ste. Chandelle, which formerly adorned the Petite Place. We reach the latter Place and the H6tel de Ville by the Rue St. Gery, which leads to the right a little farther on.

The Petite Place and the neighbouring Orande Place are curious relics of the period of Spanish domination, in the 17th century. Both are surrounded with uniformly built houses , with arcades below, supported by monolithic sandstone columns , and curious gables above. No. 49, Grande Place, dates from the 14th century. Beneath the Grande Place and other parts of the town are huge sub- terranean magazines and cellars, originally quarries and known as 'boves'.

The *H6tel de Ville, built in the 16th cent, by Jacques Caron and restored in the 19th cent., is one of the handsomest in the N. of France, with a fine Gothic facade, rising upon seven arches of different sizes. The lateral facades are in an elaborate Renaissance


20 Route 1. ARRAS. From Calais

style; that on the N. is modern. The two large saloons on the first floor contain Gothic wood-carving and large chimney-pieces. The graceful Belfry, which terminates in a crown, is 240 ft. high. The 'Banclocque' or 'Joyeuse', the largest bell, dates from 1728 and weighs nearly 9 tons.

The church of St. Jean Baptiste (16th cent.), near the Petite Place, contains a Descent from the Cross, attributed to Rubens.

Farther to the N. are the extensive buildings of the former Abbey of St. Vaast, now occupied by the Bishop's Palace, the Grand Se"minaire, and theMusee. The Oardenis embellished with bronze busts of eminent natives of Arras.

The Musee, including a gallery of paintings and an archaeological collection, occupies most of the groundfloor on the N.W. or garden side (see below). The public are admitted (10-1 and 2-5) every Sun. from June to Sept. , and on the first Sun. of each month during the rest of the year (entr. from the garden); for adm. on other days, visitors apply to the concierge, at the large portal in the Place.

Ground-Floor. Room I, entered from the Place, contains nothing im- portant. — R. II is hung chiefly with modern paintings of slight impor- tance. To the right: No number, Ed. Gelhay, Before the judge; Daverdoing, Massacre of the Innocents; 197. Ziegler, Death of the Doge Foscari, as he hears the clock strike the hour which begins his successor's reign; 130. Baton, Sea-piece; 7. Berthon, Mass in Auvergne; no number, Thirion, Wreck of the Vengeur ; 69. Feyen-Perrin, Women of Cancale; 12i. Maigret, An affair of outposts (1870); 13. Em. Breton, Storm; 156. Sorieul , Battle of Quiberon ; 26. Colin, Bar of Bidassoa ; 77. Olaize , Human folly ; 195. Yvon, Ceesar; 151. Sebron, Cathedral of Vienna; 113. Leroux, Death in Brittany; 119. Em. Livy, Joash rescued from massacre; 198. Ziegler , Henri IV and Marguerite of Valois. — On the other side, several large and badly lighted canvases: 118. Leitillier, Tiger-hunt; no number, H. Ginois, The six citizens of Calais in the tent of Edward III. of England (see p. 4) ; 289. Unknown Artist, Ecce Homo; 30. Monchablon, Roche Verte ; 129. Morel-Fatio, Tortoise Island; 71. Fragonard, The six citizens of Calais; 150. Schutzenberger, Rape of Europa. — In the centre are some modern sculptures, casts, and terracottas.

R. III. 47. Denneulin, After vespers ; 159. Copy of Spada, Return of the Prodigal; 46. Demory, Breton interior; 82. Gros, Helen; 75. Girard, Por- trait of the artist; 38. Dassy, Portrait of Cardinal de la Tour d'Auvergne, bishop of Arras ; 39. Eug. Delacroix, Martyrdom of St. Stephen ; 29. Corot, Morning effect; 16. J. Breton, Repose.

We next enter the Cloisters, which are devoted to the Archaeological Collection of sculptures and architectonic fragments, etc. The gallery to the left contains copies of paintings, plaster casts after the antique, and a large wooden model of the cathedral (p. 21). The best sculptures are on the right side, at the end, near the entrance to the remaining rooms of the picture-gallery.

R. IV. 130. Neefs the Elder, Church interior; 17. Van den Broeck, Last Judgment; 78. Goltztus, Golden Age; 63. Van Dyck, St. Sebastian; 6. Van Bergen, Mercury soothing Argus to sleep; 21. Canaletto , Boating-party; 123. N. Maes, Anna Maria Schurmann, a learned lady; 102. Jordaens, Bacchanal; 136. J. B. M. Pierre, Bape of Europa; 127. Molenaer , Tavern scene; 86. Heemskerck, Tavern scene; 128. Monnoyer, Flowers; 66. Fabri- tius, The three angels visiting Abraham.

B. V. 19. 'Velvet' Brueghel, The Earthly Paradise; 137. Jac. Bassano, Family concert; 218. Flemish School of the 14th cent., Susanna at the bath; 200. Flemish School, Crucifixion; 142. Daniele da Volterra, Samson and Delilah.

to Amiens. ARRAS. 1. Route. 21

E. VI. 199. Flemish School, Belshazzar's feast; 190. M. de Vos (?), As- sumption; 241. Flemish School, Adoration of the Shepherds; 169. Tenters the Younger, Flemish topers; 23. Ph. de Ghampaigne, Portrait; 32. Craes- beke, Card-players; 217. Flemish School of the 15th cent., Entombment; 216. Florentine School of the ltth cent., Madonna with saints and angels; 206. Flemish School, Portrait ; 157. Snyders, Wolf-hunt; 292. Venetian School, Martyrdom of a queen; 133. Oudry, Fox-hunt; 158. Snyders, Boar-hunt; 188. Verbruggen the Younger, Children adorning a statue of Pan.

First Floor. On the landing, Model of a ship offered by the States of Artois to the American Colonies in the War of Independence. — The gallery and two rooms contain collections of sculptures, drawings, tapestry, porcelain, coins, weapons, antiquities, and small objects of art. — On the Second Floor is a Natural History Collection.

The garden is reached through a Vestibule containing casts.

In the same building are preserved the Library (40,000 vols. ; 1100 MSS.) and the Archives Dipartemenlales.

The Cathedral, at the N.E. angle of the abbey-buildings, was built in 1755-1833 to succeed the old abbey-church. It contains some good paintings, including a Descent from the Cross and an Entombment, attributed respectively to Rubens and Van Dyck (both in the ambulatory of the choir), and three small triptychs and a fine Head of Christ in the N. transept. In the S. transept is a St. Bernard supplicating inspiration from heaven , by Van Thulden. The high-altar is adorned with a bas-relief in gilded bronze. One of the chapels contains a Madonna by Corot , and two modern monuments of bishops.

The first street to the left of the garden of St. Vaast crosses the busy Rue St. Aubert, near the Hopital St. Jean (to the right), in front of which is a Statue of Abbe Halluin (1820-95), distinguished for his charity. The street leads on to the barracks, arsenal, etc. To the left , before the arsenal, the Rue de 1' Arsenal leads to the modern Romanesque church of Notre Dame des Ardents, with a fine pulpit and the tomb of Mgr. Lequette, by Louis-Noel. — The streets running parallel with the barracks lead to the Boulevard Crespel and to the Promenades, with their fine trees. Beyond these is the Citadel, constructed by Vauban in 1670-74, surnamed 'La Belle- Inutile', and now partly dismantled. — In the Rued' Amiens, beyond the barracks, is the elegant Chapelle des Dames du St. Sacrement, a modern construction in the Flamboyant style, by Grigny. — The Rue d' Amiens leads hence back to the Rue St. Aubert ; the new boulevards next the promenades bring us direct to the station.

A branch - railway runs from Arras to (22'/2 M.) Doullens (p. 24). — From Arras to Boulogne, see p. 11; to Douai and Valenciennes, p. 74.

Beyond Arras the lines to Doullens and St. Pol (p. 23) diverge to the right. From (88 M.) Boisleux a branch-line runs to (I6V2 M.) Marquion, whence it is to be continued to Cambrai. — 94 M. Achiet.

A branch-railway runs from Achiet to (20V= M.) Marcoing (Cambrai). — 4'/2 M. Bapaume (B6t. de la Fleur), a small town which gives name to one of the severest battles fought in the N. during the campaign of 1870-71. Both French and Germans claim to have won the battle of Bapaume (Jan. 3rd, 1871), but the latter after the combat fell back behind the Somme. A Statue of Faidherbe (1818-89) was erected here in 1891. — IO1/2 M. Vtlu- Bertincourt. Branch to Epehy (p. 72). — 2OV2 M. Marcoing, see p. 73.

22 Route I. GUlNES: From Calais

97 M. Miraumont; 100 M. Beaucourt-Hamel. — 105 M. Albert (The de Boeuf), an industrial town with 6750inhab. on the Ancre, which forms here a pretty waterfall. The church of Notre-Dame-Bre- bieres, recently restored , attracts numerous pilgrims. The village was called Ancre until the reign of Louis XIII., who presented it in 1617 to his favourite Charles d'Albert, Due de Luynes.

Branch-lines run from Albert W. to (27 M.) Doullens (p. 24); and E. via (27 M.) Pironne (p. 12) to (48 M.) Ham (p. 97).

110 M. Mericourt-Ribemont. — 115 M. Corbie (Hotel du Com- merce; de France), with 4300 inhab., was once celebrated for its Benedictine abbey, of which the Church of St. Pierre (16-18th cent.) still remains, though disfigured at the beginning of the 19th cent- ury. The imposing portal, with its two towers, is well seen from the railway.

The Somme is now crossed. — 117 M. Daours, at the con- fluence of the Somme and the Hallue. On the banks of the latter was fought the battle of Dec. 23rd, 1870, between Manteuffel and Faidherbe, which compelled the latter to fall back on Arras.

The Somme is crossed twice. The line to Tergnier diverges to the left. — 118 M. Longueau, where passengers to or from Amiens change carriages, as the through-trains between Arras and Paris do not run into Amiens station (see p. 74).

12072 M. Amiens, see p. 25.

c. Via Anvin, St. Pol, Frevent, and Doullens. 113 M. Railway in 11 hrs. (fares about 19 fr. 90, 14 fr. 55, 10 fr. 25 c). There are no through-trains or through-tickets on this route, as the narrow- gauge line from Calais to (59 M.) Anvin does not belong to the Compagnie du Nord.

The trains start at Calais-Saint-Pierre, see p. 5. — '/2 M. Calais- Fontinettes. At (2 M.) Coulogne the line to Paris via Boulogne diverges to the right, and the line to Arras to the left. 3 M. L'Ecluse- Carree; 4'^ M. Banc-Valois.

5'/2 M. Guines (Ville de Calais), a town with 4270 inhab., formerly the capital of the Comtes de Guines and at one time fort- ified, is connected with Calais by a canal and by a tramway (p. 4). To the S. extends a large forest. Guines was taken by the English in 1352 and held by them for 200 years.

7Y2M. Andres. — S^M. Balinghem was the scene in 1520 of the famous meeting of the Field of the Cloth of Cold between Henry VIII., who had taken up his abode at Guines, and Francis I. of France, who lodged at Ardres. The interview was so named from the lavish magni- ficence with which the two kings entertained each other.

The princely lodging at Guines, says Lord Herbert of Cherhury, was 'a square of timber, whereof every side contained three hundred twenty- eight foot, with a Savage before it, carrying how and arrows, and the words Cui adhaereo praeest. The parts of which great building, having been artificially framed in England, were now put together and afterwards taken asunder, and brought home. This again was most sumptuously furnished; especially the chapel; from which a private gallery reached to

o Amiens. ST. POL. 1 . Route. 23

the strong castle of Guinea. The house for Francis (near Ardres) was a building rather great than, costly, as being erected with such materials as could he gotten in haste; his first intention heing to lodge in a rich pavilion of cloth of gold, until the wind threw it down.'

IOV2 M. Ardres (Paillardieu), a small town, formerly fortified, lies about 3 M. from the railway between Calais and Arras (p. 15). — Beyond Ardres the train passes several unimportant stations, .and at (31 M.) Lumbres it crosses the line from Boulogne to St. Omer (p. 10) and enters the valley of the Aa. — Bl1^ M. Merck-St- Lievin has a fine church of the 13-17th centuries. Beyond (40 M.) Fauquembergue, a small town with a fine church of the 12th, 13th, and 15th cent., we quit the valley of the Aa. — 44^ M. Rimeux=- Oournay is the junction of the Montreuil-Berck line (p. 11).

49 V2 M. Fruges (Trois Pigeons, etc.), an ancient place with 3100 inhabitants. To Berck and Montreuil, see p. 11.

About 3'/2 M. to the S. of Fruges, and as far to the N.W. of the sta- tion of Blangy-sur-Ternoise (p. 11), lies Agincourt or Azincourt, famous for the victory won by Henry V. over the French, on Oct. 25th, 1415. The English troops numbered about 9000; the French not less than 50,000. The following description of the battle is taken from Mr. J. R. Green's 'History of the English People'. When Henry V.'s 'weary and half-starved force succeeded in crossing the Somme, it found sixty thousand Frenchmen encamped on the field of Agincourt right across its line of march. Their position, flanked on either side by woods, but with a front so narrow that the dense masses were drawn up thirty men deep, though strong for purposes of defence, was ill-suited for attack ; and the French leaders, warned by the experience of Cre"cy and Poitiers, resolved to await the English advance. Henry on the other hand had no choice between attack and unconditional surrender. . . The English archers . . . with a great shout sprang forward to the attack. The sight of their advance aroused the fiery pride of the French; the wise resolve of their leaders was forgotten, and the dense mass of men-at-arms plunged heavily forward through miry ground on the English front. But at the first sign of movement Henry had halted his line, and fixing in the ground the sharpened stakes with which each man was furnished his archers poured their fatal arrow- flights into the hostile ranks. The carnage was terrible, for though the desperate charges of the French knighthood at last drove the English archers to the neighbouring woods, from the skirt of these woods they were still able to pour their shot into the enemy's flanks, while Henry with the men-at-arms around him flung himself on the French line. . . . The enemy was at last broken, and the defeat of the main body of the French was followed by the rout of their reserve. The triumph was more complete, as the odds were even greater than at Cre'cy. Eleven thousand Frenchmen lay dead on the field, and more than a hundred princes and great lords were among the fallen'.

Beyond three small stations we reach (59'/_> M.) Anvin, the junction of the line to Boulogne (p. 11), where the narrow-gauge line ends. 62 V2 M- Wavrans.

65i/2 M. St."Pol (Hotel d'Angleterre), a town with 3800 inhab., situated on the Ternoise, suffered severely in the wars of the 16th cent, and did not finally pass to France until the treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659.

Lines to Arras -and Boulogne, seep. 11; tu Bully -Grenay and Lens, seep. 18.

70 M. Petit-Houvin. The railway now quits the valley of the Ternoise for that of the Canche. — 74'/2 M- Prevent (* Hotel d'Ami-

24 Route I. CLERMONT-DE-L'OISE. From Amiens

ens), with 4330 inhab., is the junction of lines to Abbeville (p. 12) and to Lens (p. 18). The church of St. Vaast (partly 15th cent.) has good modern stained-glass windows. — Beyond (81 M.) Bouque- maison the line descends towards the valley of the Authie.

86 M. Doullens (Hdtel des Quatre-Fils-Aymon), an industrial town with 4575 inhab., on the Authie, is the centre of a consider- able trade in phosphates. The Citadel is now used as a prison for women. — Branch-line to Albert, see p. 22; to Arras, p. 11.

On quitting Doullens, the railway crosses the Authie, and beyond (89 M.) Gezaincourt it begins to ascend as it leaves the valley of that river. "We then descend through the undulating and wooded valley of the Fieffe to (96 M.) Canaples (branch to Longpre, see p. 15). 100 M. Vignacourt, an industrial village, with a handsome modern Gothic church. — 103 M. Flesselles.

At Naours, 3]/a M. to the N., a subterranean refuge was discovered in 1888, forming practically a village, with streets V? M. in aggregate length, flanked with chambers of various kinds.

110 M. Longpre-l'es- Amiens. The Somme is crossed, and the

Gare de St. Rock passed. — 113 M. Amiens, see p. 25.

II. From Amiens to Paris.

a. Via Creil.

8172 M. Railway in IV4-31/3 hrs. (fares 14 fr. 75, 9 fr. 90, 6 fr. 45 c). The trains start from the Gare du Nord (PI. G, 4).

At (2!/2 M.) Longueau (Buffet) the lines to Arras, Lille, etc. diverge to the left (p. 22). — 5!/2 M. Boves, with a ruined castle on a hill to the right. (Railway to Compiegne, see p. 103.) — The line follows the valley of the Noye, passing several peat-bogs. 12 M. Ailly-sur-Noye, with a church partly of the 13th cent., containing a fine monument of the 15th century. — 16 M. La Faloise. About l3/4 M. to the S.E. (carr. 2 fr.) are the church of Folleville (15th cent.), containing the tomb of Raoul de Lannoy (d. 1508), mainly by An- tonio della Porta , and other interesting sculptures , and a ruined castle of the same period, the watch-tower of which is still stand- ing. The line here traverses a chalky district , belonging to the calcareous system which begins in the Cote-d'Or, forms the Cham- pagne district, passes into Picardy, and re-appears in the cliffs of the S. coast of England. — 22'^ M. Breteuil-Gare is connected by a branch-line, 4^2 M. long, with the small town of Breteuil (3000 in- hab.). — 27 M. Gannes. The railway now quits the basin of the Somme and enters that of the Seine. — 32 M. St. Just or St. Just- en-Chaussee (Cheval Blanc), with 2380 inhab., is named from its position at the intersection of two Roman roads.

A branch-line runs hence to (11 M.) La-Rue-St-Pierre, where it joins the line from Clermont to Beanvais (see p. 25). Local lines also run to (14 M.) Estries-St-Denis (p. 103) and (12>/2 M.) Froissy. — Railway to Cam- brai, etc., see R. 6.

40 M. Clermont-de-1'Oise {Hotel St. Andre, well spoken of),

to Paris. LIANCOURT. 1. Route. 25

a town with 5731 inhab., is beautifully situated on a hill-slope, commanded by an ancient donjon, or keep, now used as a prison for women. The Church of St. Samson dates from the 14-16th cent, and has recently been well restored. The Hotel de Ville, built in 1320 by Charles IV le Bel, and restored in 1887, is said to be the oldest town-hall in the N. of France.

A branch-railway runs from Clermont to (36 M.) Beauvais, traversing the Forest of Hez, and passing (23'/2 M.) La-Rue-Si- Pierre (see p. 24), Bresks, and (31 M.) Rochy-Condi (p. 33). — 36 M. Beauvais, see p. 33.

Another branch runs to (23 M.) Compiigne (p. 102), via (I31/2 M.) Estries- Sl-Denis (p. 103).

45 M. Liancourt-sous-Clermont (Hot. du Chemin-de-Fer-du- Nord), an industrial town with 4169 inhab., contains the ruined chateau (17th cent.) of the dukes of Larochefoucauld-Liancourt and a Statue of Duke Frederic Alexandre (1747-1827), member of the Constituent Assembly in 1789, distinguished for his philanthropy and for his encouragement of agriculture. In the church are two interesting monuments.

49 M. Creil. Thence to Paris, see p. 101.

b. Via Beauvais.

92 M. Railway in 4i/2-43/4 hrs. (fares 16 fr. 70, 11 fr. 30, 7 fr. 30 c).

On leaving the terminus at Amiens, the train skirts the boulevards to the S. of the town, passing through two short tunnels and crossing a viaduct. 13/4M. St. Boch, a suburban station of Amiens (see below). Beyond (5^2 M.) Saleux we join the line from Rouen (see p. 31). — Several small stations, including (M1^ M.) Conty , a village with a fine church, dating in part from the 15th cent, and containing sculptures of the 15th and 16th cent. — 25 M. Crevecoeur, with meri- no-manufactures. The railway descends as it passes from the basin of the Somme into that of the Seine. — 30 M. Oudeuil. — 32' /2 M. St. Omer-en-Chaussee. Line to Le Treport, see p. 36. — 37 M. Mont- mille, with a curious church over a crypt, of the 9th and 12th cent.; 41 M. St. Just-les-Marais. The line now descends the right bank of the Therain, which it crosses, leaving the lines to Gournay and Gisors (p. 35) on the right.

43 M. Beauvais, and thence to Paris, see pp. 33, 32.

2. Amiens.

Railway Stations. Gare du Nord or de Noyon (PI. G, 4 ; Buffet), the chief station and general terminus for all trains. Gare St. Roch (PI C, 4), to the E., where the lines to Rouen and Beauvais diverge (see p. 15 and above).

Hotels. Hotel de l'Univeks (PI. a; G, 4), Hotel du Rhin (PL b; G, 4), both Rue de Noyon and Place St. Denis, first class, R. 3-7, L. i/z, A. 3/4-l, B. I1/2, dej. 3, D. 4, omn. '/z-i fr. ; de France et d'Angletekre (PI. c ; E, F, 4), Rue de la Republique 9, nearer the centre of the town, R. 2i/2-5. L. & A. 2. B. 11/2, D. 4 fr.; Ecu de France (PI. f; G, 4), Rue de. Noyon, mediocre, R., L., & A. 21/2-31/2, B. I-I1/4, de'j. 3, D. 31/2 fr. (with 1/2 bot. of wine 1/2 fr. extra); de Pakis (PI. d ; G, 4), Rue de Noyon, to the

26 Route 2. AMIENS. History.

left of the Gare du Nord, new, Vfafr. per day, incl. wine; Boissy (PI. g; E, 3), Rue Ste. Marguerite ; du Commerce (PI. e; F, 4), Rue des Jacobins ; de la Paix (PI. h; E, 4), Rue Dumeril 17; de Rouen (PI. i; B, 4), Rue Dumeril 42; Ckoix Blanche, Rue de Beauvais 44 (PI. E, 4).

Cafes. Dufourmantelle, Rue des Trois-Cailloux 84, and others in the same street.

Gabs. For 1-2 pers., per drive 75 c., per hr. l'/2 fr. ; 3-4 pers., 1 fr. and 2 fr., each >/4 hr. extra 50 c.

Post & Telegraph Office (PI. E, 3), Place de rH6tel-de-Ville. Tele- graph Office also at the Gare du Nord.

Theatre, Rue dea Trois-Cailloux 69 (PI. F, 4). — Circus, Place Longue- ville (PI. E, F, 5).

Baths. Bains du Logis-du-Roi, in the passage of that name between Nos. 59 and 61 Rue des Trois-Cailloux.

English Church Service once a month, on the first Thurs., in the French Protestant Church, Rue de Metz. French services on Sun. at 11 and 3.

P&tis de Canards, a specialty of Amiens, may he obtained good at Degand^s, Rue de Noyon 20.

Amiens, the ancient capital of Picardy, now that of the Depar- lement de la Somme, and one of the principal manufacturing towns in France, with 88,730 inhab. , is situated on the Somme and its affluents the Arve and the Selle. These streams form numerous canals in the lower part of the town. The principal manufactures are linen, woollen stuffs, silk thread, cashmeres, and velvet. The central part of the town is surrounded by handsome boulevards on the site of the former fortifications, of which the citadel (p. 31) is the only relic.

Amiens is the ancient Samarobriva, chief town of the Ambiani, cap- tured by Csesar. Christianity was introduced in 301 by St. Firmin, the first bishop and martyr, who must not be confounded with St. Firmin the Confessor, a later bishop. The town suffered severely from the in- cursions of the Normans. Ceded in 1435 to the Duke of Burgundy, it was bought back in 1463 by Louis XI.; and in 1597 it was surprized by the Spaniards but was retaken by Henri IV. In 1802 the Peace of Amiens was concluded here between France, Great Britain, Spain, and Holland. In Nov. 1870 it was entered by the Germans after the Battle of Amiens, which consisted of a number of detached engagements at Villers-Breton- neux, to the E., Dury, to the S., and other points in the vicinity (p. 97).

On quitting the station, we cross the Boulevards, which mark the limits of the old town. Immediately opposite is the Rue de Noy- on, which we follow to the Place St. Denis (PI. F, G, 4), embellish- ed with a bronze statue of Ducange, the eminent linguist (born at Amiens in 1610; d. 1688), by Caudron. Farther on is the Rue des Trois-Cailloux (p. 28), the chief street of Amiens.

The Rue Victor-Hugo leads from the Place St. Denis to the right, passing the modern Palais de Justice (PI. F, 3, 4), to the —

  • Cathedral (PI. F, 3), one of the most imposing Gothic churches

in Europe, erected in 1220-88 by the architects Robert de Lu- zarches , Thomas de Cormont, and his son Renault. Length 470 ft., length of transept 213 ft., width of nave 144 ft. The heaviness of the building is insufficiently relieved by the lofty and extremely slender spire over the transept, 360 ft. in height, or 145 ft. above the roof, re-erected in 1529. The two uncompleted towers of the W. facade belong respectively to the 13th and 15th cent., the former

Cathedral. AMIENS. 2- -Route. 27

being 181 ft., the latter 210 ft. in height, but like the central spire they are too mall for the edifice. The principal W. Portal, one of the finest parts of the building, Was completed towards the end of

^Thf'Fl^ontains three lofty recessed porches, richly ^adorned wtthTSli 2id*.tata«. In the tympanum above the do - of the central

^avIoT^ldinJ the'GospdS in his left hand and bestow ng , > blessing

— The right porch is ornamented in a similar way, a"uvc br 1 th

En^mlmlnt Ld the Assumption of : the ,V»g» ,, beneatl > a flg»e o the


The medallions below represent scenes from the ■. lfe f%.therd;1 rgJ° -the

rJ. ..<•>• .BuiiTi — The portals are surmounted by beautitul gaDies , on S"aS? a iS«»l«™« ro-.-irtndow 38 ft. In ol.mel.r, »n« (■> »« lop) .

"'"S.I'iSi'SttTSo tun. wi» '»™«s.'S,hebSh.v,°" VhD,

At the entrance to the choir are large marble statues of St. Vincent ae

PaUThaf^/,Cwf^fte0S."ranseVtr presenting scene, from the life

of sIjanTlfthe Great, date from the beginning of the 6th century Above

' 8maii modern marble bas-reliefs , with the names of members ot tfie

SiiWrto deHotreDame duPuy, a society founded for the encouragement

°f "KSiUr1^ in the *. transept, of the same period repre sent the pxnulsion of the money-changers and other events in the history ot he S Jerusalem. Adjacent is a stone trough, the former font which apper^l^Cm the ilth century. The tombs of Bishop Sabatxer (i8th cent.) and Cardinal He'mard de Denonville (loth < c"t.) .uc also in thiS(transept choir-screen is adorned with coloured and gUded

•HiahBeltof* representing, on the U. side, the history of John the Baptist of the S side the lives of St. Firmin and St. Salvius, sculptured in 1489

"^BdSid the high-altar is the tomb of Co»o» tam. (I8tt cent^wtth fte 'Enfant Pleureur\s. much-admired, but overrated marble angel by Blasset.

28 Route 2. AMIENS. Musee de Picardie.

The church contains several other interesting monuments, including a very antique figure of Christ (known as 'St. Sauve'), in a gilt robe, in the 3rd chapel on the N. of the nave. — No one should omit to inspect the beautifully carved "Choir Stalls, 110 in number, executed in 1508-22 by Jean Trupin and three assistants. There are no fewer than 3650 figures, the finest being those on the hand-rails of the steps. The subjects are chiefly Scriptural, but various worldly occupations are also represented. The pyramidal ornaments above the stalls are 40 ft. high.

At the back of the church rises a mediocre statue in bronze of Peter the Hermit (PI. F, 3), or Pierre of Amiens, the promoter of the first crusade.

The Rue Robert-de-Luzarches, beginning opposite the S. portal of the Cathedral and passing the Palais de Justice (p. 26), leads back to the Rue des Troix-Cailloux, the busiest street in the town, with the best shops, the Theatre (PL F, 4 ; 1773-79), and the hand- some Passage de la Renaissance. At the E. end of the Rue des Trois- Oailloux is the Place Gambetta, in which is a Clock Tower, in gilded and enamelleld iron, by Em. Ricquier, with the bronze figure of a girl at the base by Alb. Roze (1897).

Turning here to the left, we follow the Rue de la Re'publique, •which leads to the boulevards. On the right, in this street, is the Church of St. Remi (PL E, 4), which has been under restoration since 1890. The choir and transepts are in the Gothic style of the 13th century. Farther on, also on the right, is the —

  • Musee de Ficardie (PL E, 4), a handsome building erected in

1854-64, with a small garden in front. The museum contains collections of antiquities, sculptures, and paintings; labels are attached to the principal objects. Admission free on Sun., Tues., and Thurs., 12-5 (4 in winter) ; strangers may also obtain admission on other days, 10-4.

Ground - Floor. — Room I, to the right of the entrance, a kind of Chapel, painted and gilded in the Romanesque style, contains sculptures of the middle ages and the Renaissance, and has some good stained glass of the 15th and 16th centuries.

Room II (Galerie Lapidaire) contains Roman and other antiquities; sculptures; bas-reliefs ; wood-carvings; glass-case with small objects of art; porcelain; furniture; tapestry; monks' heads carved in wood (Nos. 90,89, 87), etc. — Rooms III and IV: Roman and Gallo-Roman antiquities, includ- ing a statue of Diana. — Room V: Sculptures: 17. Crauk, Satyr; 10. Cau- dron, Archimedes. — Room VI: Merovingian and foreign antiquities. — Room VII : Greek and Egyptian antiquities.

Room VIII ( Sculpture Gallery). In the middle, to the right: 13. Chre- tien, Follower of Bacchus (bronze); no number, Desprez, Girl and the snail ; 45. Loison, The Soul ; 40. Lescornt, Clytie ; no number, Guillaume, Bona- parte; Dampt, End of a dream; 27. Dumonl, Seated genius; no number, Chabrte, A child's reverie; Roulleau, Leda; 102. Mathet, Hesitation. Opposite, as we return: 41. Liveque, Amazon; 44. Loison, Daphnis and Kai's. On the entrance-wall: 8. Caudron, Louis XIV. entering Aries (bas-relief in bronzel. In the second row and opposite the windows: 14. GUsinger, Leda; 9, 8. Caudron, Arena at Aries, Louis XIV. entering Aries (reliefs in plaster); 20. Deiabriere, Panther and heron (bronze) ; no number, Eingel, March of Rakoczy (terracotta); M. C. du Passage, Dogs (terracotta); 49. Renoir, Eve; no number, Lange Guglielmo, Giotto. — At the foot of the staircase in the vestibule : 18. Cugnot, Corybante suppressing the cries of the infant Ju- piter (bronze); 37. Le Pere, Faun hunting (bronze).

Musee de Picardie. AMIENS. 2. Route. 29

Central Saloon. Paintings. From right to left: "70. IUrean, Rising storm; 130. Schnetz, Miracle; no number, *Maignan, Dante meeting Matilda; St. Pierre, Penserosa ; 24. Boucher, Crocodile-hunt; 7. Bachelier, Bear-hunt; a3. he Poittevin, Shipwrecked ; no number , Demont Breton, Mill ; 83. Lai- resse. Duchess of Cleves ; 64. Grand, St. Louis freeing the prisoners at Da- mietta; 43. David, Countess Dillon; no number, "Salmson, Arrest in H- cardy ; 61. GirQme, The Augustan age; 6. Bachelier, Lion and dogs; 32. Cana- Utto(1), Venice; 147. C. Van Loo, Bear-hunt; no number, "Murillo, Drinker; no number, Ziegler, Peace of Amiens ; 155. H. Vernel, Massacre of the Mame- lukes at Cairo in 1811; 96. Em. Livy, Free supper of the martyrs; 218. Fragonard, Picnic. — 148. Van Loo, Ostrich-hunt; no number, Maignan, Voices of the tocsin; "J. Lcfebvre (of Amiens), Lady Godiva; Dawant, Rescue from a wreck; 138. Tenters the Elder, Village doctor; 103. Van Moer, Studio; 23. Boucher, Leopard-hunt. — No number, Lhermitte, Death and the wood-cutter ; 235. Benner, Sleeping girl ; 80. Jouvenet, Miraculous draught of fishes.

First Floor. — The staircase is adorned with allegorical mural paintings by Puvis de Chavannes ('Ludus pro Patria'; 'Toil and Rest'). — The Salle du Dome is adorned with a ceiling-painting (France crowning distinguished natives of Picardy) , and various paintings in monochrome, by Eel. Barrias. Puvis de Chavannes, Chauvin, and Qastine have embellished the adjoining rooms with allegorical paintings.

Room I (on the right side). To the left : 193, 194. Flemish School (1518, 1519), Copies of two curious paintings , now preserved in the bishop's palace; the frames of the copies are the original frames of the 16th century. 207-209. Triptych (15th cent.) : Bearing of the Cross, Crucifixion, and Descent from the Cross ; Sixteen small paintings of the French School, in the style of Lesueur, representing the history of St. Norbert, and eight others in honour of Notre Dame du Puy (see p. 27). Sevres vase; old tapestry.

Room II. Works of the French school of the 18th century. — Room III : 124. Binet, Landscape; no number, Qneldry, Maceration of metals; 154. C. Vernet, Greek horseman combatting a lion; 35. Chintreuil, The moon; no number, Guillement, St. Suliac. — 72. Hesse, Mirabeau announcing the refusal of the States General to obey the King's order for a dissolution (June 25th, 1789); 231. H. Scheffer, Vision of Charles IX.; several good landscapes; Sinibaldi, Manon Lescaut; 110. Mailer, Macbeth; 27. Breton, The spring; 107. Monvoisin, Joan the Mad, queen of Castile; no number, "Cabanel, Death of Francesca da Rimini ; Renoue, End of the day ; 68. Guiaud, Ant- werp cathedral ; no number, Tattegrain, The Mourners of Etaples ; Glaize, Athenian fugitives. — De Winter, During the 'Keuvaine' (a devotional act lasting nine days); Ferrier, Mothers cursing war; Boutet de Monvel, Return from market. The adjoining Cabinet contains engravings.

Room IV: 125. Restout, Last Supper; etc. — Room V: Chigot, Fisher- men hauling up their boat. — Room VI: 105. Monchablon, Burial of Moses. This room also contains a collection of medals. — Room VII : 236. Bonne- grdce, Bashfulness vanquished by love; no numbers, Dubu/e, Sacred and Profane Music; Tattegrain, Fisherman; Pibrac, Easter eve; 9. Bellangi, Return from Elba; 76. Jacquand, Condemnation of Galileo. — Room VIII: No number, Lafosse, Jacob and Laban ; 146. /. de Boullongne, The pas- sions. — 163. Van met. Portrait; 201. Bolognese School, Gregory XIII. (d. 1555) ; 143. Titian, Vitellius ; no number, Lafosse, Nativity ; 162. Van Vliet, Portrait of a burgomaster (companion to No. 163); 71. Berrera the Elder, Miracle of the loaves. — 14. Bloemaerl, St. Monica; no numbers, Bril, Landscape; De Heem, Fruit; Fr. Rubens, Battle; Biliverdi(1), Judith; below, Sienese School (15th cent.), Three small triptychs ; "161. Vivarino, Holy Fam- ily; 119 (above), Porbus (?), The five senses; 3. Albano (?), Rest on the Flight into Egypt. — 78. Jordaens, Christ appearing to Mary Magdalen; 165. Zurbaran (?), St. Catharine of Siena; 50. C. Dolci (?), St. Cecilia. — Room IX: No number, Vollon, Monkey. — "67. Gut, Last sigh of Christ; no number, Gambert, Pilgrimage to the shrine of St. Valery; 131. Schnetz, Sack of Aquileia by Attila; several good landscapes; no numbers, G. Roussel. The body of Gen. Marceau given to the French army; 109. Mo- sin, Shipwreck. — No number, Foucaucourt, Banks of the Somme; 59. Claude Lorrain(t), Flight into Egypt; 142 Thuilier, ViaTiburtina; no number,

30 Route 2. AMIENS.

Oniric, Empress Eugenie visiting the cholera patients at Amiens in 1866 ; 28. Cabat, Good Samaritan; 31. Caminade, Death of the Virgin; 22. Bou- cher (1), Venus demanding arms for ^Eneas from Vulcan; 10. Bellangi, Waterloo; 115. Parrocel, Cavalry skirmish; 79. Goyant, Rialto Bridge, Ve- nice; no numher, Goyet, Council of war; 36. Cibot, Charity presiding over a union of the different bodies of state; no numher, G. Brion, The christen- ing-day. — Room X : No numher, Rob. Lefevre, Louis XVIII. ; 234. BaHl- lot, Ponds; to the right, 126. Rigaud, Puget the sculptor; 217. Dubois- Dra- honnet, Duchess of Berry; 120. Porion, Marie-Amelie, consort of Louis Phil- ippe; no number, L. M. Van Loo, Louis XV.

Room XI, parallel to R. 10, contains the "Galerie Lavalard, a collection of works (mostly small) by the old masters, including several interesting examples. From left to right, as we enter from R. IX: Landscapes and genre-scenes of the Dutch school ; 242. Ribera, A mass (?) ; above, 94, 95. Fr. Hals, Portraits. — 46, 45 (farther on), S. van Ruysdael, Landscapes; 6. A. Cuyp, Shepherds; 71. Van Arthois, Landscape; 245. Ribera, St. Francis of Assisi; 3. Brekelenkamp, Cobbler; 99. Jordaens, Game and vegetable dealer; 229. S. Rosa, Landscape ; Ribera, 246. Musician, 243. St. John the Baptist ; 38, 39 (farther on), S. van Ruysdael, Landscapes ; 12-14. Van Goyen, Sea-pieces ; 108. Snyders, Game and fruit, etc.; 10. Flinch, Portrait; 244. Ribera, Por- trait; 91, 92. Fyt, Game; 20. Ealf, Still-life; 230. S.Rosa, Landscape; 56. Victor, Interior ; 9. Everdingen, Landscape ; 247. Velazquez, Portrait ; 164. Largilliere, Portrait; 271. Lingelbach, Brigands on the watch. — 131. Boucher, Women bathing. — 110 (farther on), Snyders, Game and fruit. — The glass-cases contain medals, assignats, and various souvenirs. — At the end of the gallery next the staircase is another Cabinet with engravings.

Opposite the Museum is the Prefecture (18th cent.). A little farther on, on the right, is the Bibliotheque Communale (PI. E, 4), containing 80,000 vols, and 572 MSS. (adm daily, except Sun., 11-4; in winter also 6-10 p.m.; closed in September). The portico in front is adorned with busts of illustrious natives of the town.

The Rue de la Re'publique ends at the Place Longueville (PI. E, 5; circus, see p. 26), on the spacious Boulevards , which bound the old town. The Boulevard du Mail (PI. F, 4) leads to the left from the Rue de la Re'publique towards the Gare du Nord.

In a street running parallel with it on the N. is a monument, known as the Illustrations Picardes (PI. F, 4), by De Forceville, consisting of a figure of Picardy, surrounded with statues and busts of eminent natives of that province.

In the opposite direction the boulevards lead to the extensive Promenade de la Hotoie (PI. A, B, C, 2, 3), at the W. end of the town, where public concerts and festivals take place.

From the Promenade the Rue de la Hotoie (tramway) leads directly towards the centre of the town, ending at the Place St. Fir- min. To the right of this square is the modern church of St. Jacques (PI. D, 3), and to the left, at the foot of the Rue de Conde, is the Hotel Morgan, an interesting private mansion of the end of the 15th century. Farther on is the Jardin des Plantes (p. 31). — The Rue au Lin, leading straight on from the Place St. Firmin, brings us to the Beffroi (PI. E, 3), an eccentric edifice of 1748 (restored in 1865), with a bell weighing 11 tons. The church of St. Germain (PI. E, 3), lying somewhat to the left, dates from the 15th cent., and has a fine tower, a handsome carved portal of the 16th cent., and an an- cient St. Sepulchre.

POIX. 2. Route. 31

The belfry rises immediately behind the Hotel de Ville (PI. E, 3), lately enlarged and almost entirely rebuilt. The peace of Amiens (see p. 26) was signed here.

The fix statues on the facade represent eminent men connected with the town: in the middle, Gaudefroy or Geoffrey, Bishop of Amiens, and Louis the Fat, who granted the town a charter in 1113; to the right, Blairies and Lemattre, killed in the defence of Amiens against the Spani- ards in 1597; on the left, Chabaut and Leroux, distinguished magistrates of 152T and 1650.

The Rue Delarnbre leads hence to the E. to the Place Gambetta (p. 28). In the Rue Vergeaux (Nos. 61-63 ; Maison du Sugittaire) and the Rue des Sergents (No 57), both running to the N. from the Place Gambetta, are a couple of interesting old houses. The streets farther to the N. lead through the 'Basse Ville' in the direction of the citadel. To the right rises the elegant Gothic tower of the church of St. Leu (PI. F, 2), a structure of the 15th century.

Farther on, to the left, is the Sdtel Dieu (16-18th cent.). — The Citadel (PL E, 1), dating mainly from the reign of Henri IV (1598), is useless under the conditions of modern warfare; and in Nov. 1870 it was com- pelled to surrender in a few days (comp. p. 26).

To the W., before the citadel is reached, lies the Jardin des Plantes (PI. E, 2), with a natural history collection.

Beyond the Port d'Amont, reached via the 'Basse Ville', is the Romanesque-Byzantine Church of the Sacred Heart (PI. H, 3), com- pleted in 1895, by Douillet.

From Amiens to Rouen (and Le Havre), 73 M., railway in 2-4 hrs. (fares 13 fr. 20, 8 fr. 85, 5 fr. 75 c). — The train follows the line to Beauvais as far as (5 M.) Saleux (p. 25). Beyond a tunnel, 500 yds. long, lies (16 M.) Famechon. — 19 M. Poix (Hotel du Cardinal), a prettily situated little town, has a Gothic church of the 15-16th cent., with a richly sculptured interior. The train now crosses a curved .viaduct, 300 yds. long and 100 ft. high (fine view). — 31'/2 M. Abancourt (Buffet) is the junction for Le Treport (see p. 36). — 35'/2 M. Formerie. The line now descends the valley of Bray (p. 46). 40 M. Gaillefontaine (Hotels) has a ruined castle and an interesting church (13th cent.). — 44!/2 M. Serqueux (Buffet) is the junction for the line from Paris to Pontoise and Dieppe (p. 46). 50 M. Summery, Tunnel, 1600 yds. long. 56 M. Montirolier- Buchy , from which there is a branch to Cleres, Motteville, and Le Havre (p. 65). We now begin to descend rapidly towards Rouen. 68 M. Darnetal (Croix Blanche; Lecomte), an industrial place with 6750 inhab., prettily situated in a little valley. Near the Hotel de Ville is the Tour de Carville, a hand- some belfry of 1512-14. Fine view of Rouen to the right. — 73 M. Rouen, (Gare du Nord), see p. 48.

Fkoji Amiens (St. Roch) to Beadcamf-le-Vieux, 30 M., narrow-gauge line, traversing a wool-manufacturing district. It is to be continued to Vieux Rouen on the Treport line (p. 36).

From Amiens to Arras, Douai, Valenciennes, etc., see R. 9; to Doullens, St. Pol, etc., see pp. 24, 23; to Rheims via Tergnier, see R. 13.

3. From Paris to Beauvais and Le Treport (Mers).

I. From Paris to Beauvais. a. Via Hontsoult and Beaumont. 49 M. Railway in 13/i-272 hrs. (fares 8fr. 85, 5 fr. 95, 3 fr. 90 c). Trains start from the Gare du Nord (PI. B, C, 23, 24). See also the Map, p. 100. — To Le Trlport by this route, 114 M., in 3-61/2 hrs. (fares 20 fr. 60, 13 fr. 95 c, 9 fr.). — Omnibuses plv from the station at Le Treport to Mers (30 c).

32 Route 3. BEAUMONT. From Paris

From Paris to (4i/i M.) St. Denis, see p. 101 ; and for details as far as Beaumont, see Baedeker's Handbook to Paris. — We pass the Fort de la Bridie. Beyond (6 M.) Epinay we cross the Ligne de Grande Ceinture. Montmorency and its forest appear on the left.

11 M. Ecouen-Kzanville. The chateau of Ecouen, to the right, built in the 16th cent., is now used as a school for daughters of members of the legion of honour. — 13 M. Domont.

i.61/') M. Montsoult, from which a branch-line, 7 M. long, runs to Luzarches. The line now descends a picturesque valley and inter- sects a portion of the Forest of Carnelle. To the right is seen the magnificent modern Chateau of Franconville. — The train crosses the Oise and joins the line from Paris via Pontoise (p. 48).

23 M. Persan-Beaumont. Persan is an industrial village to the left. Beaumont [Hotel des Quatre-Fils-Aymon, facing the bridge), a small town with 3450 inhab., is picturesquely situated, ^2 M. from the railway, on a height on the left bank of the Oise. The *Church, reached by a lofty flight of steps, is an interesting building of the 13th century. On the other side of the town is part of the old wall of the Chateau, with round towers at the corners.

From Beaumont to Creil, 13 M., railway in 35-40 min. (fares 2 fr. 65 c, 2 fr., 1 fr. 45 c). The train ascends the valley of the Oise. — 8V2 M. St. Leu-d'Esserent, the conspicuous church of which is chiefly of the 12th cent. ; the largest of its three towers is Romanesque. — 13 M. Creil, see p. 101.

A narrow-gauge line, of no interest for the tourist, also runs fromBeau- mont to (20 M.) Hermes (p. 33).

251/2 M. Chambly, with an abbey-church (13th cent. ; to the right). Several small stations. 33 M. Meru (Hot. Angonin), a prettily-situated town with 4560 inhabitants. The whole of this district is engaged in the manufacture of buttons, brushes, and fancy goods of all kinds. — 37y2 M. La Boissi'ere-le-Deluge. The train now passes through a tunnel, nearly 1 M. long, and descends the picturesque valley of the Therain. Beyond (47 M.) Villers-sur-There we cross the The- rain, and the imposing cathedral of Beauvais soon comes into sight on the right. — 49 M. Beauvais, see p. 33.

b. Via Chantilly and Creil.

54>/2M. Railway inl3/4-2Vznrs. (fares as above). — To Le Tre'portby this route, 119 M., in 31/2-73/'i nrs- (fares as above).

From Paris to (32 M.) Creil, see R. 15 a. On leaving Creil the train, returns for a short distance in the direction of Paris, then enters the valley of the Therain to the right, and crosses the river several times. - — 33'/2M. Montataire (p. 101); 35 M. Cramoisy, in the neighbourhood of which are extensive quarries of building-stone. — 37V2M. Cires-lis-Mello. The chateau of Mello, on a hill to the right, dates from the 18th century. — 39 M. Balagny-Saint-Epin.

41 M. Mouy-Bury. Mouy (Hot. du Commerce), to the left, is a cloth-making town with 3300 inhab. ; Bury, to the right, has a priory-church of the ll-13th centuries. — 44 M. HeiUes-Mouchy.

to Beauvais. BEAUVAIS. 3. Route. 33

The fine chateau of Mouchy, i'/oM. to the left, dates from the period of the Renaissance. It contains some fine portraits and other painting?, sculptures by Pajou, Houdon, Carpeaux, etc., and a valuable library.

— 46 M. Hermes (railway to Beaumont, see p. 32). — 47 M. Villers- St-Sepulcre, so called from a St. Sepulchre in the church, enclosing a slab from the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem. Ruined priory of the 11th century. — 50 M. Rcchy-Conde. Branch to Clermont (Soissons, Compiegne) and St. Just, see pp. 25, 24. On tbe hillside to the left is the Chateau of Merlemont, partly of the 16th century. — The church of (52 M.) Therdonne has a fine Gothic choir. The railway now joins the preceding route.

54V2 M. Beauvais (Buffet). — Hotels. De France & d'Angleterbf, Rue de la Manufacture, near the station, R., L., & A. 2'/2, B. 1, dej. 3, D. 3>/2, omn. V2 fr-; Continental, Place de l'Hotel-de-Ville 37, new, R. 2-27z, dej. 3, D. 3>/2 fr.-, Ecu, Rue de l'Ecu 26, de la Gake, pens. 6V2 fr., both unpretending. — Cafes. Du Chalet, Potard, Place de rH6tel-de-Ville.

— Gabs. 1-2 pers. per drive 80 c, per hr. l'/s fr- ; 3 pers., 1 fr. 10 c , 2 fr. ; 4 per?., 1 fr. 40 c, 2'/2 fr.

Beauvais, an ancient manufacturing town on the Therain, with 19,900 inhab., is the capital of the Departement de VOise and the seat of a bishop. Carpets, woollen cloths, military cloth, gold and silver lace, buttons, and brushes are among the chief manufactures.

Beauvais occupies the site of the ancient capital of the Bellovaci, sub- dued by Casar. Christianity was introduced here about the middle of the 3rd cent, by St. Lucian, who met a martyr's death in the neighbourhood. Fortified in 1190 by Philip Augustus, the town was able to defy the attack of Edward III. in 1346; but about 1420 it was placed in the hands of the English by its bishop, Pierre Cauchon, who afterwards appeared at Rouen as the condemner of Joan of .Arc. In its gallant resistance to Charles the Bold and his army of 80,000 men in 1472 the women of Beauvais especially distinguished themselves by their courage, and one of them, Jeanne Laine or 'Hachette' by name, captured with her own hands a hostile banner, now preserved in the Hotel de Ville. The event is still annually celebrated on the Sun. nearest St. Peter's day (June 2Cth).

In coming from the station, we cross the spacious boulevards, and keep straight on by the Avenue de la Re'publique and the Rue de la Manufacture. A little to the left is the Manufactory of Tap- estry, founded in 1664, i.e. only two years after the state-factory of Gobelins at Paris, of which it is the only branch. Visitors are admitted to the small museum and the workshops (more interest- ing) daily, except holidays, 8-12 and 1.30-5 p.m. ; on Sun., however, the looms are not working.

The Be; uvais establishment chiefly makfs tapestry for furniture, adorned with landscapes, flowers, ornamental designs animals, and pastoral scenes, but no historical or mythological subjects. Beauvais tape stry differs from Gobelins in being woven on low-warp (basse lisse) looms, in which the warp-threads are horizontal, while Gobelins is woven on high-warp (havte lisse) looms, with veitical wavp-threads. An area of 4>/2 sq. inches is the average daily task of a good workman. The visitor who has previously seen only faded old tapestiy will be struck with the beauty and brightness of the colours and the delicacy of the shading, each distinct hue being represented by twenty-f ur different shades. Silk is sometimes used in representing flowers, fruit, and metallic lustre, but the whole of the l-est of the work is in wools, the colours of which are more durable. There

Baedeker's u «»»**>«»■» p...... 3-,i r.J» 3

34 Route 3. BEAUVAIS. From Paris

is, of course, no room for the display of originality, as the works are all copies of pictures or cartoons.

The Church of St. Stephen , farther on , an edifice of the 12th , 13th, and 16th cent., exhibits a curious Wending of Romanesque and Gothic. It has a large "W. tower and a fine rose-window in the N. transept.

Inteeiob. By the second pillar on the right is a Mater Dolorosa under a Gothic canopy; in the right aisle, Crucifixion of a saint (12th cent.); on the pillars near the choir, eight small paintings on panel (16th cent.); in the first chapel on the right, a modern Mater Dolorosa; in the second chapel on the left, an Eccc Homo (15th cent.). Good vaulting and 16th cent, stained glass in the choir and ambulatory.

Turning to the right as we quit the church, we soon reach the Rue St. Jean, which leads, past several old timber houses, to the fine Place de VHotel-de-Ville , embellished with a bronze statue of Jeanne Hachette (see p. 33), by Dubray, erected in 1851. The Hdtel de Ville (18th cent.) has its council- chamber adorned with five paintings from the history of the town, by D. Maillart. To the right, in the court, is the Library (open on Sun., Wed., & Thurs. 12-4, Frid. 7-10 p.m.; closed in Sept.), containing 20,000 vols, and Jeanne Hachette's banner (p. 33; restored in 1^51).

The *Oathedeal (St. Pierre), to the N.W., though consisting merely of a choir and transepts, ranks as one of the finest Gothic buildings in France. Its proportions are gigantic to the verge of temerity. The exterior height, to the ridge, is 225 ft. ; the vaulting, which has twice fallen in because the pillars and buttresses were too weak and too few, rises 152 ft. (some authorities say 157 ft.) above the pavement, while an open-work spire which soared above the crossing to the giddy height of 500 ft., fell in 1573 because it was unstayed on the W., through the absence of a nave.

Begun in 1247, the works went on, with interruptions, until after 1578. The choir was perhaps designed by Eudes de, the architect of St. Louis; the D. portal was erected at the expense of Francis I. by Mar- tin Chambiges, who worked also at Sena and Troyes; the S. portal is due to Michel Lalye. The "jS. Portal (1548), excelling the entire facades of many other cathedrals both in size and magnificence, has unfortunately been stripped of its statues, though it is still richly adorned with carving. It is surmounted by a double open arcade, a large rose-window, and a fine gable, while it is strengthened by two buttresses in the form of turrets. The beautifully carved oaken 'Doors are by Jean le Pot. The N. Portal (1537), though not rivalling the other, is also rich ; its carved doors, also by Jean le Pot, are in better preservation.

Interior. The beauty of the Choir has given rise to the saying that 'the choir of Beauvais, the nave of Amiens, the portal of Bheims, and the towers of Chartres would together make the finest church in the world'. The piers that have been added for the sake of strengthening the building are easily distinguished. The choir is upwards of 104 ft. long, and its windows are 50-55 ft. in height. 'There are few rocks, even among the Alps', says Buskin in his Seven Lumps of Architecture' ', 'that have a clear vertical fall as hig has the choir of Beauvais'. The ambulatory is fringed with Chap- els. The second on the right is adorned with a modern fresco by A. Grel- let, representing Jeanne Hachette capturing the banner; the apsidal chap- els contain paintings in grisaille and modern stained glass in the style of the 13th century. To the left of the choir is the Sacristy, adjoining which are a marble statue of Cardinal Forbin Janson, by N. Coustou (1738),

to he Triport. BEAUVAIS. 3. Route. 35

a Clock of the 16th cent., which plays sacred music, and two Tapestries (16th cent.), probably made at Beauvais, representing the fabulous origin of France, from Ronsard's 'La Franciade'. Another tapestry of this series, one of 1460, and eight other of the 17th cent., after Raphael's cartoons, are displayed in the transepts. In the left choir-chapel is a modern 'Astro- nomical Clock, 39 ft. high, 19 ft. broad, and 9 ft. deep ; it is composed of 90,000 pieces, has 62 dials, and gives 80 distinct indications (apply to the sacristan, ifr.; on Sat. & Sun. 60 c).

To the W. of the cathedral is a portion of the original church, known as the Basse (Euvre, a Romano-Byzantine structure, referred to the 8th or even the 6th century. It contains tapestry of the 15- 17th centuries.

The Gateway, flanked by two towers, resembling pepper-boxes, on the S.W. of the Place de la Oathe'drale, belongs to the Palais de Justice, formerly the bishop's palace. It dates from the 14th cent., the palace Itself from the 16th, though the foundations of the latter are Gallo-Roman work, at one time forming part of the town-walls. The fine restored Romanesque tower at the back is now partly concealed by trees. — The ancient building, with remains of an old Gothic cloister, behind the Basse (Euvre is now occupied by a small Musie (open free on Sun. & holidays, 12-4, to strangers on other days also).

The Musee chiefly contains Gallo-Roman antiquities, with a few paint- ings, natural history specimens, and (in the cloister and garden) some inter- esting architectural fragments and sculptures. In the second room are a Bearded Mercury (stele), a richly carved wooden altar (17th cent.), several heads of statues, wood-carvings, chests, and numerous small antiquities.

A little to the N. of the cathedral is the Bishop's Palace (1878-82), rich in works of art.

Several quaint Old Houses are to be found in the streets near the cathedral; e.g. in the Rue St. Laurent (Nos. 25 and 27), diverg- ing to the W. from the Rue de l'Eveche, and in the Rue Philippe- de-Beaumanoir and Rue St. Paul, on the other side of the church. Farther on, adjoining a savings-bank, is a Gothic house, opposite which is a corner-turret with a leaden figure of St. Michael, of the Gothic period. A few yards farther on we reach the Place Ernest- Gerard and the Theatre, to the left from which lie the Place de l'Hotel- de-Ville and St. Etienne.

A good view of the town is obtained from the Square du Reservoir, a promenade on a hill, 5-7 min. walk from the station, on the other side of the The'rain. — About •/< M. to the N. of the station is a large tree- shaded space known as the Jeu de Paume, where a band plays in summer from 3 to 4 p.m. and tennis-matches take place. The Lycie farther on ad- joins a hill on which once lay a Roman amphitheatre.

The church of the suburb of Mavissel, to theN.E., has a Romanesque tower, a choir of the 12th cent., a nave and portal of the 16th, and a magnificent wooden, altar-piece of the same date.

From Beauvais to Gourhay (Dieppe), 18 M., railway in 50 min. (fares 3 fr. 35, 2 fr. 25, 1 fr. 50 c). This route ascends the YalUe de Bray (p. 46). - 13V2 M. St. Germer. The village (Hotel), H/4 M. to the S.W., has an interesting Abbey Church, in the Transition style, partly rebuilt at a later date. The *Sainle Chapelle, a reduced copy of the magnificent Sainte Chapelle at Paris, was added to the B. end in the 13th century. — 18 M. Qournay, sec p. 46.


36 Route 3. EU. From Paris

From Beauvais to Gisoes, 21]/2 M., railway in 1 hr. J(fares 3 fr. 90, 2 fr. 65, 1 fr. 70 c). — I6V2 M. Trye-Chdteuu (p. 47). — 21«/2 M. Gisors, see p. 46.

From Beauvais to Amiens, see p. 25; to Clermont, Compi&gne, and Soissons, see p. 25 ; to St. Just, Pironne, and Cambrai, see p. 24 and E. 8.

II. From Beauvais to Le Treport.

64'/2 M. Railway in 2-3'/4 hrs. (fares 11 fr. 85, 7 fr. 05, 5 fr. 15 c).

We follow the Amiens line as far as (59 M.) St. Omer-en- L'haussee (p. 25). Several small stations follow.

78 M. Abancourt (Buffet), before and after which we follow for a short distance the line from Rouen to Amiens (p. 31). — The railway descends rapidly. 82 M. Oourchelles ; 83 M. Quincampoir.

85 M. Aumale (Chapeau-Rouge), a small town prettily situated on the Bres'e, which was formerly the E. boundary of Normandy. Henri IV was severely wounded here in 1592 and narrowly escaped capture by the Leaguers. The Rue Centrale, passing the Hotel de Ville (16-17th cent.), leads from near the station to the chief build- ing, the church of St. Pierre et St. Paul, rebuilt in 1508-1610, after its destruction by Charles the Bold, who burned the town in 1472. The portals, the pulpit (17th cent.), the stained glass (16th cent.), and a Holy Sepulchre are noteworthy. The title of Due d' Aumale was borne by the fourth son (1822-97) of Louis Philippe.

We now descend the pretty valley of the Bresle. 97^2 M. Blangy- sur-Bresle (Hotel de la Poste), an industrial village with a Gothic church (12-15th cent.); 100 M. Monchaux.

103 M. Longroy- Gamaches is the junction for Longpre (p. 15). Gamaches (Grand Cerf), a small though ancient town to the right, contains an interesting church of the 12th, 13th, and 15th centuries.

112 M. Eu (Hotel du Cygne, pens. 7'/2fr-i de France, 6 fr.), a town with 4800 inhab. , on the Bresle, was a favourite residence of Vouis Philippe, who received Queen Victoria at the Chateau here n 1843 and 1845. The latter was built in the 16-17th cent., though altered in modern times. Louis Philippe inherited it from his mother, the Duchess of Orle'ans, in 1821, and restored it with much magnifi- cence. The chapel has some modern stained glass from Sevres, de- signed by Paul Delaroche and Chenavard. The fine Park (no adm.), laid out by Le Notre, commands a view of the sea. — The Church of St. Lawrence, a handsome Gothic edifice of the 12-13th cent, is notable for the curious double arches between the pillars of the nave. In a small chapel on the right are a Holy Sepulchre and a Head of Christ (16th cent). The Madonna in the apsidal chapel is said to be one of the earliest works of one of the brothers Anguier, who were born at Eu in the 17th century. — The Chapelle du Col- lege, built by the Jesuits in 1622-24, contains the monument of Henri of Guise, 'le Balafre" or 'the Scarred' (d. 1588), and his wife Anne of Cleves, with their statues and bas-reliefs. — The Forest of Eu, 3 M. to the S.W., is a favourite spot for excursions.

to Le TrSport. LE TREPORT. 3. Route. 37

Branch-railway to (21'/2 M.) Abbeville, see p. 14.

A Diligence plies daily in summer from Eu to (5 M.) Ault (1 fr.) and (6 M.) Onival (1 fr. 30 c). — Ault, or Bourg-cCAalt (St. Pierre; de France; de Paris. — Lodgings, Casino), is a small sea-bathing resort at the end of a narrow valley. — Onival (Continental; de la Plage. — Casino), another small bathing-resort, lies at the end of the cliffs and at the beginning of a bank of shingle extending to beyond (572 M.) Cayeux (p. 12).

A marshy district, between hills, is now traversed. The rail- way passes a little to the left of Mers (see below).

llS^M. le Treport. — Hotels. Hotel de la Plage, des Bains, de Fbance, with sea-view, dej. 3'/2, D. 4 fr. ; de l'Europe, not so well situated, B.. from 3 fr.; de Calais, in the upper part of the town, at some distance from the beach, dej. 2'/2, pens. 6-9 fr.

Sea-Baths. Cabin 30 c, costume 60 c, 'peignoir' 20-25 c, bathing at- tendant 50 c.

Casino. Adm. for 1 day l'/2 fr. ; subscription for a fortnight 14 fr., for a month 25 fr. ; 2 pers. 24 and 40 fr. ; 3 pers. 30 and 50 fr.

Omnibus to Mers (30 c); to Eu (30 c).

Le Treport, a small town with 4750 inhab., is situated at the mouth of the Bresle, at the base of a lofty cliff. The town itself is quite uninteresting, and its small harbour is chiefly used by fishing-boats. Treport, however, from its proximity to Paris , is a very popular sea-bathing resort, in spite of its small and disagree- ably shingly beach, which is to a great extent monopolized by the Casino, recently rebuilt. The space betwixt the cliff and the sea is very narrow, a fact which reacts upon the streets and the houses, so that lodging in the town is not recommended, more especially as the odours emitted by the harbour at low water and the close con- tact with the fishing population are anything but agreeable. Bath- ing, lounging on the pier, and the amusements of the casino are the only alternative distractions to walking to Eu (p. 36) or Mers and ascending the cliff. An attempt has been made to create a visitors' quarter on the top of the cliff by the construction of flights of stairs with 378 steps, but the speculation has hitherto failed and the streets remain unbuilt.

The only noteworthy edifices in the old town are the Hotel de Ville, in a tower of the 16th cent., recently altered; a Timber House dating from the Renaissance period (higher up, to the right, opposite the church); and the Church of St. Jacques, which rises above the harbour. The chief objects of interest in the last, which was built in the 16th cent., are the Madonna at the entrance, the key-stones of the vaults, the modern stained glass (by Lusson), the altar-pieces, the Descent from the Cross in painted stone, and the piscina in a chapel to the right of the choir.

Mers. — Hotels. Grand Hotel dd Casino (pens. 9-12 fr.), Bkllevue (pens. 7-10 fr.), both on the beach; des Eains, R. & A. 3-6 fr., L. 30 c, B. 3/4) dej. 3, D. 3>/2 fr. incl. wine, pens. 7-11, omn. '/2 fr' ; Petit, pens. 7-10 fr. ; de Mees; the three last on the 'prairie'.

Sea-Baths. Cabin 30 c, costume 60 c, 'peignoir" 20 c, attendant 40 c

Casino. Adm. for one day 1, per week 4 fr., fortnight 63Ai fr., month 12 fr., etc.; 2 pers. V/i, 12, & 21 fr. ; 3 pers. 11, 18, & 31>/2 fr.

Mers is a sort of suburb of Le Tre'port, from which it is 3/4 M.

38 Route d. DIEPPE. From Dieppe

distant. It lies at some distance from tlie right bank of the Bresle and has in consequence no evil-smelling harbour. The space between the cliffs and the sea is wider than at Le Treport, the beach is broader and less shingly, and the visitors occupy a quarter by them- selves. The Casino is a large and handsome building. From Le Treport to Dieppe, see p. 41.

4. From Dieppe to Paris.

106 or 125 M. Railway in 3'/2-6'/4 hrs. The quickest trains run via Rouen, though that route is the longest in mileage. — From London to Dieppe, see p. xiii.

Dieppe. — Hotels. Hotel Royal (PI. a), D. 6 fr. ; Gr. Hot. Feancais (PL b), well spoken of, pens. 121/2-15 fr. ; Gb. Hot. Metkopole et des Bains (PL d), R. 4-15, L. & A. is/4, B. 1, dej. 5, D. 5, pens. 12, omn. M1/2 fr. ; oes Eteangers (PI. f); Geand Hotel (Pl.g); all these first-class hotels are in the Rue Aguado (PL C, D, E, 1), facing the sea and open only dur- ing the season. — 'Hotel de Paeis (PL m; C, 1), Place de Camille Saint- Saens, opposite the Casino; d'Albion et Teeminus (PL h; E, 2), Quai Henri IV, near the steamboat- wharf ; i>e la Paix (PL j; C, 2), Grande Rue 212 ; Chaeiot d'Oe (PL k ; C, 2), Rue de la Barre ; des Familles (PL 1 ;

C, 2), Rue de l'HStel-de-Ville 29. — Hot. du Globe et Victoria (PL o;

D, 2), Rue Duquesne 8; du Rhin et de Newhaven (PL e; C, 1), Rue Aguado; "du Commerce (PL n; D, 2), Place Nationale, R., L., & A. 2>/2-4, B. 1, dej. 21/2, D. 3, pens. 8-9 fr.; Soleil d"0r, Rue Gambetta 4 (PL B, 2), pens, from 8 fr. Travellers are recommended to ascertain the prices beforehand. — Furnished Apartments are also easily found in the Rue Aguado.

Restaurants. Cafi-Restauranl du Casino, on the beach, dej. 4, D. 5 fr. ; Au Faisan Dori, Grande Rue 74, dej. 2, D. 2>/2 fr.; HStel des Arcades and others under the arcades of the Bourse, next the Poissonnerie, D. l'/2-2 fr. ; Buffet, at the Gare Maritime.

Cafes. Cafe1 Suisse, Grande Rue 1, and in the Arcades ; Cafe de Rouen, Cafe' des Tribunaux, both at the other end of the Grande Rue.

Cabs with seats for two pers. l'/i fr. per drive (after midnight 2'/> fr.), l3/4 or 3'/2 fr. per hr.; with four seats iyV3 and 2-4 fr. respectively.

Post & Telegraph Office (PL 14), Quai Be'rigny and at the baths in summer.

Baths (see p. 39). Sea-Baths. Bathing hut or tent 75 c. (6 tickets 3 fr. 60 c), children less. Costume 50, 'peignoir' 25, towel 15, sandals 15 c. ; guide-baigneur 50 c. — Warm Baths (PL 1 ; C, 1), with fresh or salt water, in the adjoining annexe, O/WAfr. — Casino, see p. 39.

Casino. Adm. in the forenoon 50 c, afternoon 1 fr., evening or whole day 3 fr. ; subscription per week 12, fortnight 20, month 35, season 60 fr. ;

2 pers. 22, 36, 6), and 110 fr. ; 3 pers. 33, 52, 80, and 160 fr. — Theatre, adm. 1-5 fr.

Steamboats to Newhaven twice a day.

British Vice-Consul, H. W. Lee-Jorlin, Esq., Rue du Faubourg de la Barre 2. — TJ. S. Consular Agent, M. Raoulle Bourgeois, Quai de Lille 8.

English Churches. Christ Church, Rue De'marest; services on Sun. at 11 and 7 (in summer 7.30); Chaplain, Rev. Dr. Merk, M. A. — AU Saints, Rue de la Barre; services at 11 and 7.30; Chaplain, Rev. F. J. Johnston Smith, LL. D.

Golf links, on the Pourville road, 1 M. from Dieppe (visitors' fees,

3 fr. per day, 10 fr. per week, 25 fr. per month).

Dieppe, with 22,440 inhab., is situated in a valley formed by two ranges of lofty white chalk-cliffs , at the mouth of the Argues, which forms a harbour capable of containing vessels of considerable size. The estuary was formerly called the 'Deep\ from which the

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to Paris. DIEPPE. 4. Route. 39

town derives its name. In spite of the vicinity of Le Havre, Dieppe still carries on a considerable trade in coal with England and in timber with Norway and Sweden. Fish is, however, the staple com- modity of the place. Dieppe is also a fashionable watering-place, being annually visited by numerous English , as well as French families. Captured and destroyed several times during the wars between England and France and afterwards in the religious wars, Dieppe suffered severely from the plague in 1668 and 1670, and in 1694 the citadel and town were reduced to ruins by the English fleet returning from an unsuccessful attack on Brest (p. 219).

The Gare Maritime (PI. E, 2) and the Steamboat Quays are on the N. side of the old Avant Port or outer harbour. To the S.W., beyond the Bnssins Duquesne and Berigny, lies the Central Station (PI. C, 3] ; and to the E., between the Bassin Duquesne and the suburb of Le Pollet (PI. E, 3) , inhabited by sailors and fishermen said to be of Venetian origin, are several basins opened in 1887. To the N. of the Gare Maritime extends the old Vieux Chenal, or harbour-entrance; a good view may be obtained from the W. pier. On the opposite cliffs rises the modern Gothic church of Notre-Dame- de-Bon-Secours (PI. F, 2). The Quai Henri IV, on which stands the College (PI. D, 2), built in the 18th cent., leads to the W. from the Gare Maritime. At its W. end is the Poissonnerie, or Fish-Market (Pl.D, 2), which presents a busy and animated scene in the morning.

Along the N. side of the town , between the sea and the Rue Aguado, in which are the principal hotels, stretches La Plage (PI. C, D, E, 1), a handsome marine park or promenade, 2/3 M. long. The tall chimneys seen in the Rue Aguado belong to ( he extensive To- bacco Manufactory (PI. 9).

At the W. extremity of the Plage is the Casino or Etablissement de Bains (PI. C, 1), a handsome brick and glass structure replete with every convenience and including a small theatre (adm., see p. 3S). In front of it are placed about 200 small cabins or tents, used as dressing-rooms, from which the bathers descend into the water, accompanied by a guide-baigneur, if necessary. In fine weather the scene is very amusing, and novel withal to the English visitor.

The site of the casino was occupied until the end of the 14th cent, by a small harbour, a relic of which still exists in the Porte du Port-d'Ouest (PI. 13 ; C, 1), a gateway with two round towers, to the S. Close by, in the Place de Saint-Saens, is the Theatre (PI. 16; C, 2); and to the E. are the Warm Baths (PI. 1; C, 1) and the Hotel de Ville (PI. 8 ; C, 1, 2). — The Musee (PI. 11 ; C, 1), in the Rue de l'H6tel-de-Ville, contains antiquities found in the neigh- bourhood, local curiosities, a natural history collection, and some paintings, besides the artistic collections (furniture, bronzes, sculp- tures, paintings, etc.) and library recently presented to his native town by Camille Saint-Saens, the composer. Adm. daily, except Mon., in summer, 11-4, in winter on Thurs., Sat., and Sun., 11-3.

40 Route 4. DIEPPE. From Dieppe

The Rue Sygogne (PI. B, 1, 2), which skirts the base of the castle-hill, is now one of the finest streets in Dieppe, mainly through the exertions of M. Frosmont , who is here commemorated hy a handsome fountain.

On a precipitous white cliff at the W. extremity of the Plage rises the picturesque Castle (PI. B, 1, 2), with its massive walls, towers, and bastions, erected in 1435 as a defence against the English. In 1694, however, it was unable to resist the cannonade of the English fleet (p. 39). The castle is now used as barracks, and visitors are not allowed to pass through it to the fine points of view on the adjoining cliffs. These, however, may be reached by other routes, farther on.

We regain the town by the Rue de la Barre, which is continued to the E., to the Quai Henri IV, by the Grande Rue.

The church of St. Remy (PI. 5; 0, 2), not far from the castle, in a mixed style of the 16th and 17th cent., contains huge round columns, of which those in the choir have elaborately carved cap- itals. In the Lady Chapel, and at the entrance to the sacristy, on the left of the choir, are some good sculptures. The organ-case dates from the 18th cent. ; the stained glass (by Lusson) is modern.

The church of St. Jacques (PL 4; C, D, 2), a little farther on, is an interesting florid Gothic edifice, dating from the 12-16th cent, and possessing all that 'lace-like beauty of detail and elaborate finish, which charms in spite of soberer reason, that tells us it is not in stone that such vagaries should be attempted' (Fergusson). The 14th cent, portal is flanked with turrets, adorned with statues in niches; the W. tower dates from the 16th century. The interior is fine. The bosses of the vaults of the choir and several of the chapels are sculptured ; and the church also contains other rich carved work in the Pointed and Renaissance styles , such as the balustrade of the choir , the screen of the first chapel on the right (enclosing a modem Holy Sepulchre), the screens of some of the other chapels, and the fine arches to the left of the choir. The chief attraction of the interior is, however, the Lady Chapel, richly adorned with sculptures and modern stained glass by Lusson, re- presenting the Death and Coronation of the Virgin, the Vision of Pope Pius V., the Triumph of Don Juan after Lepanto, the Capture of Le Pollet by Louis XL in 1443, and the procession which followed. The fine wooden staircase in the sacristy, the modern choir-stalls, the organ-case, and the pulpit are noteworthy.

The Place Nationale, adjoining the church, is embellished with a fine Statue ofDuquesne (PI. 15; D,2), a native of Dieppe, and one of the most illustrious admirals of France, who defeated the Dutch admiral De Ruyter in 1676. The statue is by the elder Dantan.

The most interesting point in the environs of Dieppe is the ruined castle of Arqties (p. 45), situated 4 M. to the S.E. The excursion may be made by train or by carriage (there and back 5 or 6 fr.). The "View from the castle embraces the valleys of the Jrqwi, the Bilhune, and the Euulne.

to Paris. PUYS. 4. Route. 41

About 2'/2 M. to tLe W. of Dieppe, by the cliffs of the Ccmde-Cdle, lies Pourville (H6tel Graff), a prettily situated little bathing-place at the mouth of the Scie, which may also he reached by rail or (in summer) by om- nibus. AtVarangeville, 2i/z M. farther on, is the Memoir d'Ango, a farmhouse built in the 16th cent, by the merchant-prince Ango of Dieppe, who enter- tained Francis I. here, and tf/t M. farther is the Lighthouse ofAilly. From Varangeville we may go on to 0/4 hr.) Ste. Marguerite, at the mouth of the Saane, and Quibermlle (Hot. du Casino; des Bains), a small bathing-place, reached also by omnibus direct from Dieppe (81/2 M.). — Puys (Hotel de Puys, of the first class; furnished houses to let) is a pretty little bathing-place, with fine villas, l'/t M. to the N.E. of Dieppe by the shore (at low tide only), 2i/z M. via, Le Pollet. It may also be reached by omnibus (3/4 fr. ; V/t fr. there and back). The Marquis of Salisbury has a villa here. Toe Cite" de Limes or Camp de Cisar, on the cliff to the right as we approach, is said to have been a Gallic 'oppidum'. — Benievul (Hot. de la Plage; Grand Hotel) is another bathing-place, 7 M. to the N.E. of Dieppe, to which a diligence (IV4 fr.) plies in connection with the trains.

From Dieppe to St. Valery-en-Caex and Cany, 33 and 291/? M., rail- way, forming part of a new direct line from Dieppe to Le Havre, which is to be continued from St-Vaast-Bosville to Les Ifs (p. 67). We follow the Eouen line until beyond the first tunnel (see below), then cross the Scie, and proceed to the W. — From (25'/2 M.) Sl-Vaast- Bosville, on the line from Rouen to St. Valery-en-Caux (p. 65), a branch leads to Cany (p. 66).

Feom Dieppe to Le Tp.epokt, 28 M., railway in l'/i-l1/! hr. (fares 5 fr. 15, 3 fr. 50, 2 fr. 30 c). — 2>/2 M. Souxmesnil, on the Pontoise line (p. 45). The line enters the valley of the Eaulne, which it quits beyond (10 M.) Envermeu, with a handsome church (16th cent.). — I91/2 M. Touffre- ville-Criel. Criel (Hot. de Eouen ; de la Plage), l3/4 M. to the N.W., on the Yeres, has a small bathing-place at the mouth of the river, l'/i M. farther on. — The line crosses the Yeres and ascends rapidly. View limited. — 26 M. En, see p. 36. — 28 M. Le Trlport (p. 37).

a. From Dieppe to Faiis via Rouen.

125 M. Railway in 31/2-61/4 hrs. (fares 18 fr. 90, 12 fr. 80, 8 fr. 30 c).

I. From Dieppe to Rouen.

3V/-2 M. Railway in li/,-174 hr. (fares 3 fr. 55, 2 fr. 40, 1 fr. 70 c).

Soon after quitting Dieppe the train passes through a tunnel about 1 M. long, [and then enters the valley of the Scie, which it crosses 2'2 times. 17 M. St. Victor. The line then traverses a high embankment, heyond which the views are attractive. At (2 11/.? M.) Cleres (Cheval-Noir) we intersect the railway from Motteville to Amiens (p. 653, which unites the Dieppe line with the line to Le Havre. To the left is the pretty chateau of Cleres (15-lGth cent.). 28'/2 M. Monville. The line to Le Havre diverges to the right near a small viaduct. 32 M. Malaunay. From this point to Rouen the district traversed is cheerful and picturesque, abounding in cotton and other factories. — 34 M. Maromme. Then two tunnels.

38V2 M. Rouen, see p. 48.

II. From Rouen to Paris.

86V2 M. Railway in 2[/3-4V4 hrs. (fares IB fr. 35, 10 fr. 40, 6 fr. 80 c.l. — Alternative route from Mantes to Paris, see p. 44.

Rouen, see p. 48. — The train passes through two long tunnels and crosses the Seine, affording a beautiful view of Rouen to the right. To the left, on the hills which rise from the river, stands the

42 Route 4. LES ANDELYS. From Rouen

church of Bonsecours (p. 58). — 39*/4 M. (from Dieppe) Sotteville, an industrial suburb of Rouen ; 42 M. St. Etienne-du-Rouvray. — 441/2 M. Oissel (small buffet).

A branch-railway runs from Oissel to (6 M.) Elbeuf-St-Aubin (p. 59) and (25 M.) Glos-Montfort, the junction for Serquigny and Pont-Audmer (see p. 156).

Beyond Oissel the train crosses the Seine. — 481/2 M. Pont-de- l'Arche (*H6t. de Normandie, with cafe' ; des Deux Oares), where the Seine is again crossed, above the influx of the Eure, is the junction of a line to Gisors (p. 47). The fine church of the 15-16th cent, has some admirable wood-carving of the 17-18th, and good stained glass of the 16-17th centuries.

About 3/i M. to the W. is the ruined Ahbey of Bonport, founded about 1190 by Richard Coenr-de-Lion, of which the handsome refectory (13th cent.) and the abbof s lodgings are the chief remains.

To the left is the large Barrage de Poses. — 56 M. St. Pierre-du- Vauvray. A branch-railway runs hence to (5 M.) Louviers (p. 59).

Fbom St. Pierre-dd-Vauvkay to Les Andelts, 10 M., railway in 30- 40 min. (fares 1 fr. 90, 1 fr. 30, 80 c). The train crosses the Seine and beyond (S^/i M.) Muids skirts the right bank of that river. To the right appears the castle of Gaillard (see below). 7 M. La Roque; 8V2 M. La Vacherie. — 10 M. Les Andelys, a town with 6000 inhab., on the right bank of the Seine, consisting of Petit Anilely (Hot. de la Chaine d'Or; Bellevue, well spoken of), nearest the Seine, and Grand Andely (Hot. de Paris; Grand Cerf), */2 M. from the station. At the former are a number uf picturesque old houses, and the magnificent Church of St. Sauveur (12th and 14th cent.), with a fine choir with round pillars and a good copy of the altar-piece by Phil, de Champaigne in Rouen cathedral. — On a neigh- bouring height are the (10 min.) ruins of the famous castle of "Gaillard, erected by Richard Coeur-de-Lion in 1197 to command the navigation of the Seine and protect Normandy against the French monarchs. Chateau Gaillard, the 'gay castle1, has been described as the greatest monument of Richard's genius, and it was certainly one of the finest specimens of a Norman castle, either in England or Normandy. It was protected by triple lines of outworks and 17 towers, and its walls were 8-14 ft. thick. In 1204 this almost impregnable stronghold was captured by Philip Augustus after a siege of five months. The castle afterwards became a state-prison, and in 1314 was the scene of the murder of Margaret of Burgundy, wife of Louis X. It was destroyed by Henri IV in 1663, along with the castles of several dangerous Norman barons. The donjon is still in tolerable preservation. — The Church of Notre-Dame at Grand Andely dates from the 13-16th cent., and contains good stained glass, choir-stalls, and various works of art, including a Martyrdom of St. Clara, by Q. Varin, the master of Poussin, and a Last Supper, attributed to Lesueur. The choir has a square termination. The market-place is embellished with a bronze statue, by Brian (1851), of Nicholas Poussin (1594-1665), who was born in the neigh- bourhood. The USUI de Ville possesses a large painting of Coriolanus by this artist. — A public conveyance plies between Les Andelys and the railway-station of Saussay-les-Ecouis (p. 47).

The train now penetrates the chalk-hills by means of two tunnels. — 64 M. Gaillon (Hot. d'Evreux) ; the town, with 3000 inhab., lies 1 M. to the left. The chateau of Gaillon, erected in 1500 by Cardi- nal Georges d'Amboise and now replaced by a prison, was one of the finest in Normandy, and a favourite residence of Francis I. The lofty facade has been removed to the court of the Ecole des Beaux- Arts at Paris (see Baedeker s Handbook to Paris).

to Paris. MANTES. 4. Route. 43

75!/2 M. Vernon (Hotel d'Evreux; Lion-d'Or), with 8500 inhab., once a strongly-fortified town, possesses a conspicuous tower, erected in 1123 by Henry I. of England. The Church is an interesting build- ing of the 12-15th cent. , containing several noteworthy works of art. To the S. stretches the Forest of Sizy ,• and on the right bank of the Seine are Vernonnet (see below) and the Forest of Vernon.

From Vernon to Gisors, 25 M., railway in l'/2-3 hrs. (fares 4 fr. 60, 3 fr. 10 c, 2 fr.). The trains start from a special station, adjoining the main-line station. — We cross the Seine. Beyond (U/j M.) Vernonnet, where there are large quarries, the train enters the valley of the Epte, and ascends it as far as Gisors. — 6 M. Oasny. About 1 M. to the E., on the right hank of the Seine, lies La Roche-Guyon (Hot. de la Maison-Rouge ; Hot. Pitre), with a ruined chateau of the 12-16th cent., another partly modern chateau belonging to the Larochefoucauld family, and a Con- valescents' Home in connection with the hospitals at Paris. — lO1/? M. Bray-Ecos. The village of Bray has a zinc-foundry ; Ecoi, about 3 M. to the W., is interesting on account of the fine Chdteau du Chtsnay, dating from the 15-16th cent., but largely rebuilt in modern times, and lavishly adorned with sculptures and paintings from the hand of the proprietor, M. de Pulligny. — At (lS'/e M.) Dangu is a 16th cent, chateau, surrounded with an extensive park. Dangu also contains a zinc-foundry. — 22 M. Inral. To the left, the tower of Neaufles (12th cent.). Our line now joins the railway from Pont-de-rArche (p. 47). 24'/2 M. Gisors -Ville. — 25 M. Gisors- Oiiest.

Another railway runs from Vernon to (lO'/w M.) Pacy-sur-Eure, where it joins the line from Eneil to Elheuf (p. 59).

The long tunnel between (82 M.) Bonni'eres and Rolleboise cuts off the wide circuit which the river describes here. The chateau of La Roche-Guyon (see above) lies about 5 M. distant. A branch from Bonnieres joins the line to Gisors (see above). — At the chateau of (84 M.) Rosny Sully, the celebrated minister of Henri IV, was born in 1559. The Duchess of Berry resided in it from 1818 to 1830.

Wlll-i M. Mantes (Qrand Cerf; Rocher de Cancale), a picturesque town with 8000 inhab., surnamed 'La Jolie1, has two railway-sta- tions : Mantes-Station, where many of the trains do not stop, and Mantes-Embranchement (Buffet), where the route to Caen and Cher- bourg (R. 21) diverges. The Avenue de la Re'publique, leading from the latter station to the Place de la Re'publique, and the Kue Na- tionale, leading thence to the Seine, are the most important of the broad streets which characterize this town.

The old tower of St. Maclou, open at the top and adorned with carved niches for statues (some of which remain), unites the Gothic and Renaissance styles ; it dates from the 14th century. The ad- joining Hdtel de Ville and Tribunal are both ancient but devoid of interest; between them is a Renaissance Fountain of 1521.

It was at the capture of Mantes that William the Conqueror received by a fall from his horse the injury of which he afterwards died at Rouen (1087); and that prince is said to have bequeathed a large sum for the erection of the present Gothic church of *Notre- Dame on the site of one burned down during the siege. The bulk of the edifice dates from the end of the 12th cent. , though it has been frequently altered and recently restored. The elegant gallery

44 Route 4. POISSY. From Rouen

at the top of the towers, formed by a double balustrade, is modern. The W. facade is embellished with a fine rose-window and the triple portal is richly sculptured, though unfortunately mutilated. The part to the right dates from the 14th century.

The fine Interior, which consists of a nave, aisles, and choir, without transepts, is unusually brightly lighted, owing to the absence of stained windows. In the nave round pillars alternate with clustered columns, some of which rise as high as the lofty vaulting. The pillars at the end of the choir, and those supporting the stilted Gothic arches, are specially noteworthy. The triforium gallery is lighted by small windows from behind. The towers, from the height of the vaulting of the aisles to the summit of the nave, open into the church. The five apsidal chapels, and the large S. chapel, the roof of which is supported by a central pillar, were added in the 14th century.

A small island in the Seine here is united with Mantes and with Limay, on the opposite bank, by handsome modern bridges. Another old bridge (12-15th cent.) spans the Seine farther up.

From Mantes to Paris via Aroenteuil, 36 M., railwav in l-l3/4 hr. (fares 6 fr. 51, 4 fr.40, 2 fr. 85 c). This line crosses the Seine and follows the right bank viii (l.3,'4 M.) Limay, (7 M.) Juziers, (lO'/z 51.) Meulan, a prettily situated little town with an interesting church, and (14 M.) Triel, also possessing an interesting church (13-15th cent.). Fine view of the Seine, to the right. We s'tirt the hill of the Hautil (555 ft.), and cross the Oise just before reaching (2072 M.) Conflans-Sl-Honorine , '/» M. from the other station at Conflans (p. 48). Thence to Paris via (231/2 M.) Herblay, (2572 M.) Cormeilles-en-Parisis, and (30 M.) Argenteuil (Soleil d'Or), see Baedeker'1 s Paris.

Railway to Caen and Cherbourg, see R. 21.

To the left , as we quit the station of Mantes , we obtain a fine view of the towers of the town. 98 M. Epone-Mezi'eres; 103 M. Les Mureaux, 3/4 M. from Meulan (see above); 106 M. Vernouillet, the station on the left bank for Triel (see above). The railway now closely follows the windings of the Seine, on its left bank.

108 M. Poissy (Buffet; Hotel de Rouen, at the station, near the bridge), a town with 6980 inhab. , was the birthplace of St. Louis (1215-70), who frequently styled himself 'Louis de Poissy'. Here in 1561 a conference was assembled by order of the States General, with a view to adjust the differences between the Roman Catholic and Protestant parties. Their deliberations, however, led to no re- sult, owing to the strong condemnation of the Huguenots by the Sor- bonne. — The principal Church is a fine building of the Transition style of the 12th cent., altered in the 15-16th cent. , and recently restored in the interior. Above the centre rises a well-preserved bell-tower, terminating in a lofty spire, and at the W. end is a square tower, surmounted by an octagonal story capped by a small stone spire. We enter by the double portal on the S. side, an ele- gant work of the 16th cent., but unfortunately much mutilated. The interior, which has no transepts, possesses considerable antiquarian interest. The nave and part of the choir show both Norman and Gothic arches, and groined vaults, the compartments of which are separated by arched joists, as in barrel-vaulting. The triforium is formed by a row of twin-aivhes. The aisles exhibit vaulting in

to Paris. ARQUES. 4. Route. 45

which the pointed arch is used, and the ap&idal chapels have stilted vaulting. The apse, recently restored, is lighted by five rose-windows. — In front of the church is a bronze statue, by Fremiet, of Meisso- nier, the painter (1815-91), nearly opposite his former house. — Ligne de Grande Ceinture to Paris, see Baedeker s Paris.

Ill M. Acheres, in the forest of St. Germain, is the junction of the direct line to Dieppe (via Gisors, p. 48). At (114 M.) Maisons- Laffttte is a chateau built in the i7th cent, by Mansart. In the vicinity are a Race Course and a Oolf Course.

The Seine is crossed before and after (116 M.) Houilles. — To the left is the asylum of Petit-Nanterre, to the right St. Germain and its terrace. On the left we see the hills of Oormeilles, Sannois, and Montmorency, then Argenteuil, and the fort of Mt. Vale'rien. Various railways now diverge to the left and right (see Baedeker s Paris). The Seine is crossed for the last time at Asnilres, where the lines to Argenteuil and Versailles diverge. The train passes Clichy, inter- sects the fortifications of Paris, threads a tunnel, and reaches —

1257-2 M. Paris (Gare St. Lazare).

b. From Dieppe to Paris via Gisors and Pontoise.

106 M. Railway in 3»/4-5«/4 hra. (fare3 18 fr. 90, 12 fr. ?0, 8 fr. 30 c).

Dieppe , see p. 38. — 2'/2 M. Rouxiresnil, junction for Le Tre- port (p. 41). — 31/2 M. Arques (Hotel du Chateau; Henri IV), a small town at the confluence of the Bethvne and the Arques, is celebrated for the decisive victory won here in 1589 by Henri IV with 4000 men over the forces of the League, amounting to 30,000 men , under the Due de Mayenne. The imposing ruin of the Chateau is a favourite resort of visitors from Dieppe. Founded in the 11th cent, on the border of Normandy by a Seigneur d' Arques , this castle changed hands frequently during the wars which raged in this district; the English held it from 1419 until 1449, when it finally passed to France. The castle, which did not become a ruin till the 18th cent., is now public property and always open to visitors. Although occupying a secure position on the summit of a hill, this stronghold was farther protected by a moat and two walls , the first of which is flanked by four massive towers of brick and stone, built by Francis I. The donjon is perhaps the most ancient part. — The Church of Arques , a handsome Gothic building of the 16th cent., contains a fine Renaissance rood-loft, old stained glass, etc. — The Forest of Arques, to the N.E., is another favourite excursion from Dieppe.

15^2 M. Bures, which has declined from its former importance, has a fine Gothic church of the 12-13th cent, with a Holy Sepulchre of the 16th cent, and other noteworthy sculptures. 18 M. Mesr>i'eres has a fine Renaissance chateau (on the left). — 21 M. Neufchatel- en-Bray (Grand Cerf), a town with 4130 inhab. , is noted for its cheese. The handsome church dates from the 12-16th centuries.

46 Route 4. FORGES-LES-EAUX. From Dieppe

The town contains a small Musee. — Beyond (26J/2 M.) Nesle- St-Saire the railway quits the valley of the Bethune. — 30 M. Serqueux (Buffet), also a station on the line from Amiens to Rouen (p. 31), in connection with the railway to Le Tre'port (p. 37).

32 M. Forges-les-Eaux. — Hotels. Gkand Hotel du Pakc, at the Etablissement; Continental, close by, R. & A. 3-8, L. '/z, B. l-l1/^ <^j- 4, D. 5 incl. wine, pens, from 10 fr. ; Modton, Lion d'Oe,' both in the town. — Etablissement. Adm. in the forenoon 50 c., afternoon 1 fr., whole day l'/z fr. ; subscription for a month 25 fr. ; bath 2'/2-5 fr. (including linen). — Omnibus from the Hotel du Mouton to Serqueux (see above) in connection with the trains.

Forges owes its reputation to its cold Chalybeate Springs , first brought into notice by Anne of Austria, mother of Louis XIV., hut now little frequented. The Etablissement, including a casino and a hotel, is situated in a small park, about 1 '/4 M. from the station. The attractions it boasts are hardly worth the charge made for admission. The large Place de Breviere, in the town, is embel- lished with a bust of Breviere, the engraver (1787-1869). Adjacent is a modern Gothic Church, in the style of the 13th century.

46 M. Gournay (Hotel du Nord), a town with 4050 inhah., is the centre of the Pays de Bray, a fertile grazing country, noted for its butter. Between the station and the town rises a recently-restored Church, in the Transition style, containing some good wood-carving. The street in front of the church leads to the Place Nationale, in which is a fountain dating from the 18th century. Passing the Hotel de Ville a little farther on, we turn to the left, and return to the station by way of the pleasant boulevards. — Railway to Beauvais (St. Germer), see p. 35.

The line now traverses the Vullee de Bray and beyond (60 M.) Eragny enters a hilly pastoral district, watered by the Epte.

61 Y2 M. Gisors {Buffet; Hotel de I ' Ecu-de-France, in the main street), a town with 4680 inhab., situated on the Epte and two of its tributaries, was the former capital of the Norman Vexin.

The Vexin (Pagus Vaucassinvs) was the mediaeval name of the region extending along the right bank of the Seine from the Oise to beyond Jumieges; the N. portion, below Vernon, was the Norman Vexin, a district often disputed by the English and French, the S. part was the French Vexin.

The town is divided into two parts by a broad thoroughfare, called the Rue de Cappeville as far as the Epte and thence the Rue du Bourg. The Rue de Paris leads from the foot of the Rue du Bourg to (Y2 M.) the station of Gisors -Ville, the terminus of the line to Beauvais (p. 35). — No. 20 in the Rue du Fosse-des-Tan- neurs, which runs from the Rue de Cappeville to the Rue de Paris, is a Timber House in the Renaissance style, with a richly carved facade. The Hotel de Ville, farther on, was formerly a convent; the facade on the other side is the more interesting. It contains a small Muse"e and a library. Behind, at some little distance, is a fine modern brick Hospital.

to Paris. GISORS. 4. Route. 47

The large Church, dating from the 13 -16th cent., on the left side of the Rue du Bourg , is elaborately adorned with sculpture and presents several interesting architectural features. The W. portal and towers, for example, form an extraordinary combination of the Gothic, Classical, and Renaissance styles; while the N. portal, on the other hand, is a remarkable specimen of florid Gothic. The finely carved oaken doors (16 -17th cent.) of both these portals should be noticed.

The Interior, which has double aisles, illustrates the same technical erudition and bad taste. The most interesting objects are the carved and twisted pillars, on the S. side; the antique stained glass; the stone organ- loft; a Tree of Jesse in the 1st chapel on the S. side; a sculptured 'cadaver' erroneously attributed to Jean Goujon (in the 3rd chapel); the vaulting and bosses in the aisles and side-chapels; the balustraded gallery in the S. transept; the arcading at the end of the S. aisle; 12 ancient painted panels behind the high-altar; the reliefs in the last chapel of theN. aisle; and the curious capitals in that aisle.

The Rue du Bourg terminates in a small square , embellished with a statue , by Desbceufs , of General de Blamont (1770-1846), a native of the town. Beyond is an attractive promenade, skirting the outer wall of the castle.

The Castle, built in the 12th cent, by Henry II. of England, oc- cupies the top of the hill on which the town is built. Little of this once strong fortress now remains except its outer ramparts, which have also been converted into shady promenades, and the donjon, rising on an artificial mound. The outer wall is protected by a moat and 12 round towers. The large 'Tour duPrisonnier', nearthe donjon, contains a dungeon, the walls of which have been curiously carved with a nail by some whilom captive. On this side is also a small court-yard, between a large round tower and a square tower.

From Gisors to Pont-de i/Arche (Rouen), 33'/2 M., railway in ca. 2 hrs. (fares 6 fr. 5, 4 fr. 10, 2 fr. 65 c). This line traverses a monotonous district, with numerous textile factories. — l!/4 M. Oisors-Ville (p. 46). 10 M. Etripagny (Hut Pouchet), a small town on the Bonde, with a loth cent, chateau. — 15 M. Saussay- Us -Ecouis. Ecouis, 3'/2 M. to the W., has a remarkable church founded in 1310. Diligence from the station to Les Andelys (l>/2 fr-), see p. 42. — From the station of (20 M.) Minesquevillc- Lyons a diligence plies to (4'/2 M.) Lyons-la-Foret (Licorne), pleasantly situated in the centre of the Fdret de Lyons (385 sq. M.). — The line now descends the valley of the Andelle. — 25 M. Radeponl, a village with a ruined castle and a chateau of the 18th century. — 33>/2 M. Pont-de-VArche, see p. 42.

From Gisors to Beauvais, see p. 35; to Vernon, see p. 43.

$3^/2 M. Trye- Chateau , a village with a ruined castle and a Gothic church containing some good sculpture.

66!/2 M. Chaumont-en-Vexin (H6t. St. Nicolas) is situated on the slopes of a hill, on which the French kings built a castle (now almost wholly destroyed) to aid them in their struggles with the English for the possession of Normandy. The village has a pretty church of the 15-16th centuries.

As the train ascends to (70 M.) Liancourt-Sl-Pierre we have an extensive view to the left. 74 M. Chars, junction for Magny-en-

48 Route 5. ROUEN. Hotels.

Vexin (Grand Cerf), an industrial village, 8 M. to the W., with an interesting Renaissance church.

861/2 M. Pontoise {Hotel de la Gare, de Pontoise, both at the station), a town with 8000 inhab., picturesquely situated on a height on the right bank of the Oise. The town dates from the days of the Romans, and from an early period played a somewhat impor- tant part in French history, owing to its position as capital of the French Vexin (p. 46) and its proximity to Paris. It was frequently involved in the wars of the kings of France with the kings of Eng- land and the dukes of Normandy, and also in the civil struggles of later date. The only remains of its fortifications are the walls of the ancient r hateau, which protected the town on the side next the river. For farther details, see Baedekers Paris. — Railway to Crcil via Beaumont, see p. 32.

We. cross the Oise. — 87 M. Eragny-Niuville. Fine view to the left. Beyond (90 M.) Conflcns-Fin-d' Oiee we cross the Seine, near its confluence with the Oise. To the right diverges the railway to Rouen.

From (92'/2 M.) Achcres to (106 M.) Paris, see p. 45.

5. Rouen.

Stations. Gare de I'Ouest Eire Droite or de la live Virte (PI. C, 1), tie chief station (Buffet), for all trains to Le Havre and Dieppe; Gare de I'Ouest Rive Gauche or de St. Siver (PI. D, E, 5); Gare du Nord (PI. G, 2), for Amiens (p. 31); Gare a" Orleans (PI. C, D, 5), Place Carnot, for Elbeuf, Dreux, Chartres, and Orle'ans (p. 59).

Hotels. Grand Hotel d'Angleterre (PI. a; C, D, 3, 4), Cours Boi'el- dieu 7, B. 3-10, L. s/4-i, A. s/4-l, D. oft--; "do Nord (PI. c; C, 3), Hue de la Grrsse-Horloge 91; de Pakis (PI. d; D, 4), Quai de Paris 51; "de France (PL e; D, 2), Rue des Cannes 99, R., L., & A. from 4, dej. 21/?, D. 3 fr. ; all these of the first class ; if meals are not ordered in the house, the charge for rooms is sometimes raised (arrangement should be made before- hand). — 'Hotel de la Poste (PI. f ; C, 2), Rue Jeanne d'Arc 72, B., L., & A. from 3, D. 3'/2 fr. — Hotel d'Albion (PI. b ; C, 4), Quai de la Bourse 16, dej. 4, D. 5 fr. incl. wine; do Dauphin et d'Espagne (PI. i; D, 3), Place de la Republique, with restaurant, dej. 2]/2, D. 3 fr. ; do Squake, Rue Jeanne d'Arc 91, pens. 6>/2 fr., well spoken of; de la C6te-de-Baleine (PI. g; D, 3), Rue du Bae 18-20; Lisieux (PI. h; D, 3), Bue de la Savon- nerie 4; do Chemin-de-Fer de Dieppe (PI. k; C, 1), Rue Verle, R. 2'/2-5, B. i}/t, dej. 3, D. 3l/t fr. ; Victoria (PI. j ; C, 1), same street, near the station on the right bank, unpretending.

Restaurants. "Restaurant Francois, Rue Jacques-le-Lieur 10, behind the Hotel d'Angleterre, a la carte, expensive, also dej. 3, D. 4 fr. ; Pomel, Quai de Paris; Hotel du Dauplin, see above; A la Porte de Paris, Quai de Paris, dej. 2, D. 2'/2 fr. ; de Paris, Eue de la Grosse-Horloge 95, popular, dej. l:/2i D. l3/i-2 fr., also a la carte.

Cafes. De la Bourse, Boieldieu, Victor, all in the Cours Boieldieu; Houdard, Quai de Paris 58; du Commirce, Quai de Paris and Place de la Republique, etc. — Brasserie- Restaurant de VEpoque, Eue Guillaume-le- Conquerant 11 (PI. C, 2, 3), with a small garden.

Cabs. Per drive, l'/a fr., per hour, 2 fr. ; at night (12-6 a. m.), 2'/2 or 3 fr. — Each trunk 20 c.

Electric Tramways (cemp. Plan). 1. From the Pont Ccrneille (PI. D, 4) to the Carre/our du Champ-des-Oiscaux , via the quays, the Rue Jeinne d'Arc, and the Gare de la Rue Verte (PI. C, 1). — 2. From the Pont Corneille to Maromme (p. 41), via the quays. — 3. From the Place de V Hotel -de-Ville

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History. ROUEN. 5. Route. 49

(PI. D, 2) to Sotteville (p. 42) or to Petit- Quevilly (p. 59), via the Pont Ctr- neille. — 4. From the Place Beauvoisine (PI. D, 1) to the Jardin des Plantes (p. 53), via the Hotel de Ville an 1 the Pont C"rneille. — 5. From the Place de la Cathidrale (PI. D, 3) to the Place des Chartreux, via, the Pont Boieldieu and Rue St. Sever. — 6. From the Quai du Mont-Riboudet (PI. P., 3) to Damital (p. 31), via the Boul. Cauchoise, Hotel de Ville, and Place St. Hilaire (PI. G, 1). — 7. From the Avenue Pasteur (PI. A, 3) to the Rue de Lyons-la- Foret (Gare du Nord; PI. G, 2, 3), via the Hotel de Ville. — 8. Circular Line via the quays and houlevards. — Fares: within the town, 15 c. 1st class, 10 c. 2nd cl.; outside the town, 10 and 5 or 15 and 10 c. The halting-places are marked by white posts. — Cable-Tramway to Bonse- cours, see p. 58.

Steamboats. To Im Bouille (p. 59) in l'/zbr., from the Quai de la Bourse, 5 times daily (7 times on Sun. and holidays) in summer; fares 80 c, 60 c, returning by rail from La Londe or La Bouille-Moulineaux (p. 59), or vice versa, 2 fr. 35, 1 fr. 60 c, 1 fr. (omnibus to station extra). Stations, see p. 59. — A service also plies upstream to Oissel (40 c), via Eauplet, Amfreville-Mi-Voie, La Poterie-Belbeuf, St. Adrien, and Port-St-Ouen. — To Eauplet in connection with the cable-railway at Bonsecours, see p. 58. — To Le Havre, see p. 59. — To London direct, see p. xiv.

Post & Telegraph Office, Rue Jeanne d'Arc 45 (PI. C, 2).

Theatres. Thl&tre des Arts (PI. D, 3, 4), Quai de la Bourse (adm. 60 c. -51/2 fr.); Thl&tre Frangais (PI. C, 3), Vieux Marche" (8/4-6 fr.); Folies Bergere (PI. E, 4), He Lacroix G/2-2V2 fr.).

English Library & Reading Room, Rue Beauvoisine 26.

British Consul, Lieut. H. E. O'Neill, R. 2V., Rue Beauvoisine 49. — American Consul, Chat. P. Williams, Esq., Rue Thiers 38; Vice-Consul, E. M. J. Dellepiane.

English Church. All Saints, He de la Croix, services on Sun. at 11 and 3. Chaplain, Rev. Thomas Campbell. — Wesleyan Church, at the corner of the Rue Grand Pont and the Rue Madeleine; services on Sun. at 11 and 6.30.

Rouen, formerly the capital of Normandy , now that of the De- partment of the Seine-In ferieure, and the seat of an archhishop, with 113,220 inhah., is a very important cotton - manufacturing place, sometimes not very aptly called the Manchester of France. It is the richest of French cities in mediaeval architecture, though the construction within the last forty years of handsome streets like those of Paris has swept away most of the quaint old houses, that abounded in the former crooked and picturesque but not very healthy streets. The old walls of the town, which bade defiance to Henry V. of England in 1415 and to Henri IV of France in 1592, have been converted into boulevards planted with trees.

Pouen is the Rotomagus of the Romans. The Normans, under Hasting (some say Ogier the Dane), penetrated thus far in 841, in their first in- vasion of France ; and returning in 876 under Rollo, made themselves masters of the district and established a duchy here in 912. This was the nucleus of the duchy of Normandy, which sent forth William the Conqueror in 1066. The last Duke of Normandy was King John of England, who mur- dered his nephew , Arthur of Brittany, in the castle of Rouen , and was dispossessed by Philip Augustus in 1204. Rouen was retaken by the Eng- lish in 1419, and retained until 1449. In 1431 it was the scene of the con- demnation and burning of Joan of Arc (see p. 50). The town suffered severely in the later religious wars ; Catholics and Calvinists alternately held the upper hand and rivalled each other in cruelty. In 1592 the townsmen successfully resisted Henri IV; but they opened their gates to him four years later, after he had abjured Protestantism. The Revocation of the Edict of Nantes inflicted a severe, though temporary, blow on the prosperity of Rouen. — Among the famous natives of this town are Pierre

Baedeker's JIflrihern "Pran^p 3rd Edit 4

50 Route 5. ROUEN. Palais de Justice.

Corneille (1606-84), the dramatist, liia brother Thomas (1625-1709), Joummit (1647-1717) , Oiricault (1791-1824), the painter, and Boieldieu (1775-1834) the composer. Lord Chancellor Hyde, Earl of Clarendon, died in exile at Rouen in 1674.

Quitting the Gare de la Rive Droite (PI. 0, 1) , we turn to the left by the Rue Verte, whence we see to the left the fine tower (partly modern) of St. Romain (PI. 0, 1), a church of the 17-18th cent. , with a richly decorated interior. Farther on we cross the boulevards and enter the wide and handsome Rue Jeanne d'Arc, which runs in a straight line to the Seine. At the point of inter- section is a bronze statue, by Lefeuvre, of Armand Carrel (1800- 1836), a distinguished publicist. To the left is the Tour de Jeanne a" Arc (PL C, 1), the donjon of a castle built by Philip Augustus after the expulsion of the English in 1204, which was the scene of the trial of Joan of Arc; the tower in which she was imprisoned was pulled down in 1809. — On the E. side of the Jardin Solferino (PI. C, 2), farther down the Rue Jeanne d'Arc, is the Muse'e des Beaux- Arts (p. 54).

The Talais de Justice (PI. O, D, 2, 3), built by the architects Roger Ango and Roland Leroux in the florid late-Gothic style, re- sembles the handsome town-halls of Belgium, although consisting of two stories only. The central part of the edifice and the project- ing wings form an entrance-court, enclosed by a railing. The left wing, the Salle des Procureurs or des Pas-Perdus, erected in 1493, is a spacious hall with a high-pitched waggon-roof of timber, formerly used as an exchange. The central part was erected six years later, for the Cour de I'Echiquier, the supreme tribunal (Parle- ment) of Normandy, and its facade is very richly ornamented. The assizes are now held here. The lavish decorations of the interior are almost entirely modern. The Salle des Assises has a fine cassetted ceiling in carved wood. The courts are open to the public when in session, and- at other times visitors apply to the concierge, who lives in the right wing, a modern addition (fee). — Behind the Palais de Justice, Rue St. L6 40, is the Hotel des Societes Savantes, containing a good Commercial Museum, open daily, except Sun. and holidays, 9-12 and 2-4 or 6.

Keturning to the Rue Jeanne d'Arc, we descend it to the first street on the left, which brings us to the Tour de la Orosse Horloge or Beffroi (Belfry ; Pi: C, 3), erected in 1389 and restored in 1892. The clock, which has two large sculptured dials, is placed on a kind of Porch of the 16th century. In the basement of the tower is a fountain, with figures of Alpheus and Arethusa, and beneath the porch are bas-reliefs representing the Good Shepherd. The Kue Thouret, to the left, beyond the tower, leading past the former Hotel de Ville (16th cent.) to the Palais de Justice (see above), is named after J. C. Thouret, deputy from Rouen to the Tiers-Etat in 1789; his bust is on the left. — Opposite the end of the Rue de la Grosse Horloge rists the —


ROUEN. 5. Route. 51

♦Cathedral, or Notre-Dame (PL D , 3) , one of the grandest Gothic edifices in Normandy, although remarkably unsymmetrioal in plan. The principal parts date from 1270-80. The central portal of the * W. Facade was erected by Cardinal d'Amhoise, the favourite minister of Louis XII., at the beginning of the 16th cent. , and is profusely decorated in the florid style. The sculptures over the chief entrance, of no great merit, represent the Genealogy of Christ, with the Beheading of John the Baptist on the left, and the Virgin and saints on the right. The two unfinished towers of the facade are of unequal height. The *Tour de Beurre, the loftier and more beautiful , 252 ft. in height, derives its name from having been erected with the money paid for indulgences to eat butter during Lent. The other, the Tour St. Romain, is 245 ft. high ; with the ex- ception of the highest story, it dates from the 12th cent., and is thus the oldest part of the whole building. The beautiful Central Tower, over the transept, is surmounted by an incongruous iron spire (since a fire in 1822), which reaches the height of 465 ft.

The two side-portals, dating from the 16th cent., are of great interest, especially that on the N., called the *Portail des Libraires from the book-stalls that once occupied the court. The sculptures on the tympanum (unfinished) represent the Resurrection and the Last Judgment, those on the archivolt, saints and angels, the others, grotesque subjects. The S. portal is known as the Portail de la Calende, from a brotherhood that used to assemble here on the 'Calends' or first day of each month. The sculptures above the en- trance represent scenes from the Passion ; the others correspond to

those of the N. portal.

The Interior of the church (447 ft. in length ; transept 177 ft in length ; nave and aisles 105 ft. in width ; 92 ft. in height) is in the early-Pointed ftyle, and possesses three fine rose-windows in the nave and transepts. The choir has double aisles, and the transepts are divided into middle and side aisles by columns and arches of the same design as those in the nave. The axis of the church slopes a little towards the E. end. 'Above the pillars and arches of the nave runs another line of both in place of a triforium; above this again are two galleries one above the other; and higher yet, and crowning all, is seen the clerestory with its windows, so that there are five horizontal divisions in the walls of the nave, which has no pa-allel in England.1 ( Wi/ikler'! '■French Cathedi-aW). Part of the stained glaiS dates from the 13th century. The first chapel on the right, in the Tour de Beurre, contains a large altar-piece, representing the Cru- cifixion and the Martyrdom of St. Stephen, and also several monument* of the 13th and 14th centuries. The last chapel on the S. side of the nave contains the tomb of Rollo (d. 927), first Duke of Normandy, and the cor- responding chapel on the N. side that of his son William Longue-Epe'e (d. 943) From the N. transept a beautiful Gothic staircase, with open tracery, ascends to the chapter-library (p. 52). The modern pulpit in the nave and the organ-case (17-I3th cent.) should be noticed.

In front of the Choir is a poor rood-loft of the 18th century. The iron screens of the chapels are closed except during service (apply to the sacristan; fee). In the S. ambulatory is an ancient mutilated figure in lime- stone, 7 ft in height, of Richard Coeur-de-Lion (d 1199), discovered in 1838 ; his heart is interred below. Its original resting-place in the choir is in- dicated by a small marble tablet. In the N. ambulatory is a correspond- ing (modern) figure of Henry II. of England (d. 118 j), who also is buriei


52 Route 5. ROUEN. St. Maclou's.

in the choir. The high-altar is a sumptuous modern work in marhle and gilt bronze.

The beautiful "Lady Chapel contains several magnificent monuments. The Gothic chapel-like tomb to the left on entering is that of Duke Pierre II. de Brizi (d. 1465), seneschal of Normandy. Adjoining is the monument of his grandson, Louis de Brizi (d. 1530), also seneschal of Normandy, erected by his widow, the well-known Diana of Poitiers (d. 1566), mistress of Henri II, and attributed to Jean Cousin and Jean Goujon. — Farther on is the Monu- ment of Cardinal de Cray (d. 1844), erected in 1857. — The most imposing of all is the magnificent ""Monument of Cardinal George d'Amboise (d. 1510), the powerful minister of Louis XII., and his nephew, who was also a cardinal, by Roland Leroux, erected in 1518-25, but modified after 1541 when the second kneeling statue was added. In the centre are kneeling statues of the cardinals, and behind them a bas-relief of St. George and the dragon and statues of Christ, the Virgin, and six saints. The six sta- tuettes below represent the virtues, those above the Apostles. The whole is remarkable for its exquisite finish and is ranked among the chefs- d'oeuvre of the Renaissance in France. — The altar-piece, an Adoration of the Shepherds, is by Phil, de Champaigne.

The Chapter Library (comp. p. 51) contains the Treasury of the cath- edral, open to visitors in summer (small fee). The objects of interest here include the leaden coffin of Richard Cceur-de-Lion, Flemish and Aubusson tapestry, reliquaries including the 'fierte de St. Romain' (see p. 53), vases, books and MSS., monstrances of the 14th cent., a portrait of Card. York, the last of the Stuarts, etc.

Visitors may ascend to the top of the spire, on applying to the con- cierge at the Portail des Libraires (2 fr. for 1-4 pers. ; 50 c. each additional pers.); 812 steps. View like that from the Eglise de Bonsecours (p. 58), but more extensive.

Opposite the main entrance of the cathedral is a handsome build- ing of the 16th cent., by Roland Leroux, known as the Bureau des Finances. The old Cour des Comptes (16th cent.), to the left of the main portal, has been partly unmasked by building-operations in 1897.

The extensive pile immediately behind the cathedral is the Arch- bishop's Palace (partly 15th cent.). It has a doorway by Mansard and contains four paintings by Hubert Robert. — Proceeding towards the W. from this point and crossing the Rue de la Republique, we reach the church of —

  • St. Maclou (PI. E, 3), a very rich example of the florid Gothic

style of the 15th century. The modern spire above the crossing, com- pleted in 1869, is 255 ft. high. The W. * Portal, a very elaborate piece of work, has a pentagonal porch. The exquisitely carved reliefs on the wooden * Doors are ascribed to Jean Goujon; and in the Last Judgment of the tympanum bas-relief Mr. Ruskin finds a 'fearful grotesqueness' worthy of the united powers of Orcagna and Hogarth. The chief points of interest in the interior are the Gothic staircase leading to the organ (16th cent.), the stained glass (15-16th cent.), and the organ-case and other carvings.

At No. 188, Rue Martainville, a short distance from the church, are the Cloisters of St. Maclou, an ancient cemetery enclosed with arcades, now converted into school -buildings. On the pillars still linger some sculptured fragments of a Dance of Death.

We now return to the Rue de la Republique and descend it to the left. At the corner of the Rue Alsace-Lorraine, to the left, stands the Maison Sauton-Ooujon, a large modern edifice in the

Quays. ROUEN. 5. Route. 53

Renaissance style, with elaborate carving. The Rue des Halles, lower down, leads to the right to the Anciennes Halles (PI. D, 3), where there is a curious monument of the Renaissance in the shape of the Chapelle St. Romain (1542-43), a covered terrace, under which runs a vaulted passage. The ancient ceremony of the 'leve'e de la flerte', or raising of the reliquary of St. Romain by a condemned prisoner, who thus obtained pardon , used to be performed here every year on Ascension Day. Passing under the archway of the chapel, we soon reach the quays.

The Quays extend for l'/2 M. along the banks of the Seine, here upwards of 300 yds. in breadth. The river is even at this distance from the sea (80 M.) affected by the tide, and a harbour of con- siderable depth and capacity has been formed at Rouen by means of dredging, extending, and embanking the channel of the river. The Pont Corneille, or 'Stone Bridge' (PI. D, 4}, constructed in 1829, passes over the lower end of the He Lacroix, where there is a Statue of Corneille (p. 54), by David d'Angers. Farther down is the Pont Bo'ieldieu (PI. D, 4) , a handsome iron bridge, erected in 1885-88. Still farther down a '■Pont Transbordeur', or moving bridge slung from two lofty towers, is under construction. Above the Pont Cor- neille is the Porte Ouillaume-le-Lion (PI. E, 3), a relic of the old walls (1749), with sculptures by CI. Le Prince. The church of Bonsecours and the monument of Jeanne d'Arc on the hill beyond are well seen from the quays.

On the opposite bank lies the suburb of St. Sever, in which are the Oare de la Rive Gauche (p. 48 ; PI. D, E, 5), and the Oare d'Orleans (p. 48; PI. C, D, 5).

This suburb offers few attractions to the tourist. The Hue La Fayette and Rue St. Sever leading directly from the above-mentioned bridges, con- verge at the modern church of St. Sever. The Jardin des Plantes (tram- way), about >/* M. thence, is uninteresting. The street to the right in front of St. Sever, and then the Rue St. Julien, to the left, bring us to the modern Romanesque church of St. CUment, in front of which is the Monument of the Abbi de la Salle (1651-1719), founder of the society of Freres de la Doctrine Chretienne or 'Ignorantins\ The society is sometimes spoken of as the Freres de St. Yon, from the house in Rouen which was their headquarters from 1705 till 1770 and where the abbe died.

Parallel to the Quai de la Bourse, which extends along the N. bank to the W. of the Pont Bo'ieldieu, stretches the Cours Bo'ieldieu, a favourite promenade, where a band plays occasionally in summer. At one end is the Theatre des Arts (PI. D, 3, 4) , and at the other a bronze Statue of Bo'ieldieu (p. 50). Adjacent are the Bourfe or Exchange (PI. C, 4), an 18th cent, building, and the new Hotel des Telegraphes et Telephones. At the "W. end of the Quai de la Bourse is the Douane (PI. C, 4).

We leave the quay and re-enter the town by the Rue Jeanne d'Arc (comp. p. 50). On the left rises the pretty little Gothic church of St. Vincent (PI. C, 3), built in the 16th cent., with a tower added in the 17th, It has double aisles, but no transept. The W._ entrance,

54 Route 5. ROUEN. H6t. du Bourgtheroulde.

with its graceful porch, and the S. portal, with its fine wooden doors, should be noticed.

The "Stained Glass (16th cent.) in the aisles and amtulatory of this church is the finest in Rouen. The windows at the ends of the N. aisle, by Engrand and Jean le Prince, ofl'eauvais, are considen d the best; tkey represent the Works of Mercy and the Glorification of the Virgin. In the chapels on each side of the choir are some good wood-carvings (16th cent.), and in the sacristry are eight tapestries of the same date (shown on request).

Farther to the N. , on the same side of the street, is the handsome Tour St. Andre (PL C, 3), a relic of an old church of the 15-16th centuries. It stands in a small square, on one side of which the front of a timber-dwelling of 1520 has been re-erected. View from the tower, ascended by an easy staircase (always open ; fee).

The Rue des Ours, running to the W. from this point, leads to the small Place de la Pucelle (PL C, 3) , long supposed to be the scene of the burning of Joan of Arc (comp. below). The place is now occupied by a paltry flgure of Joan over a fountain.

The *H6tel du Bourgtheroulde (PL C, 3), on the W. side of the Place (No. 15), erected at the close of the 15th cent., in the style of the Palais de Justice, is adorned with numerous reliefs, some of which represent the interview on the 'Field of the Cloth of Gold' (1520; p. 22). The graceful hexagonal tower is decorated with sculp- tures, and the windows are also very beautiful. The building is now occupied by a bank, but the court open to the public on week- days (on Sun. apply to the concierge).

A little higher up than the Place de la Pucelle is the Place du Vieux-Marclie (PL 0, 3), where Joan of Arc was burned in 1431, on the spot marked by a cross on our plan.

The liouse in which Corneille was born is No. 4, Rue Corneille, to the S.W. of the Place (PI. B, 3) ; his dwelling-house, now public pr. perty, is ,■ ituated at Petit-Couronne (p. 59), u1/^ M. to the S.W.

From the N.W. corner of the Vieux Marche the Rue Cauchoise leads to the Place Cauchoise (PL B, 2), with a monument to Pouyer- Quertier, minister of finance in 1871, by Guilloux (1894). Thence the Rue Thiers leads back to the Jardin Solferino, with the Muse'e.

The Musee-Bibliotheque (PL C, 2), a handsome modern edi- fice by Sauvageot, with little ornamentation, was opened in 1888. In front of the entrance facing the garden are seated figures of Michael Anguier and Nic. Poussin, and on the basement, to the right, is a medallion of 6. Flaubert (1821-80), the author, a native of Rouen. The *Musee des Beaux-Arts is open daily from 10 (Mon. from 12) to 4 or 5; gratis on Thurs., Sun., and holidays, other days 1 fr. The great staircase in the vestibule ascends to the ceramic collections. To the right and left on the groundfloor are the sculp- ture rooms , and beyond them the collections of ancient (right) and modern (left) paintings. Sticks and umbrellas must be given up (no fee). Catalogue 1 fr.

Sculptures. Room to the Left. 9T2. E. Leroux, Rachel; 930. Pollet, Eloah ; d7(L Leharivel- Durocher , Young girl and Cupid; 974. Mansion, Nymph

Mutie. ROUEN. 5. Route. 55

of Diana; 989. Lefevre-Deumier, Morning-star; 988. Simart, Orestes; 991. Vasselot, Chloe; busts and casts. — The Room to the Right chiefly con- tains casts, many of which are from the monument of Gen. Bom-hamps by David d Angers, and from that of the painter Gericault (p. 50) by Etex. 931. Seated figure of P. Corneille by Caffteri; 981. Bacchanal, by Pradier.

Paintings. Old Masters. I. Large Room. To the left: no number, De Troy, Susanna and the elders; 320. Largilliere, Portrait; 498. Rigaud, Louis XV.; De Troy, 562. Ascension, 563. Assumption; 476. J. B. Pierre, Ascension ; Patel, 464. Summer, 465. Spring ; 241. Halli (Rouen), Nativity ; 543, 542. Stella, Bacchanals; 113. /. B. Corneille, Raising of Lazarus; 500. Rizzo, Hagar and Ishmael; 676. Italian School, Madonna and Child; 4^9. Rizzo, Isaac blessing Jacob; 34. Berghem, Concert; 613. School of Rubens, Adoration of the Shepherds ; 453. Netscher, Concert; 429. P. van Mol, Generos- ity of Scipio; 190. A. van Everdingen, Landscape; 551. Tiepolo, A game of cards ; 422. P. Mignard, Mme. de Maintenon. In the centre, bronze figure of Cupid, by Marquette. — The two Small Rooms next the garden contain portraits of Albert of Austria and his wife by Van Tktilden (552, 553), a landscape by Huysmans (260, and other Flemish works.

II. Large Room. To the left: 570. Velazquez, 615. Flemish School, Portraits; Ribera, 494. The Good Samaritan, 493. Zachariah; 621. Flemish School, Portrait; 236. Ouercino, Visitation; no number, Spanish School (nth cent.), St. Peter weeping; 537. Solimena, Columbus receiving the Papal Bull before his second voyage to America (1493); 88. Valerio Gastelli, Madonna; 8». Ann. Carracci, St. Francis of Assisi; *472-474. Pertigino, Adoration of the Magi, Baptism of Christ, Resurrection (predelle of the Ascension at Lyons); "572. Veronese, St. Barnabas healing the sick; "5. Cara- vaggio, Philosopher; 172. Dolci, 'Caritas Rumana1 ; 573. Veronese, Vision. — 510. Steen, Wafer-seller; 430. Van Mol, Head of an old man; "210. Gerard David, Madonna and saints; 303. de Ktyser, The music lesson; 274. Jor- daens, Head of an old man; 362. Lemonnier, Plague at Milan ; 491. Restout, Presentation in the Temple; 365. Lemonnier, same subject; "556. Tilborg, Village- feast; "648. School of Fontainebleau , Diana bathing; 564. Fr. de Troy, Duchesse de la Force; 421. Mignard, Ecce Homo; 36?. Le Nain, Nativity ; 149. L. David, Mme. Lebrun; 481. Poussin. Venus and ./Eneas ; 284. Jouvenet, Death of St. Francis; 536. Snyders, Boar-hunt; 160, 162. Deshays, Martyrdom of St. Andrew; 309. Lahire, Adoration of the Shepherds.

The III. Large Room contains 31 works by Jouvenet, who was a native of Rouen ; also : H. Robert, 505, 504. Monuments and ruins ; Lahire, 310. Nativity, 312. Descent from the Cross; 165. Desportes, Stag-hunt; 457. Oudry, Deer pursued by hounds; 631. Poussin, St. Denis. — Small End Room. Unimportant works of the French School. — I. Room to the Right, on the side next the street. Drawings by Gbricault and other masters. — II. Room to the Right. Works of the Italian School. 54, 675. Unknown Artists, Madonnas; 20. Bassano, Adoration of the Shepherds; 686. School of Pinturicchio , Madonna in glory; 55. School of Botticelli, Vesials; 705. Unknown Artist, Mass ; 608, 607. Zuccarelli, Landscapes ; 85. Agostino Car- racci, Christ appearing to Mary Magdalen ; 4. Garavaggio, St. Sebastian and Irene, etc. — The Gallery on the other side of the large rooms contains ancient and modern drawings , a few fine crayons (Girl surprized , by Machard) and four paintings including (19) a Circumcision atlributed to Bassano. — The staircases at the end of this gallery lead to the other wing of the building.

Modern Pictures. Small Room at the end (to the right in approaching from the Sculpture Room). Works by Euphimie Muralon. — Large Room. To the left: <>49. Hermann, Dogs; 177. Dubufe, Study; 147. Daubigny, Landscape; 495. Ribot, Alonso Cano on the scaffold; 148. Daubigny, Banks of the Oise; 196. Flameng. Taking of the Bastille; 239. Guillemct, Beach at Villers (Calvados); 97. Chaplin, Game at lotto; 604. Ziem, Constantino- ple; 489. Renovf, The Pilot; no number, Phil. Zacharie, The Temptation; 58. L. Boulanger, Mazeppa. — 25. liellangi, Charge of cavalry at Marengo; 539. Sorieul, Episode on the retreat from Moscow; no number, Cormon, The victors of Salamis; 265. Ingres, 'La Belle Zelie'. — 192. G. Ferrier, Death of St. Agnes; 10. Barillot, Cattle; 419. Merson, St. Isidore of Madrid;

56 Route 5. ROUEN. -St. Ouen.

116, 115. Corot, Views ofVille d'Avray; 214-220. Giricoull, Studies, Portrait of Eug. Delacroix ; 106. Clairin, Massacre of the Abencerrages ; 152. B. Dela- croix, Justice of Trajan; 605. Ziem, Landscape; 507. Rochegrosse, Andro- mache; 515. Phil. Rousseau, The Cheeses; 649. Pelouse, The Seine at Poses; 375. Leroy, Christ at the house of Lazarus; 548. Tabar, Death of Brunhilda ; 169. DUterle, At the shrine of St. Georges ; 544. Stevens, Dog's work ; 124. D. Couvl (of Rouen), Boissy d'Anglas presiding at the Convention. — Galleri ad- joining the street: 466. Patrois, Joan of Arc led to the stake; 146. Dantan, Quoit - players ; 155. Dimarest, The last voyage; 224. Glaize, The miserly housekeeper; no number, J. Leman, Portrait-group in a studio; 125. Court, Portrait ; several landscapes ; 223. Giraud, Bowls at Pont Aven (p. 260). — Small Rooms overlooking the garden. 119. Courant, 41. Berthilemy, Sea- pieces; 527. Sautai, Dante in exile. — Gallery adjoining the Sculpture Room. 531. Lebron, Street in New York; 150. Defaux, Banks of the Loire; 11. Aviat, Charlotte Corday ; 24,. Bazin, Louis XIV. dissolving the Parlement; 403. Maignan, Clovis II. ; 376. Lesrel, In a gambling-house ; 134. Court, Sketch for the picture of Mirabeau and Dreux Bre'ze, at Versailles.

The Second Floor (open Sun. and Thurs. only), reached by the staircase beyond the last room, contains a Collection, of Engravings and a supplement- ary Picture Gallery, consisting chiefly of modern works of secondary im- portance.

The Ceramic Collection, occupying six rooms on the first floor, consists mainly of an extensive series of Rouen faience of the 17-18th centuries. The best period of the manufacture is represented in Room I. — The stair- case from the vestibule (p. 54) is decorated with a group of Hercules and the Hydra, by P. Puget, and with paintings ('Inter Artes et Naturam"), by Puvis de Chavannes.

The Municipal Library (adm. daily, 10-5), in the building at the back of the Muse'e, contains 132,000 printed books, 3500 MSS., 2700 medals and coins, and about 2000 portraits of eminent Normans.

At the angle of the Muse'e adjoining the Rue Thiers is the Mon- ument of Bouilhet (1824-69), poet and dramatist, a fountain with bust by E. Guillaume. Opposite is the desecrated Church of St. Lau- rent (15-1 6th cent.), with an interesting tower.

Behind St. Laurent is the church of St. Godard(Pl.D,2), dating partly from the 16th century. The nave and aisles of this church are of equal size and unvaulted ; the former terminates in an apse of three sides. Most of the fine stained glass is either modern or restored. The chapels to the right and left of the choir each contain a good window of the 16th century. The choir itself is decorated with mural paintings by Le He'naff, and contains a gilded canopy.

If the afternoon is advanced, visitors should go direct from this church to the Museum of Antiquities (closed at 4 or 5; p. 57); other- wise they may follow the Rue Thiers to the Place de t Hotel-de-Ville.

Here stands the church of **St. Ouen (PI. D, E, 2), one of the most beautiful Gothic churches in existence, surpassing the cath- edral, both in extent and in excellence of style. Most of it was built in 1318-39, by Alex. Berneval; but the W. Portal, flanked by two towers 282 ft. in height, and unfortunately a little too small, was erected in 1846-52. The Tower over the transept, 268 ft. in height and flanked with graceful turrets, is surmounted by an octagonal open-work lantern, terminating in a gallery (called 'La Couronne de Normandie') which commands a fine prospect. The N. Facade, which is adjoined by the Hotel de Ville (p. 57), has no lateral portal;

■ Fontaine Ste. Marie. ROUEN. 5. Route. 57

but the S. *Portail des Marmousets, so called from the heads with which it is adorned, deserves minute inspection. The reliefs over the door represent the Death and Assumption of the Virgin. Above this portal is a magnificent rose-window, still higher is an arcade with six statues, and the whole is crowned with a pediment hearing a statue of St. Ouen (d. 678), Archbishop of Rouen.

Interior. The proportions of the church (453 ft. in length, 84 ft. in width; transept 138 ft. in length; 106 ft. in height) are remarkably pleas- ing. There are no lateral chapels off the nave. The walls appear to he almost entirely displaced by the numerous windows, 135 in number, all filled with stained glass (14-16th cent.). The unusually lofty triforium is exceedingly beautiful. In the nave and transepts are three fine rose- windows, also filled with stained glass. The graceful and light effect produced by the interior is largely due to the absence of non-structural ornamentation. None of the few works of art in the church are par- ticularly noteworthy, except, perhaps, the tombs of two abbe's of St. Ouen in the Lady Chapel. — The verger (fee) shows the choir-chapels, some of which contain goud 16th cent, tapestries, and points out several spots which command fine views of the interior. The fine hammered iron rail- ing round the choir was executed by Nic. Flambart in 1738-47. The gor- geous modern Gothic high-altar was designed by Sauvageot. The whole of the interior is reflected in the benitier near the W. door. — The visitor should not omit to ascend to the triforium and the outer gallery (I fr. each pers.).

The Hdtel de Ville (PI. D, E, 2), on the N. side of the church, a building in the Italian style, was formerly part of the monastery of St. Ouen. It_ contains handsome staircases, portraits of illustrious natives of Rouen, and statues of Corneille, Joan of Arc, andLouisXV. In front of the edifice rises a mediocre Equestrian Statue of Napoleon I., by Vital-Dubray. At the back of St. Ouen's and the Hotel de Ville is a public garden, embellished with statues. The Chambre aux Clercs, a Norman tower of the 11th cent., adjoins the church on this side, and probably formed part of an earlier church.

A little beyond Ihe garden is the church of SI. Vivien (PI. E, 2), dating from the 14-16th cent., with an organ-case of the 17th cent., a marble altar-piece of the 18th cent., etc.

We now ascend the Rue de la Republique to the N. , passing the Lycee Corneille (PI. D, 1), the chapel of which dates from the 17th century. The facade of the latter fronts the Rue Bourg-i'Abbe'. At the top of the Rue de la Re'publique is the large *Fontaine Ste. Marie (PI. D, 1), by Falguiere and Deperthes. The group on the top consists of a figure of Rouen, seated in an antique ship, and surrounded by genii and symbolical figures.

To the left is an old convent, containing the Museum of Anti- quities and the Museum of Natural History (PI. D, 1).

The "Antiquarian Museum (open daily, 10 to 4 or 5, except on Mon. and Sat.) comprises sculptures and wood -carvings of the middle ages; beautiful stained-glass windows and other articles from churches and sup- pressed monasteries; Roman mosaics and other antiquities; weapons; fine iron-work; coins, medals, etc. Among the most interesting objects are a wooden "Ciborium of the 16th cent., an enamelled "Goblet by P. Raymond, a "Chimney-piece in carved wood, painted and gilded (16th cent.), a largo, "Mosaic found at Lillebonne (p. 64) in 1J570, another mosaic of Orpheus and the animals, etc.

58 Route 5. ROUEN. Environ*.

The Museum d'Htstotre Naturelle, the entrance to which is a little lower down, is open daily, 10 to 4 or 5 (on Mon. from 12). The col- lection of birds on the second floor is noteworthy.

The church of St. Patrice (PI. C, 2), in the Rue St. Patrice, contains *Stained Glass dating from the 16- 17th cent., little inferior to that in St. Vincent (p. 54). The allegorical window at the end of the N. aisle, attributed to J. Cousin, is considered the best.

St. Gervais (PI. A, 1), about 3/4 M. farther W., is a Koraanesque church rebuilt in 1872-74, with a curious old crypt of the 4th cent- ury. William the Conqueror died in the priory to which the church belonged in 1087 (comp. p. 43).

Environs of Rouen.

From Bouen to Bonsecouks. — Steamboat from the Stone Bridge to Eauplet (2nd station) at 15 and 45 min. past each hour; Cable Railway from Eauplet to the top, returning at 15 and 45 min. past each hour. Fares, to Eauplet 15, to the top 35, down 30 c, return-fare 60 c. — Omnibus direct, starting at the Stone Bridge, 50 c.

There are, several cafe's and restaurants near the church: Casino, dej. 2l/a, D- 3fr. ; A Ma Campagne, Route de Paris 75, to the left as we come from the church, dej. 2, D. 21/* fr. ; etc.

Bonsecours, situated on a hill on the right bank of the Seine, 2 M. above Rouen, is a favourite resort for the sake of the view, the church, and the monument to Joan of Arc. The expedition is best made by means of the steamer and cable-railway (see above), which lands travellers near the church and the monument. The road , by which we may return, passes to the right of the church.

The Church op Bonsecours, a pilgrim-resort, built in 1840-42 in the pointed style of the 13th cent., with modern stained glass in a contemporary style, is richly decorated in the interior with poly- chrome paintings. The gilded bronze altar, the statues in the sanctu- ary, the choir-stalls, pavement, pulpit , and organ are noteworthy.

The Monument of Joan of Arc, perhaps more a commercial speculation (adm. 25 c.; closed 12-1.30) than a work of patriotism, consists maiuly of three elegant little Renaissance buildings, by Lisch, connected by a platform. The principal chapel, with a dome surmounted by a St. Michael, encloses a statue of Joan of Arc, by Barrias ; the other two have statues of SS. Catharine and Margaret (by Pe'pin and Verlet), whose voices are supposed to have first in- spired Joan.

The *View from the platform embraces the city, the course of the river for many miles above and below Rouen, and in the distance the verdant hills of Normandy.

f'anteleu, picturesquely situated on the road to Le Havre, 4'/2 M. to the W. of Rouen, has a chateau built by Mansart. About 2 M. farther on is St. Mariin-de-Boscherville, with the magnificent ruined Abbey of St. Georges~ de-Boscherville, dating from the ll-12th centuries. The "Church, still in toler- able preservation, retains some mural paintings of the 12th cent., as well as some stnined glass of the 16th. The Chapter Bouse was added in the 17th century. — Duclair (p. 65) is 5 M. from St. Jlartin.

A pleasant steamboat-excursion may be taken to La Bouille, a small hut busy town, I2V2 M. below Rouen, see p. 58.

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Environs. ROUEN. 5. Route. 59

From Rouen to Le Hayek by the Seine, abi.ut 80 J'., steamboat every second day in summer (daily from July 15th to Sept. 15th), in Vfe hrs. ; fare 6fr., 4 fr. ; return-ticket available by railway in one direction and valid for three days, 13 fr., 9 fr. ; restaurant on board, dej. 4, D. 5 fr., incl. wine. This trip is recommended in fine weather, at least as far as Caudebec (p. 65) ; but only one of the steamboats (the 'Eclair) has a deck- saloon (1st cl. only). The steamers start from the Quai de la Bourse (PI. C, D, 4) , and passengers may embark or disembark in small boats (50 c. ; 25 c. each for a party) on giving previous notice, at La Bouille (p. 58), Duclair (p. 65), Jumieges (p. 65), Guerbaville-la-ifailleraye, Caudebec Ip. 65), Villequier (p. 65), Quillebeuf (Tancarville ; p. 64), and Honfleur (p. 172). Le Havre (Quai Notre-Dome), see p. 60.

Fkom Eouen to Orleans, via Elbeuf, Dheux, and Chaktres, 145 M., railway in 63A-83/4 hrs. (fares 22 fr. 20, 16 fr. 35, 11 fr. 75 c). To Elbeuf, 14 M., railway in V*-3/« hr. (fares 2 fr., 1 fr. 40, 80 c). The trains start from the Gare d'Orle'ans (p. 48), and follow the left bank of the Seine, at some distance from the river. — 2 M. Petit-Quevilly ; 3'/2 M. Grand-Quevilly. 5l/zM. Petit- Couronne, with Corneille's dwelling-house (p. 54), now a museum (adm. 10-4). Before and after (9'/2 M ) La Bouil! e-Moulineaux we enjoy a fine retrospective view of Rouen. The train next traverses three long tunnels and a viaduct, and once more skirts the left hank of the river.

14 M. Elbeuf (Grand H6UI, Place de FHotel-de-Ville), a cloth-manu- facturing town with 20,540 inhab., on the left bank of the Seine. The churches of St. Jean, near the Place de la Mairie, and S(. Etienne, about '/« M. to the S.W., both dating from the Renaissance period, contain good stained glass of the 14-15th centuries. The Gare d'Elbeuf-St-Aubin (p. 42) lies on the right hank of the Seine, about l'/2 M. from the Gare dElbeuf- Ville or d'Orlcans (for Rouen, Dreux, Chartres, and Orleans), on the opposite hank. — Branch under construction to (14 M.) Le Nmbourg (p. 156), whither an omnibus (2 fr.) plies at present. Steamboat to Rouen.

Beyond (21 M.) Tostes the line enters the Foret de Louviers, and beyond (26 M.) St-Germain-de-Louviers the Eure is crossed. — 26^2 M. Louviers ("Mouton; Grand Cerf), an imi ortant cloth-manufacturing town with 10,200 inhab., is situated on the Eure. The Gothic church of Notre Dame has a magnificent S. portal of the 15th century. Branch to St. Pierre- du-Vauvray, s':e p. 42. — Between Louviers and Dreux the rail" ay follows the valley of the Eure, which presents no striking scenery. From (30'/2 M.) Acquigny a line runs to Evreux (p. 155); and from (4572 M.) Pacy-sur-Eure (Lion d^r) another runs to Vernon (p. 43). — 52 M. Bueil is also a station on the line from Paris to Cherbourg (p. 155). 54'/2 M. Ivryla-Bataille, famous for the victory gained in 1590 by Henri IV over the League, celebrated by Macaulay in a stirring lay. A pyramid commemorates the event. In the neighbourhood are the ruins of a castle and some remains of an abbey of the 11th century. — 58 M. Ezy-Anet (Hot. de 1 >i. ne). The famous Chateau d'Anet, 1 M. to the S.E., was built in 1548-1552 for Diana of Poitiers by Philibert Delorme at the command of Henry II. Only a few remains of the original building are preserved, including the portal, i ne wing forming the present chateau, and the chapel, which still retains some sculptures by Jean Goujon and a marble mosaic. There is also a second chapel built by Diana, in which she was buried, but her monument is destroyed. — 60 M. Croth-Sorel, At St. Roch, on the opposite bank of the Eure, is the large paper-mill of the frm Firmin-Didot of Paris. — 71 M. Dreux (Buffet), see p. 182. The line now ascends the valley of the Blaise, passing several fmall stations. — 97 M. Chartres (Buffet), see p. 195. — Traversing the level plains of the Beav.ce (p. 264), our line intersects the railway from Paris to Vendome and Tours (see p. i67) at (113'/2 M.) Voves. It also crosses the Nogent-le-Rotrou and Orleans line (see p. 199) at (1291/2 M.) Patay, where Jeanne d'Arc and Dunois overthrew the English in 1429, and which was the scene of obstinate contests between the French and the Bavarians in 1870. — 145 M. OrUans, see p. 270.

From Rouen to Amiens, see p. 34; to and from London via Le Havre and Southampton, see pp. 64, xiii.


6. From Le Havre to Rouen (Paris).

From Le Havre to Paris, 14'/2 M., Railway in 31/2-71/4 hrs. (fares 25 fr. 55, 17 fr. 25, 11 fr. 23 c); to Rouen, see p. 64. — From London to Le Havre, see p. xiii.

Le Havre. — Hotels. *Gkand Hotel Feascati (PI. E, 4), on the beach, far from the centre of the town, R., L., & A. from 4, de'j. 4, D. 5 fr. ; Manoe House (PI. a; B, 4), Rue Jeanne d'Arc 3 ; Continental (PI. b; C, 4), opposite the Jete'e, these three of the first class; de Boedeaux (PI. d; C, 3), Place Gambetta, R., L., & A. 4-6, B. l'/4, dej. 3Vz, D. 4 fr. incl. wine, pens. 10-12 fr.; de Nokmandie (PI. e ; C, 3), Rue de Paris 106 and 108, R. 2-8, D. 3>/2 fr. ; d'Angleteeee (PI. f ; C, 2), Rue de Paris 124 and 126, R. 2-5, L. i/4, A. 1/2, B. 1, dej. 3, D. 3*/2 fr. incl. cider, pens. 8-10fr.; Toetoni (PI. g; C, 3), Place Gambetta, with cafe' (see below), R. from 3, pens. 8 fr. ; Richelieu

de-la-Ville-du-Havee (PI. k ; C, 4), Rue d'Estimauville 26; des Negociants (PI. 1 ; C, 3), Rue Corneille 5, pens. 9 fr. ; de l'Amieaute (PI. i ; C, 4), Grand <iuai, R. from 3, dej. 3, D. 372 fr. ; des Indes, Grand Quai 65, R., L. & A. 3-J, dej. 2]/2, D. 3'/2 fr. incl. cider; de Rouen, Rue de Paris 82, dej. 2, D. 21/2 fr. ; de Dieppe, Rue de Paris 76, dej. 11/2-2, D. 2-2V2 fr. — Geand Hotel Paeisien, opposite the Station, R. from 2, dej. 2V2, L>. 3 fr.

Restaurants. At the Hdlel de Bordeaux (see above); Tortoni, in the Arcades of the Place Gambetta, dej. 3, D. 4 fr. incl. wine; H61. de VAigle cVOr, dej. 2'/2, D. 3 fr. incl. cider; Plat d" Argent, Place Richelieu, dej. l3/4, D. 21/t fr., beer or cider included.

Cafes. Tortoni (see above) and others in the flace Gambetta ; Cafe' de V H6tel Frascati, on the quay; Grand Cafi International, Guillaume Tell, Place de l'Hotel -de -Ville; Cafi de Paris, Place Richelieu, etc.

Cabs. In the town, per drive 1 fr. 25 c, per hr. 2 fr. (after midnight 2 & 3 fr.) ; on the heights as far as the octroi-limits, per drive l3/4, per hr. 2'/4 fr. (after midnight 21/2 and 3 fr.) ; to Ste. Adresse (Le Carreau), per drive 13/4, per hr. 2>/4 fr. (3 fr. at night). Trunks, 20, 30, or 50 c.

Electric Tramways. 1. From the Jetie (PI. B, C, 4) to Graville (p. 64), via the Rue de Paris, the Hotel de Ville ('section'; see below), the Rue Thiers, and the Rond-Point, at the N. end of the Rue de la Re'publique (PI. G, 1). — 2. From the Jetie to the Station (PI. F, 2), via the Rues Aug.- Normand, Gustave-Cazavan, and de Bordeaux, the Place Gambetta, and Quai d'Orleans. — 3. From the Jetie to La Hive (see PI. A, 1 ; p. 64), via the Rue Auguste-Normand and Boul. Maritime. — 4. From the Hotel de Ville (PI. C, 2) to La Hive, via the Boul. de Strasbourg and Boul. Maritime. — 5. From the Rond Point (PI. G, 1) to Ste. Adresse (beyond PI. A, 1), via the Cours de la Republique, the Station, Boulevard de Strasbourg, Hotel de Ville, Rue St. Roch, and Kue d'Etretat. — 6. From the Station (PI. F, 2) to Sanvic and Bliville, via the Boul. de Strasbourg, Boul. Maritime, Rue Guillemard, etc. — 7. From the Grand Quai (PI. C, 4) to the Grands Bassins (PI. G, 5), via, the Rue de Paris, Hotel de Ville, Boul. de Strasbourg, the Station, Rue Laffitte, etc. — 8. From the Station (PI. F, 2) to the Abattoirs and the Chantiers de la Miditerranie (near the Seine), via thj Rue Laffitte. — 9. From the Boul. Amiral-Mouchez (E. of Place Amiral-Courbet; PI. G, 4) to Sanvic (comp. PI. A, 1), via, the Rue Bellot, the quays, Hotel de Ville, Rue Thiers, Rue des Penitents, etc. — 10. From the Place Thiers (Pi. D, 1) to Notre Dame (PI. C, 4), via, the Rue du Champ-de-Foire, the Bassin de la Barre, and the Rue Faidherhe. — 11. From the Place Gambetta (PI. C, 3) to the Cimetiire Ste. Marie (N.E.) via the Rue Ed. Larue, Rue Thiers, Rue desPe'ni- tents, etc. — Fares: 1st cl. 15 c, 2nd cl. 10 c, within the town, 5 c. extra with 'correspondance; outside the town, 10 c. or 5 c. extra.

Cable Railways. Funiculaire de la Cdte, from the lower station Rue Gustave-Flaubert 55bis (PI. D, 1), to the upper station, Rue de la Co'te 4i- fare 10 c. — Funiculaire Ste. Marie, from the Rue de Normandie near the

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LE HAVRE. 0. Route. 61

end of the Cours de la Re'publique (PI. G, 1), to the Cimetiere Ste. Marie (p. 64).

Steamboats , starting from the Grand Quai (PL C, D, 4), to Honfleur (p. 172) twice a day, in 3/4 hr. (fares 2 fr., 1 fr. 10, 60 c); to Rouen, daily or every second day in summer, in 7-8 hrs. (p. 59); to Trouville (p. 173), three or four times daily during the season, in 3/i hr. (fares 3 fr., 1 fr. 60, 85 c); to Caen (p. 166), daily, in 3-4 hrs. (fares 5 fr. 50, 3 fr. 50 c, return ticket 7 fr. 30, 5 fr. 30 c). — Steamers also to Southampton, London, New York (twice weekly), etc., see pp. xiii, xiv.

Porters ( Commissionnaires) meet the hoats from Honfleur, Trouville, etc ; landing or embarking a trunk 10 c; trunk from the quay to the station, 50 c. (bargain necessary), other packages 10-40 c.

Omnibus to Etretat (p. 70) in 3-3>/2 hrs., starting from the Place du Vieux-Marche at 7 a.m. and at 4 p.m. (fare 3fr. 60, 3 fr. 10c). See also p. 71.

Post & Telegraph Office (PI. C, D, 2), Boul. de Strasbourg 108. — Branch Office, Rue de Paris 1.

Baths. Sea Baths: Frascati, incl. costume and towel 60 c; ladies, 50c, with costume 1 fr.; guide-baigneur 50c; less for subscribers. — Fresh Water Baths: Bains Notre-Dame, Rue de Paris 22, near the quays.

Casinos. At the Hdtel Frascati; adm. 1 fr. ; subscription for the sea- son 30 fr. Casino Marie Christine, at Ste. Adresse (p. 64); adm. 1 fr.

Theatres. Grand Tht&lre, Place Gambetta; Thldlre-Cirque, Boul. de Stras- bourg 155. — Caf£ -Concert: Folies-Bergere, Rue Lemaitre 54 (PI. B, 3).

Bankers. Banque de France (PI. C, D, 1,2), Hue Thiers 22; Cridil Lyonnais, Boul. de Strasbourg 73 and Place de THotel-de-Ville 24; Sociiti Oinirale, Rue de la Bourse 27 and Place Carnot.

British Consul, E. Cecil HertsUt, Esq., Rue Ed. -Larue 5; vice-consul, J. S. Rotcell, Esq. (also Lloyd's agent). — American. Consul, Chas. W. Chan- cellor, Esq., Rue du Chilou 1 ; vice-consul, Cicero Brown, Esq.

English Church, Rue de Mexico; services at 10.30 and 6 (4.30 p.m. in winter). Chaplain, Rev. F. Millard, B. A., Rue Vacquerie 29. — Wesleyan Methodist Chapel, Place Gambetta 21; services at 11 and 6.30; ministers, Rev. A. S. Hocking and P. Ellenberger. — Mission to Seamen, Quai d'Orleans 89.

Le Havre , formerly called Havre -de- Grace , from a chapel of Notre-Dame-de-Grace founded by Louis XII. in 1509, is a hand- some town with broad streets, but it contains few special points of interest. Its situation at the mouth of the Seine is extremely advantageous. It is now the seaport for Paris, and next to Marseilles the most important in France (119,470 inhab.). The buildings and the commercial prosperity of the town, which is mainly derived from its ship-building yards and sugar-refineries, are of very recent origin.

The importance of Le Havre dates from the reign of Francis I., who fortified it in 1516 and endeavoured to make it a harbour of the first rank, thence to carry out his naval schemes against England. In 1545 he assembled here 176 sail, the attack of which on the Isle of Wight was, however, repulsed. In 1562 Le Havre was occupied by English troops for a short time. Under Richelieu and Colbert the prosperity of the town rapidly increased, and in 1694 the English fleet made a determined but unsuccess- ful attack on the new rival of English commerce. In 1796 Admiral Sir Sidney Smith, in an attempt to capture a French vessel, close to the guns of the citadel, was taken prisoner by the French.

The Rue de Paris, beginning at the W. end of the Grand Quai (PI. C, 4), where passengers from England disembark, and inter- secting the town from S. to N., is the centre of traffic. At its S. end stands the Musee-Bibliotheque (PI. C, 4), built in 1845 (open on Sun. and Thurs., 10 to 4 or 6; also on Tues. in summer, and on other days on application to the concierge).

6 2 Route 6. LE HAVRE. Musee.

On the Grouno Floor are sculptures, including, however, only a few original works: to the left, 37. Sanson, Pieta; 18. Gayrard, Magdalen; 4. Bonnaffi, Terpsichore; to the right, 26. Ottdind, Sleeping Psyche. — The Basement contains a small archaeological collection. — The collection of paintings begins in the gallery to the right in the Entresol. From right to left: 142. Dawanl, Salute at the Invalides; 41. Spanish School, Portrait; 113. Bonvoisin , Cabinet of an amateur; 22. A. del Sarto(1), Holy Family; 72. Flemish School, Louis XI. praying to St. Francis de Paul-, 147. De- viria, Divorce of Henry VIII.; 117. Boudin, Pardon of Ste. Anne laPalud; no number, A. Morion, Launching the lifeboat; Em. Michel, Spring; 197. Oh. Lhnillier, Cafe of the Turcos; 133. L. L. Couturier, Water-carriers; 110. Benier, Fishermen; 63. Copy of Rubins, Battle of Amazons. — In the left gallery are drawings, crayons, and engravings; 73-79. Yvon, The Seven Deadly Sins (drawings); Galbrund, 31. The collector, 29. The scholar (crayons). — Staircase. 229. Roll, Inundation at Toul mse in 1878; 181. C. de. Lafosse, Consecration of the Virgin ; 245. A. Yon, Christ expelling the money-changer i ; 124. Champmartin, St. Genevieve; 1'iO. Georyes-Sauvage, Vil'on the poet undergoing the ordeal of water at the Chatelet (1457).

First Floor. Saloon, from right to left: 13. Giordano, Cato of Utica; 23. Solimena, Simon Magus; 78. L. Bakhuysen, Fishing-boats; 155. Fragonard, Head of a youth; no number, Renouf, Cliffs at Oudalls; 177. Humbert, John the Baptist; 79. A. Cuyp, Girl and goat; 185. Largilliere, A sculptor; no number, E. Muraton, Fruit and flowers; 248. Tien, Lot and his daugh- ters; no number, Renouf, Brooklyn Bridge ; 238 Troyon, Sheep ; 67. Teniers the Younger, Card-players; 8j. If Maes, An admiral; 220. Pelez, Laundry. — 97. Van de Velde thi Younger, Sea-piece; 62. Rubens (1), Cupids with festoois of fruit; 14. Guardi, Piazza di S.Marco at Venice; no number, Van Balen the Elder, Return from the hunt; 109. Badin, The voung patient; 25. Tiepolo, Sketch for a ceiling; 163. 7. G. Gilbert, The Ha'lles, at Paris; 170. Hanoteau, The mill. — 98. 7an de Velde, Sea-piece; 63. Verlat, Dogs; 141. David['i), Portrait; 16. Manfredi, Prodigal Son; 178 (above), CI. Jac- quand, Christopher Columbus ; 11. Cerquozzi, Flowers; 82. M. d'Hondekoeter, D >g and game ; 132. Couture, Prodiga' Son ; 171. H&reau, Gathering sea- weed in Brittany; no number, J. P. Laurens, The interdict (Uth cent.); Ch. Thoma-; Flower', game, etc.; 226. Hubert Robert, Fire at Rome; 172. Hermann-Lion, Wolf! wolf! 51. Huysmans, Landscape with sheep; 146. JJesportes, Game and fruit; 6. Allori (Bronzino ?), Young goldsmith of Flor- ence; 7. Caravaggio, Portrait; 102. Achard, Landscape; 8. L. Carracci, St. Agatha; 56. Jordaens, The Evangeli-ts. — 193. Lerolle , Harvester; 29. Domenichino, S. Carlo Borromeo; 40. RiberaO), St. Sebastian; 8\ Mo- lenaer, Skaters; no number, G. Jeannin, Flowers; 39. Ribera, St. Peter penitent; 246. Yvon, Vision of Judas.

The Library, with about 50,0C0 vols, and an importa it cabinet of coins, has a separate entrance in the Rue des Viviers, and is open daily, 9-12 and 2-5, except on Sun. and holidays.

From the S. end of the Eue de Paris the Grand Quai it continued to the W. by the Chaussee des Etats-Uni:, terminating in the "Jetie du Nord (PI. B, 5), or N. pier, which commands a fine view, and is a favourite promenade. To the right is the large Hotel Frascati (p. 60), with a ca-ino and bathing-establishment, and farther on are the batteries defending the entrance to the harbour, and the cliffs of Ste. Adresse (p. 64), with the two light-houses of La Heve (p. 64). To the S.E., beyond the busy mouth of the Seine, appears Villerville (p. 175), with Honfleur (p. 172) to the left and Trouville and Deauville (pp. 173, 174) to the right.

Farther up the Rue de Paris, on the right, is the church of Notre-Dame (PI. C, 4), built in the 16th cent, in a style showing the transition from Gothic to Renaissance. The tower, formerly higher, was originally a fortified beacon. Organ-case of 1630.

In the Vieux Harchi (PI. C, 4), to the right, a little farther on, is the former Palais de Justice, now containing an important Mus&um of Natural History (open Sun. and Thurs., 10 to 4 or 6).

harbour. LE HAVRE. G. Route. 63

"We now cross the Place Oambetta (PI. 0, 3), which is hounded on the W. by the Grand Theatre and on the E. by the Bassin de Commerce, and is embellished with statues, by David d' Angers, of Bemardin de St. Pierre (1737-1814), author of 'Paul and Virginia', to which the reliefs refer, and Casimir Delavigne, the dramatist (1794-1843), both natives of Havre. Thence we continue to follow the Rue de Paris to the fine Public Gardens (military band on Th urs. from 8.30 to 9.30 p.m.) in front of the Hotel de Ville (PI. C, 2), a noteworthy modern building in the Renaissance style. The hand- some Bouleoard de Strasbourg, which passes the Hotel de Ville, is nearly 1^4 M. long and traverses the town from the sea on the W. to the railway-station (see below) on the E. (tramway, see p. 60).

In this street, to the W. of the Hotel de Ville, if the Square St. Roch (PI. B, 2), with statues of Armida, by Mulot, and Rebecca, by Fabisch. A military band plays here on Sun. in summer from 4.30 to 5.30 or from 3.3(1 to 4.30 p.m. — At the W. end of the boulevard works in connection with an extcii ive new deep water basin have been going on since 1896.

We turn to the E. (right) at the Hotel de Ville, in order to reach the station. In the Boulevard de Strasbourg we pass the Sous-Pre- fecture (PI D, 2), on the left, fronting the Place Carnot, on the S. side of which is the Exchange (PI. D, 2, 3), a large erection (1878-80) in the Renaissance style, with six. domes (open 9-12 and 3-5.30). The S. facade of the Exchange faces the Place Jules Ferry (PI. D, 3). Farther on, to the left, is the Palais de Justi.e (PI. E, 2), in a pseudo-classical style, and to the right are several Barracks. The Railway Station (PI. F, 2) is at the E. end of the boulevard.

The extensive Harbour and Docks (PI. C-G, 2-5) deserve a visit. Between 1331 and 1887 over 5,000,000i. was spent upon them, and very extensive additions are projected.

The port includes a well-protected Avant-Port or outer harbour, on tbe N. side of which is the Grand (J.uai, and 9 ha ins with 16 locks or sluices (comp. the Plan). The oldest, and also one of the smallest, basins is the Bassin du Roi , excavated in 1RB9. The largest is the "Bassin de VEure (PI. E, F, 3, 4, 5), upwards of 70 acres in area, constructed in 1^4 I -1856, where the huge Transatlantic steamers lie. The Bock Warehouses to the 24. E. of this basin cover, with their various dependencies, an area of 57 acres. The Bassin de la Citad-lle occupies the site of a citadel constructed by Charles IX. The Canal de Tancarville, which enters the Bassin de 1 Eure to the N. of the Bassin Bellot, is intended to connect the S ine directly with the harbour, and to enable ships to avoid the dangers of the 'barre', or tidal wave in the estuary. The canal, which is named from the castle mentioned at p. 64, is 15 M. long, ltO ft. wide, and 14 ft. deep.

A good view of the town may he enjoyed from the CSte dTngouville, the cable-railway to which (p. 60) is reached via the Rue and Place Thiers. Just before the Place we pass the Church of St. Michel (PI. C, 1), in the Renaissance style, with a Lady Chapel decorated with stained glas< by Duhamel-Marette and paintings by Ph. Hugrel (1894). — The Rue de la Cote, in which the cable-railway ends, extends to the W. to (2/a M.j Ste. Adresse (p. 64), by which we may descend.

The 'View is specially fine at sunset and at night when the town and harbour are lit up. Unfortunately, however, it is much hindered by the numerous villas and garden-walls. — Above the Ene >'e la Cote (No. 43), in the direction of the Rue de Muntivilliers (PI. C. 1), is the Villa Filix

64 Route 6. YVETOT.

Faure. — On the E. the Eue de la Cote is continued by the Rue de VAb- baye (l3/4 M.), paat the Fort de Tourneville and the Grand Cimetiere Ste. Marie, whence we may descend towards the Cours de la Republique, by the Funiculaire Ste. Marie (p. 60) or by the Rue du Ge"ne'ral-Rouelles.

Ste. Adresse (Hdt. Marie Christine; Grand ESlel des Phares; Restaur. Beat, on the beach), on the cliff, 2l/i M. to the N.W. of Le Havre, is much frequented for sea-bathing (bath with costume 50-75 c). It may be reached by tramway (No. 5 ; p. 49), or on foot via, the Boul. Maritime, beginning at the W. end of the Boul. de Strasbourg (PI. A, 2). The Casino (adm.lfr.) was formerly the villa of the late Queen Maria Christina of Spain. The Phares de la Hive, commanding a magnificent view, may be reached in 15-20 min. from Ste. Adresse. About halfway up is a sugarloaf monument to General Lefevre-Desnouettes (1773-1822), who perished by shipwreck. It is dangerous to approach the crumbling edge of the cliffs at the top.

From Le Havre to Etretat (33 M. in 13/4-23/4 hrs. ; fares 5 fr. 95c, 4 fr., 2 fr. 60 c.) and Fecamp (28 M. in 13/4-2i/2 hrs. ; fares 5 fr. 5, 3 fr. 40, 2 fr. 20 c), railway forming part of the projected through-line to Dieppe (comp. p. 41). — 3]/2 M. Harfleur (see below). — 6 M. Montivilliers (Hot. Fontaine), an industrial town (5258 inhab.), with an old abbey-church of the 11th and 16th centuries. — 15 M. Criquetot-V Esneval, 6M. from Etretat by road (p. 70), though 18 M. by rail. — 231/2 M. Les Ifs (p. 67); thence to Etretat, see p. 69; to Ficamp, see p. 67.

From Le Havre to Rouen.

55 M. Railway in li/3-3'/2 hrs. (fares 9fr. 95, 6fr. 75, 4fr. 40 c).

On quitting Le Havre we pass (l'/4 M.) GraviUe-Ste-Honorine, a kind of suburb of Le Havre, with its interesting Norman church of the 11th and 13th cent., on the high ground to the left. — 3J/2 M. Harfleur (Hot. des Armes, near the church), with 2340 inhab., once an important seaport. Its old harbour has been filled up by the deposits of the Lezarde; the new harbour, about •/■) M. away, is connected with the Canal de Tancarville (p. 63). In 1415 the town was taken by Henry V. of England, to whom the foundation of the tine Gothic Church is attributed. Railway to Les Ifs (see above).

15'/2 M. Breaute-Beuzeville (Buffet; Railway Hotel) is the junc- tion for Fe'camp (Etretat), see p. 67.

From Breaute-Beuzeville to Lillebonne, 8'/2 M., railway in 30-40 min. (fares 1 fr. 70, 1 fr. 15, 75 c). — 3'/2 M. Bailee (Hotel de Fecamp), a prettily situated industrial town, with 12,240 inhabitants. — The church of (5>/2 M.) Oruchet-le-Valasse contains some beautiful choir-stalls. The ancient abbey dates from the 13-17th centuries. — 8'/2 M. Lillebonne (I/Stel du Commerce), a small town (6450 inhab.) on the site of Juliobona, the capital of the Caletes (Pays de Caux), contains a well-preserved Theatre and numerous other relics of Roman times. The ruined Castle belonged to William the Conqueror, who here proposed to his nobles the conquest of England. — About 6V2 M. to the W., on a rock rising 160 ft. above the Seine, not far from the steamboat-station of Quilleboeuf (p. 59), stands the imposing ruined "Castle 0/ Tancarville, dating chiefly from the 13th century. The towers are 65 ft. in height, and the walls are 20 ft. thick.

19'/2 M. Bolbec-Nointot is the station for Bolbec (see above), 2 M. to the S. (omn. '/2fr0- — 3i M- Yvetot (Hot. des Victoires;

  • du Chemin-de-Fer) is another manufacturing place, with 7545

inhab., the ancient counts or soi-disants kings of which are play- fully described by Be'ranger.

ST. VALERY-EN-CAUX. 7. Route. 65

An omnibus leaves Yvetot for (7 M.) Caudebec (see helow) at 8.10 a.m., noon, and 5.10 p.m. (fare IV4 fr.).

36 M. Motteville. Railway to St. Valery, see below.

A branch-railway runs from Motteville to (16 M.) Cleres, a junction on the line from Rouen to Dieppe, and (27 M.) MonUrolier-Buchy, junction for the railways from Rouen to Amiens and to Dieppe (pp. 31 and 41).

The pleasant village of (42'/2 M.) Pavilly is commanded by the restored chateau of Esneval. The train quits the undulating and fertile tahle-land of the Pays de Caux, and descends to the viaduct of Barentin, 570 yds. in length, and 100 ft. above the level of the valley. — 44 M. Barentin (Hot. du Orand-St-Pierre), a manufactur- ing town with 6000 inhab., possesses a fine new Romanesque church.

From Barentin to Caudebec, 18 M., railway in l:/4 hr. (fares 3 fr. 35, 2 fr. 25, 1 fr. 50 c). — IV4 M. Family -Ville (see above); 3 M. Barentin. Ville (see above). 9 M. Duclair, on the right bank of the Seine, is a port of call in summer for the steamers from Le Havre to Rouen (p. 58). — ll'/2 M. Yainville-Jumieges. About l3/4 M. to the S., on a peninsula of the winding Seine, is the village of Jumieges (Hotel de VAbbaye), also a steamboat station. The * Abbey, the majestic and picturesque ruins of which rise near the village, was founded in the 7th cent, and was not destroyed till 1790 and subsequent years. The heart of Agnes Sorel (d. 1449; see p. 287) was interred in the abbey-church. Visitors are admitted daily from 11 to 5 O/2 fr.). — 17 M. St. Wandrille also retains the extensive ruins of a magnificent "Abbey, founded in the 7th cent., but rebuilt at the close of the 14th. — 18 M. Caudebec (H6tel de la Marine; du Havre), a small town on the right bank of the Seine, was formerly the capital of the Pays de Caux, and played a considerable part in the wars between the English and French. It was captured in 1419 by the former under Talbot and Warwick. The beautiful Church combines the Gothic and Renaissance styles; the Tower is 330 ft. high. The W. portal, the balustrades on the top, formed of Gothic letters, the triple floral crown of the spire, and the stained glass are noteworthy. Caudebec retains much of its mediaeval quaintness. It is also a steamboat-station (p. 59); omnibus to Yvetot, see above. — A pleasant expedition may be made along the banks of the Seine to Villequier (steamboat-station, p. 59), a fishing-village about 3 M. below Caudebec.

The train soon enters a tunnel, nearly l'^Jl. in length, beyond

which it reaches (49 M.) Malaunay, where the Dieppe line diverges.

From this point to (55 M.) Rouen, and Paris, see p. 41.

7. Watering-Placea between Dieppe and Le Havre.

I. From Rouen (Paris) to St. Valery-en-Caux and Venles.

43'/2 M. Railway to (3S1/2 M.) St. Valery in I2/3-3 hrs. (fares 7 fr. 5, 4 fr. 75, 3 fr. 10 c). Omnibus four times a day from the station at St. Valery to (5 M.) Veules; fare 1 fr. — From Paris to St. Valery, 125 M., Railway in 4V4-7 hrs. (fares 22 fr. 70, 15 fr. 35, 9 fr. 95 c).

From Rouen to (19 M.) Motteville, see above. — From (31 M.~) St. Vaast-Bosville a branch-line diverges to Cany (Veulettes , Les Petites-Dalles ; see pp. 66, 67). To Dieppe, see p. 41. Farther on we obtain a brief glimpse of the sea, on the left. — 36 M. Neville, a large village with an interesting church.

SS^M. St. Valery-en-Caux. — Hotels. De la Paix, at the bridge, pens, from 8 fr. ; de la Plage (7 fr.), des Bains (commercial), Place de THotel-de-ViHgj de Feamce, de Paris, at the harbour, pens, from 7 fr.

Baedeker's Northern France. 3rd Edit. 5

66 Route 7. VETJLES.

Sea-Baths. Bath and bathing-box 40 c, with costume, etc. 1 fr., 'guide- baigneur1 40 c. — Casino. Admission i fr. ; subscription, per week 7, fort- night 13, month 22, season 35 fr. ; for two pers., 13, 20, 28, and 38 fr. ; etc.

St. Valery-en-Caux, a town and bathing-resort with 3900 inhab., possesses a small harbour, in a hollow between the cliffs. The old town lies to the right of the station; the new town, about y2 M. distant, is situated near the harbour. The former contains a Church of the 15-16th cent., but the new town has hitherto contented itself with a quite inadequate Chapel. Beyond the bridge between the floating-dock and the harbour is an antique House (16th cent.). The Bathing Establishment is reached from the town by narrow and rough streets, and offers few attractions. The beach, as usual on this coast, has a border of shingle before the strip of firm sand used by the bathers.

From St. Valery to Dieppe, see p. 41. The omnibus starts from the Hotel des Bains at 6 a.m. — There is no public conveyance from St. Valery to Veulettes, which is only about 5 M. by road; travellers thither must either walk or make a detour of 18 M. by railway and diligence (see below). — A diligence leaves St. Valery for (20 M.) Fecamp (p. 67) via (71/2 M.) Cany (see below), on Mon., Wed., and Sat., starting from the Hotel des Bains, at 6 a.m. (3'/2 hrs. ; fare 3 fr.).

The omnibus -route from St. Valery to Veules passes the old town and crosses several pretty little valleys. The chateau of (2J/2 M.) Manneville dates from the 16th century.

5 M. Veules. — Hotels. De la Plage (with the diligence - office), R., L., & A. 2V2-372, pens. 6-7 fr., de Rouen, both adjoining the church; des Bains, near the beach, an annexe of the Hot. de la Plage. Kone of the hotels are on the beach. Furnished houses are obtainable. — Sea Baths 30 c, with costume and linen 50 c, 'guide-baigneur' 30 c. — Casino. Per day V2, fortnight 7, month 13 fr.

Veules, a large village in a pretty valley, is a very pleasant sea- bathing resort, and numerous handsome villas have been built over- looking the tiny beach, between two cliffs. A limpid stream rises in the midst of the village, close to the road to St. Valery, and is sufficiently powerful to turn several mills. Good water-cresses are obtained near the curious source of the streamlet; and a shady walk skirts its banks. Veules somewhat resembles Etretat (p. 70) in its general characteristics, but is considerably less pretending. — The road to Dieppe passes the end of the village (p. 41).

II. From Rouen (Paris) to Veulettes.

Les Petites-Dalles.

42 M. Railway to (36 M.) Cany in lV«-2»/4 hrs. (fares 6 fr. 50, 4 fr. 40, 2 fr. 85 c). Diligence from Cany to (6 M.) Veulettes four times daily in the season (fare l'/4 fr.) ; and also to Les Petites-Dalles (p. 67). — E ailway from Paris to Cany, 122 JI., in 4>/4-7 hrs. (fares 22 fr. 15 c, 15 fr., 9fr. 70 c).

From Rouen to (31 M.) St. Vaast-Bosville, see p. 65. Our line then diverges to the left from the line to St. Valery (p. 65).

36 M. Cany (Hotel du Commerce; de France) is a small town on the right bank of the Durdent. — From Cany to Les Petites-Dalles, see p. 67; to Dieppe via St. Valery-en-Caux, seep. 41. Diligence from St. Valery to Fe'camp, see above.

VEULETTES. 7. Route. 67

The road to Veulettes follows the picturesque valley of the Durdent, towards the N. 2'/-2 M. Vittefleur; 3 M. Paluel. The valley now expands, forming a wide grassy level, which used to he inun- dated at high-water. The river enters the sea by means of a canal be- neath the shingle to the right of the bridge over which the road runs.

6 M. Veulettes. — Hotels. Grand Hotel de la Plage, well spoken of, pens. 7 fr. ; des Bains, adjoining. — Sea-Baths 40 c, for subscribers to the casino 30 c, complete costume with 'peignoir' 60 c, 'guide-baigneur' 40c. — Casino. Admission by day 30, in the evening or whole day 50 c. Subscription for a week 4, fortnight Vfc, month 15 fr. ; for two pers. 8, 14, and 20 fr.; for three persons 12, 18, and 24 fr.

Veulettes itself is a small village, situated about J/-2 M. from the sea, in a valley to the W. of the valley of the Durdent; but the bathing-establishment, the large hotels, and the villas perched on the cliffs form an agreeable summer-resort. The great drawbacks are the somewhat exposed position of the shingle-strewn beach and the difficulty of obtaining a sheltered promenade.

Les Petites-Dalles is 5 If. to the S.W. of Veulettes, and St. Valery (p. 65) is about 5 M. to the N.E. No public conveyance to either.

From Cant to Les Petites-Dalles, 7'/2 M., diligence every afternoon in the season (see the 'Indicateur') ; fare i'/n fr. It is more conveniently reached from Fecamp (see below). — The diligence from Cany follows the Fecamp road, to the W., to (4:/4 M.) Anneville, where it turns to the N., passing (6V4 51.) Sassetot-le-Maticonduit.

Les Petites-Dalles (Grand H6lel des Bains, with a Casino; Ledun) is a lishing-village, with a bathing-establishment situated at the mouth of a small valley, bounded by cliffs and rocks and affording various sheltered walks.

The parallel valley, 1 M. to the W., is called the valley of Les Grandes Dalles (Hot. de la Plage), and about l]/4 M. farther on is the sea-bathing place of St. Pierre-en-Port (Hotel des Terrasses), whence a diligence (l'/2 fr.) plies twice a day in the season to and from Fecamp, T/z M. to the S.W.

III. From Rouen (Paris) to Fecamp.

51 M. Railway in 2-3'/2 hrs. (fares 9 fr. 30, 6 fr. 25, 4 fr. 40 c). — From Paris, 138 51., railway in 4>/2-7!/2 hrs. (fares 24 fr. 95, 16 fr. 90, 11 fr. 5 c). — From Le Havre, see p. 64.

From Rouen to (39 M.) Breaute - Beuzeville , see pp. 65, 64. 43 M. GrainviUe-Goderville. — At (46'/2 M.) Les Ifs (Hotel and Buffet outside the station) , to the right of the railway, is a fine chateau of the 16th century. Braflch to Etretat and to Havre , see p. 69. — The railway next descends a wooded valley and passes through two tunnels.

51 M. Fecamp. — Hotels. Gk.-Hot. des Bains, R. & A. 3-12, L. 3/4, B. i1/*! dej. 2'/2, D. 3'/2fr.; do Casino, de la Plage, d'Angleterre, all on the beach; do Chariot-d'Or, in the town, Place Thiers, R., L., & A. 3-5, B. 1, dej. 2'/2, D. 3, pens. 9>/2 fr.; Canoht, Place Thiers, pens. 7 fr. ; Grand Ceef, Rue des Forts 10, pens. 6-7 fr. ; Hot. de la Gare, R. from l'/z, D. 2V2-3 fr. — Gafts in the Place Thiers.

Sea-Baths. Bath with bathing-box 75, with costume and linen 1 fr. 20 c. ; no extra charge for services of 'guide-baigneur\ — Casino. Admission before noon 25 c, afternoon 50 c. ; subscription, per week 11, fortnight 18, month 34 fr., two pers., 18, 32, 54 fr. ; etc. Admission to theatre (for non-subscribers), I'/s-SVj, to balls 1-2 fr.


68 Route 7. FECAMP.

Tramway. From the Casino via the Place Thiers and the Abbey Church to the Rue Queue-de-Renard, near the E. end of the town, and in the direction of Toussaint, a village 2'/2 M. distant; fares 15, 25, 50 c.

Omnibuses. To Let Petites-Dalles (11 M., ll/4 fr. ; see p. 67), thrice daily during the season ; to St. Pierre-en-Port (llh M-i i'/s fr- i see P- 67)i twice daily; to St. Valery-en-Caux (20 M., 3 fr. ; p. 65), on Mon., Wed., and Sat., starting at 4 p.m. ; to Yport and Valmont, see p. 69.

British Vice-Consul, Mons. G. Comlantin.

Fecamp is a town with 14,650 inhab., situated, like most of the other towns and villages on this coast, in a small valley running inland from the sea. The S. end of the town is about l'/4 M. from the little harbour at the N. extremity of the valley. According to the legend the name is derived from Ficus Campus, 'field of the fig-tree', from the fact that the sea washed up on the coast here the trunk of a fig-tree in which Joseph of Arimathea had placed the Precious Blood (see below). Its position on the English channel and its possession of a tolerable harbour gave Fecamp a certain im- portance in the early history of Normandy and in the wars between England and France; and its ancient Benedictine abbey lent it another claim to consideration.

The Church of St. Etiennc, which is seen to the left of the sta- tion, dates from the 16th century. The S. portal is fine ; the W. tower is moderp. The interior has undergone restoration, and has been embellished with modern stained glass and paintings.

From the Place Thiers, which occupies the centre of the town, we follow the Rue Alexandre Legros to the abbey. The monastery of Fe'camp, founded by Duke Richard the Fearless about 990, is the only one of the famous monasteries of Normandy that stood to the N.E. of the Seine. The Abbey Church, a most interesting relic of the ll-16th cent., conceals an interior of great beauty and grace under a somewhat unattractive exterior. The central tower is, how- ever, stately though simple, and on the S. side is a fine portal of the 14th century.

Interior. In the Nave, which is remarkable for its great length, we notice the modern carved oak pulpit, with its numerous carved statuettes, and the official pew. The Choir contains two altars, one overshadowed by a tasteless canopy, the other embellished with bas-reliefs which may be inspected from the ambulatory. It is surrounded with a handsome railing. The two pillars in front of the choir are adorned with statues and alto-reliefs in elaborate frames. The S. transept contains a curious group of painted statues, representing the Death of the Virgin, executed by a monk in 1519. Adjacent are some smaller groups of figures engaged in prayer , a ciborium of the 15th cent. , and a tasteful Gothic credence table. — The Apsidal Chapels are embellished with handsome Renais- sance balustrades and with arcades. In the 3rd chapel to the right is a fine frieze , forme'd of 16 alto-reliefs of the 11th cent. , representing scenes from the lives of Christ and the Virgin. The 4th and 5th chap- els contain the Gothic tombs of abbots of Fecamp. In the 6th or Lady Chapel are fine stained glass of the 14-16th cent., bas-reliefs on the altar, and some beautiful wood-carving, the most interesting example of which is the Veiled Christ, beneath the first window to the right. The 7th chapel has a 16th cent. door. — Behind the high-altar is a marble ciborium of the 16th cent., reputed to contain some of the 'Precious Blood' (see above), and still attracts numerous pilgrims. The other chapels contain tombs of the

FECAMP. 7. Route. 69

abbots, etc. In the ambulatory is a fine burial-chamber in the Renaissance style. The N. transept contains a Calvary, a Holy Sepulchre, some carvings of scenes from the life of Christ, and an astronomical clock of 1667.

The remains of the abbey, adjoining the N. side of the church, are now occupied by the Hdtel de Ville, built in the 17th century. The Musee Municipal in the interior, containing a gallery of modern pictures, is open on Sun., Mon., Thurs., & Sat, 2-5 (2-4 in win- ter). There is also a small Public Library.

No. 108 in the long street leading from the Place Thiers to the beach is the distillery of Benedictine, a well-known liqueur, deriv- ing its name from its first makers, the Benedictine monks. The handsome building, with a Renaissance tower, was rebuilt after a fire in 1892. Visitors are admitted daily, except Sun. & holidays, 9-11 and 2-4 or 5 (25 c), and are conducted by an employee (who expects a gratuity) to view the distillery (uninteresting), the hand- some Salle des Abbes, approached by a fine staircase, and the Musee, which contains a small collection of sculptures, furniture, curios- ities, and works of art, some dating from the ancient abbey.

The Bathing Establishment is situated on the broad shingly beach, at some distance from the harbour and also from the casino, which stands near the cliff, to the left. In front of the beach are a terrace and a carriage-road, and above are situated several pretty chalets for summer- visitors. The adjoining roads are, however, unattractive and the surroundings are somewhat bleak and bare. — The Harbour, much improved since 1880, admits ships drawing 20 ft. at all states of the tide. Fe'camp is one of the chief stations in France for deep-sea fishing-boats, and it also carries on trade in coal with England and in timber with the Baltic ports.

An interesting excursion may he made from Fecamp to Valmont (Hdtel du Commerce; de France; omnibus 1 fr.), a village lying about B'/2 M. to the E., in a valley which ends at the harbour. The Chateau dates from the 11th, 15th, and 16th cent. ; and the ruined Abbey Church was built partly in the 16th century. The Lady Chapel still contains several tombs of that period.

From Fecamp to Etretat, lO'/a M., diligence daily (l>/i fr.), via (l3/i M.) at. Leonard and (4'/2 M.) Froberville (see below).

IV. From Rouen (Paris) to Etretat.

56 M. Railway in 2'/4-3Vs hrs. (fares 10 fr. 30, 6 fr. 90, 4 fr. 50 c). — Railway from Paris to Les Ifs, 133 M., in 4i/4-6V2hrs. (fares 25 fr. 85, 17 fr. 50, 11 fr. 45 c.J. — From Le Havre to Etretat, see pp. 64, 71.

From Rouen to (461/-2 M.) Les Ifs (p. 67), see pp. 65, 64. The line diverges to the left from that to Fe'camp and runs towards the W. — 491/2 M. Froberville -Yport.

A diligence plies daily in the season to (2Va M. to the N.W.) Yport (Hdtel du Casino; Rocher; G. Tougard; Veuve Tougard; Dubosc), a con- siderable village with a tidal harbour, and a sea-bathing establishment resembling that 6f Fe'camp. About ll/4 M. to the W. is Vaucottes (Inn), another small bathing-place, with Vattetot-sur-Mer on the cliffs above.

52'/2 M- Les- Loges -Vaucottes , 54y4 M. from Vaucottes (see above). — 54 M. Bordeaux-Benouville.

70 Route 7. ETRETAT.

56 M. Etretat. — Hotels. Hauville, on the beach at the end of the Rue Alphonse Karr, pens, from 11 fr.; Blanquet, also on the beach, pens. 10-12 fr.; de la Plage, Place Victor Hugo, R. 3-10, L. 1/2, B. 1, dei. 3, D. 4 fr. incl. cider ; des Bains, Hue Alphonse Karr, R. from 3, dej. 3, D. 3y2 fr. incl. cider, pens. 7>/2-10 fr. ; de Nokmandie, Place du Marche, pens. 8-12 fr. ; de Londres, Route du Havre, D. 31/* ^v-'t DBa Roches; des Deux-Au- uustins. — Villas to let and furnished apartments are easily found.

Sea-Baths. At the Casino, bath, foot-bath, and attendant 90 c, sub- scription for twelve baths 7 fr. 20, for twenty-five 14 fr. 40 c. ; costume 30, peignoir 25, towel 10 e.

Casino. Adm. 50 c, till 6 p.m. 1 fr., evening 1 fr., week 12, fort- night 23, month 40, season 60 fr. ; for 2 pers. 22, 40, 65, and 90 fr. ; each pers. beyond two, 7, 14, 20, and 25 fr. All subscriptions are 'suspended' on extra occasions.

Post and Telegraph Office, Route du Havre 27.

Diligences. To Fecamp (p. 67.) at 8 a.m. and 7pm.; to the station of Criquetot (p. 64) at 6.8 a.m. and 4.33 p.m. ; to Le Havre, gee pp. 64, 71.

Etretat, one of the most fashionable watering-places on the N. coast of France, is a small town, with 1950 inhab., situated, like most of its neighbours, at the foot of lofty cliffs, here 300 ft. high. It is surrounded with pretty villas and attractive country-houses, but it possesses no harbour. Etretat is especially affected by artists and literary men, who are attracted by its picturesque and curious situation, but these have brought in their train enough of the fash- ionable world to render the cost of living here considerably higher than at less pretentious but equally comfortable watering-places on the same coast. Alphonse Karr did much to bring Etretat into notice.

The Railway Station, beyond which is the Grand-Val (p. 71J, is at some distance from the beach. On the way to the latter we pass the Romanesque Church. The Beach is protected from the sea by a sort of embankment of shingle ; and a terrace, with the Casino, has been constructed. The bathing-establishment is to the right ; the left part of the beach is used by the fishermen for hauling up their boats, and for their 'Caloges', i.e. old boats turned upside down and used as huts for storing nets, etc. When the tide is out, the women may be seen washing their clothes in a small streamlet of fresh water which flows beneath the bank of shingle.

The Cliffs at Etretat are among the most interesting on this coast. Both the Falaise d'Amont (to the right) and the Falaise d' Aval (to the left) are pierced by Portes, worn by the action of the sea, and the same cause has produced various" curious pyramidal and needle-like formations. The ascent is arduous, especially in warm weather, but there are almost no other walks in the neighbourhood. At low wa- ter the cliffs may be reached by the beach , though the path to the Falaise d'Aval by this route is fatiguing. It is better to arrange to return by the beach, if the tide will permit.

The Falaise d'Amont is ascended by a long flight of steps , be- ginning on the beach. On the summit are a modern chapel and a signal-post. Near the latter a picturesque but rough path, to the left, leads down to a short tunnel, at the other end of which is an iron ladder (impassable by ladies) descending to the beach.

MONTDIDIER. 8. Route. 71

To reach the top of the Falaise d'Aval we pass behind the Hotel Blanquet and follow first the Hue de la Valette and then the tele- graph-wires. The aspect of the cliffs , stretching as far W. as the Cap d'Antifer , is highly picturesque. A small grotto at the top of one of the needle-rocks nearest to Etretat is dignified with the name of the 'Chamhre des Demoiselles'. Another cavern below, near the 'porte', which we pass if we return by the foot of the cliffs, is called the 'Trou a I'Homnie'. In about 15-20 min. after leaving Etretat we reach another rocky gateway, known as the Manneporte, whence a zigzag stairway descends to the beach. Many people will prefer to come thus far in order to bathe at liberty, instead of paying for one of the stifling bathing-boxes at the Casino.

In the Grand -Val, the valley to the right of the railway, is the Passee , a promenade to which admission is gained by payment. Farther on are the Protestant Chapel (service in summer at 10 a.m.) and the new Public Oardens.

From Etretat to Le Havre , by Railway , see p. 04. — By Road, 16'/'2 M., diligence twice daily in the season, starting from the Hotel des Bains at 7 a.m. and 4.15 p.m. (fare 3 fr. 60, 3 fr. 10 c). — The road at first ascends for some distance. l3/i M. Le Tilkul. 3 M. La Poterie, about l>/4 M. from Bruneval-les-Bains (Hot. Martin). About 2 M. to the N.N. E. is the Gap Antifer (360 ft.), a dangerous promontory with a lighthouse, the revolving light of which is visible for 32 M. in favourable circumstances. 5'/2 31. Goubert, about l'/4 M. from St. Jouin (Hotel de Paris; de Rouen), a fishing-village, resorted to by artists. 8'/2 M. Cauville. The tower of the 13th cent, church of (W/zM.) Octeville is noteworthy. 15>/2 M. Sanvic, a large village, indicating the proximity of Le Havre. On the right is Fort Ste. Adresse. The road finally makes a long descent , passing one end of Ste. Adresse (p. 64), to (16y2 M.) Le Havre (p. £0).

8. From Paris to Cambrai. a. Via Creil, St. Quentin, and Busigny.

129 M. Railway in 3i/2-6 hrs. (fares 21 fr. 95, 14 fr. 85, 9 fr. 60 c). The chief points on this route are Compiegne (p. 102) and St. Quenlin. — The trains start from the Gare du Nord (PI. B, C, 23, 24; p. 1).

To (112M.) Busigny, see pp. 101-106. — Our line soon diverges to the left from the main line (to Namur ; R. 15) and passes a number of stations, of which the chief is (llS1^ M.) Caudry (Hot. de Paris), a manufacturing town (9460 inhab.), with a church con- taining a fine copper-gilt reliquary of the 15th century. — 128 M. Cambrai, see p. 73.

b. Via Creil, St. Just, and Peronne.

121 M. Railway in t)iji-&j-i hrs. (fares as above).

From Paris to (49'/2 M.) St. Just, see p. 25. The line here turns to the N. E. and begins to traverse a flat and monotonous district. — 55M. Maignelay, with a flue church of the 16th century.

62i/2M. Montdidier (Buffet-Hotel; Hot. de Conde; St. Eloi; du Cygne), a town with 4644 inhab., on a slope above the Don, is said

72 Route 8. PERONNE. From Paris

to have been named by Charlemagne in memory of his captive the Lombard king Didier, who was at first imprisoned here. The church of St. Pierre (15th cent.^contains a remarkable tomb and a font of the 11th cent., and a 'Holy Sepulchre'. The church of St. Sepulcre, of the 15th and 17th cent., with a modern portal, contains also a Holy Sepulchre of the 16th century. In the Palais de Justice are six fine Bruxelles tapestries of the 17th century. Parmentier (d. 1813), the chief advocate of potato-culture in France, was born at Mont- didier, and is commemorated by a statue there.

Fhom Montdidiek to Albkkt ( Arras), 37 M., railway of local interest traversing an industrial district. — 17*/2 M. Kosieres (p. 97). — Beyond C'S'h M.) Chuignolles we cross the Canal de la Somme, and the Somme. — 3'2 M. Fricourt, on the line from Ham to Albert (p. 22J.

Railway to Compiegne and Amiens, see p. 103.

74 M. Roye (Hot. du Commerce), a town with 4300 iuhab., carries on an extensive trade in the grain raised on the Santerre, the fertile plateau which the railway traverses beyond the town. The church of St. Pierre was built partly in the 11th, partly in the 16th century. Branch to Compiegne, see p. 103.

82 M. Chaulnes (Hot. de la Gare). The village, */2 M- to the N-i has a ruined Chateau and a Statue of F. Lhomond (1727-94), the eminent scholar. — Railway from Amiens to Tergnier, see p. 97.

The railway enters the valley of the Somme, and crosses the canal. — 86 M. Marchelepot ; 93 M. Peronne (La Chapelette).

93'/2 M. Peronne (Hot. St. Claude ; des Voyayeurs), a town with 4816 inhab., on the Somme, is a fortress of the third class.

In the 9th and 10th cent. Peronne belonged to the counts of Vernian- dois, one of whom confined King Charles the Simple here from 923 till his death in 929. The cell in which the unfortunate captive is said to have been starved to death is still pointed out. Charles the Bold captured the town in 1465, and when Louis XI. came in 1468 to conclude an agree- ment with him, he imprisoned that monarch for two days in the castle, in revenge for his having stirred up the town of Liege to revolt. Louis was compelled to sign the 'Treaty of Peronne', which was even more disadvantageous to France than the terms he had rejected at Conflans and St. Maur, and we are told that tame jays and pies used to be taught to cry 'Peronne' and 'Perette' in derision of the king's unfortunate policy. Louis, however, retook the town in 1477. A statue commemorates Marie Fouri (more accurately Catherine de Poix), who distinguished herself in the successful defence of the town against the Duke of Nassau in 1536. The fortress afterwards acquired the title of 'La Pucelle', with the reputa- tion of never having been captured, but in 1815 the Duke of Wellington broke the spell. On Jan. 9th, 1870, it capitulated to the Germans, after a week's bombardment.

The church of St. Jean, dating from the 16th cent., has a fine portal, and some good carvings and stained glass. The Hotel de Ville contains a small Musee (adm. 50 c; on Sun. gratis). The Chateau consists of four heavy mediaeval towers.

From (102 M.) Roisel a branch diverges to St. Quentin (p. 104), and from (107 M.) Epehy another, 12!/2 M. long, runs to VeTu (p. 21). Beyond (112 M.) Villers-Plouich we cross the Scheldt and its canal.

to Cambrai. CAMBRAI. 8. Route. 73

11572 M. Marcoing. Branch-line to (2 M.) Masnieres (2616 in- hab.). Railway to Achiet and Bapaume, see p. 21. — We pass three suburban stations before reaching the main station at —

121 M. Cambrai {Hotel Boissy , de France, Soleil d'Or, Place anx Bois), a town with 25,250 inhab., and the seat of an archbishop, situated on a slope on the right bank of the Scheldt.

Cambrai is generally identified with the Camaracum of the Autonine Itinerary. It afterwards became the capital of a small episcopal province. The bishops, often at strife with the people, confided the defence of their rights first to the dukes of Burgundy, afterwards to the German emperors, who acted as 'chatelains'. The League of Cambrai, directed against Ven- ice, was formed here in 1508 between the Emperor Maximilian, Louis XII., Pope Julius II., and Ferdinand of Aragon; and in 1529 Margaret of Austria and Louise of Savoy, acting respectively for Charles V. and Francis I., signed here the 'Paix des Dames'. In 1595 Cambrai opened its gates to the Spaniards, hut in 1678 Louis XIV. recovered it by the treaty of Nim- wegen. In 1815 it surrendered to the Duke of Wellington. Fe'nelon (1651-1715) and Cardinal Dubois, minister of Louis XV., were archbishops of Cambrai; and the chronicler Enguerrand de Monstrelet (d. 1453) was born here. Cambrai gives its name to 'cambric', a fine linen cloth or muslin, invented in the 15th cent, by a certain Baptiste, and still one of the chief products of the town. The French call it 'batiste', after the inventor.

As we enter the town through the Porte Robert, to the left of the station, we pass near the Citadel, on the left, and then the hand- some Square de l'Esplanade, embellished with statues of Baptiste and of Monstrelet (see above). The street goes on to the Place aux Bois and the Place d'Armes, in which is the Hotel de Ville, a large and handsome modern edifice, with a facade sculptured by Hiolle of Valenciennes. The Belfry, in the Rue St. Martin, farther on, to the left, dates from the 15th and 18th centuries.

The Cathedral, or church of Notre-Dame, farther on, to the left, an abbey-church dating from the 18th cent., has been rebuilt since a fire in 1859 in the former tasteless style. It contains statues of Fe'nelon and Bishop Belmas, by David d' Angers, of Cardinal Regnier, by Louis- Noel, and of Bishop Giraud, by Orauk, besides eight large paintings in grisaille after Rubens, by Geeraerts of Antwerp.

Facing the exit from the cathedral is the Chapelle du Seminaire, a former Jesuit college (17th cent.). The street to the right of it leads to the Rue de l'Epee, at No. 15 in which is a Musee (open Sunt and holidays, 11-4; on other days fee), with paintings chiefly of the Dutch and French schools.

The Place Thiers, farther to the right, is embellished with a Monument to the memory of natives of the town who fell in 1870-71, by Hiolle (p. 80).

A street to the right leads to the Place Fe'nelon, in which rises the church of St. Oery, built in the 18th cent., with a tower 250 ft. high, and a dome over the crossing. It contains a fine marble rood- screen (below the organ), some antique oak medallions (in the choir), and several paintings, including an Entombment ascribed to Rubens.

The Chateau de Selles, on the banks of the Scheldt, at the N.W. corner of the town, dates mainly from the 15th century. We may

74 Route 9. DUUAl. From Amiens

return hence to the Place aux. Bois by a street passing near the Porte Notre-Dame, the finest of the town-gates, dating from the Spanish period (17th cent.). — The Public Library, with 35,000 vols, and 1224 MSS., occupies an old chapel in the Rue Gambetta, near the Place aux Bois (open on week-days, 2-4 and 6-8).

From Cambrai to Douai, 18 M., railway in 50 min. (fares 3 fr. 25, 2 fr. 25, 1 fr. 50c). Unimportant stations. From (8V2 M.) Aubigny-au-Bac a branch rung to Somain (p. 78), via, Aniche (p. 78). — 18 M. Douai, see below.

From Cambeai to Bava? (Dour), 3IV2 M., railway in lV2-2'/3 hrs. (fares 5 fr. 70, 3 fr. 85, 2 fr. 50 c.) via Solesmes (I2V2 M.5 p. 106), Le Ques- noy (23 M. , p. 99), and Bavay (31V2, M. ; p. 82). — The railway goes on to (ll'/2 M.) Dour, in Belgium , via (4a/2 M.) Roisin , where the Belgian custom-house examination is made.

From Cambrai to Somain and Valenciennes, see p. 106; to Le Cateau, see p. 106; to Amiens via Marcoing and Bapaume, see pp. 73 and 21.

9. From Amiens to Arras, Douai, and Valenciennes.

74 M. Railway to Arras, 38 M. in l'A-2 hrs. (fares 6 fr. 85, 4 fr. 60, 3 fr. 5 c.) ; from Arras to Douai , 16 M. , in 25-55 min. (fares 3 fr., 2 fr. 5,

1 fr. 35 c.); from Douai to Valenciennes, 20 M., in '/i-l1/* hr. (fares 3 fr. 70,

2 fr. 50, 1 fr. 65 c).

Amiens, see p. 25. The trains run in the direction of Paris as far as (2'/2 M.) Longueau (p. 24), where they join the direct line from Paris to Arras. Thence to (38 M.) Arras, see p. 19.

On leaving Arras our line passes the railway to Be'thune and Calais (R. 10) on the left, and descends the valley of the Scarpe. To the left are the marshes of Fampoux, into which a train was pre- cipitated in 1847. — 125 M. (from Paris via Creil) Roeux; 129 M. Vitry , where Sigibert , King of Austrasia, was assassinated in 575 by the emissaries of Fridigonda; 132 M. Corbehem. The towers of Douai now come in sight; the tallest belongs to the Hotel de Ville (P. 75).

1351/2M. Douai. — Hotels. "Hot. du Commerce, Rue St. Jacques 20, R. from 2, dej.3, D. 3'/2 fr. ; Buffet-Hotel, at the station; Cafe-Hotel, outside the station. — Cafes in the Place d'Armes.

Cabs. Per drive 80 c. ; per hr. l>/2 fr. for 1-2 pers., 3 fr. for 3-4 pers. ; double fare at night.

Douai, a town with 31,400 inhab., is situated on the canalized channel of the Scarpe. It is an industrial centre of some importance. The fortifications are now being demolished.

Douai is a town of great antiquity, having probably grown up origin- ally round a Gallo-Roinan fort. In the wars carried on at various times by the French against the English, Flemish, Germans, and Spaniards the town often suffered siege and capture. In 1479 , however, it successfully resisted the attack of Louis XI. , whose discomfiture is still celebrated every July by the Fete de Gayant, at which the giant Gayant and his family (made of wicker-work), clad in mediaeval costumes, perambulate the town to the lively strains of the 'air de Gayant'. In 1529 the town passed under the dominion of the Spaniards. In 1667 Louis XIV. captured the town, and though the French were expelled in 1710 by the Duke of Marlborough and Prince Eugene , they made good their footing again in

1712, and their possession was confirmed by the treaty of Utrecht in

1713. — The Roman Catholic university founded here in 1652 to counteract the Protestantism of the Netherlands had a brilliant but brief career. The

to Valenciennes. DOUAI. 9. Route. 75

College of English Benedictines (Rue St. Benoit), founded in 1560 for the education of English priests, si ill has about 100 students. In 1610 an Eng- lish translation of the Old Testament for Roman Catholics was published at Douai; and the English Roman Catholic version of the Scriptures, in- cluding the New Testament translated at Rheims in 1582, is generally known as the Douai or Douaii Bible. — Douai is the birthplace of Jean de Bologne or de Douai (1524-1602), the sculptor, and of Jean Bellegambe (d. ca. 1540), the painter, surnamed 'Maitre des Couleurs'.

The street leading to the W. from the station brings us to the handsome Place Carnot, the principal promenade, near which is the Muse'e (p. 76). Thence the Rue St. Jacques runs S.W. to the Place d'Armes (see below).

The church of St. Pierre, to the right, halfway between the two 'Places', rebuilt in the 18th cent., is remarkable only for its huge tower, dating from the 16th cent., and occupying the whole breadth of the facade. It contains several paintings of the French school.

— Near this church, Rue du Clocher-St- Pierre 19, is the Maison des Remy, a handsome Renaissance house of the 17th century.

The church of Notre-Dame, near the fortifications , to the S.E., reached directly by the street to the S. of St. Pierre, contains the celebrated * Altar-piece of Anchin, painted in 1520 by J. Bellegambe (see above). Visitors are admitted to the sacristy, where the paint- ing hangs, before 12.30 and after 2 p.m.

The work consists of nine oaken panels, representing, on the outside, Christ enthroned between the Madonna, the donor (who is presented by his patron , St. Charlemagne), and some monks of Anchin , headed by St. Benedict; on the five interior panels the Trinity is seen surrounded by members of the Church Triumphant (254 figures). — At the entrance to the sacristy is a curious mystical representation of the Virgin, of the 15th century.

In the garden in front of the church is a bronze statue of Marce- line Desbordes -Valmore (1786-1859), the poetess, by Houssin, and on the far side the Hospital (17th cent.), with a sculptured pediment by Bra. — Farther on is the Porle de Valenciennes, dating from the 15th cent., whence we return by the Rue de Valenciennes to the centre of the town and the Place d'Armes.

The *H6tbl be Vilie, in this square, the most notable edifice in the town, is a fine monument of Gothic architecture, partly of the 15th century. Above it rises a rive-storied Belfry, 130 ft. high, the upper part of which is crenelated and flanked with turrets, and surmounted by a spire with a lion bearing the banner of Flanders. The interior court, the fine Gothic chapel, the Salle des Fetes, the Salle de la Rotonde, and the Salon Blanc may be inspected.

The Rue de la Mairie leads hence to the Place Thiers, with the monument to the Illustrations de Douai, or famous natives of Douai.

— No. 20, and several other houses in the Rue des Foulons, to the left of the Place, are quaint specimens of mediaeval architecture.

On the other side of the Scarpe, beyond the Place Thiers, is the Jardin des Plantes, a pleasant promenade, in which is a Musee Com- mercial (adm. Thurs. and Sun., 12 to 4 or 5). To the left of the Jardin des Plantes is the church of St. Jacques, the interesting altar-

76 Route 9. DOUAI. From Amiens

piece of which represents a miracle of the year 1254. The street almost opposite the church leads to the Palais de Justice, in a build- ing formerly belonging to an abbey, and situated on the bank of the Scarpe. The ancient hall of the 'Parlement de Flandre', which met in Douai after 1709 (now occupied as an appeal-court), is adorned with good paintings.

The *Musee, in the Rue Fortier, a street running from the Scarpe to the Place Carnot, includes a valuable picture-gallery, sculptures, and excellent ethnographical, zoological, and antiquarian collections. It is open to the public on Sun. & Thurs., 11-4 or 5; to visitors after 9 a.m. on other days for a fee. The exhibits are pro- vided with explanatory labels.

Ground- Floor. — Vestibule. Roman antiquities, sculptured fragments, including capitals from Bavay (p. 82), etc.

Sculpture Gallery, to the left. Beside the windows: Busts, eight of which are antique. 1st row opposite the windows: 877. Donatella (?), Ecce Homo; 1059. School of Jean de Bologne (p. 75), Pissatore; 828. Lafo- resterie, Revery; 1058. Attributed to Jean de Bologne, Pissatore; 669. David a" Angers, Bust of Merlin, of Douai (1754-1838), the lawyer; 627, 625. Bra, of Douai (1797-1863), Busts of Charles X. and Jean de Bologne (other busts by Bra farther on) ; 934. Jean de Bologne, Samson smiting the Philistines, terracotta ; 869. Laoust, of Douai, John the Baptist making his cross ; 1073. Jouffroy, General Merlin; 714. L. Perrin, Boy playing; no number, Fache, General THe'ritier (bronze bust) ; 682. Desprez, Innocence (bronze); 819. Carpeaux, Why born a slave? (terracotta). — At the end wall: 621. Bra, Crucifixion (cast). — 2nd row, returning: 630. Bra, Model for the statue of Gen. Negrier at Lille ; 604. Blavier, of Douai, Bonaparte at the bridge of Arcole; 1632. Cabet, The year 1871 ; 957. Laoust, Boreas carrying off Oreithyia ; 667. Cordier, Water-nymph; Bra, 617. Aristodemus at the tomb of his daughter, 620. Ulysses in the isle of Calypso; between these, no number, E. Chrttien, Spring; 816. Bronze reproduction of a Mercury by Jean de Bologne. — 3rd row: Busts; 827. Franqueville , Jean de Bologne. Other works by Jean de Bologne are represented by reduced copies in the glass cases. — Continuation of Ground- Floor, see p. 75. — The staircase at the end of the Sculpture Gallery leads to the Picture Gallery on the —

First Floor. — Room I, to the right: 351. Schopin, Last moments of the Cenci family ; 50. Brascassat, Landscape ; 987. Maree, Day after pay- day; 77. Corot, Landscape ; 148. Fromentin, Street in Algeria; 1071. Demont- Breton, The family; 76i. Benner, Serenade at Capri; 750. J. Breton, Fisher girl ; 760. De Goninck, Genevieve of Brabant; 749. Em. Breton, Winter-night in Artois; 767. Qosse, Christ in the Prretorium. — 761. Frangais, Path through the corn; 758. Courbet, Reflection; 54. Bucquet, Banks of the Meuse. — In the centre: Houssin, Sketch of a monument to Dupleix (p. 106).

Room II. 1168. P. Mignard, Flora and her court; 204. Lagrenie the Elder, Elizabeth, Empress of Russia (d. 1761) ; 747. P. da Cortona, Provid- ence commanding the present and the future; 1100. Cagnacci, Children; 346. Sassoferrato, Madonna and Child; 1222. Vasari, Mary Magdalen; 34. P. da Cortona, Eleazar and Rebecca. — Oiorgione, Madonna; 1140-1143. Giordano, Mythological subjects. — On the side to the right from the en- trance: Deuilly, Orpheus in Hades; 1158. Lippi, Tobias and the Angel; 781. Bassano, Annunciation to the Shepherds; 776. Monnoyer, Flowers; 296. Bassano, St. Valentine baptizing St. Lucy; 416. Dominichino (V), Neptune and Amphitrite ; 777. Panini, Landscape with ruins ; 751. Bor- done, Venetian lady; 1081. Caravaggio, Samson and Delilah; 1223-1232. School of Vasari, Portions of an altar-piece; 1231. Leonardo da Vinci, Jesus and St. John as children ; 328. School of Salvator Rosa, Martyrdom of St. Sebastian ; 1025. Crespi, St. Jerome's dream ; 1236. Dominichino, Lucretia ; 1077. Bronzino, Portrait of a Florentine ; 1215. Sanli di Tito, Angel ;

to Valenciennes. DOUAI. 9. Route. 77

149. School of T. Oaddi, Adoration of the Magi ; 1086. P. da Corlona, Infant Moses ; 1104. Carpi , Marriage of St. Catharine ; 1091. Botticelli, Holy Family; 1080. School of Bronzino, Portrait of Marie de' Medicis. — 16. Guercino, Death of St. Francis of Assisi ; 1023. Bronzino, Daughter of Cosmo I. ; 258. School of Murillo, Ecstasy of St. Francis of Assisi ; 376. Velaz- quez (?), Portrait ; 136. Van Dyck, Pieta ; 320. Ribera, Mathematician ; 1099. Cagnacci, Lucretia. — 768. Greuze (?), Old man ; 759. David, Mme. Tallien. — 307. School of Primaticcio, La Belle Paule (a young girl who presented the keys of Toulouse to Francis I. on his solemn entry into that town). — In the centre : A. J. Allar, Sketch of a monument to Gamhetta.

Boom III. 227. Van Machelen, Madonna and Child; 422. Unknown Artist, Triptych made up of portions from different sources; 44. Bosch, Trials of Job (grotesque); 283. Van Orley, Madonna and Child: 18. Beeck, St. Jerome; 26. J. Bellegambe (?), Dead bishop lying in state. — 144. Franck the Younger, Adoration of the Magi (copy of Rubens); 384. Vinckboons, Village fair; 31 (above), J.Bellegambe(1), St. Vaast performing a miracle before Lothair I. ; 332. Rubens (?), Calling of St. Matthew; 134. School of Van Dyck, Prome theus; 1640. Berck-Heyde, Quay at Haarlem; 116, 115. Duchdtel, Portraits; 52. P. Brueghel the Elder, Village attacked by disbanded soldiers; 763. A. van Everdingen , Torrent ; 265. Van Noort, Adoration of the Magi ; 192. Huysmans, Landscape; 138. C. van Everdingen, Portrait; 1598. S. Franck, Adoration of the Magi ; 389. De Vos the Elder, Portrait; 25 (above), J. Belle- gambe, Last Judgment. — 1167. Moreelse, Portrait; 184. School of Holbein, Luther; 362. Stevens, Margaret of Parma; 130. Van Dyck, Christ mourned by angels; 141. Flinck, Duke of Brunswick; 781. Rubens, Pan and Ceres; 237. Van der Meulen, Louis XIV. ; 325. Rombouts, Portrait of a military engin- eer; 244. Ant. More, Portrait; Sti. J. G. Cuyp , Rustic interior; 165. P. de Molyn the Elder, Landscape; 11. D'Artois, Landscape: above, 200. After Jordaens, The Kings. — 252. De Momper, Landscape; 197. Jordaens, Portrait; 194. Janssens, St. Aubert removing the body of St. Vaast; 790. Teniers the Elder, Sorcery; 331. Rubens, Vintage; 181. Van Helmont, Village rejoicings; 189. D'Hondekoeter, Peacock attacked by a cock; 131. Van Dyck, St. Bene- dict receiving SS. Placidus and Maurus at Subiaco ; 182. B. van der Heist, Portrait; 81. Cranaeh the Elder, Siren; 1639. Van Beest, Horse-fair; 1642. Huysmans, Landscape; 243. Minderhout, Sea-piece; 312. Van Ravestein, Por- trait; 1641. Verbeeck, Landscape; 748. Van Brekelenkamp, Family of Govaert Flinck; 1052. Sal. Koninck, Arquebusier-officer ; 1620. Van Bredael, Land- scape ; 183. School of Holbein the Younger, Sir Thomas More and John Fisher ; 252. De Momper, Landscape ; 84. De Crayer, Jesus and the Virgin interceding for a sinner. — 162. Van der Goes, Madonna of the Abbaye St. Bertin ; 420. Unknown Artist, Triptych ; 350. Schoen, Adoration of the Magi ; 234. Marinus, St. Jerome meditating on the Last Judgment; 125. Van Orley, Crucifixion of St. Peter; 792. Unknown Artist, Israelites gathering manna; 161. Van der Goes, Madonna and Child with St. Anna; 30. Vaast Bellegambe(1), A Dominican. — In the centre: *23. /. Bellegambe the Elder (p. 75), Shutters of a triptych in honour of the Immaculate Conception (1526) ; 24. J. Belle- gambe{1), 29. School of Bellegambe, Shutters of a triptych; 408. Roger van der Weyden (picture painted on both sides), Virgin appearing to a Cistercian monk and the Last Judgment.

Ground-Floor (continuation). • — Rooms I-III, at the other end of the sculpture-gallery, contain the large Ethnographical Collection, arranged geo- graphically and provided with labels. — Room IV contains unimportant paintings, drawings, and a few antiquities. — Room V also has paintings, etc. — Room VI contains furniture, tomb-stones, pottery and faience, church-plate, Roman antiquities, bronzes and pottery found at Bavay (p. 82), weapons, wood-carvings, fans, lace, etc.

On the Fikst Floor is the Public Library . with 80,000 vols, and 1800 MSS. (open on week-days, 9 to 12 and 2 to '4 or 5). The collection of coins is also deposited here.

On the Second Floor is the Collection of Natural History, said to be one of the largest in France.

The quarter of the town behind the Muse'e is to a large extent

78 Route 9. SOMAIN. From Amiens

occupied by the Arsenal, one of the largest in France, barracks, and schools.

From Douai a branch-line runs to (27>/2 M.) Tournai, via (13 M.) Orchies (p. 87) and (20 M.) Rumes, ■ the first station in Belgium. Beyond (l3/4 M.) Pont-de-la-Deille the railway traverses the coal-field of L'Escarpelle, and passes, on the right, the zinc-works of the Soeie'te des Asturies. — Tournai, see p. 97.

Another branch-line of local interest runs from Douai to (20'/2M.) Pont-a-Marcq via (lO'/z M.) Mons-en-Pevele or Puelle (Pevele , see p. 87), where Philippe IV le Bel defeated the Flemish in 1305. A cavern on the W. side of the hill is known as the Pas de Roland, and according to tradi- tion the slain of both armies were buried here.

From Douai to Lille, see R. 11 ; to Cambrai (Paris), see R. 8.

On quitting Douai, the train run? for a short distance in the direction of Arras, then turns to the left. To the right is the line to Cambrai. — ■ 138 M. Montigny. The modern Renaissance chateau, seen among the trees to the left, belongs to M. Lambrecht. A branch- line to the right leads to the important coal-mines of Aniche and to Aubigny-au-Bac (see p. 74).

142 M. Somain (Hot. Mnreau), an industrial town and centre of the local coal-trade, has a population of 6040. Railway to Cambrai and Busigny, see p. 108.

From Somain to PiSruwelz via Anzin, 24 M. , railway in l'/i hr. (fares 3 fr. 15, 2 fr. 70, 1 fr. 85 c). This line runs through one of the must important coal-districts in the N. of France. Nearly every station has its coal-mine and miners' colony, which form the characteristic features in the scenery. — 6 M. Senain (H6t. Lecomte; de VEurope), a town with 19,900 inhab., at the junction of the Scheldt and the Selle, was, before the development of its trade by the discovery of coal in the neighbourhood, a humble village, known only as the scene of a victory gained by Villars over Prince Eugene in 1712. It now carries on considerable manufactures of steel, sugar-candy, spirits, etc. A steam-tramway connects Denain with Valenciennes. — 9'/2 M. Hirin. — \\}fi M. St. Waast, a large village with coke-furnaces, and the headquarters of the Compagnie d'Anzin, a large coal-mining society founded in 1716. — 12 M. Anzin (MStel Ste. Barbe), with 12,768 inhab., on the Scheldt, is practically a suburb of Valenciennes (tramway to the Grande Place, V/4 M.). Besides the works of the Com- pagnie d'Anzin (see above), there are numerous foundries, workshops, and glass-works in the town. In the public square is the Monument of Fontaine, inventor of the parachute now used in lowering the cages into the mines. — At (14 M.) Bruai the line joins the railway to (l'/z M.) Valenciennes, and farther on it skirts the forests of tiaismes (p. 79) and St. Amand (p. 86). 17'/2 M. Fresnes, where the first vein of coal in this district was discovered, in 1720, is also a station on a line from (Si/2 M.) St. Amand (p. 86) to (5'/a M.) Blanc-Misseron (p. 82). — 18'/j M. Conde-sur-1'Escaut (Grand Cerf), a fortified town with 4480 inhab., is situated at the con- fluence of the Scheldt and the Hayne and on the canal from Conde to Mons (14 M.). Conde', which gives name to the princes of Conde', claims a very high antiquity. Louis XI. was repulsed here in 1477, but the town was captured by Turenne in 1655, Prince Eugene in 1656, Louis XIV. in 1676, and theAustrians in 1793. Since the treaty of Nimwegen (1678) Conde has belonged to France. In the Place Verte are the ancestral castle of the princes of Conde, dating from 1410, and the Church, with a curious tower, dated 1608. Steam-tramways ply to Vieux-Conde and Valenciennes. The road leaving Conde by the Porte de Tournai and traversing the wood of the Hermitage leads to Bon-Secours (Hotel du Grand Logis) , a fa- vourite summer-resort on a sandy eminence, belonging half to France, half to Belgium. It is connected with Valenciennes by tramway. — 20 M.

to Valenciennes. VALENCIENNES. 9. Route. 79

Vieux-Condi is the last French station. — 24 M. Piruwelz, the first Belgian station, on the line from Tournai (p. 97) to Mons, see p. 107.

Another branch-line runs from Somain to (5 M.) Marchiennes, a small industrial town, and to (10 M.) Orchies (p. 87).

The next stations are (148 M.) Wallers and (151>/2M.) Raismes (Clef d'Or), an industrial village, with 6634 inhabitants.

The Forest of Raismes, like the forest of St. Amand (p. 86), affords picturesque walks; e. g. to Notre Dame of Loques, La Fontaine, Suche- mont, and the Chaussee Brunehaut. It may be conveniently reached from the stations of Bruai (p. 78), Beuvrages (p. 86), Raismes-Vicoigne (p. 86), Wallers (see above), and St. Amand (p. 86), or by tramway.

The railway now curves to the right, joins the line to Lille (on the left), crosses the Peruwelz line near Bruai (see p. 78), and coalesces with the railway from Mons.

155 M. Valenciennes. — Hotels. Hot. dd Commerce, Place des Hots, R., L., & A. 4-6, B. 11/4, dej. 2'/2, D. 3, omn. 1/2 fr.; de Flandke, Rue de la Halle 2; dd Nord, Rue du Quesnay 66; Hotel-Restaurant Cognin, Place d'Armes. — Cafes in the Place d'Armes.

Cabs. Per drive, 1-2 pers. 80 c, 3 pers. 1 fr. 20, 4 pers. 1 fr. 60 c; per hr., li/s, 2, or 2'/2 fr. ; double fare at night (11-6; 10-7 in winter).

Steam Tramways. From the Marche aux Legumes via. the station, to Anzin (p. 78) and St. Amand (p. 86); to Denain (p. 78), Condi (p. 78), and Bon-Secours (p. 78), with branch from Conde to Vieux-Condi (see above) and Hergnies. — From the Bue de Mons (p. 81) to Quiivrain (p. 82) and Roisin (Belgium, p. 74); fares 5 c. per kilometre.

Valenciennes, a town with 29,900 inhab., and formerly strongly fortified, is situated at the junction of the Scheldt and the Rhon- delle. The manufacture of 'Valenciennes lace' has died out, but the town contains important iron and other factories , and is the chief sugar-market in the N. of Trance.

The origin of Valenciennes is ancient, and its name may possibly be derived from that of Valentinian I., the Roman emperor. At first the capital of a small independent principality, the town afterwards passed to the counts of Hainault. It successfully resisted sieges by Margaret of Hainault in 1254, by Louis XI. in 1477, by Turenne in 1656, and by the Allies in 1815; but it was taken by the Spaniards in the 17th cent., by Louis XIV. in 1677, by the Allies in 1793, and by Scherer in 1794. Since the treaty of Nimwegen in 1678 it has belonged to France. Valenciennes is the birthplace of a large number of celebrated men, many of whom are represented in medallions round the statue of Froissart (p. 81). Be- sides the latter, Mme. d'Epinay, the authoress, Antoine, Louis, and Francois Watteau, and Pujol, the painters, Lemaire and Carpeaux, the sculptors, and Charles, Sire de Lannoy and viceroy of Naples, were natives of this town.

Immediately outside the railway-station is an attractive square, on the former glacis of the fortifications, which were demolished in 1892. We turn to the right and enter the town by the Rue Ferrand, passing theLycee, formerly a Jesuit college, and the Ecole des Beaux Arts, in which is a Museum of Natural History, especially rich in minerals. Part of the old Jesuits' College is occupied by the Muni- cipal Library, containing 25,000 vols, and 772 MSS. (open on week- days, 10-1 & 5-8), and the small Musee Benezech (books, etc.).

The Place Carpeaux, a little farther on, is embellished with a bronze statue, by Carpeaux, of Antoine Watteau (1684-1721), the painter. The four figures surrounding it represent Italian comedy.


— In the same square rises the church of St. Gery, a Gothic edifice partly dating from the 13th cent. , though the elegant tower is modern. The fine wood-carvings in the choir (partly 16-17th cent.) illustrate the life of St. Norbert, the founder of the Praemonstra- tensian order. In a straight line from this point is the handsome Place d'Armes, flanked on one side by houses of a uniform height and by some ancient timber dwellings, dating from the period of the Spanish occupation (17th cent.). — The *H6tel de Ville, in this Place, is the most interesting building in Valenciennes. It dates from the 17th cent., with the exception of the imposing facade, which was rebuilt in 1867-68. The latter consists of a row of Doric columns supporting a similar row of the Ionic order, above which are Caryatides bearing an open gallery, a pediment with sculptures by Carpeaux representing the Defence of Valenciennes, and a cam- panile of two stories. The second floor is devoted to a Musee of Painting and Sculpture, with one of the most extensive collections in France of works of the Flemish School (open to the public on Thurs. & Sun., and on other days on application, 10-12 & 2-4; entrance by the first archway).

Room I. Drawings, engravings, Flemish tapestry (16th cent.), etc.

Room II. Sculpture. Hiolle (of Valenciennes), 352. Colossal group to the memory of French soldiers killed in battle (the model of the monument at Cambrai, p. 73); 350. Temptation in the Wilderness (bas-relief); no number, Truffet, Shepherd overcoming a mad dog; 674. L. Faget, Beheading of St. Denis: 321. Carlier , Gillint (from Victor Hugo's 'Toilers of the Sea'), cast; 360. Lemaire (of Valenciennes), Girl and butterfly (marble). — Paint- ings: 71. Lor. di Credi, Madonna; 198. Dan. da Volterra, Dead Christ; 557. Flemish School of the 15th cent., Adoration of the Child; 562. German School of the 16th cent., Ecce Homo ; Flemish School of the 16th cent. , 559. Death of the Virgin, 560. Adoration of the Magi; 63. After Bassano, Jean de Bologne (p. 75).

Room III. Sculptures, paintings, etc. 27. Carpeaux, Model of the statue of Ugolino in the Tuileries garden. — Paintings: 231. Steuben, Peter the Great when a child rescued by his mother from the Strelitz insurgents; 94. Glaize , St. Elizabeth of Hungary. To the right , 190. Abel de Pujol, Danaids; 121, 122. Quent. de Latour, Portraits in crayon (covered).

Room IV. Front wall, 128. Jules Leonard, Physician of the poor ; 102. Harpign'es (of Valenciennes), Sauve qui peut; 220. Schnetz, Monk and pil- grim ; 218. Sain, Marriage-feast. — In the centre : 576. Hiolle, Arion (bronze).

Room V. L. J. Watteau, 259-262. Morning, Noon, Evening, Night, 263. Dismissal; 40. Callet, Louis XVI.; 258. Ant. Watteau, Antoine Pater, sculptor of Valenciennes; 242. Le Valentin, Tavern-concert; 127. Louis Lenain or J. Miel, Card-players ; /. B. Pater (of Valenciennes), 525. Recrea- tion in the country, 169. Dove's nest; 257. Ant. Watteau, Scene in a park; 284. Unknown Artist, Potrait of Louis XIV.; 524. Pater, Open-air concert. — Between the windows : 326. C'rauk, Elegy (marble). — In the centre : Hiolle, Narcissus (marble).

Room VI. No. 109. J. van Huchlenburg, Attack on a convoy; 34. 'Hell-fire' Brueghel, Toil devoured by Usury, and the Usurer devoured by the Devil; 87. Amb. Franck, Animals entering the ark; 200. Roland (Savery), Earthly Paradise ; 540. Tatlegrain, Storm ; *255. M. de Vos, Adoration of the Magi ; 160. Van Noort, Dead Christ in the lap of the Virgin; 565. Flemish School of the nth cent., Death; !,114. Jordaens, Twelfth Night; 498. Van Balen, Rape of Europa; 60. P. da Gortona, Herodias; *222. Seghers, St. Eloi (Eligius) at the feet of the Virgin; 155. Neeffs the Younger, Church-interior; 246. Vinckboons, Large forest-scene; 5, 6. Van Aelst, Still -life; 225. Van

VALENCIENNES. 9. Route. 81

SUngeland, Kitchen -scene; 173. De Pereja (pupil of Velazquez), Bohemians; 154. Neeffs the Younger, Church-interior; 205. Roltenhammer, Niobe.

Room VII. No. 139. Van Mieris, Pan and Syrinx; 35. 'Hell-fire'1 Brueghel, Christ preaching ; 2. Al. Adriaenssens, Fish-merchant; 97. Van Goyen, Land- scape; 41. Calvaert, Pieta; 4. Van Aelst, Still-life; 8i. Fietoor (?), Two little beggars; 149. Moucheron, Landscape; 55. Cornelissen, Charity; 275. Unknown Artist , Christ descended from the Cross ; 42. Alonso Cano, Ma- donna; 563. Unknown Artist , Madonna and Child with St. John; 296. Un- known Artist, A family of ship-owners; 43. CarreSo de Miranda, Don Carlos, afterwards Charles II. of Spain (d. 1700); 110. Huysmans, Landscape; 294. Italian School of the 16th cent., Altar-piece; 8. Jacques d,Arthois, Landscape; 555. Wynants, Landscape; 111. Janssens, Party. — The glass cases contain antiquities, lace, small carvings, etc.

Room VIII. No. 36. 'Velvet* Brueghel, Landscape; 209. Rubens, Ecstasy of St. Francis of Assisi; 243. Van de Velde, Sea-piece; 523. Van Oost, Ador- ation of the Shepherds ; 184. Pourbus the Younger, Marie de Me'dicis ; 33. Brouwer, Flemish tavern-scene; 206. Rottenhamtner , Madonna and Child, with St. John and angels, on copper (reduced copy after Andrea del Sarto); 183. Pourbus the Younger, Portraits of children; 105. De Heern, Still-life; 269. Ph. Wouwerman, Hunters setting out; 229. Van Son, Still- life; *67. De Crayer, Our Lady of the Rosary; 182. Pourbus the Younger, Portrait; 217. Saftleven, Landscape; 17. Van Baelen, Mercury regarding Herse and Aglaura on their way to the temple of Minerva ; 86. Fr. Franck the Elder, Charles V. assuming the monastic dress ; 3. Van Aelst, Still-life ; 234. Tenters the Younger, Interior of a grotto ; "80. Van Dyck, Martyrdom of St. James and his converted accuser; Rubens, "210, 211, 212, 213 (on the back), St. Stephen's speech, Stoning of Stephen, Entombment of the saint, Annunciation, an admirable triptych, 13-14 ft. high, painted in 1623 for the abbey of St. Amand (p. 86); 480. Ooltzius (?), Judgment of Paris; 116. Jor- daent, Judgment of Midas; *118. O. Gesari (Cavaliere d'Arpino), Diana and Actseon; 140. Moreelse, Portrait; 254. M. de Vos, Circumcision; 100. Guido Reni (?), St. Peter's repentance ; '214. Rubens, Descent from the Cross ; 505. Cuyp, Raising of Lazarus; '137. Marinus de Romersvaele, Banker and his wife; 539. Snyders, Poultry, game, fish, and fruit; 172. Martin Pepyn (an Antwerp artist whose works are exceedingly scarce ; 1575-1616), St. Bernard triumphing over the schismatic William of Aquitaine, in presenting the Host to him; 226. Snayers, Woodland landscape; 271. Zuccarelli, Cascades at Tivoli; 28. Bosch, Temptation of St. Antony; 227. Snayers, Landscape; 196. Adr. van Utrecht, Christ at Bethany; 69. De Crayer, St. Peter's repent- ance; 230. Soolemaker, Cattle-market; 207. Tintoretto, Pieta; 44. Carpeaux, Model of the statue of Ant. Watteau (p. 79). — 656. Zurbaran, Madonna; 253. P. de Vos, Boar-hunt; 68. De Crayer, Repentant Magdalen. — In the centre, 135. Marmion (of Valenciennes; d. 1489), Panel of an ex voto paint- ing; 572. Crauk, Youth and Love. Busts and Sevres vases.

Room IX, on the other side of the sculpture-gallery. No. 124. Lehoux, Bellerophon, conqueror of the Chimaera ; 509. Harpignies, The valley of the Aumance; 410. Eug. Delacroix, Fall of the Titans; 510. Henner, St. Jerome; 201. Roll, Strike of miners ; 103. Harpignies, The old nut-tree" — Sculptures by Hiolle and Carpeaux, etc.

Room X contains farther works by Carpeaux, chiefly models.

The Rue St. Gery leads from the N.E. corner of the Place d'Armes to the Place Froissart, which is embellished with a fine marble Statue of Jean Froissart, the illustrious chronicler (d. about 1410), by Le- maire. The statue is surrounded with 10 bronze medallions of eminent natives of the town (inscriptions).

The large Hospital, on the other bank of the Scheldt, was built in the 18th cent, from funds raised by a tax of two 'Hards' (about '/(jd.) on every pot of beer drunk in Hainault.

A little to the E. of the Place Froissart is the Rue de Mons, the

Baedeker's Northern France. 3rd Edit. 6

82 Route 10. CASSEL.

second turning to the right from which leads to the Place Verte, whence the principal church of the town, Notre-Dame-du-Saint- Cordon, is visible. This interesting modern edifice, built in the style of the 13th cent., is richly decorated and has good stained- glass windows by Leveque. — The street leading to the N.W. (to the left) from the facade (the church lies from N.E. to S.W.) de- bouches in the Place d'Armes.

Pleasant Walks and Excursions may be made in tlie neighbourhood of Valenciennes, with the aid of the various tramways mentioned at p. 79. Good walkers may go as far as Anzin, Raismes, or Denain; while the Forest of Raismes (p. 79), St. Amand (p. 86), and Sebourg (see below) are more easily reached. Visitors to the (3 M.) Baths of St. Amand take the tramway to the Place de Ruismes, descend the Rue du Marais, and cross the forest. They may go on thence to Notre-Dame-d" Amour, on the road from Valenciennes to St. Amand. — The Colonne Dampierre, on the road to Paris, to the S.W. of Valenciennes, commemorates the general of that name, killed in 1793.

From Valenciennes to Maubeuge, 23>/2 M., railway in H/4 hr. (fares 4 fr. 25, 2 fr. 85, 1 fr. 85 c). About J.1/4 M. to the N.E. of (51/2 M.) Curgies is Sebourg, the church of which, dating from the 13th cent., contains the tomb of St. Druon. The modern chateau is surrounded with ponds and fine elms. The chateau of Eth, a little distance to the S.E., has a fine park, watered by the Annelle. Fine view of the road, as far as Mont St. Aubert, near Tournai. From this point we may reach the station of St. Waast (see below) via Bellignies, which also has a park and marble -quarries. The district is picturesque. — 12 M. St-Waast-la-ValUe. — I61/2 M. Bavay (Buffet-B6tel), though it now has only 1960 inhab., was a flourishing town under the Ro- mans, who called it Bagacum or Bavacum. Destroyed during the invasions of the barbarians, it never recovered its prosperity, while it was pillaged, burned several times, and laid waste in the 15-17th centuries. A few Roman remains have been found. Bavacum stood at the intersection of eight Roman roads, afterwards called, like many other thoroughfares in the N., 'Brunhilda's Roads1. Seven of these still remain and are named on a small pyramid, which replaces the ancient milestone at their junction. Railway to Cambrai via Le Quesnoy, see p. 74. — 23^2 M. Maubeuge, see p. 107.

From Valenciennes to Mons (Brussels), 20'/2 M., railway in l-l3/4 hr. (fares 3 fr. 5, 2 fr. 20, 1 fr. 25 c). The train soon diverges to the E. from the Douai line. — 41/2 M. Onnaing. 71/2 M. Blanc- Misseron is the last French station. Branch to St. Amand, see p. 87. At (8'/2 M.) Quiivrain (Buffet) the Belgian customs-examination is made. Six unimportant stations are passed. — 15>/2 M. Jemmapes. — 20'/2 M. Mons, see p. 107.

From Valenciennes to Laon, see p. 110; to Aulnoye, etc., see p. 10(>; to Lille see p. 86.

10. From Arras (Paris) to Dunkirk.

70 M. Railway in 2-33/4 hrs. (fares 12 fr. 85, 8 fr. 60, 5 fr. 60 c).

From Arras to (4572 M.) Hazebrouck , see pp. 19, 18. The railway to Dunkirk continues to run towards the N.W., leaving the Calais line on the left.

51 M. Cassel (Hotel du Sauvage), a town with 3662 inhab., deriving its name from the 'Castellum Morinorum', which occupied the site in Eoman times, is situated on the Mont Cassel (515 ft.), an abrupt hill, 2 M. from the station by road or 1 M. by the direct footpath. Its commanding and strong position made it frequently the object of siege and capture, before it was finally annexed to

DUNKIRK. 10. Route. 83

France by the treaty of Niniwegen in 1678. Cassel has given name to three important battles : in 1071 Philip I. of France was defeated here by Robert, Count of Holland; in 1328 Philip VI. of Valois crushed the Flemish communes that had revolted against Louis I. of Nevers, their count; and in 1677 the Duke of Orleans, brother of Louis XIV., defeated William of Nassau, Prince of Orange. General Vandamme (1771-1830) was born at Cassel. ■ — The town presents almost no points of interest, though its numerous windmills give it a striking appearance from a distance. The terrace of the ancient chateau commands a wide view, including, it is said, 32 towns and 100 villages. The old Hotel de Ville contains a small Musee.

65 M. Bergues (Tete d'Or), a fortified town with 5258 inhab., at the junction of three canals. It has frequently been captured by the French, English, Spanish, and Dutch, but successfully resisted the attack of the English in 1793. The church of St. Martin, in the Gothic style, rebuilt in the 17th cent., with a lofty tower, con- tains several interesting paintings and a noteworthy high-altar. The Belfry is a Gothic brick erection of the 16th century. The Hotel de Ville, in the Spanish style of the 17th cent., contains a small but interesting collection of paintings, chiefly collected from the con- vents of the town (comprising single examples of Van Dyck, Ribera, Matsys, and Rubens); adm. on application to the custodian.

From Bergues a branch-railway runs to (8'/2 M.) Hondschoote (H8t. du Sauvage), a small town with 3315 inhab. (formerly 50,000), 8M. to theE. A monument erected in the public square in 1889 commemorates the victory gained by the French in 1793 over the British and their allies, which com- pelled the latter to raise the siege of Dunkirk.

Beyond Bergues our line joins those to Furnes and Calais.

70 M. Dunkirk, Fr. Dunkerque. — Hotels. Hotel du Chapeau Kouge , Rue St. S^bastien 5, R. & A. from 3 fr. ; Grand Hotel , Hotel de Flandre, Rue Alexandre III 18 and 16; Hotel de la Paix, corner of Rue David d'Angers and Rue Alexandre III, second class, but scarcely les3 expensive; Hotel du xive Siecle, near the station-.

Cafes and Restaurants, in the Place Jean-Bart; in the Rue Alexan- dre III; in the Rue du Quai, near the Bassin du Commerce; and at the station.

Cabs. Per drive in the town I1/4 fr.; to the sea-baths l'/2 fr.; per hour 2 fr.

Tramway from the station to Malo-les-Bains (p. 86), via the Place Jean- Bart (10 c.J, the harbour (15 c), etc. ; 30 c. all the way.

Steamers. To London, twice weekly, at hours varying according to the tide (comp. the Indicateur Chaix); also to Hull, Leith, and Goole.

British Consul, Edward Taylor, Esq. — United States Consular Agent, Benjamin Morel, Esq.

English Church, Plice de la Prison; Chaplain, Rev. W. J. Drought, M. A.

Dunkirk, with 39,700 inhab., is the fourth commercial port in France and a fortress of the first class. Its strength is largely due to its position in the Watteringues, a district drained by means of canals and dykes, which in times of danger may be completely laid under water. The great majority of the inhabitants of this district are Flemings and speak little or no French. There is a small English colony at Dunkirk, which is annually re-inforced by summer-visitors.

84 Route 10. DUNKIRK.

The name Dunkirk, the 'church in the dunes', appears first about the 9th or 10th cent., when it is applied to the community formed of the two hamlets of St. Gilles and St. Eloi. The town belonged at first to the counts of Flanders, hut from the close of the 13th cent, its possession was frequently disputed by the French kings. In 1646 the Great Conde besieged and took Dunkirk on behalf of Louis XIV., who was then a minor, but in 1652 the Spaniards again made themselves masters of the town. Six years later Marshal Turenne defeated the Spaniards, on whose side Conde" now fought, in the great Battle of the Dunes, and Dunkirk was placed in the hands of Cromwell, in return for the services of 8000 of his Ironsides, who had largely contributed to the victory. A small body of English Royalists fought on the other side. The English fortified the port and built a citadel, but in 1662 Charles II. sold this important position to Louis XIV. for the sum of 5,000,000 livres. In the subsequent wars against England the privateers of Dunkirk wrought great havoc among the enemy's shipping, and at the peace of Utrecht in 1713 the English insisted on the destruction of the harbour; a similar stipulation was also made at the peace of Paris in 1763. In 1793 Dunkirk offered a gallant resistance to the English, and was finally relieved by the victory at Hondschoote (p. 83).

Though clean and well-built, Dunkirk is comparatively uninter- esting. For many visitors the Harbour is the principal object of at- traction. From the Bassin a flot du Commerce the Quai des Hol- landais leads to the S. to the Arrfere-Port, on the N.W. side of which lies the Bassin de la Marine. On the S.E. side is the Pare de la Marine, a favourite promenade. Thence the street runs to the S., towards the railway-station, turning to the "W. a little farther on and crossing a canal. To the N.E. of the Bassin du Commerce extends the outer harbour, with its spacious basins and docks, several of which have been completed only since the recent expansion of the fortifications. The chief trade of Dunkirk is in wood, grain, and wool.

Near the S.E. angle of the Bassin du Commerce rises the church of St. John the Baptist (18th cent.), in which are a Christ by "Van Dyck and a Holy Family by Guido Reni. — The church of St. Eloi, a little to the E., a Gothic edifice of the 16th cent, has double aisles, but the whole nave has been unduly shortened by the removal of the first bays. The W. portal is of recent construction. The Belfry, a massive square tower of brick, 295 ft. high, is now separated from the church by the Rue de l'Eglise.

The Place Jean-Bart, to the S. of the church, occupies the centre of the town. It is embellished with a bronze statue, by David d' Angers, of Jean Bart (1651-1702), the famous sailor and privateer of Dunkirk. The Rue des Vieux-Quartiers, and then the Rue Roger, the third turning on the right, lead hence to a square with the Theatre and the Musee.

The Musee, on the site of a former convent, the garden of which is now a promenade, is open to the public daily, except Frid., 12-5, from June 1st to Sept. 30th, and on Sun. and Thurs., 12-4, during the rest of the year. Strangers may obtain access at other times.

Room I. Models of ships, etc. — Eoom II, to the right. Medals, weapons, ethnographic and other collections. At the 4th window, to the right, Head of James II. of England, in wax, with the cap he wore on his death-bed. — Boom III. Natural history collection.

The next three rooms contain Paintings. — Eoom IV. To the right,

DUNKIRK. 10. Route. 85

123. Olaize, Festival in honour of Theseus; 318. De Taverne, Jean Bart landing at Dunkirk after the battle of Texel in 1694; Landscapes by Pelouze (245) and others; 357. Weerti, The swoon; 262. Ranvier, Echo; 178. Le Roux, The mysterious stone of Pompeii; 7. Baader, Washington bidding farewell to his mother after his election as President of the United States ; 149. Jadin, Boar-hunt. — In the centre, 42. Tony Noel, P.omeo and Juliet fmarble).

Room V. To the right, 8. Bakhuysen(1), Sea-piece; 241. Patel, Italian landscape; 307. Snayers, Cavaliers proceeding to battle. — 230. Van der Neer, Moonlight; 186. Luini, Madonna on the rocks; 12. Baroccio, Adoration of the Shepherds ; 9. Van Balm, Holy Family ; 133. Ouardi, View in Venice ; 256. Pynacker, Study of trees; 218. Minderhout, Harbour of the Orient; 333. Van Thulden (after Rubens), Annunciation ; 115. Franck the Elder, Herod and Herodias receiving the.head of John the Baptist ; 30. Brouwer or Van Beems- kerck the Elder, Tavern; 291. Rubens, Assumption, sketch for the painting at Vienna; 99. Donvi (?), Head of a girl; 237. Palamedes, Happy meeting; 22. Bloemaert, View in Italy; 293. /. van Ruisdael, Landscape; 225. Murillo, Madonna and Child. — 2. Albano, Venus causing the anemone to spring from the blood of Adonis; 187. Maratta, Infant Christ distributing rosaries ; 309. Snayers, Attack on a convoy; 224. Moucheron the Elder, Return from the hunt; 3. Albano, Death of Adonis; 212. Milbourne, Interior of Bonn minster. — 35. Brueghel the Elder, Village wedding; 284. Zorg , Farm interior ; 23. Boucher, Venus and Vulcan ; 145. Van Hoeck, Snow ; 275. J. de Reyn, Comte d'Estrades; 347. A. Vermeulen, View of Dort; 253. Bassano and Van Kessel, Lazarus and Dives ; 59. Conca , Madonna appearing to St. Joseph Calasans; 342. Verkolie, Portrait of the artist's daughter; 324. Tenters the Younger, St. Antony of Padua making fish speak. — 346. J. Vernet, Sea-piece; 220. Molenaer, Rustic scene; 311. Solimena, Assumption; 240. Palel the Elder, View in Italy; 219. Mierevelt, Portrait; 345. J. Vernet, Shipwreck; 228. P. Neeffs, Church-interior; 308. Snayers, Cavalry skirmish. — Sculptures: 30. Filon, Andromeda; 17. L. Durand, Mercury (cast); 15. Gocles, Shipwreck (cast); 44. Houdoni?), Bust of Voltaire; 13. Canova, Bust of Napoleon I., etc.

Room VI. To the right, 147. Holbein the Younger, Portrait of Luther or Melanchthon; 101. Diirer(1), St. Jerome; 368. Wildens, Return from the hunt; 190. Mazzuoli, Scourging of Christ. — 238. Patel, Landscape; 192. Van der Meulen, Cavalry-engagement; 386. Italian School, Bearing of the Cross; 334. Le Valentin, Guitar-player; 239. Patel, Landscape; 370. French School of the 17th cent., Bacchantes; 196. Mignard, Duke of Burgundy, grandson of Louis XIV. ; /. de Reyn, 264, 266. Portraits, 267-269. St. Alexander delivered by angels, triptych with portraits of the donors; 278. Rigaud, Portrait of a steward ; 157. Jouvenet, Head of an old man. — 396. Flemish School of the 16th cent., Portrait; 117. J. Fyt, Still-life; 254. Fr. Pourbus, Martyrdom of St. George, a triptych, pronounced by Michiels the artist's masterpiece; 118. Fyt, Still-life; 395. Flemish School of the 16th cent., Por- trait; 412. Flemish School, St. Julian. — 150. Abr. Janssms, Woman refusing to sacrifice to idols ; 358. Wildens, Return from the hunt ; 234. J. van Oost the Elder, Card-players ; 156. J. Jordaens, Adoration of the Magi ; 319. Teniers the Elder, Temptation of St. Antony; 289. Rubens, Marriage of the Virgin; Teniers the Younger, 320. Villagers, 323. Mandolin-player; 290. Rubens, Reconciliation of Jacob and Esau; 258. E. Q,uellin(l), Holy Family; 37. 'Velvet' Brueghel with Van Boeck or Rubens, The Holy Women at the Tomb (after Rubens); 260. Er. Quellin, St. Helena discovering the true Cross; 327. Tilburg, Topers; 138. Van Belmont, Toper; 34. Brueghel the Elder, Fires of St. John; 356. M. de Vos, Portrait; 331. Van Thulden, Caritas Romana; 362. E. de Witte, Samuel presenting the captive king of the Amale- kites to Saul ; 126. Van Cfoyen, Landscape. — 285. Salvator Rosa, Cavalry skirmish; 122. School of Giotto, Madonna and Child; 277. Ribera, St. Peter; 10. Qiorgione, Monk; 336. Titian, Raphael and his master Perugino; 43. Oigoli, Judith and Holofernes. — Sculptures : 1. Allouard, Remember (cast) ; 14. Charlrousse, Repentant Magdalen; 34. Houssin, Phaeton (cast); 39. Ri- cipon, Return of the Prodigal Son (high relief).

On the first floor are an Extra Room for paintings for which there

86 Route 11. ST. AMAND.

is no room downstairs, and the Municipal Library, -with upwards of 30,000 vols, and 70 MSS. (adm. daily, except Sat., 10-1 and 6-10, on Sun. 10-12).

The Rue des Vieux-Remparts leads from the Place du The'atre towards Malo-les-Bains (see below), and near the Petite Chapelle, a pilgrim-resort, is crossed by the tramway (see below).

A tramway (p. 83) runs to the B. from Dunkirk to Malo-les-Bains (Casino Hdtel, on the beach, dej. 3'/2, D. 4 fr. ; H. de la Renaissance, in the village; 3. du Kursaal, in the square, dej. 2I/j, D. 3 fr.), a sea-bathing resort with a sandy beach and numerous chalets to let. There are two bathing establishments (Bains du Kursaal and Bains du CapNord; bath incl. costume

1 fr.).

Fkom Dunkirk to Furnes (Ghent, etc.), 16 M., railway in 1 hr. (fares

2 fr. 80, 1 fr. 95, 1 fr. 20 c). This line diverges to the left from that to Hazebrouck (p. 17), crosses several canals, and skirts the dunes. — 8>/2 M. Qhyvelde is the last French station: and at (13 M.) Adinkerke the Belgian customs-examination is made. — 16 M. Fumes (Hot. de la Noble-Kose), see Baedeker's Belgium and Holland.

Railway from Dunkirk to Gravelines and Calais, see p. 6.

11. From Douai (Paris) and Valenciennes to Lille and


I. From Douai to Lille.

20 M. Railway in Vs-l1/* h'- (fares 3 fr. 35, 2 fr. 25, 1 fr. 50 c).

Douai, see p. 74. — The line, running to the N., crosses the Canal de la Scarpe. — Beyond (l3/4 M.) Pont- de-la- Deule, whence branch-lines run to Orchies (p. 87) and to Pont-a-Marcq (p. 78), important coal-mines are passed and the Canal de la DeHle is crossed. 47-2 M. Leforest. Farther on, to the left, a branch diverges to Lens (p. 18). From (6 M.) Libercourt a branch-line runs to Lens (p. 18), either direct or via, (3 M.) Carvin (p. 18). Passengers for Lille sometimes change carriages here. — From (13 M.) Seclin (Hot. des Voyageurs), an industrial town with 6245 inhab., branch-lines run to (91/2 M.) Templeuve (p. 87) and to (8 M.) Don-Sainghin (p. 97). — 1572 M. Wattignies, not to be confounded with Wattignies-la- Victoire (p. 107). — 20 M. Lille, see p. 88.

II. From Valenciennes to Lille.

291/2 M. Railway in I1/2-21/4 hrs. (fares 5 fr. 40, 3 fr. 65, 2 fr. 35 c).

Valenciennes, see p. 79. The line runs at first in the direc- tion of the Douai and Paris railway, but soon diverges to the right, traversing the forests of Raismes (p. 79) and St. Amand, and the coal-field of Vicoigne. 24/2 M. Beuvrages; 3Y2M. Raismes- Vicoigne.

7'/2 M. St. Amand (Mouton Blanc), a town with 13,038 inhab., situated ^2 M. to the N. of the station , at the confluence of the Scarpe and the Elnon, originally grew up around an abbey founded in the 7th cent, by St. Amand. Nothing now remains of the abbey, except its Portal with two octagonal pavilions (1632-33) partly in- corporated with the Hotel de Ville, and the Facade of the Church. The latter, a bold construction, consisting of a tower and two tur-

ORCHIES. 11. Route. 87

rets, was designed by Nic. du Bois, who was abbot of St. Amand in 1621-73. The tower contains a peal of bells, and commands a fine view. The Dwelling of the Receveur de tAbbaye, Rue de Tournai 31, should also be visited. — Steam-tramway to Valenciennes (p. 79).

About 2 M. to the S.E. (1/4 hr. from Fontaine-Bouillon ; see below) are the Baths of St. Amand (Hdtel de T Etablissement, pens. 6-12 fr.), with sul- phurous water and mud baths, efficacious in cases of rheumatism and diseases of the joints (mud-bath 3, sulphur bath 2 fr. ; subscription for drinking the waters 5 fr.). Though known to the Komans, these mineral springs were entirely neglected in the middle ages and until the latter half of the 17th century. From the baths a park stretches to the Forests of St. Amand and Raismes (p. 79).

A branch - railway runs from St. Amand to (14 M.) Blanc - Misseron (p. 82), via (3 M.) Fontaine-Bouillon, 3/t M. from the Bath3 of St. Amand (see above), and (8'/2 M.), also a station on the line to Pe'ruwelz, (p. 78).

Another branch-railway runs to (20l/2 M.) Hellemmes (p. 97) via Cysoing (see below), Bouvines, and Sainghin-en- Milantois (see below).

From St. Amand to Touknai, IB M., railway in 50 min. (fares 2 fr. 45, 1 fr. 70, 1 fr. 15 c). — 5 1. Maulde- Mortagne is the frontier-station. To the right is the fort of Maulde. The train crosses the site of the camp where Dumouriez imprisoned the messengers of the Convention sent to arrest him in 1793, and whence he and the Due d'Orle'ans went over to the enemy. — 7>/2 M. BUharies is the first Belgian station. 12 M. Antoing, with an old Gothic chateau. — 16 M. Tournai, see p. 97.

The district of La Pev'ele ('Pabula'), which we now traverse, is one of the most fertile in the De'partement du Nord. — 11 M. Rosult, to the left of which is the Chateau du Loir, dating from the 15th century. 13'/2 M. Landas.

At (15'/2 M.) Orchies (Hot. de la Gare), a commercial and manufacturing town with 4137 inhab., we join the railway from Douai to Tournai (p. 78). Branch to Somain, see p. 79.

Another branch, 18'/2M. long, leads to Tourcoing (p. 88), passing Cysoing, O'h M.) Bouvines, celebrated for the victory gained there by Philip Augustus over the Emperor Otho IV. in 1214, (12 M.) Ascq, also a station on the line from Lille to Tournai (p. 97), Lannoy, an ancient but decayed industrial town, and Roubaix-Wattrelos (see below and p. 88).

18'/2 M. Nomain. About 3y2 M. to the left lies Mons-en- Pev'ele (p. 78). — 20 72 M. Templeuve. 23 M. Fretin, to the right of which is the fort of Sainghin-en-Melantois (see above). — "We soon join the line from Douai (p. 86). — 29 72 M. Lille (see p. 88).

III. From Lille to Courtrai.

191/2 M. Railway in 1-2 hrs. (fares 2 fr. 90, 2 fr. 10, 1 fr. 35 c). — To Ostend, 54l/2 M., in 2'/3-33/4 hrs. (about 8, 6, and 4 fr.). — From Paris to Ostend by this route, 205 M., in 7-12 hrs. (35 fr. 70, 24 fr. 70, 16 fr. 26 c.) ; via Maubeuge and Brussels (R. 15), 245 M., in 9-147, ""• (41 fr. 65, 29 fr. 35, 19 fr. 40 c). — Besides the ordinary trains on this line there are 'Trains- Tramivayt', with a limited number of seats and carrying no luggage, which ply to a number of places between Lille and Tourcoing: eg. Fives- Bt-Mamice, Pont-du-Lion-d'Or, Rougebarre-la- Pilatiere , Wasquehal; Croix- Wasquehal, VAUumette, Pont-des-Arts ; Roubaix, Boulevard-d' Halluin , La Tossie, and Tourcoing. — Tramway from Lille to Roubaix, see p. 89.

Beyond the fortifications of Lille the line to Courtrai runs on

towards the N.E. and crosses the Canal de Roubaix. — 37-2 M.

88 Route 11. ROUBAIX.

Croix - Wasquehal. In the distance to the right rises the tallest factory-chimney in France (345 ft.).

6 M. Roubaix. — Hotels. Ferraille, Rue Nain, near the Place de la Mairie; de France, Place de la Mairie; Grand Cerf, Rue du College. — Cabs, l'/4 fr. per drive, l3/4 or V/i fr. per hour. — Tramways, from the Place de la Mairie to Lille (see below), Tourcoing (!/2 hr. ; 25-30 c), and Waltrelos (see below). — TJ. S. Commercial Agent, S. B. Angell, Esq.

Roubaix is an important manufacturing town, the population of which rose during the 19th century from 8000 to 124,660. It is connected with the Scheldt and the lower Defile by means of a canal. The Eeole Nationale des Arts Industriels is a kind of in- dustrial university, with classes for a great variety of industrial, artistic, and technical subjects.

7 M. Tourcoing (Hotel du Cygne ; de la Bourse), another busy manufacturing town with 73, 350 inhab. , practically forms part of Roubaix.' A monument commemorates the defeat of the English and Austrians here by Jourdan and Moreau in 1794.

Roubaix and Tourcoing form the centre of one of the busiest industri- al districts in France , the population of which has increased fourfold during the past half-century. They are adjoined by numerous populous communes, which are themselves towns in all but the name; thus Croix and Watlrelos, suburbs of Roubaix, contain respectively 10,000 and 17,000 inhabitants. The staple industry of the district is wool-manufacturing, in which it bears comparison with any other district in the world, re- presenting four-fifths of the entire production in N. France. The district lies in the heart of French Flanders, and its industrious and enterprising inhabitants have many points in common both with the French and the Flemish type — a combination that has transformed a neighbourhood pos- sessing no special advantages (such as coal or rivers) into one of the most flourishing in France.

There is an English Church, outside Croix, on the Lille road (chaplain, Rev. Charles Faulkner; services at 10 and 6), and also a French Protestant Church at Roubaix (Rue des Arts; service at 11).

From Tourcoing a branch-railway runs to (9 M.) Menin, continuing the line from Orchies. — 2 M. Tourcoing-les-Francs ; 7>/2 M. Halluin (Pomme d'Or), with 15,780 inhab., the last French station. — 9 M. Menin, a Belgian fortified town with about 11,700 inhab., is also situated on the line from Ypres and Comines to Courtrai.

Beyond Tourcoing the frontier is crossed. 13 M. Mouscron (Buffet), with the Belgian custom-house. — 19^2 M. Courtrai (Lion d'Or; Damier; Royal; Midi), and thence to Bruges and Ostend, see Baedeker s Belgium and Holland.

12. Lille.

Hotels. Hotel de l'Europe (PI. a; E, 3), Rue Basse 30-32, R., L., & A. 5-7'/2, B. l>/2, dej. 33/4, D., incl. wine, 41/2, omn. 1/2-I fr.; de France (PI. b; E, 3), Rue Esquermoise 77; de Flandre et d'Angleterre (PI. c; F, 3), Place de la Gare; Grand Hotel de Lille (PI. e; F, 3), Matossi (PI. f; F, 3), Central (PI. h; F, 3), all in the Rue Faidherbe (Nos. 20, 2, and 25) ; Hot. de la Paix (PI. g ; F, 4), Rue de Paris 46 ; Singe d'Or^PI. i ; F, 3), Place du Theatre 36-38; Hot. du Commerce (PI. j ; F, 4), Rue de Bethune 13 ; Metropole (PI. k), Moderne (PI. 1 ; F, 4), both Rue St. Maurice ; Hot. de Paris, Place de la Gare; Hot. de Brdxelles et de Todrnai, Rue des Buisses and Rue du Vieux-Faubourg (PI. F, G, 3), near the station, R., L., &A. from 2, dej. 23/4, U., incl. 1/2 bot. of wine, 2Vi, pens. 7i/sfr.;

Grave ^impriuirpar'WugTier&He be s, Leipzig.

LILLE. 12. Route. 89

Gk.-Hot. de Lyon (PI. d ; F, 4), hotel-garni, Rue du Priez and Rue Faidherbe. — Hotel-Buffet at the station (dependance of the Hotel de l'Europe).

Restaurants. Grand Cafi, Rue Faidherbe 2, near the theatre; Divoir, Rue duVieux-Marche'-aux-Poulets 15; also in many of the hotels and cafes. A modest repast, with beer, may be obtained in many of the Estaminets ; e. g. De la Fontaine - Vallon , l'/i fr., at the corner of the Rue Nicolas- Leblanc; Pagant Deloose, IV2 fr., Rue de Be'thune 37, both near the Palais des Beaux-Arts, which is some distance from the other restaurants mentioned.

Cafes. Orand Cafe', see above; du Grand B6tel, Bulens, both in the Rue Faidherbe; Bellevue, de la Paix, in the Grande Place ; Octave, du Boule- vard, corner of the Rue Nationale and the Boulevard de la Liberte"; du Globe at the N.W. end of the Boul. de la Libert^; du Palais des Beaux- Arts, Place de la Republique. — Taverne de Strasbourg, Grande Place; Brasserie Universelle, March£-aux-Fromages 21, near the Grande Place.

Cabs: per drive l*/4 fr., per hr. l3/4 fr., each succeeding hr> l'/2 fr. ; at night (12-6), 21/2, 3, or 2'/4 fr.

Tramways. Eighteen lines diverge from the Place de la Gare or the Grande Place. Comp. the annexed plan. There are two classes on the cars, and the routes are divided into 'sections', for each of which the fare is 10 and 15 c. for the first, 5, 10, or 15 c. for each additional section. — A steam-tramway (carrying luggage also) runs from the Grande Place to Roubaix (p. 87) in 1 hr. (fares 75 or 50 c, return-ticket 1 fr. or 80 c).

Post and Telegraph Office (PI. E, 5), Place de la Republique. Tele- graph also at the station.

Theatres. Grand Thi&tre (PI. F, 3), Place du Theatre; VaritUt (PI. E, 4), Rue Jean Roisin 4. — Hippodrome (PI. E, F, 5), Rue Nicolas-Leblanc.

Baths. At the Grand HStel (see p. 88); Bains Lillois, Boul. de la Li- berie, near the Porte de Paris; Bains de V Arsenal, Place de l'Arsenal; Bains de V Europe, at the Hotel de l'Europe (1 fr.); Swimming Bath, Quai Vauban 1.

English Church (Christ Church; PI. F, 5), at the corner of the Rue Watteau and the Boul. de la Liberie'; services at 11 and 6.30. Chaplain, Rev. W. Burnet, M. A., Rue Jeanne-d'Arc 16.

American Consular Agent, G. D. Gregoire.

Lille, originally L'Isle, Flem. Ryssel, the chief town of the French Departement du Nord, with 216,'276 inhab., was formerly capital of French Flanders. It is a fortress of the first class, with a citadel said to be Vauban's masterpiece, and is situated in a well irrigated and fertile plain on the Deule, a navigable river with which numerous canals are connected. In 1851 the population numbered 75,000 souls, but since the extension of the fortifications in 1858 numerous handsome streets and squares have sprung up, particularly on the S. side of the town, to the right of the station. The church of St. Maurice (p. 95) is almost the only building of importance that has survived the many wars of the middle ages ; but the modern town is handsome and attractive, and the Muse'e (p. 91) alone repays a visit to Lille. Lille is a very important manufacturing place. Its staple commodities are linen and woollen goods, cotton, cloth, 'Lille thread', machinery, oil, sugar, and chemicals.

Lille is said to have been founded before the middle of the 11th cent., by Count Baldwin IV. It was ceded by Charles V. to Louis de Male in 1369, and passed by inheritance to the dukes of Burgundy, of whom one, Philip the Good, made it his residence. In the course of the many wars that distracted this part of Europe, Lille was held successively by the Austrians and Spanish, and it was taken from the latter by Louis XIV. in 1667. During the War of Succession Lille was besieged by the Duke of Marlborough, and though the French army was stronger than that of the

90 Route 12. LILLE. Hotel de Ville.

Allies, the town was compelled to surrender in 1708 after a gallant re- sistance. The treaty of Utrecht, however, in 1713, finally incorporated Lille with France. Lille sustained a severe bombardment from the Austrians at the outbreak of the Revolutionary wars in 1792, but "in vain; Lille, often burning is quenched again; Lille will not yield. The very boys deftly wrench the matches out of fallen bombs. . . Memorable also be that nimble Barber, who when the bomb burst beside him, snatched up a sherd of it, introduced Soap and lather into it, crying, ' Voila mon plat a barbe, My new shaving-dish !' and shaved 'fourteen people' on the spot . . . The Plat a barbe became fashionable; 'no Patriot of an elegant turn', says Mercier several years afterwards, 'but shaves himself out of the splinter of a Lille bomb" (Carlyle). — General Faidherbe (1818-89) was a native of Lille.

From the station the handsome Rue Faidherbe leads straight to the Qrand Theatre (PI. F, 3), whence the Rue des Mannelien runs to the left to the Orande Place, the centre of the old town.

The Bourse (PI. F, 3), a brick and stone edifice, with shops on the groundfloor, was begun under the Spanish dominion in 1652. The court (apply to the concierge if closed) is surrounded by arcaded galleries and contains a bronze statue of Napoleon I. by Lemaire (1854). The Column in the centre of the Place commemorates the gallant defence of the town against the Austrians in 1792. On the side of the Place next the Rue des Manneliers rises the Grand'1 Oarde, built in 1717, and now occupied by the military staff.

The Hotel de Ville (PI. F, 4), erected in 1847-59 in the Renais- sance style, occupies the site of a palace of the dukes of Burgundy. The facade is adorned with two symbolical figures by Bra, represent- ing Industry and Art. The Hotel de Ville contains the Bibliotheque Communale (nearly 100,000 vols.; open on week-days 9-10, Sun. 9-1) and a Music of Engravings and Copies (open Sun., Wed., & Frid., 10-4).

Returning to the Grande Place, we follow the Rue Nationale (PI. E, C, 4, 5), to the left, to visit the new town. Beyond the church of St. Stephen (1696) and the Military Hospital (1605), once re- spectively a chapel and a college of the Jesuits, the Rue Nationale intersects the Boulevard de la Liberte' (see below) and leads to the Place de Strasbourg (PI. D, E, 4), in which is a Monument to A. Testelin, prefect of the Dep. du Nord and organizer of the national defence in the N. of France in 1870-71.

The handsome Boulevard de la Liberte (Pl.D, E, F, 4, 5), which forms the boundary between the old town and the new quarters built in the Parisian style, begins at the Esplanade (p. 96) on the N.W., and leads to the S.E. to the extensive Place de laRepublique (PI. E, 5), in which rises an Equestrian Statue of General Faidherbe (see above), by Mercie. To the N.W. of. the Place rises the spacious Prefecture (PI. E, 4, 5), dating from 1865-70, to the W., the Hotel des Postes, and to the 8.E., the Palais des Beaux- Arts, near which is the Fontainz Vallon.

The Palais des Beaux- Arts (PI. F, 5), a striking edifice, designed by Be'rard and Delmas, was opened in 1892, but represents only

Palais des Beaux-Arts. LILLE. 1 2. Route. 9 1

about one-half of the original plan. The ^Collections which it con- tains are among the most important in France, the picture-gallery being especially rich in examples of the Flemish and Dutch schools. The other collections include drawings, sculpture, antiquities, and museums of ethnography and industrial and decorative art. The collections are open to the public daily from 10 to 4 or 5 (Sat. 2-4 or 5). Entrance on the left. — The present arrangement is liable to alterations.


Principal Gallery, next the facade: Sculptures. At the entrance, Model of the Defence of St. Quentin, by Barrias. To the right, in the centre: CUsinger, Bull; Leroux, Flower-girl; Huguenin, Hebe; A. J.Allar, Eve ; J. Sanson, Susanna at 1he bath ; Feugeres des Forts, Goat-herd ; Fre- miti, Knight errant (cast). — Opposite the windows, as we return : Foya- tier, Spartaeus; Ph. Roland, Death of Cato of Utica ; Jdrac, Cupid stung; Peynot, The prey; Oodebsky, Satyr and young woman (bronze); Deplechin, Amphitrite. — The Small Gallery, parallel with the principal gallery, contains small Antiquities : vases, sculptures, glass, bronzes, flint objects, etc.

Left Galleet , facing the entrance : "Antiquities (/. de Vicq Collec- tion). — 1st Bay: Mediaeval sculptures, fonts, well-heads, tapestry. — 2nd Bay: Religious sculptures and small bronzes of the 14-15th cent., church plate from the 13th cent, on, miniatures, locks, etc., tapestry. — 3rd Bay: Works of the 15-17th centuries. To the right, Case 1: Carved "Ivory; Case 2: Enamels, church -jewellery; Case 3: Jewellery, caskets, small wood-carvings, cutlery; Case 4: Inlaid wood, caskets; Case 5: Alabaster reliefs, clocks, goblets, reliquaries, spoons, wax medallions, etc.; Case 6: Bronzes, objects in mother-of-pearl, with incised designs in black. — To the left, as we return: Carvings and furniture, German altar-piece (15th cent.); glass-case with small carvings, watches, curiosities, etc.; wooden balustrade; fine tapestry (Esther and Ahasuerus); glass-case with large miniatures; glass-case with carvings, works in iron, and miscellaneous small articles in metal. Beside the windows : furniture, bas-reliefs, church ornaments, etc. — 4th Bay (17th & 18th cent.). Casel (to the right): Weapons, engraved copper-plaque, miniatures, snuff-boxes, bonbonnieres ; Case 2: Bas-relief in copper; keys of the town; reliquary made of rolls of gilt paper; German pewter fountain; large microscope ; bagpipes. Then fine cabinets, hangings, tapestry. By the window : Lace made at Lille. — 5th Bay. Furniture; book-bindings; tombstones. Above the door is an oaken gallery.

Rotenda to the left. Five tapestries and four glass-cases with ancient weapons, textiles, vestments, books, etc. At the end, Vinaigrette. — Trans- verse Gallery. Important Ceramic Collection. — Rotunda to the right : Empty.

Right Gallery: Ethnographical Collection (Musie Moillet). Also, at the windows, Coins and Medals.

■ At the end is a staircase, embellished with a bronze bust of Napoleon I., by Chaudet, leading to the first floor. — The staircase beside the main en- trance, on which is a bronze bust of a Bacchante, by Darcq, ascends to the Pavilion Leleux (p. 93).

First Floor. •Picture Gallery (Mnsie de Peinture). The paintings in each room are mentioned from right to left. — Right Wing. — Room I (Pavilion Brasseur). 188. P. de Coninck, Child exposed on the water to test the faith- fulness of its mother; 499. Merson, Vision. — 365. Guillaumet, Arab market; 656. Rochegrosse, Nebuchadnezzar; 184. Commerre, Samson and Delilah. — Between a door leading to the Galerie des Primitifs (p. 94) and one leading to the Galerie Wicar (p. 94): *453. Lawgte, Servant of the poor. Then, "546. C. L. Miller, 'Not this man, but Barabbas!'; 379, 378. Harpignies,

92 Route 1 2. LILLE. Palais des Beaux-Arts.

Landscapes; 255. Diyrolle, Lesson on the bagpipe; 400. Hoeckert, Sermon in Lapland. — "280. Am. Duval , Birth of Venus; 888. Weerts, St. Francis of Assisi. — 448. Lawyer, Sea-piece; 471. B. Lepage, Priam and Achilles.

Room II. Blin, Ruins. — 394. Henner, Entombment; 1. Agache, Fortune; "772. Troyon, Forest of Fontainebleau ; Carolus-Duran (b. at Lille), "148. Assassinated, 151. Sleeping man, 154, 153. Ed. Reynart, 152. Lady and dog; no number, E. Breton, Landscape; 81. Bonnat, Adam and Eve finding the body of Abel; no number, Carolus-Duran, Em. de Girardin. — "^OO. Mer- son, 'Le Loup d'Agubbio', the wolf converted by St. Francis of Assisi in the streets of Gubbio.

Room III. 350. Goya y Lucientes, Old women; 615. Ribot, St. Vincent; 111. Em. Breton, Christmas; 545. C. L. Milller. Gaming; 495. Mazerolle, Nero and Locusta testing poisons; 445. Lami, Battle of Hondschoote (1793); 223. Daubigny, The Oise; 313. Francais, Sacred grove; 544. Milller, Haidee (from Byron's Don Juan); 349. Goya y Lucientes, Young women; 743. Steuben, Joanna the Mad. — "232. E. Delacroix, Medea. — 194. Corot, Antique festival; "135. Cabanel, Nymph carried off by a faun; 562. A. de Neuvitte, Scouts (Crimea); "113. J.Breton, Erecting aMontde Calvaire; 168. Chintreuil, Evening mists; 750. Tattegrain, The 'Cessions a Merci' before Philip the Good (1430); 491. Maillarl, Slayer of monsters; 200. Courbet, After dinner at Ornans. — "27. Baudry, Punishment of an erring Vestal.

Room IV. 1066. French School (18th cent.), Dogs and hare; 226. L. David, Belisarius; 358. Greuze, Psyche crowning Cupid; 972. Unknown Artist (18th cent.). Old woman; 552. Nattier, Scene Galante. — 310. C. For- lin, Chouans; 13. Ansiaux, John the Baptist before Herod; 224. Dauzati, Algerian scene. — 715. A. Scheffer, The dead pass swiftly.

Room V (S. W. Pavilion). — Louis and Frangois Watleau, whose works occur so often in this room, were the nephew and grand-nephew of the celebrated Antoine Watteau of Valenciennes ; their works are far inferior to those of their kinsman , of whom the gallery possesses no authentic specimen. — 523, 524. Mownoyer, Flowers; 864. Fr. Watteau, Popular fest- ival at Lille in 1789 ; L. Watleau, 874. View of Lille, 875. Federation at Lille ; F. Watteau, 867. Fete at the Colyse'e in Lille, 866. Cavalry skirmish, 872. Happy family, 873. Feast of St. Nicolas, 879. Fete in 1792 in memory of the raising of the siege of Lille, 869, 870. Battles of Alexander, 865. 'Braderie'. or old clothes fair at Lille, 868. Fete du Broquelet; 779, 778. Vaillant (1623-77; of Lille), Portraits; 67. Boilly, Triumph of Marat. — Above is a series of large religious paintings by Am. de Vuez (1642-1719 or 1720), brought from churches in Lille. — 860. Wamps (of Lille), Judg- ment of Solomon.

Galeeie Veronese. 665. Salvator Rosa, Landscape; G. Poussin (Dughet), 264(?), 273. Landscapes; 492. C. Maratta, Dedication of a temple of peace; 447. Lanfranchi, St. Gregory; 958. Correggio (signature doubtful), Rest on the Flight into Egypt; 780. A. del Sarto, Madonna; fine work of the Ital- ian School (uncatalogued) ; 9. Caravaggio, St. John; 34. Canaletto, Piazza di S. Marco; 1035. Unknown Artist (16th cent.). Portrait; 654. Tintoretto, Paradise (sketch); 170. Gignaroli, Death of Rachel; P. Veronese, 139. En- tombment, "140. Eloquence, "138. Martyrdom of St. George, "141. Science ; L. Bassano, 610. Portrait, 609. Christ expelling the money-changers ; Tinto- retto, 652. Venetian senator, 653. Martyrdom of St. Stephen; J. Bassano, 607. Interior, 608 (farther on), Wedding; 646. Ricci, Last Supper; 1056. Unknown Artist (16th cent.), Infant Moses trampling on the crown of the Pharaohs; 717. Schiavone, Esther and Ahasuerus; Domenichino, 913. SS. Stephen and Niccolo da Tolentino, 911. Victorious Cupid, 912. Diogenes; 638. Guido Reni(1), St. Sebastian; 636. G. Reni, Sibyl; 1093. Unknown Artist (16th cent.), Descent from the Cross; 768. Tiarini, Rinaldo and Ar- mida. — 738. Spada, Chastity of Joseph; 258. Donado, Scourging of Christ. — 591. Pantoja de la Cruz, Archduke Mathias; 644. Ribera, St. Jerome; 2T. Poussin, 618 (copy), Venus and Mercury, 616 (farther on), Time freeing Truth from Envy and Discord (sketch) ; Le Noin, 470 and another, Interiors ; 804. Vignon the Elder, Adoration of the Magi; no number, School of Pous- sin, Moses saved from the Nile ; Jean de Boullongne (Le Valentin), 92. Mock- ing of Christ, 93. Soldiers casting lots for the vesture of Christ; 976. Un-

Palais des Beaux-Arts. LILLE. 12. Route. 93

known Artist (17th cent.) Last Supper; 458. Lebrun, Hercules and Cacus;

Mignard, 512. Madonna, 511. Fortune; 451. Largilliere, Jean Forest, the

landscape-painter; 459. Lebrun (?), Vauban; 206. A. Coypel, Athalide and Roxane (from Racine s 'Bajazet').

tt »Eeft T?g; J7„^00M X (n-.f- *»««"<»0- 266. Sim. Dubois, Landscape; Unknown ArUst (17th cent.), 960. Landscape, 1016. Portrait of a scholar- 515. Minerdorff, Martyrdom of St. Peter of Verona ; 392. Van der Heist' Venus ; 519. Molenaer, Carnival scene. — Van Bloemen, 59, 58 (farther on}' VieoTSr0f Kome, 57 Flight into Egypt; 309. Flemalle, Episode in the life

° ■ ™„ ert ; "597- PiazziUa, Assumption ; 108. Brekelenkamp, The inven- tory; 603. Van der Pod, Kitchen; 539. Ant. More, Portrait. — 354 Van

y?Zl SASte~s' 567" UchteneU, Family meal; 583. Is. van Ostade, Skaters.

— 10b, 105 (farther on), Van Bredael, Fetes at Antwerp. — 902. De Witte Church of Delft ; 107. P. van Bredael, Market in Italy.

Room H- 982. Unknown Artist (17th cent.), Portrait; 353. Van Qoyen, Landscape; 216. B. Cuyp, Portrait; "209. A. defrayer, Miraculous draught oi lishes (freely retouched). — *761. Teniers the Elder, Dives in hell; 173 De Codde, Conversation; 295. Van den Eeckhout , Tribute-money 758 School of Teniers the Younger, Players at bowls ; "211. De Crayer, Salvator Mundi; lbi. De Champaigne, Annunciation; "751. Teniers the Younger, Temptation of St. Antony ; 237. Van Dalen, Portico of a palace ; 483. Lie- vent the Elder, Salome. — 760. Teniers the Elder, Witches' Sabbath; 262. Van Dorl, Melchisedech blessing Abraham; De Champaigne, "163. Holy Night 164. Good Shepherd. — 741. Stem, Fiddler; 436. S. Koninck, Portrait; 725! Siberechts, Landscape; 796. Versteegh, Interior; 579. Ossenbeck, Strolling musician; 316. Franchoys. A prior; 742. Steen, Dutch musician; Braken- burgh, 96 Merry meal, 97 (farther on), After the wedding; 724. Siberechts,

SSod; r Uevens <he Elder< Head of an old man- — 239. Delff, Portrait;

b8b Jac. van Ruisdael, Landscape; 739. Verspronk, Portrait; 572. Van Oost the Younger, Founding of the order of Carmelites.

Room III "627. Er. Quellin and Adr. van Utrecht. Christ at Bethany; Van Dyck, "287. Miracle of St. Antony of Padua (a hungry mule kneels before the Host, neglecting the oats placed near him), 288. Portrait; 576. Van Oost the Elder, Portrait; 292. Van Dyck, Madonna; "672. Rubens, Death of Mary Magdalen; iQ5 Jordaens, Huntsman with dog; 693. Ryckaert, Clam- seller; De Crayer, '208. The 'Quattro CoronatT (four early martyrs), 210 The son of Tobias and the angel; "289. Van Dyck, Marie de Medicis; 424. Jordaens, Susanna and the elders ; "286. Van Dyck, Crucifixion ; "753. Teniers the 1 ounger, Bohemians; 291. Van Dyck (1), Coronation of the Virgin; Jor- daens, 426. Isaac blessing Jacob, "427. The Temptation; Rubens, 674. St. Bonaventura, 675 (farther on), St. Francis in ecstasy, "673. St. Francis and ^J"?™' . Jordaens< Ch«st and the Pharisees; 60. Van Bockhorst, Martyrdom of St. Maurice; 414. A. Janssens, Repentant Magdalen; 628 E. Quelhn Solomon and the Queen of Sheba; 423. Jordaens, Bean-feast.

— Rubens, 677. Providence, "671. Descent from the Cross, 676. Abundance.

Room IV. 218. J. O. Cuyp, The family ; 104. Brouwer, Luncheon ; 582 Is. van Ostade, Butcher; 161. Van Ceulen the Elder, Anna Maria von Schur- liiann; 406. P. de Hoogh, Dutch interior; '328. De Oeest, Dutch family; 98. Brakenburgh 'Scene galante'; 373. Fr.Hals, Domestic scene; 83. Boonen Musician. — 811. C. de Vos, Portrait; 561. N. Neuchatel, J. Neudorfer the mathematician, and his son; "915. Zustris, Judith; 401. Holbein the Younger, Charity; b91. S. van Ruysdael, 687. Jac. van Ruisdael, Landscapes — 752 leniers the Younger, Rustic interior; 433. Van Kessel, Smell; 553. Neeffs the Elder, Church-interior; 141. Camp/wysen, Huntsmen resting; "390, "391 (farther on), Van der Heist, Portraits; "370. F. Hals, Hille Bobbe of Haar- lem; i05.Honthorst, Triumph of Silenus; 906. P. Wouwerman, Huntsmen resting; 319. Fyt, Animals; 434. Koedyck, Interior. — 254. Demies, Land- scape; Ml, 630 (farther on), Van Raveslein, Portraits; "916. Ziegler, Christ appearing to Mary Magdalen ; 327. Van Oeest, A Prince of Orange : 692. S. van Ruysdael, Landscape.

Room V (Pavilion Leleux). 395. Van Herp. Garden-concert; 885. Wau- ters, Pomona; 301. X. van Eyck, Portrait; 18, 16, 17. Van Arthois, Land- scapes; 49. Beuckelaer, Road to market; 774. Van Utrecht, Cock-fight; 595.

94 Route 12. LILLE. Palais des Beaux- Arts.

Peelers, Sea-piece ; Snyders, Danish dogs ; *~i10. Tilborgh, Village festival. — "Wax Bust (temporarily in this room), see below. — 490. Maignan, Ad- miral Carlo Zeno (blind) ; 334. Gelhey, Bibliophile ; 657. Roelofs, Landscape ; 759. School of Teniers the Younger, Village festival; 728. Snayers, Camp; 729. Snyders, Boar-hunt. — 187. Be Coninck, Fruit and animals; 554. Neeffs the Elder, Interior of Bruges cathedral; 769. Tilborgh the Younger, Domestic scene; 884. Waulers, Prometheus b >und.

CIalkeie des Pkihitifs, a small room communicating with the Pavilion Brasseur (p. 91). Many of the paintiugs here are by unidentified artists. 989. Italian altar-piece; opposite, altar-piece acquired in 1897; Italian School, 932. Holy Family, 990. St. Catharine of Siena ; 305. Botticelli, Ma- donna; 1069. Madonna in a similar style; 993. Italian School, Madonna; '337. Ghirlandajo, Madonna with the eglantine; 80. Bonifazio, St. Peter; 1011. French School, Justice; 171. Clouet, Portrait; 116. '■Velvet' Brueghel, Holy Family; 33. Bellegambe, Trinity, Brueghel the Elder, 125. Spring, 121. Paying taxes; 612. Pourbus the Younger, Portrait; 1003. Flemish triptych; 980 (opposite), Shutters of a triptych; 1077. Flemish School, Madonna; 32. Bellegambe, Mystical press; 578. Van, Orley, Adoration of the Magi; 8. Am- berger, Charles V. — 594. Palenier, John the Baptist preaching. — 1020. French School, Satirical subject; 318. Franck the Elder, Charles V. assum- ing the monastic habit; 983. Flemish School, Tarquin and Lucretia; 1002. Portion of a Flemish triptych; 812, 813 (farther on), M. de Vos the Elder, Portraits; 317. Franck the Younger, Christ on the way to Calvary; 346. Mabuse, Madonna; 999. Flemish School, Christ in the house of Simon the Pharisee; 53. B. met de Bles, Flight into Egypt; 1035. Flemish School, Baptism of Christ; 225. Ger. David, Madonna; 1071. Flemish School, Holy Family; 213. P. Cristas, Philip IV le Bon; 892. School of R. van der Weyden, Calvary; 1022. Flemish School, Young married couple, with their patron saints, at the gates of the celes'ial city; 1050. Dutch portrait; 385. Heems- kerk, Allegory of the vices; 747. Bouts or Stuerbout, Symbolical fountain; 1046. Dutch farmer's wife; 1006-1009. Shutters of a German triptych; 1043. German School, Cjronation of the Virgin; 905. Wohlgemut, Mocking of Christ; 957. German triptych.

Galeeie Wioak. This room, parallel to the preceding, contains the valuable 'Collection of Drawings, formed by the painter/. B. Wicar (b. at Lille in 1762, d. at Rome in 1834), and bequeathed by him to his native city.

The collection, which includes 1435 examples chiefly of the great Italian masters, is arranged in schools, the masters of each being placed in accord- ance with the dates of their birth. The custodian opens the closed frames if requested. Besides drawings by Andrea del Sarto, Bandinelli, Caravaggio, Annibale Carracci, Correggio, Carlo Dolci, Domenichino, Finiguerra, Fra Bar- lolommeo, Giacomo Francia, Ghirlandajo, Giotto, Guercino, Guido Reni, Giulio Romano, Leonardo da Vinci, Mantegna, Masaccio, Parmiggianino, Perugino, Salviati, Tintoretto, Veronese, Cranach, Holbein, DUrer, and many other masters, the collection includes 8 by Titian, 196 by Michael Angelo (chiefly architec- tural designs), and 68 ascribed to Raphael. Of these last the best are : 685. Study for the 'School of Athens' ; 697. Study said to include the God the Father from the Magliana fresco in the Louvre; 701. Christ crowning the Virgin, sketched from some of his fellow-pupils; 737. Coronation of St. Nicholas of Tolentino, an exquisite design for an altar-piece on panel; 741. Holy Family, on the back, of which is an autograph letter. Titian's drawings include sketches for the paintings of St. Peter Dominican (864) and the Cornaro family (866). — This collection also includes a famous "Head of a girl, in wax, long ascribed to Raphael, but now recognised as ancient; the drapery of the bust is of terracotta. This unique work (temporarily in the Pavilion Leleux, see above) was probably found in a Roman tomb. A few antiquities, some enamels, and a terracotta head by Donatello are also exhibited here.

In the Boulevard de la Liberte, beyond the Palais des Beaux-Arts, at the corner of the Rue Watteau, is the English Church (PI. F, 5; p. 89), a tasteful Gothic edifice with stained-glass windows. The

St. Maurice. LILLE. 12. Route. 95

Ruede Valiny, before the church, leads to the S. to the Place Philippe- le-Bon (PI. E, 5, 6), in which rises a Monument to Pasteur (1822- 90), by A. Cordonnier, erected in 1898. At the end of the Place is the church of St. Michel (PI. E, 6), in a modern liomanesque style, with an interior decorated with paintings from the life of the saint. The building to the left is the Palais de Facultes (PI. F, 5), accom- modating the faculties of medicine, law, and literature of the Uni- versity of Lille. Farther on, to the right, are the Institut Industriel and the Institut des Sciences Naturelles; to the left, the Romanesque Protestant Church, the University Library, the Synagogue, etc.

The Rue Jean-Bart leads E. past these modern buildings and joins the end of the Boulevard de la Liberte', opposite the Ecole Na- tionale des Arts et Metiers (Pi. G, 5), a monumental edifice, complet- ed in 1898. Adjoining, in the Boulevard Louis XIV, is the Institut Pasteur, resembling that in Paris.

The Boulevard Papin, running to the N. before the Ecole, brings us to the Porte de Paris (PI. F, 5), formerly included in the old fortifications. The gate was built in 1685-95 in the form of a triumphal arch in commemoration of the union of French Flanders with France. The sculptures were restored and the formerly plain inner facade embellished in 1890-95.

The Rue de Paris (PI. F, 4, 5) leads hence, to the N., to the centre of the old town, passing close to St. Maurice (see below) and near the railway-station. To the E. from the Porte de Paris are the Square Ruault, with the old Hotel du Oenie, and the old Hopital of St. Sa- veur (PI. G, 5). Near the latter are the ruins of the church of St. Sauveur, burned in 1896, and the Noble Tour, a keep of the 15th cent., injured by the same fire.

The church of *St. Maurice (PI. F, 4), to which the Rue St. Sau- veur and its continuations lead, is built in the Flamboyant style and has been recently restored. Above the W. portal, which has been rebuilt, rises a fine stone open-work spire. When the W. door is closed, visitors enter by a door to the right of the choir. The interior is distinguished by the width of the nave and the double aisles, which are all of the same height, by the lightness of its columns, and by its richness of effect. The modern high-altar is in the Gothic style.

The Rue Esquermoise (PI. E, 3), running N.W. from the Grande Place and continued by the broad Rue Royale, prolongs the main artery of traffic in the old town.

From the junction of these two streets the Rue de la Barre leads to the W. to the Esplanade (p. 96), passing a little to the S. of the Gothic church of St. Catharine (PI. C, 3), huilt in the 16th cent, and partly restored. The church contains a fine painting of the Martyrdom of St. Catharine, by Rubens (near the entrance).

From the Rue Esquermoise we proceed through the Rue Basse (right) and the Rue du Cirque (first to the left) to Notre-Dame-de- la-Treille (PI. E, F, 3) , a church in the style of the 13th cent.,

96 Route 12. LILLE.

designed by the London architects H. Clutton and W. Burges, and begun in 1855. The building was planned on so ambitious a scale, that little has been completed. — The Hue Basse leads farther on towards the Lycee (PI. F, 3), which contains^ Natural History Museum (adm. 10-4).

In this neighbourhood are the Musie Commercial (Rue du Lombard 2; open 10-4) and the Porte de Roubaix or St. Maurice (PI. G, 3), built about 1620-25, but altered in 1875.

To the N. of the Lycee is the Place St. Martin, with quaint old houses. Farther on, at No. 32 Rue de la Monnaie, is the Hospice Corntesse (PI. F, 2, 3), founded in 1230 by Jeanne, Countess of Flanders, but dating in its present form from the 15th century. To the E. is the Palais de Justice (1837), situated on the Basse-Deule, a canal spanned a little farther on by the curious Pont-Neuf (1701).

The Halle aux Sucres (PI. E, 2), close by, contains an Industrial Mu- seum, open 10-4 (Tues. 2-4).

The Eglise de la Madeleine (PI. F, 2), a domed church in the Greek style, near the N. end of the town, contains a painting by Rubens (Adora- tion of the Shepherds) and one by Van Dyck (Crucifixion), both spoiled by restoration. This church has also several other interesting paintings (by J. van Ooit, A. de Vuez, etc.), a fine iron choir-screen, etc.

The Chapel of the Public Hospital (PI. E, F, 1), close by, contains an Adoration of the Shepherds by Van Dyck.

The church of St. Andri (PI. D, E), an 18th cent, building in the Rue Royale, contains a fine contemporary pulpit, busts of SS. Peter and Paul by A. Quellin, paintings by O. Venius, J. van Oost, and A. de Vuez, and other works of art.

The Esplanade (PI. D, 2-3) extends in front of the Citadel (no admission), which will soon be the only relic left of the fortifications of Lille built by Vauban. At the N. end of the Esplanade is a bronze statue, by Th. Bra, of General Negrier (PI. D, 2); farther to the S. is a Music Pavilion (military band on Sun. & Thurs. afternoons in summer) ; and at the end of the Boulevard de la Liberte" (p. 90) is the Pare Vauban (PI. D, 3, 4), a public garden in which concerts are given in summer (adm. 50 c). On the other side of the canal, to the left, is the Jardin de la Citadelle (PI. C, 2), continued by the Bois de la Deule (Cafe'-Restaurant).

The Boulevard Vauban (PI. C, D, 5, 4), which skirts the gardens on the side farthest from the canal, passes in front of the Palais Rameau, a kind of 'Crystal Palace' for public festivals. Beside the latter is the large and handsome College Libre St. Joseph. Near this point, to the right of the Boulevard Vauban, rises the huge new Catholic Institute (PI. C, 4), in the Gothic style, with accommodation for the five faculties, dwelling-houses, etc.

The church of tfotre-Dame-de- Consolation (PI. B, C, 4), a little farther on, has a richly adorned interior and a curious pulpit, representing a ship in full sail.

From this neighbourhood we may return to the centre of the town by the tramway (comp. the Plan).

From Lille (Calais) to Valenciennes, Aulnoye, Hirson, and Nancy, see pp. 87-86, 99, 100.

HAM. 13. Route. 97

From Lille to Tournai (Brussels), 16 M., railway in 40-55 min. (fares 2 fr. 75, 1 fr. 95, i fr. 30 c). This line diverges after a short distance from the lines to Douai and Valenciennes. — 272 M. Hellemmes (p. 87) ; 5M. Ascq, also a station on the line from Orchies (p. 87) to Tourcoing fp. 87).

— 8 M. Baisieux is the last French, and fll M.) Blandain the first Belgian station, at each of which there is a custom-house. — 16 51. Tournai (Hdlel de la Petite-Nef; Bellevue; de Hollande; etc.), aeeBoedekers Belgium and Holland.

From Lille to Bethune (Abbeville), 25 M. , railway in l-l3/j hr. (fares 4 fr. 60, 3 fr. 10 c, 2 fr.). — The line skirts the S. of Lille,- halting at the Porte de Douai, Porte d'Arras, and Porte des Postes. — 5 M. Loos, a town with 8770 inhab., is situated near an ancient Cistercian Abbeys said to have been founded in 1140 by St. Bernard, and now used as a prison. — 6 M. Haubourdin, with 7457 inhab. (bra'ich-line to St. Andri-lU-LVle, p. 99). 10 M. Warn-in, junction for Lens and Armentieres (see p. 18) ; 12 M. Don- Sainghin, junction for Lens (see p. 18) and Seclin (p. 86). 16 M. La Bassie, a small industrial town, is situated on the line of canals extending from the Defile to Aire, St. Omer, and Gravelines. — 19l/2 M. Violaines. Branch-line to Bully-Grenay (see p. 18). — 25 M. Be'thune, see p. 18.

From Lille to Tpres, 22'/2 M., railway in l'/s-i'/z hrs. (fares 3 fr. 60, 2 fr. 60, 1 fr. 70 c). From Lille to (4 M.) La Madeleine, see p. 99. — 13 M. Comines (H6lel des Trois Rois), with 7527 inhab., the last French station, was the birthplace of Philip de Comines (1445-1509), the celebrated chron- icler. The Lys, upon which it is situated, is the boundary between France and Belgium. — li M. Comines (Belgian station), with the custom- house. — 22'/2 M. Ypres, see p. 18.

13. From Calais (London) to Chalons-sur-Marne (Bale) via Amiens, Laon, and Rheims.

238 M. Railway in 6V4-63/4 hrs. — From Calais to Amiens, see R. 1:

— From Amiens to Laon, 67 M., in l3/4-3'/3 hrs. (fares 12 fr. 30, 8 fr. 25, 5 fr. 35 c). — From Laon to Rheims, 32 M., in l-lVs hr. (5 fr. 80, 3 fr. 95, 2fr. 55 c). — From Rheims to Ghdlons, 35 M., in 50 min.-lV2 hr. (6fr. 40, 4 fr. 30, 2 fr. 80 c).

This line forms part of the direct route from London to Switzerland and Italy. The day-service, leaving London at 11 a. m. and Calais (Gare Maritime) at 3 p. m proceeds beyond Chalons, via Chaumont and Belforl, reaching Bale at 6.10 a. m. The night-service, leaving London at 8.15 p. m. and Calais at 1 a. m., proceeds via Chalons and Nancy, reaching Bale at 5.25 p.m. (fares from London to Bale, 51. is., 31. 16s., no 3rd. cl.; single tickets are valid for 30 days). Sleeping-carriages between Calais and Bale.

Calais, see p. 3. — From Calais to Amiens, 1033/,j M., see R. 1.

Amiens, see p. 25. — We diverge to the left beyond Amiens from the line to Paris, and cross the line from Paris to Arras. — 108 M. Blangy-Glisy. 114 M. Villers- Bretonneux, an industrial town with 5735 inhab., was the scene of one of the main engagements in the battle of Amiens (see p. 26), in which the French Arme'e du Nord was routed. — The fertile district of Santerre is now traversed and several small stations are passed, including (122 M.) Rositres, the junction for Montdidier and Albert (p. 72). — 127 M. Chaulnes has also a station on the line from Paris to Pe'ronne and Cambrai (R. 8). — 133 M. Nesle is a small town of considerable antiquity, ■with a church partly in the Romanesque style of the 13th century. Several of the Sieurs de Nesle are famous in history.

140 M. Ham (Hotel de France), a small town with a Castle dating from the 13th cent., the doaion oi which. 110 ft. broad and 110 ft.

Baedeker's Uni-thm-n Vram-* 3*d Edit. 7

98 Route 13. LA FERE.

high, has walls 36 ft. thick. It was long used as a place of confine- ment for political prisoners; and here Louis Napoleon spent six years after the failure of his attempt at Boulogne in 1840. He effected his escape in 1846. The church of Notre-Dame, partly Romanesque, restored in the 18th cent., the Library, and the Belfry, formerly a church-tower, may also be noted. General Foy (1775- 1825) was born at Ham, and a bronze statue was erected to him in the Place de l'H6tel-de-Ville, where also is a small Musee.

Beyond (146 M.) Flavy-le-Martel we join the line from St. Quen- tin and follow it in the direction of Paris.

153V2 M. Tergnier, see p. 104. Here our line turns to the E. and crosses the Crozat and Oise Canals and the river Oise.

154^2 M. La Fere (Hotel de I' Europe), a fortified town with 5000 inhab. on the Oise, was bombarded and taken by the Germans in 1870. It has a school of artillery founded in 1719. The Musee, on the Esplanade, contains about 500 paintings bequeathed to the town by the Countess d'Hericourt (d. 1875), few of them of great value and several injured by the bombardment. It is open to the public on Sun., 2-4; on other days on application. Catalogue, 1 fr.

Room A. 43. Salvator Rosa, Deliverance of Andromeda; 332. J. van Ruisdael, Landscape ; 36. Gitilio Romano, Triumph of Neptune ; 335. S. van Ruysdael, Skaters ; 285. Sobbema, Landscape; 51. After Titian, Mary Magdalen ; 3. Guerchino, Rape of Chloris; 273. Goltzius, Adam and Eve; 194. Van Schuppen, Portraits. — 3G1. Weenix, Dinner at the farm. — 28. Lippi, Holy Family; 108. German School, Nativity; 214. De Vriendt, The Ten Virgins; 144. De Crayer, Meeting. — Rooms B. and C. unimportant.

.Room D. 49, 50. Tempesta, Battle of Amazons; 364. G. Visscher, Maker of 'koucks'; 314. Netscher, Interior; 157. Hals the Elder, Portrait; 476. Watteau, Duet; 354. Verkolie, Interior; 212. M. de Vos, Mythological scene or Pan and Syrinx; 59. Italian School, Quarrel; 17. An. Carracci, Charity; 304. Metsu, Scullery-maid. — Italian School, 61. Nativity, 60. Annunciation; 250. Van Brekelenkamp, Dutch interior; 272. Goltzius, Annunciation, Nativity, Adoration of the Magi (triptych). — 115. Van Balen, Prodigal Son; 434. Mme. Lebnm, Mme. Adelaide, aunt of Louis XVI. ; 315. Ommeganck, Landscape with animals; 351. Terburg, Dutch interior; 134. ^ Velvet Brueghel, Crossing the ford; 52. School of Leonardo da Vinci, Madonna and Child; 323. Van Raeestein, Portrait; 341. Van Schorel, Magdalen praying; 6. Bellotto (Cana- letlo), View of Venice; 21. Dossi, Adoration of the Magi ; 67. Italian School, Holy Family. — 199. Bouts, Scourging of Christ; 103. Wohlgemut, Descent from the Cross; 80. MoraUs, Ecce Homo; 41. Parmigianino, Marriage of St. Catharine; 37. Fr. Francia, Holy Family; 35. Penni, Charity. — Room E. 507. Unknown Artist of the 15th cent., Resurrection of Lazarus; 300. Lucas van Leyden, Crucifixion; 217. Flemish School of the 15th cent, Calvary.

From (158 M.) Versigny a branch-line runs to (1372 M.) Derey- Mortiers (p. Ill), through the valley of the Serre.

168 M. Laon, see p. 108. — Beyond Laon several small stations are passed, and the Aisne and the Suippe are crossed.

200 M. Bheims, see p. 118. The through-trains to Switzerland do not enter the terminus at Rheims ; passengers for that town change carriages at the station of Betheny.

From Rheims to (225 M.) St. Hilaire-au-Tempte, see p. 126; thence to (10l/2 M.) CMlons-sur-Marne, see p. 139.

From Chalons to Chaumont and Belfort, see pp. 300, 301 ; to Nancy, p. 142.


14. From Calais (London) to Nancy (Strassburg) via Lille, Valenciennes, Hirson, and Longuyon.

301 M. Railway, direct in summer in I41/2 hrs. — From Calais to Lille, 66V2 M.. in ityi-Ws hrs. (fares 12 fr. 10, 8 fr. 10, 5 fr. 25 c). — Frrnn Lille to Valenciennes, 29>/2 M„ i° l'M'A hrs. (5 fr. 40, 3 fr. 65, 2 fr. 35 c). - From Valenciennes to Nancy, 205 M., through-train in summer in 9 hrs. (fares about 37, 25, 16 fr. 30 c). — From London to Nancy by this route, leaving London at 8.15 p. m. and reaching Nancy at 3.55 p. m. ; via, Amiens, Laon, Rheims, and Chalons (R. 13), starting at the same hour but arriving about 10.50 a. m. (fares 93 fr. 10 and 65 fr. 90 c).

Calais, see p. 3. — From Calais to (38 M.) Hazebrouck, see pp. 15-17. We leave the line from Paris to Arras on the right.

46'/2 M. Bailleul (Faucon), a curious and picturesque Flemish town with 13.450 inhab., largely engaged in the production of hand- made lace. The belfry of the Hotel de Ville dates from the 15-17th cent., the church of St. Vaast from the 14th and 17th. The Musee contains a small collection of paintings and antiquities.

53^2 M. Armentieres (Hotel de Paris), a prosperous manufactur- ing town with 29,600 inhab., is situated on the Lys, near the frontier. Its principal products are cloth and table-linen. Railway to Lens (Arras), see p. 18.

A branch-railway runs from Armentieres to (21 M.) Berguette (p. 18), passing the small towns of (6 M.) Laventie, (8V2 M.) La Gorgue- Estaires, (12 M.) Merville, and (I6V2 M.) St. Venant. — Another branch runs to (9'/2 M.) Comines (p. 97), via. (IVj M.) Houplines and (3 M.) Le Touquet, the frontier-stations.

From (61 V2 M.) St. Andre-les-Lille a branch runs to Haubourdin (p. 97). — 63 M. La Madeleine, an industrial village (10,800 in- hab.), whence a branch runs to Ypres (p. 18). — We cross the Deule and join the lines from Tournai, Valenciennes, Paris, and Be'thune.

66V2 M. Lille, see p. 88. — From Lille to (96 M.) Valenciennes in the reverse direction, see pp. 87, 86.

As we leave Valenciennes, we see the modern Romanesque brick church of the Faubourg de Paris on the left. To the left also is the line to Maubeuge (p. 107), and to the right the line to Le Cateau via, Solesmes (p. 106) and the Canal of the Scheldt. — 99 M. Le Poirier, with iron-works. — Maing-Famars. Famars (Fanum Martis) occupies the site of a Roman colony, excavations on which in 1824 yielded no fewer than 28,000 objects (jewels, coins, trinkets, etc.).

108 M. le ftuesnoy (Hdtel du Grand-Paris), a fortress with 3872 inhab., belonged successively to Hainault, Burgundy, and Austria, before the Treaty of the Pyrenees united it finally with France in 1659. Of its numerous sieges the chief is that of 1793, when the Austrians captured it after a bombardment of ten days, which laid two-thirds of the town in ruins. It was, however, recovered by the Republican troops in 1794. After the battle of Waterloo the Dutch garrisoned Le Quesnoy until 1818. About I1/4 M. to the N.E. is the small Chateau de Potelle, a well-preserved relic of the 14th oentury. — Railway to Cambrai and to Bavay, see p. 74.

100 Route 14. HIRSON.

We next traverse the Forest of Mormal, and beyond (116 M.) Berlaimont (p. 106) cross the Sambre.

118 M. Aulnoye (p. 107). The railway continues in an E. direction. The canalized Sambre is crossed, and the country traversed is picturesquely diversified. — Several small stations.

125 M. Avesnes {Hotel du Nord; Cholet, at the station), on the Helpe, a town with 6400 inhah., and at one time fortified, suffered severely in the wars of the 15-16th centuries. Its chief building is the Church of St. Nicholas, dating from the 13th and 16th cent., with a tower 200 ft. high and a fine peal of bells. The Fondation Villien, a modern building, contains a small museum of antiquities, etc. Wool-spinnina; is an active industry in the neighbourhood, centering at Avesnelles, the next station. — Railway to Sars-Poteries (Maubeuge), see p. 107.

135 M. Fourmies (Hot. de la Providence; des Messageries; Grand Hotel), a town with 15,287 inhab. and an active woollen industry, is the junction for Valenciennes via, Maubeuge (see p. 107). — 1371/2 M. Anor (p. 111).

143 M. Hirson (Buffet-Hotel; Hotel de la Poste, well spoken of), an industrial town with 6632 inhab. , on the Oise, is noted for its basket-making.

From Hirson to Amagne-Lucqoy 3872 M., railway in i'/a-l3/* hr. (fares 6fr. 95, 4fr. 70, 3 fr. 5 c). — 872 M. Aubenton, at the confluence of the Aube and the Thon or Ton, is engaged in wool-spinning. 12>/2 M. Eu- migny has a chateau of the 16th century. — 1G M. Liwt is the junction the line from Laon to Mezieres (p. 11U). — 3872 M. Amagne-Lucquy, see p. 127.

The railway beyond Hirson traverses an undulating country, dotted with iron-mines, slate-quarries, and factories. — 144^2 M. St. Michel-Sougland. The rich abbey of St. Michel is now repre- sented by its church, dating from the 12th and 16th cent., and some buildings of the 18th century. — Several small stations. — From (164 M.) he Tremblois a narrow-gauge line runs to (7^2 M.) Rocroi (p. 113). — The slate-quarries of (166'/2 M.) Rimogne are the most important in the N. of France. — 173 M. Toumes (p. 110). — The train passes between Me'zicres and Charleville.

178 M. Mezieres-Charleville, see p. 128. — Continuation of the journey to (231 M.) Longuyon,- and thence to (301 M.) Nancy, see pp. 128-133.

15. From Paris to Namur (Lihge, Cologne).

a. Via St. Quentin, Maubeuge, and Erquelines.

(Paris -Mons -Brussels.)

191 M. Railway in 51/2-IO1/4 hrs. (fares 33 fr. 25, 22 fr. 95 15 fr. 5 c). The trains start from the Gare du Nord (PI. of Paris, B, C, 23, 24). Trav- ellers bound for Brussels follow this route as far as (142 M.) Maubeuge (p. 107), or they may select the route via. Amiens, Valenciennes, and Mons (EB. 1, 11. & 9), which, hough longer and dearer, has the advantage of a morn-


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CHANTILLY. 15. Route. 101

ing through-express, with second-class carriages. — For farther details of St. Denis, Chantilly, and other places near Paris, see Baedeker's Paris.

Shortly after the fortifications are passed, the line to Soissons, Laon, etc. (p. 115) diverges to the right. 41/2 M. St. Denis, with the tower of its new church conspicuous on the right, and the tower of the cathedral farther off. The lines to Amiens and to Le Tre'port via Beauvais (pp. 25, 32} diverge here to the left. — 6 M. Pierrefitte- Stains. On the right rises the Fort de Garches. Beyond (22'/2 M.) Orry-Coye the train crosses a viaduct, 130ft. high. Below, to the right, on the hanks of the Etangs de Commelle, is the Chateau de la Reine Blanche, a small modern Gothic hunting-lodge, on the site of a chateau once occupied hy St. Louis and Queen Blanche. We now enter the Forest of Chantilly.

25>/2 M. Chantilly {Hdtel d'Angleterre; Lion d'Or; etc.), the first stopping -place of the through -trains, a town with 4211 inhah., famous, especially in the 17th and 18th cent, as the residence of the Conde's. The well-known Race-Courseis situated near the station. Farther off are the extensive Stables of the Condes (18th cent.), and the two Chateaux, with their fine Park. The main *Chateau, with its magnificent art-collections, was presented to the Institut de France hy the Due d'Aumale (1822-97), and is open to visitors on Sun. and Thurs. in summer, from 1 to 5 (except race-days). For details, see Baedeker's Paris.

Fkom Chantilly to Cr£py-en-Valois, 22>/2 M., railway in 1 hr. (fares 4 fr. 15, 2 fr. 80, 1 fr. 80 c). This hranch diverges to the right be- yond the viaduct mentioned helow. — 8 M. Senlis (Hdlel du Grand Cerf), the Roman Civitas Sylvanectensium , situated on the Noneite, is a pleasant little town with 72C0 inhab., which is frequently mentioned in mediseval history. Sixteen towers of the Gallo-Roman Fortifications are still preserved. The Gothic "Cathedral, a handsome building of the 12-16th cent., possesses a portal (1154) adorned with bas-reliefs and statues, and two square towers, one of which is 250 ft. in height. The rich facade of the S. transept is in a late-Pointed style. The churches of St. Pierre (16th cent.), St. Fram- oourg (12th cent.), and the former abbey-church of St. Vincent (12th cent.) are also worthy of inspection. — 22J/2 M. Cripy-en-Valois, see p. 115.

Beyond Chantilly the train crosses the valley of the Nonette by a Viaduct , 484 yds. in length and 72 ft. in height, commanding a fine view. To the left is a modern chateau of the Rothschilds. The train passes through a cutting, traversing the quarries of St. Maxi- min , which yield excellent building-stone , and soon crosses the Oise. To the right is another handsome modern chateau of the Roth- schilds. To the left are the church of St. Leu-d'Esserent (p. 32), the line to Pontoise (p. 48), and the village and manufactories of Montataire (5300 inhab.), commanded by a handsome church of the 12-13th cent., and a chateau of the 15th century.

32 M. Creil (Buffet; H6tel du Chemin-de-Fer; du Commerce), a town with 8456 inhab., prettily situated on the Oise, is an important junction on the Chemin de Fer du Nord. The Parish Church is a building of the 12-15th centuries. On an island in the river are the ruins of the Church of St. Evremont, a fine though small example

102 Boute 1 5. COMPIEGNE. From Paris

of the Transition style (12tli cent.), and some remains of an ancient royal chateau.

Branch-line to Pontoise and Beaumont, see p. 32; to Amiens, etc., see R. 1 ; to Beamais and Le Triporl, see R. 3.

Beyond Oreil the train skirts the Oise ; the Amiens line diverges to the left. — 39 M. Pont-Ste-Maxence, with a handsome bridge, built in 1774-85, and an interesting church.

About 3/i M. to the S.E. are the important remains of the Abbaye de Moncel (partly 14th cent. ; visitors admitted). — Near the station is the Foret d'Sallate, traversed by a road to (31/2M.) Fleurines and (7'/2 M.) Senlis (p. 101.).

45 M. Longueil- Ste- Marie (to Verberie and Estre'es-St-Denis, see p. 103). — 48y2 M. Le Meux (to Cre'py-en-Valois, see p. 103).

52'/2 M. Compiegne. — Hotels. De la Cloche, R., h., & A. 3, B. ll/4, dej. 2, D. 3, pens, from 8 fr., omn. 50 c. ; de Fbance, R., L., & A. 3, dej. 3, D. 37z fr. incl. wine, pens. 8V2, omn. '/2 fr. ; Cobne-de-Cerf, dej. 2'/2, D. 3 fr. ; de Flandee, near the station, well spoken of; de la Gaee, with cafe', pens. V/z fr.

Cafes. De la Cloche, Place de THotel-de-Ville ; others near the station; -Railway Buffet.

Cabs. Per drive, 2 pers. 3/t fr., 3 pers. 1 fr. 10 c, 4 pers. l'/z fr.; per hr. I1/2, 2, or 2V2 fr. To Pierrefonds or Champlieu, 12-20 fr. for 4 pers. (bargain desirable).

English Church. St. Andrew's, AvenueThiers ; Chaplain, Rev. A.F. Showell.

Compiegne, on the Oise, a town with 15,225 inhab., was always a favourite country-residence of the monarchs of France, and is, therefore, a place of some historical importance. It was here that Joan of Arc was taken prisoner by the Burgundians in 1430. A monument to her memory, by Leroux, was erected in the Place de l'H6tel-de- Ville in 1880. Turning to the right on leaving the station, and crossing the Oise, we soon reach the Hdtel de Ville, erected at the beginning of the 16th cent., with a fine facade, now adorned with modern statues, above which rises a belfry, 152 ft. in height. It contains a small but interesting Museum of paintings and other works of art (open free Sun. & Thurs., 2-5; an other days for a gratuity). The Gothic churches of St. Jacques and St. Antoine (12-15th cent.) are uninteresting. The Palace, at the end of the town near the forest, was built by Gabriel in the reign of Louis XV. Visitors are ad- mitted to the richly furnished and decorated interior, which con- tains a small art-gallery (10-5 in summer, 11-4 in winter); the so- called 'appartements reserves' are shown on application to the cus- todians. The fine *Park is also open to the public. The Forest, which affords many beautiful walks, is 36,270 acres in area and 59 M. in circumference. — For details, see Baedeker's Paris.

Branch-railways lead from Compiegne to (22'/2 M.) Roye (Peronne and Cambrai; p. 72) and to (25 M.) Soissons (p. 116), by the valley of the Aisne, diverging from the line to Villers-Cotterets at (4 M.) Rethondes. — Branch-line from Compiegne to Clermont and Beauvais, see p. 25.

Fkom Compiegne to Villees-Cottekets via Piekrefonds, 23 M., rail- way in 1 hr. (fares 4 fr. 15 , 2 fr. 80 , 1 fr. 80 c). To Pierrefonds, lO'/z M., railway in 25-35 min. (fares 1 fr. 90, 1 fr. 30, 85 c). — The line crosses the Oise and skirts the forest to the E. and S.E. — IOV2 M. Pierrefonds (Hotel des Bains, with baths, R., L., & A. 5'/2, B. I1/*, dej. 3, D. 4, pens. 12,

to Namw. NO YON. 15. Route. 103

omn. >/2 fr. t H6tel des Elrangers, opposite the chateau and near the station, dej. 3, D. 3V2fr. ; des Burnet, Rue Carnot; de I'Enfer, Rue Viollet-le-Duc ; Cafi-Reslaurcmt du Lac, facing the lake, dej. 2l/2, D. 3 fr.), a village with 1750 inhab., prettily situated on a small lake and possessing a mineral spring, is chiefly interesting on account of its magnificent 'Feudal Castle. This building was erected in 1390 by Louis of Orleans, brother of Charles VI., and was one of the strongest and handsomest of the castles of that period. It was besieged four times by the royal troops, and was at length dis- mantled in 1617. During the Revolution it was sold, and it was afterwards purchased by Napoleon I. It was restored by Viollet-le-Duc (d. 1879) at a cost of 5 million francs, three-fourths of which were supplied by Napoleon III. The imposing edifice stands on a rocky height above the village, covering an area of nearly U/2 acre. At the corners and in the centre of each side rise massive loopholed towers (eight in all), 112 ft. in height, with walls 15-20 ft. thick. The entrance is on the S. side. The donjon, with its rich decorations, conveys an excellent idea of the splendour of a mediaeval feudal lord. Above the fire-place in the hall of state are statues of 9 heroines : Semiramis, Lampedo, Deiphila, Tomyris, Tanqua, Penthesilea, Menelippe, Hippolyta, and Deifemme. — 23 M. Villers-Cotterets, see p. 115.

From Compiegne to Crept - en -Valois, 2IV2 M., railway in i hr. (fares 3 fr. 90, 2 fr. 65, 1 fr. 70 c). The railway diverges from the line to Paris at Le Meux (p. 102). — 10 M. Verberie, a small town, once a favourite residence of the Merovingian and Carolingian kings of the 8-9th cent., retains, however, no relics of its early greatness. Here, in 856, Ethel- wolf of England married Judith, the daughter of Charles the Bald. The church dates in part from the 12-13th centuries. A branch runs hence to Longueil (p. 102) and (IOV2 M.) Estrees-St-Denis (Boves- Amiens; see below). — 15 M. Orrouy, about IV2 M. to the N.W. of which is Champlieu, with a ruined church of the 12th cent., and some Roman remains (baths, theatre, temple, etc.). The custodian of the ruins lives at Orrouy. — 2IV2 M. Cr4py-en-Valoit, see p. 115.

From Compiegne to Amiens, 45j/2 M. , railway in 2 hrs. (fares 8 fr. 20, 5 fr. 50, 3 fr. 60 c). — 9 M. Estriet- St- Denis, formerly chief town of the barony which gave name to the beautiful Gabrielle d'Estrees, mistress of Henri IV. (Railway to Verberie, see above.) — 23 M. Montdidier, see p. 71. — 33'/2 M. Moreuil, with a large ruined castle and the church and other remains of a Benedictine priory of the 14-15th centuries. — At (40>/2 M.) Bovei we join the railway from Paris to Amiens (p. 24).

67 M. Noyon (Hdtel du Nord), an ancient town with 7458 inhab., was known to the Romans as Noviodunum Veromanduorum. St. Me'dard and St. Eloi (Eligius) were bishops of Noyon. Here Chil- peric was buried in 721 , Charlemagne crowned king of the Franks in 768, and Hugh Capet elected king in 987. Noyon was the birth- place of Calvin (1509-64), the reformer, and of Jacques Sarrazin (1592-1660), painter and sculptor, to whom a bronze statue, by Mohlknecht, was erected on the promenade in 1851. — The Cath- edral, presenting an exceedingly harmonious though not an im- posing exterior, is one of the most beautiful examples in France of the Transition style of the ll-12th centuries. Round and pointed arches are used promiscuously, but the latter are the more numer- ous. The two W. towers, 200 ft. high, are unfinished; the portico (14th cent.) has three portals , unfortunately much injured in the course of time. In the interior of the nave square pillars with engaged columns alternate with single columns. The aisles have galleries with pointed arches, above which is a triforium with round arches. The transepts have a triforium and two rows of coupled

104 Route 15. ST. QUENTIN. From Paris

windows , one row Gothic, the other Romanesque. The choir-apse is surrounded by small circular chapels, recalling, as do also the apsidal terminations of the transepts, the cathedral of Tournai, whose bishop was subject to Noyon until 1135. The chapels of the nave were added in the 14-16th centuries. On the N. side of the cathedral, and behind the choir, are a Chapter-House and the remains of a Gothic Cloister.

77 M. Chauny (*H6t. du Pot-d'Etain) , an industrial town of 9927 inhab., with bleach-fields and a branch of the St. Gobain mirror- works (see below).

From Chauny to Laos via, Coucy-le- Chdleau, 26:/2 M., railway in l'/ihr. (fares 3 fr. 90, 2 fr. 65, 1 fr. 70 c). To Coucy, 8>/2 M. in 1/2 hr- (lfr.70, 1 fr. 15, 75 c). — 3 M. Sinceny, with an old porcelain-factory. From (4'/2M.) Rond-d '.'Orliant a branch-railway runs to (5 M.) St. Gobain, celebrated for its Mirror Works, founded in 1693, and probably the largest in the world (visitors admitted) — 61. Folembray, where there is a large glass-work.

8V2M. Coucy-le-Chateau (H6t. des Ruines; PommeoVOr), a village famous for its formidable "Castle, now in ruins, one of the most striking monuments of the feudal ages in Europe. This huge stronghold, which covered an area of 10,000 sq. yds., was built early in the 13th cent, by Enguerrand III., and till 1396 it remained in the possession of his family, who bore the proud motto: 'Roi ne suys, ne prince, ne due, ne comte aussi; je suys le sire de Coucy'. The wealthy Louis of Orleans, who built Pierrefonds, then bought it, and in 1498 it passed to the French crown. The castle, dismantled in 1652 by Mazarin's orders, had for its last lord Philippe 'Egalite' of Orleans. It is now public property and open to visitors (fee). The donjon, according to Viollet-le-Duc, is the finest specimen in Europe of mediteval military architecture; 'compared with this giant', he says, 'the largest towers known appear mere spindles'. It is ^10 ft. high and 100 ft. in diameter, and the walls are in some places 34 ft. thick. Four smaller towers, a moat, and high walls also protected the fortress, which stands on an eminence, approached by long steep slopes on all sides but one.

At (16 M.) Anizy-Pinon we join the line from Paris to Laon (p. 108) via Soissons.

At (81 72 M.) Tergnier (Buffet; Hot. du Chemin-de-Fer) are large railway-workshops. Railway from Amiens to Rheims, see pp. 97, 98.

The main line now quits the Oise, and for some time skirts the Canal Crozat, which joins the Uise and the Somme.

9572 M. St. Quentin. - Hotels. Du Cygne (PI. a; B, 3), Rue St. Martin; de France et d'Angleterre (PI. b; B, 3), Rue St. Martin 28; du Commerce (PI. c ; B, 2), Rue du Palais-de-Justice 27, R. & A. 3, dej. 31/-.! fr. ; "de la Gare (PI. d; B, 5), at the station. — Cafes. Grand Cafi, Cafi de Paris, Place de THotel-de-Ville.

Cabs. Per drive, 2 pers. 80c, 3 pers. 1 fr. 20, 4 pers. 1 fr. 60c. perhr., l'/2, 2, or 2l/iir.; at night (11 p.m.-6 a.m.), per drive, 2 pers. l'/s, 3-4 pers. 2 fr., per hr., l1^ or b fr.

St. Quentin, an ancient town with 48,868 inhab., is situated on rising ground on the right bank of the Somme , at the point where it is joined by the Canal de St. Quentin and the Canal Crozat. It is the centre of a highly important industrial district, and carries on extensive cotton and woollen manufactures.

St. Quentin was known to the Romans as Augusta Veromcmduorum, and derives its modern name from the youthful martyr who introduced Christianity here in the 3rd century. It aiterwards became the capital of the Counts of Vermandois. In 1560 it formed part of the dowry of Mary, Queen of Scots, who derived a revenue from it until her death. In .1557 the


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to Namur. ST. QUENTIN. 15. Route. 105

Spaniards , with their English, German , and Flemish auxiliaries, under the Duke of Savoy, signally defeated the French under Coligny and the Constable Montmorency near St. Quentin. The battle was fought on St. Lawrence's day, and it was in gratitude for this victory that Philip II. vowed the erection of the Escurial. On the 19th Jan., 1871, the French 'Armee du Nord' under Faidherbe was defeated near St. Quentin by the Prussians under General Goeben.

Quitting the Station (PI. B, 5), we cross the Somme and the Canal de St. Quentin and enter the town. In front of us is the Place du Huit- Octobre (PI. B, <j), embellished with a handsome Monument, by Bar- rias, symbolizing the successful defence of the town against the first attack of the Germans on Oct. 8th, 1870.

The Rue d'Isle leads thence to the Place de rH6tel-de-Yille, in which rises the *Monument of the Siege of 1557, with sculptures by C. Theunissen (189?). On the N. side of the Place is the * Hotel de Ville (PI. B, 3), a fine Gothic building of the 14th and 15th cent., resembling the Belgian town-halls of the same period. The facade consists of an arcade of seven pointed arches, above which are nine fine windows in the Flamboyant style, separated by niches originally intended for statues and surmounted by a tasteful balustrade and three gables ornamented with rosettes. The chief point of interest in the interior is the Salle du Conseil, the roof of which rests upon two circular wooden vaults. The large and elaborate chimney-piece presents a curious mixture of the Gothic and the Renaissance styles.

The *Church of St. Quentin (PI. B, C, 3), a little to the E. of the Hotel de Ville, is a fine example of French G othic of the 12-15th cent., but is unfortunately much masked by other buildings. It has double transepts, and the nave is 370 ft. long and 130 ft. high. The W. portal, which was formerly adorned with statues, is one of the oldest parts of the church.

Interior. The nave, completed in 1456, the W. transept, and the choir are embellished with splendid stained glass and a graceful triforium. Many of the chapels date from the 14-loth cent., and, like the choir, are adorned with polychrome painting. Beside the 1st chapel on the right is a Tree of Jesse in stone (i5th cent.) and in the chapel is a small 16th cent, altar-piece. In the '*>n& chapel is a fresco of the loth cent, (restored), and some of the others contain interesting sculptures. The 'Choir Screen is embellished with bas-reliefs (restored in the 19th cent. J referring to the history of St. Quentin and his fellow-martyrs, SS. Victoricus and Gentianus, all of whom are buried in the crypt.

In front of the church rises the statue, by Langlet, of Quentin Delatour (1704-88), the famous drawer in crayons, who was born at St. Quentin. — Another native of St. Quentin, Henri Martin, the historian (1810-83), is commemorated by a statue in front of the Lycee (Pl.B. 2), a handsome building at the end of the Rue du Palais- de-Justice.

At No. 22, Rue Antoine-Lecuyer , to the right from Martin's statue, is the Musee Lecuytr (PI. B, 2), containing a rich collection of antiquities and works of art, including a series of crayons by Delatour (see above). The Musee is open free on Thurs. & Sun., 2-5 (1-4 in winter); on other days on application. The public park of

106 Route 15. LE CATEATJ. From Paris

St. Quentin, known as the Champs-Ely sees (PI. 0, 3), lies to the E. of the older quarters of the town.

From St. Qcentin to Gdise , 25 M., railway in l'A hr. (fares 4 fr. 10, 2 fr. 10, 2 fr. 25 c). — 10:/2 M Ribemont (Etoile), an industrial town with 3850 inhabitants. — 25 M. Guise (Buffet-Hdtel; Couronne), an industrial town with 80?2 inhab., is commanded by an ancitnt castle, part of which dates from the 16th cent., now occupied by a small garrison. In 1339 the English, under John of Hainault, burned the town, but were unable to make themselves masters of the castle, which was courageously defended by the wife of its lord, no other than the daughter of John of Hainault himself. The town has been several times besieged and taken since then. Guise was the birthplace of Camille Desmoulins (1762-94), the revolutionary. In the Rue de Cambrai is the exceedingly interesting Familistire, or com- munistic workmen's colony, including a Phalanstere , or large common dwelling-house for the members, founded about 1850 by J. B. Godin (d. 1888) on the plan advocated by Fourier. Visitors are warmly welcomed. — Railway to Laon and Valenciennes (see p. Ill and below); another to Birson (p. 100) is under construction.

Another line runs to (20 M.) Rotiel (Velu, Bapaume, and Achiet; p. 72), via. (7'/2 M.) Vermand, which some authorities identify with the Augusta Veromanduorum of the Romans (p. 104).

IO8V2 M. Bohain (Hotel du Nord), an ancient town with 7423 inhab., many times besieged and captured between 1183 and 1815.

— 112 M. Busigny (Buffet ; Hot. du Nord).

A branch-line runs from Busigny to (35 M.) Hirson, passing various places of industrial importance, including (8*/2 M.) Wassigny, also a station on the line from Valenciennes to Laon via Guise (see p. ill). — 35 M. Hirson, see p. 110.

From Busigny to Cambrai and Somain, see pp. 71, 74.

Beyond Busigny our line diverges to the right from the line to Cambrai and crosses the valley of the Selle by a viaduct 85 ft. high.

118 M. Le Cateau (*Mouton Blanc), a town with 10,450 inhab., on the Selle , with important woollen and merino spinning-mills, derives its name from an ancient chateau, originally built about the 11th cent, by the Bishops of Cambrai. A peace between England, France, and Spain, was signed here in 1550. A bronze statue has been erected here to Marshal Mortier, a native of the town (b. 1768), killed at Paris in 1835 by Fieschi's infernal machine.

A railway runs from Le Cateau to (16 M.) Cambrai, passing (7>/2 M.) Caudry-Cambrisis (80C0 inhab.), whence there is a branch-line to (13V2 M.) Le Catelet, via (2 M.) Caudry-Nord and (8 M.) Walincourt (2317 inhab.). — The railway proceeds to the E. of Caudry to (6 M.) Calillon (2367 inhab.).

Le Cateau is also a station on the line from Laon to Valenciennes via Guise and Solesmes (see p. 111).

122 M. Ors. The valley of the Sambre is now entered. — 125 M. Landrecies (Hotel de V Europe) , a fortress on the Sambre , with 4069 inhab., was the birthplace of Dupleix (1697-1764), founder of the French power in India , who is commemorated by a bronze statue, by Fagel. — We enter the Forest of Mormal (22,300 acres).

— 129 M. Hachette (Maroilles). — Beyond (132 M.) Sassegnies we cross the Sambre and pass under the line to Valenciennes. To the right is the line from Anor to Hirson ; to the left is Berlaimont, near which is Aulnoye, about l1/^ M. from its station.

to Namur. MAUBEUGE. 15. Route. 107

134 M. Aulnoye (Buffet-Hotel). Railway from Valenciennes to Hirson (Calais-Nancy), see R. 14.

The main line continues to follow the valley of the Sambre. crossing the river several times. — 139 M. Hautmont (E6t. du Com- merce), an industrial town with 11,336 inhabitants. At (141 M.) Sous-le-Bois the line to Mons (see below) diverges to the left.

142 M. Maubeuge (Buffet-Hotel; Grand Cerf;du Nord; Poste), a fortress of the first class , situated on both banks of the Sambre, with 19,800 inhab. , owes its origin to a nunnery and monastery, founded in the 7th cent, by St. Aldegonda. The veil and a sandal of the saint are preserved in the church. Maubeuge became the capital of Hainault, and passed to France by the peace of Nimwegen in 1678. In 1793 the town was invested by the prince of Saxe- Ooburg, but it was relieved by the battle of Wattignies (a hamlet 71J2 M. to the S.), commemorated since 1893 by a Monument in the town. In 1815, after the battle of Waterloo, it was forced to cap- itulate. It carries on very extensive manufactures of tools, im- plements, horse-shoes, and other metal goods. The painter Jan Gos- saert (1470-1532), perhaps better known as Mabuse, was a native of the town.

Fbom Maubeuge to Mons (Brussels), 13 M., railway in 1-2 hrs. — 1 M. Sout-le-Bois (see above). — l3/4 M. Feignies (Buffet) is the last French station. About l3/4 M. to the W. is Malplaquet, where Marshal Villars was defeated in 1709 by the Duke of Marlborough and Prince Eugene, and where General Pichegru defeated the Duke of York in 1794. — The Belgian custom-house examination takes place at (6V2 M.) Quivy (Buffet). Belgian time (Greenwich time) is 4 min. behind Parisian time. — 9 M. Frameriei. Beyond (12 M.) Cuesmei we traverse the coal-fields of Mons, the richest in Belgium. — 13 M. Mons (Hotel de la Couronne; de VEspirance; Schmitz), Flem. Bergen, the capital of Hainault, with 25,300 inhab., has a fine Cathedral (1460-1589), a Belfry of 1662, a H6tel de Ville of the 15th cent., etc. For farther details, and for the railway from Mons to Brussels, see Baedekers Belgium and Holland.

From Maubeuge to Hirson (Cousolre), 33'/2 M., railway in l'/2 hr. (fares 6 fr. 0, 4 fr. 10, 2 fr. 65 c). — From (372 M.) Ferriere-la-Grande a branch runs to Cousolre, a town 672 M. to the E., with marble-quarries and surrounded with woods and ponds. — 10^2 M. Sars-Poteriei, with important glass-works. A branch-line is to be constructed to Avesnes (p. 100). — 13 M. Solre-le-Chdteau no longer possesses the chateau to which it owes its name. The Church (15th cent.) has good old stained glass ; the Mairie and some other houses date from the 16th century. — At (1772 M.) Liessies is an ancient abbey-church of the 16th century. The Forett of Trilon, 7400 acres in extent, which we next traverse, recalls in many places the environs of Spa. 2572 M. Fourmies (p. 100); 2872 M- Anor (p. 111). — 33>/2 M. Hirson, see p. 100.

From Maubeuge to Valenciennet, see p. 82.

146 M. Becquignies, with mirror-works. — 148 M. Jeumont (Buffet) is the last French station. Passengers' luggage coming from Belgium is examined here, unless booked through to Paris.

150 M. Erquelines (Buffet-Hdtel). Luggage, not registered to pass through Belgium, is here examined by the Belgian custom- house officers. Belgian time (Greenwich time) is 4 min. behind Paris time. The railway continues to follow the valley of the Sambre. —

108 Route 15. LAON. From Paris

158 M. Thuin, a small town prettily situated on a hill to the right. Five more unimportant stations.

168 M. Charleroi (Buffet; Hotel Beukelers), a manufacturing town and fortress, with about 23,0C0 inhab. , was founded by Charles II. of Spain in 1666.

The train now passes several stations still in the valley of the Sambre. — 177 M. Tannines is the junction for Dinant (29 JVL), Fleurus (5V2 M.), etc.

191 M. Namur, see p. 114.

b. Via, Soissons, Laon, and Anor.

195 M. Railway in 73/4-13 hrs. (fares about 31 fr. 85, 22 fr. 15, 14 fr. 60 c. no through-tickets). Trains start from the Gare du Nord (see p. 115).

From Paris to (65 M.) Soisson*, seepp. 115, 116. The line to Laon diverges to the left from that to Rheims, and crosses the Aisne. Fine view of Soissons. — 67'/2 M- Orouy ; 71 M. Margival. Then, beyond a tunnel 700 yds. long, (74 M.) Vauxaillon. — 76 M. Anizy-Pinon.

Railway to Chauny , see p. 104. — A diligence plies from Anizy to (5 M.) Prtmonlri, formerly celebrated for its Abbey, founded by St. Noribert in 1120, and the mother-house of the Prsemonstratensian order of canons regular, who followed the rule of St. Augustine. The present buildings, dating from the 18th cent., are occupied as a lunatic asylum. — St. Gobain (p. 104) is 41/2 11. farther on.

80 M. Chailvet-Urcel. Urcel , l'/2 M. to the S., has a curious church of the ll-13th centuries. The town of Laon comes in sight on the right. At (84 M.) Clacy-Mons we join the line from Tergnier.

87 M. Laon. — The Railway Station is in the lower part of the town, about 3/4 M. from the centre (steep ascent; omnibus 50 c), but a connecting branch is about to be opened (eomp. Plan).

Hotels. De la Huee (PI. a; C, 1), Rue du Bourg ; Eco-de -Fkance (PI. b; C, 1), de la Basnieke (PI. c; C, 1), Rue David, pens. 8 fr. ; *dd Nord (PI. d; D, 1), opposite the station, pens. llh fr. — Cafes. De la Comidie, Place de l'H6teJ-de-Ville; at the Hdtel du Nord, see above.

Cabs. From the station to the town 1 fr. ; per drive 75 c. ; per hr. I1/* fr. (2 fr. beyond the octroi-limits). Double fare after 11 p.m.

Laon, a fortress of the third class, with 14,629 inhab., is the capital of the department of the Aisne, and from before 500 till 1789 was the seat of a bishop, second in rank to the Archbishop of Rheims alone. The town is built in the midst of an extensive plain, on a long, isolated hill running E. and W., and curving towards the S. at the W. end so as to form the curious valley mentioned at p. 110.

Laon is the Laudwnum of the Romans. It was a favourite residence of the later Carolingian kings. In the middle ages its history is mainly a re- cord of the struggles of the townsmen to found their liberties and maintain them against the encroachments of the bishops. The English occupied Laon from 1410 till 1429; and it suffered severely in the later religious wars and the war of the League. In March, 1814, Napoleon was defeated under the walls of Laon by Bliicher and compelled to fall back upon Soissons with heavy loss. In 1870 Laon capitulated to the Germans without a blow, but as the latter were entering the citadel, a French private of engineers, named Henriot, blew up the powder-magazine, killing 79 Germans and 229 French- men (including himself), and working considerable damage in the town.

to Namur. LAON. 75. Route. 109

— Laon was the birthplace of the Abbe Marquette, who discovered the Mississippi in 1673, and of Marshal Se"rurier (see below).

The carriage-road ascends in curves to the left from the end of the avenue opposite the Station (PI. D, 1); hut pedestrians may mount directly to the (Y4 hr.) beginning of the town, hy means of a stairway with 263 steps, interrupted occasionally by inclined planes. A little farther on we turn to the left into the Rue du Bourg, which leads to the cathedral.

On the right side of the street is the public Library (open daily 1 to 4 or 5, except Sun. & holidays), a short distance beyond which is the Place de l'Hotel-de-Ville (PI. C, 1), embellished with a bronze Statue of Marshal Serurier (1742-1819), by Doublemard.

The Rue du Bourg, continued by the Rue Chatelaine, leads to the church of *Notrk-Damb (PI. D,2), still called the Cathedral, though the bishopric of Laon was suppressed at the Revolution. A church existed on this fine site at the beginning of the 12th cent., but it was burned down in 1112, and the present building, one of the most interesting churches in the N. of France, dates from the 12-14th centuries. It has been thoroughly restored by E. Bosswilwald (d. 1896). The length of the church (outside measurement) is 397 ft., the breadth across the nave is 67 ft., across the transepts 178 ft. ; the vaulting is 78 ft. high. The characteristic feature of this church is its fine group of lofty towers and spires. The *Facade, a masterpiece of pure Gothic, is flanked by two bold and graceful towers, 180 ft. high, which were originally surmounted by spires. The lower part of these towers is square, the upper octagonal, while above the buttresses at the angles rise belfries of two stories, adorned on the second story with figures of oxen, in memory of the animals who dragged the stones from the plain to the site of the building. It was originally intended to erect two similar towers at each end of the transepts, but only two of these have been completed (190 ft. high). The square lantern-tower above the crossing, 130 ft. high, is now crowned by a low pyramidal roof instead of the original tall spire.

The Interior vies in interest with the exterior. The transepts are also divided into nave and aisles, which, like those of the nave itself, are separated by substantial cylindrical columns, from the capitals of which (all sculptured differently) slender columns rise to the vaulting. The aisles are furnished with lofty galleries beneath the triforium; the chapels at the sides were added in the 13-Uth cent., but the screens at the entrances, rilled into the arcades of the former windows, date from the 16-17th cent- uries. At the end of each transept is an ancient chapel of two stories. The E. end of the choir, pierced by a rose-window and three other win- dows, is square, ;is in English cathedrals, a form which frequently recurs in the churches of this diocese and is said to be due to the influence of an Englishman who held the see in the early part of the 12th century. There are rose-windows also above the W. and N. portals, hut not ;ibove the S portal. The stained glass in the rose-windows and in the windows on the S. side is good. The carved wooden pulpit dates from the Renaissance.

The Palais de Justice (PI. D, 2), to the left of the choir, was formerly the bishop's palace (13th cent). It retains a few remnants of a Gothic cloister.

110 Route 15. LAON. From Paris

The Ruelle des Templiers, the second street to the light of the Rue du Clottre beyond Notre-Dame, leads us into another parallel street running from the Place de l'Hotel-de-Ville to the Citadel (PI. E, 2; uninteresting).

Opposite the 'Ruelle' is the Musee (PL D, 2), in a building at the side of a garden surrounding a Chapel of the Templars, of the 12th century. The Muse'e is open to the public on Thurs. & Sun., 1-6 (1-4 in winter); on other days on application. It contains antiquities discovered in the neighbourhood (mosaic of Orpheus and the animals, of the 2nd cent. A.D.), small bronzes, antique vases, and some ancient and modern paintings. The marble statue of Gabrielle d'Estre'es (d. 1599), mistress of Henri IV, is noteworthy.

From the Promenades to the S. of the Musee a charming *View is obtained of the opposite side of the hill of Laon, entirely different from that commanded by the station. The hill here, with its steep sides, encloses a "V-shaped valley or ravine, partly wooded and partly covered with gardens and vineyards, which is known as the Cuve de St. Vincent (PI. B, C, 2). The 13th cent. Gothic gateway seen here {Porte d'Ardon; PI. D, 2) is a relic of the early fortifica- tions. Farther to the W. is the Prefecture (PI. 0, D, 2), in the former Abbaye St. Jean. A street leads hence to the Place de l'H6tel-de- Ville , near which is the Porte des Chenizelles (PI. C, 2) , another 13th cent, gateway (restored in 1895). Other interesting old build- ings are to be seen in different parts of the town.

The Rue St. Jean and Rue St. Martin lead from the Place de l'Hotel- de-Ville to the Church of St. Martin (PI. B, 1,2), at the other end of the town, an ancient collegiate church in the Transition style, with two transeptal towers, built in the 13th century. In the interior, to the right of the entrance, is a tomb in black marble, with a recumbent statue, erroneously described as that of a Sire de Coucy (p. 104). The white marble tomb opposite has a fine statue representing the widow of one of the Sires de Coucy, who died as an abbess in 1333. A chapel on the S. side of the nave, with a stone screen of the Renaissance period, contains an Ecce Homo of the 16th century. The modern pulpit and the ancient choir-stalls deserve notice.

In the neighbourhood is the Lycee (PL B, 2), a modern building. Outside the town on this side, at the S. end of the heights forming the 'cuve', is the former Abbaye St. Vincent (PI. B, C, 3), now oc- cupied by military engineers.

Feom Laon to Liakt (Mizteres-Charleville), 37 M., in l>/a hr. — This line runs via (8 M.) Liesse (Troit Rois; Cheval Blanc), a village famous for the miraculous image of Notre-Dame-de-Liesse, dating from the 12th cent., which has long been a favourite object of pilgrimages. The church was built in the 14-15th centuries. — Several small stations are passed, includ- ing (21 31.) Montcornet, a small town with a ruined mediseval chateau and remains of fortifications of the 16th century. — 37 M. Liart (p. 100) is the present terminus ; but the line is to be carried on to Tournes (I31/2 M. ; p. 100), where it will join the railway from Hirson to Miziiret.

From Laon to Valenciennes, 70 M., railway in 2-43/4hrs. (fares 12fr.75, 8 fr. 55, 5 fr. 55 c). This recently completed line affords an alternative

vBeaiuamg '

to Namur. VERVINS. 15. Route. Ill

route between Valenciennes and Paris, with an express service (1st & 2nd cl.) either way. — After quitting Laon a numher of unimportant stations are passed. At (12 M.) Mesbrecourt we cross the Serre, an affluent of the Oise, and at (28 M.) Flavigny-le- Grand we enter the valley of the Oise. — 31 M. Guise, see p. 106. — The Oise is crossed, and several small stations are passed. — From (4'/2 M.) Watsigny, on the line from Busigny to Hirson, express-trains run direct via (46 M.) St. Sonplet to Le Cateau, while other trains make a detour via Busigny. — 48V2 M. Le Cateau, see p. 106. — To the right is the line to Mauheuge (p. 106). — 54 M. Solesmes (Soleil d'Or), a linen-manufacturing place with 6322 inhabitants. To Cambrai and Bavay, see p 82. — We continue to traverse an industrial district, passing numerous stations. — 65 M. Prouvy-Thiant is the junction for So- main via Lourches. — 70 M. Valenciennes, see p. 79. Railway from Amiens to Sheims, see R. 13.

Beyond Laon the line to Hirson soon diverges to the left from that to Rheims. From (96 M.) Dercy- Mortiers a branch-line runs to La Fere (p. 98). We ascend the valley of the Serre. Beyond (102 M.) Marie the train passes from the valley of the Serre to that of the Vilpion. — 111 M. Vervins (Lion d'Or), a town with 3351 inhah. and the remains of former fortifications, is noted for the treaty concluded here in 1598 between Henri IV and Philip II. of Spain. Basket-making and straw - plaiting are carried on by the inhabitants. — 119 M. Origny-en-Thierache. La Tkierache was the name given to this district because from 596 to 613 it formed part of the domains of Thierry, King of Burgundy. Its capital was Guise (p. 106). — The valley of the Thon is now crossed by means of a viaduct, 60 ft. high.

123 M. Hirson (Buffet), see p. 100. — 126y2 M. Anor (Cloche d'Or; de la Oare), a picturesquely situated town with 4660 inhab. Railway to Aulnoye and Valenciennes, see pp. 100-99. Our line leaves the latter to the left, and turns towards the B. — 132 M. Momignies is the first Belgian station (custom-house examination). — 140 M. Chimay (Hot. de l'Univers), a town with 3000 inhab., has a chateau belonging to the Prince of Chimay and a statue of Froissart, the chronicler (d. 1410). — 150 M. Mariembourg. Railway to (29y2 M.) Charleroi, see p. 108; to (IOV2 M.) Vireux, see p. 113. — 158 M. Romeree, the junction for Chatelineau-Morialme. — 164 M. Doische. Branch to Givet (p. 113). — 165 M. Agimont-Village. At (169 M.) Hastiere we join the line from Givet to Namur (p. 113).

c. ViS, Soissons, Bheims, and Mezieres,

228 M. Railway in 8y<-13>/4 hrs. So through-tickets. Fares from Paris to Givet about 35 fr. 25, 23 fr. 85, 15 fr. 60 c. ; from Givet to Namur 4 fr. 5, 3 fr. 5, 2 fr. 5 c. Trains start from the Gare du Nord , though between Soissons and Givet the Chemin de Fer de l'Est is traversed.

From Paris to (154 M.) Mezieres-Charleville, see RR. 16, 18 d.

The railway soon begins to descend the picturesque *Valley of the Meuse, at the E. extremity of the Ardennes, a region formerly famous for its forests, and containing on this side hills nearly 1500 ft. high. The river pursues its capricious course between lofty slate-cliffs, raising their steep Wood-clad slopes to the height of several hundred feet, and often approach-

1 1 2 Route 15. REVIN. From Paris

ing so close as to leave no room even for a footpath Reside the river. The railway-journey through this beautiful region is very interesting and com- mands constantly varying, though often only too momentary, views as the train crosses and recrosses the meandering stream. Some of the finest points, moreover, are passed in the train hy means of tunnels, so that it is advisable to visit them on foot, e.g. the country between Montherme' and Fumay, and the neighbourhood of Dinant. The valley is enlivened by numerous iron-works, nail-works, and. other industrial establishments.

The railway now follows the right bank of the Meuse to near Montherme, traversing the peninsula of Mont Olympe (see below). 158 M. Nouzon, picturesquely situated, with 6600 inhab., is an important centre of the metallic industry of the valley. 161 M: Joigny-sur-Meuse. — 164 M. Braux-Levrezy. The station is at Levrezy; Braux is on the opposite bank of the river. The line now enters one of the most picturesque parts of the valley. The Rockers des Quatre-Fils-Aymon are pierced by a tunnel 560 yds. long. The 'Four Sons of Aymon', Renaud, Guiscard, Adelard, and Richard, 'preux chevaliers' of the court of Charlemagne, are the heroes of various remarkable adventures related in numerous chansons and legends of the middle ages. They were in the habit of riding one behind the other on the wonderful horse Bayard, presented to them by the fairy Orlande. — 164!/2 M. Montherme- Chdteau-Reg- nault-Bogny. the station for the industrial villages of Ch&teau-Reg- nault on the right bank, and Bogny on the left.

Montherme (Hotel de la Paix. by the bridge), an industrial village with 4150inhab. and extensive slate-quarries, lies about 2 M. to the N., but a tramway (20 c.) runs from the station to (l>/4 M.) Lavaldieu, in the same direction. The village occupies a peculiar site, at the head of a loop formed here by the Meuse, not far from its junction with the Semoy, which enters it at Lavaldieu (see below).

The heights of the neighbouring peninsula command fine views. We mav descend thence, on the S.W., to the station of (3 M. ) Deville (see below). A preferable route leads to the N.W. to f3'/2 M.) Lai/our (see below). Pedestrians will find the valley interesting as far as Revin, 6 M. farther on. The route follows the Meuse, and beyond Laifour comes in sight of the Dames de Meuse (see below). 3 M. Anchamps ; 3 M. Benin (see below).

The Valley of the Semoy, still more sinuous than that of the Meuse, offers many picturesque points, especially in its lower part. A carriage road traverses the French part of the valley, passing Lavaldieu, Thilay (3V2 M.), and Let Hautes- Rivieres (S M.j Hotel). — The excursion should certainly be extended to Bohan (inn), the first Belgian village, or even to Bouillon (p. 131).

Beyond Montherme" station we cross to the left bank of the Meuse by means of a bridge and a tunnel 1/2 M. long, penetrating the peninsula of Montherme. — 167 M. Deville, with large slate quarries. On the right rise the fine Cliffs of Laifour. Beyond (169'/2M) Laifour are a bridge and a tunnel, 540 yds. long. On the left are the Cliffs of the Dames de Meuse. Another bridge and tunnel.

174 M. Revin (Hot. Latour, de la Oare, both at the station), an industrial town with 4690 inhab., occupies, with the suburb con- taining the station, two peninsulas formed by the river. It has two suspension-bridges. The Mont Malgre-Tout (1310 ft.), to the B., commands a splendid view.

to Namur. GIVET. 15. Route. 113

A Diligence (l>/2 fr.) plies from Kevin to Eocroi (B6lel du Commerce), a fortified town with 21U0 inhab.. situated on a plateau about 1300 ft. above tbe sea-level, 8 M. to the W. It is noted for a brilliant victory won by Conde over the Spaniards in 1643, but contains nothing of interest.

— An omnibus plies also from Rocroi to Le Trembloie (p. 100).

The railway crosses the Meuse once more and traverses the isth- mus of Revin. A subterranean canal about 1000 yds. long also crosses the isthmus, cutting off the circuit of 3 M. made by the river.

180 M. Fumay (Hotel de la Oare), a town with 5280 inhab., is situated about 3/4 M. to the N.E. of the station (omn. 25 a), on an Oval-shaped peninsula. It contains several important iron-works, and in the neighbourhood are the largest slate -quarries in the valley. The Church is a handsome modern Gothic erection.

Beyond Fumay the train enters a tunnel, 600 yds. long, from which it emerges on the bank of the river near the town. 183 M. Hayhes, also with slate-quarries. 187 M. Vireux-Molhain is the junction of a line to Charleroi via Mariembourg (p. 111). In the dis- tance, to the left, appears the picturesque ruined Chateau des Hierges.

— 189 M. Aubrioes. A little farther on the river makes another bend, cut off by the railway and a partly subterranean canal. We approach Givet by a tunnel below the citadel.

194 M. Givet (Buffet; Orand Hotel a" Angleterre, new, R. 2-4, B. ll/4, dej. or D. S^fe fr. incl. wine; Mont-d'Or; Ancre), with 7100 inhab., is situated on both banks of the Meuse, about 1/2 M. to the right of the station. The fortifications were demolished in 1892, with the exception of the citadel of Charlemont, perched on a rock 700 ft. high, on the W. side, and so called because founded by Charles V. Givet became French at the close of the 17th century. The composer Mehul (1763-1817) was born here, and a statue was erected to him in 1892 near the station. The best view of the picturesque town is obtained from the bridge uniting it with Givet- Notre-Dame, the suburb on the right bank. The citadel, which commands another fine view, is reached by a rough path ascending from the S.E. side of the town, or by a carriage-road from the sta- tion, crossing the line and ascending to the N.

At Fromelennes, 2>/z M. to the E., is the Trou de fflchet, a curious cavern accessible to visitors. — From Givet an omnibus (1 fr.) plies daily to (6 M.) Beauraing, whence a visit may be paid to Hm-sur-Lesse and the grottoes at Roehefort (see p. 114).

Givet is the last French station. The railway still follows the valley of the Meuse. The line to Doische (p. Ill) diverges to the left. — The Belgian custom-house is at (199 M.) Heer-Agimont. Belgian time (Greenwich time) is 4 min. behind French time. The line to Hirson (p. Ill) diverges to the left. — 201^2 M. Hastiere; 205 M. Waulsort. The banks of the Meuse again become rocky and picturesque. On the left is the Chateau de Freyr, and farther on the Wood of Freyr, with a stalactite grotto (adm. 1 fr.). On the op- posite bank lies Anseremme, at the mouth of the Lesse (p. 114); and on the same side is the bold and isolated rock known as the

Baedekeb's ypBtfaww*—— »■ 8prt ffiiit 8

114 Route 15. DINANT.

Roche & Bayard (the name of the horse of the Quatre Fils Aymon,, see p. 112).

211 M. Dinant (*H6tel des Postes ; *Tete d'Or), a town with 7400 inhah., is very picturesquely situated at the base of barren limestone cliffs, the summit of which is crowned by a fortress. The church of Notre-Dame is a handsome edifice of the 13th cent., in the Gothic style. A flight of 408 steps ascends to the Citadel (adm. 50 c.) ; attractive but limited view. The cliff-scenery of the neigh- bourhood is interesting. See Baedeker's Belgium and Holland,

Feom Dinant to Rochepobt (Han ; Jemelle), 2OV2 M., railway under construction, opened to (18 M.) Eprave, which is 21/:; M. from the Grotte de Han (see below). Rochefort (H6tel Biron; Eloile) is a small town notable chiefly for its "Grotto, one of the largest limestone caverns known (adm. 4 fr., reduction for parties). An omnibus plies regularly in summer from Rochefort to Han-sur-Lesse (Bellevue), about 3'/2 M. to the S.W., which has a still larger cavern, the "Grotte de Han, through which the Lesse forces its way (adm. 7 fr. ; two or more 5 f r each). For farther details and for the railway from Rochefort to (2>/2 M.) Jemelle and (35'/2 M.) Namur, etc., see Baedeker's Belgium and Holland.

Beyond Dinant, to the left, lies Bouvigne, one of the most an- cient towns of the district, formerly engaged in constant feuds with Dinant. The old ruined tower of Cr'eveeoeur is conspicuous here. Farther on , near the ruined chateau of Poilvache, the line crosses the .Meuse. — 216 M. Yvoir, about iy2 M. to the W. of which is the ruined castle of *Montaigle, the finest relic of the kind in Belgium. — Then, on the left the Roche aux Corneilles (/Roche aux Chauwes' in the patois of the district) so called from the flocks of jackdaws which usually hover near it. — Beyond a tunnel is the station of Taillefer. — On the left the old citadel of Namur is seen; on the right diverges the line to Luxembourg. The Meuse is crossed for the last time; to the right is the railway to Liege.

228 M. Namur ("Hotel d'Harscamp), the strongly fortified capital of the province, with 32,000 inhab., lies at the confluence of the Sambre and the Meuse. The chief building is the Cathedral, erected in the loth century. Near the station is a Statue of Leopold I., by Geefs. See Baedeker's Belgium and Holland.

16. From Paris to Rheims.

a. Via Meaux and La Ferte-Milon.

97 M. Railway (Gare de l'Est; PI. C, 24) in 2-4 hrs. (fares 17 fr. 55, 11 fr. 90, 7 fr. 70 c).

From Paris to (311/2 M.) Trilport, see R. 19. The Rheims line diverges to the N. from that to Chalons, and beyond (35V2 M.) Isles- Armentieres crosses the Marne and then ascends the valley of the Ourcq. Three small stations.

50 M. La Ferte-Milon (Hot. du Sauvage), a small town on the Ourcq, was the birthplace of Racine (1639-99), the dramatist, to whom a statue, by David d' Angers, has been erected here. The


ruins of the Castle, including one entire side and four large towers, date mainly from the 14th century. The churches of St. Nicolas (Gothic and Renaissance) and Notre- Dame (12th and 16th cent.) contain good stained glass of the 16th cent., etc.

Branch-lines run hence to (8'/2 M.) Villert-Cotterets (see below) and to (17V2 M.) Chdteatt-Thierry (p. 138) via Oulchy-Breny (see helow).

57 M. Neuilly-St-Front. — 61 1/2 M. Oulchy-Breny. — 68 M. Fere-en-Tardenois (Hot. du Pot d'Etain) has an interesting church. On a hill, 13/4M. to the N., rises a picturesque ruined Castle, built in the 13th cent., but altered in the 16th by the Constable Anne de Montmorency. — Beyond Fere the train quits the valley of the Ourcq by means of a long and deep cutting. — 7572 M. Mont-Notre-Dame, with a church of the 12-13th cent, and an 18th cent, chateau. We cross the Vesle, and join the line from Soissons (see below). — 771/2 M. Bazoches, with a ruined castle (12-1 3th cent.). — 71 M. Fismes, a small town, the Fines Suessionum of the Romans. The railway from Epernay is seen on the right. — 97 M. Bheitns (Buffet), see p. 118.

b. Via Soissons.

99V2 M. Rail wat (Gare du Nord; PI. B, C, 23, 24) in 2V2-4'A hrs. (fares 17 fr. 55, 11 fr. 90, 7 fr. 70 c.J. — For farther details as far as Crepy-en- Valois, see Baedeker's Handbook to Paris.

The train traverses the district of La Chapelle, quits Paris near St. Ouen, and at (2'^ M.) La Plaine- St- Denis diverges to the right from the main Ligne du Nord. 4^2 M. Aubervilliers-la-Courneuve. — 6 M. Le Bourget-Drancy. Le Bourget, to the left, was the scene of sanguinary struggles between the French and Germans on Oct. 28 -30th and Dec. 24th, 1870, in which the former were repulsed. — We now cross the Ligne de Grande Ceinture and reach (9'/2 M.) Aulnay-lls-Bondy (p. 136). On the right is the forest of Bondy. The train skirts the Canal de V Ourcq. — 21 1/2 M. Dammartin, near which is the College de Juilly, founded by the Oratorians in the 17th century. — 26 '/2 M. Le Plessis-Belleville. In the park of the chateau of Ermenonville, 3 M. to the left (omnibus , 1 fr.), is the original tomb of Jean Jacques Rousseau, whose remains were re- moved to the Panthe'on at Paris in 1794.

40 M. Crepy-en-Valois (Trois Pigeons, unpretending) was the ancient capital of a district which belonged from the 14th cent, to a younger branch of the royal family of France. Branch-railways to Chantilly and Compiegne, see pp. 101, 103.

421/2 M. Vaumoise. — 48 V2 M. Villers-Cotterets (Buffet; Hotel du Dauphin), with 4772 inhab., was the birthplace of Alexandre Dumas the Elder (1802-70), to whom a statue, by A. Carrier-Bell- euse, was erected here in 1885. The ancient Chateau, rebuilt under Francis I. but disfigured in the 18th cent., is now a poor-house.

A branch-line runs hence through the Forest of Villers-Cotterets (pleas- ant excursions) to (8'/2 M.) la Ferti-Milon (p. 114). — Railway to Pierre- fonds and Compiegne, see p. 103.


116 Route 16. SOISSONS. From Paris

56 M. Longpont (hotels) has a mined abbey, dating from the 12th century. — Beyond (58yo M.) Vierzy the train traverses a tunnel, upwards of 3/4 M. in length, and reaches (62 M.) Berzy. On the left runs the line from Compiegne to Soissons.

65 M. Soissons. — Hotels. Lion Rouge, Rue St. Martin 57, R. 3-6, B. l'/i-l1/^ dej. 3, D. 3V2, omn. '/2 Ir-i Croix d'Ok, Rue St. Christophe; Soleil d Ok. — Cafi du Commerce, Rue de- la Buerie; Buffet, with bed- rooms, at the station, dej. 2l/i-3, D. 2l/4-3'/2 fr.

Cabs. Per drive L-2 pers. 75 c, 3 pers. 1 fr. 10, 4 pers. 1 fr. 50 c.; outside the octroi-limits and also per hr., I1/*, 2, or Vfe fr.

Soissons, an ancient town formerly fortified, with 12,373 inhab., is situated on the Aisne, 1/2 M- from the station. It carries on a considerable grain-trade, and is noted for its haricot-beans.

Soissons is generally identified with Noviodunvm, the chief town of the Suessiones, mentioned by Casar, called under the early empire Augusta Suessionurn, and afterwards Suessiona. It is celebrated for the defeat of the Romans under Syagrius in 486 by Clovis. Under the Franks Soissons was an important town and became the capital of Neustria. It enjoys an unenviable notoriety for the great number of sieges it has undergone, the record only closing in October, 1810, when the Germans entered it after a bombardment of three days. SS. Crispin and Crispinian are said to have suffered martyrdom here in 297, and their successor St. Sinice is regarded as the first bishop of Soissons. In 829, and again in 833, Lewis the Debonair was imprisoned in the town by his undutiful sons.

Turning to the left as we enter the town proper, we reach the ancient Abbey of St. Jean-des-Vignes, in which Thomas a Becket spent nine years. The chief part now remaining is the *Portal or W. facade, in the style of the 13th cent., flanked by handsome towers of a later date (15-16th cent.), rising with their spires to the height of 230 and 245 ft. — The first side-street to the left as we re- turn from the abbey leads to the centre of the town.

The * Cathedral, which rises on the right a little farther on, is a fine example of mixed Romanesque and Gothic of the 12-13th cent- uries. The W. facade, with three doors and a beautiful Gothic rose- window, is flanked on the S. side by a tower 215 ft. high. There is a curious antique portal on the S. side, terminating in an apse, and adjoined by a circular sacristy of two stories. The admirably propor- tioned interior of the church contains some tapestry of the 15th cent., an Adoration of the Shepherds, attributed to Kubens, and a few tombs of historical interest. The stained glass is good.

The Gothic House, Rue de la Buerie 12, beyond the cathedral, and the Porte du College (14th cent.), in the Rue du College, may be noticed.

The Theatre is situated in the Grande Place, to which the street skirting the front of the cathedral leads. From the Place we next enter (to the right) a long street traversing the entire town, and containing several edifices of interest. The Abbaye St. Leger, now occupied by a seminary, was erected in the 13th cent., and still pos- sesses remains of cloisters built in that and the following centuries. The facade of the church dates from the 17th century. — The Hdtel

to Metz. BRAISNE. 16. Route. 117

de Ville (18th cent.), near the N.E. extremity of the town, contains a library of 50,000 vols, on the groundfloor, and a small Musee on the first floor. The court is embellished with a bronze statue, by Duret, of Paillet, the advocate (d. 1855), a native of Soissons. — The Abbaye Notre-Dame, at the end of the Rue du Commerce, is now used as a barrack. Founded originally in 660, this convent contained in 858 no fewer than 216 nuns, who possessed a valuable collection of MSS. and various sacred relics, including a shoe and a girdle of the Madonna. The fame of St. Drausin, who was buried in the abbey, and whose tomb was said to render invincible all who spent a night upon it, rendered the church a favourite resort of pilgrims. — In the neighbouring Place de St. Pierre are the scanty remains of the Romanesque Church of St. Pierre (12th cent.).

On the right hank of the Aisne is situated the suburb of St. Vaast, and a little farther down is the hamlet of St. Midard, famous for its once powerful and wealthy abbey. This abbey played a leading part even under the Merovingian and Carolingian kings , and in 1530 it was visited by 300,000 pilgrims. Its decline dates from the religious wars of the close of the 16th cent. (1568), and its site is now occupied by a Deaf and Dumb Asylum. Among the scanty remains of the old buildings are pointed out a cell in which Lewis the Debonair is said to have pined (833), and a tower reputed to have been the prison of Abe'lard. The inscription on the wall of the former is not older than the 14th century.

Railway to CompUgne, see p. 102; to Laon, see p. 108.

Beyond Soissons the line to Rheims diverges to the right from the Laon railway, and ascends the valley of the Aisne to (72 M.) Ciry-Sermoise, where it enters that of its tributary the Vesle. — 76M. Braisne, a large village ^2^1. to the N.W., contains, in the *Church of St. Yved , one of the most interesting examples of early French Gothic (12th cent.) as applied to country-churches in the N.E. of France. This abbey-church strongly resembles in style the cathedrals of Laon and Treves; but unfortunately the porch and part of the nave have been destroyed. — 80 M. Bazoches, and thence to (99'/-2M.) Rheims (Buffet), see p. 115.

c. ViS, Epernay.

107 M. Railway in 3'/4-43A nrs- (fares as above). The trains start from the Gare de l'Est (PI. C, 24).

From Paris to (88 M.) Epernay, see R. 19. — The railway to Rheims trends to the left and crosses the Mame and the parallel canal. At (90 M.) Ay, or A'i (Hot. des Voyageurs), champagne of excellent quality is produced, and we are now in the centre of the champagne vineyards. 92 M. Avenay. The country now becomes hilly and wooded. Beyond (97 M.) Germaine we thread a tunnel 2 M. long beneath the Mont Joli (900 ft.), the highest point of the so- called Montague de Rheims. 100 M. Rilly-la-Montagne is noted for its red and white wines. We now have a distant view of Rheims to the right. The train crosses the Vesle and the Aisne and Marne Canal. — 107 M. Rheims (Buffet), see p. 118.


17. Rheims,

Hotels. 'Lion d'Ob (PI. b; C, 4), with first-rate cuisine and cellar, R., L., &A. 4-G, B. 11/4-1V2: D- 5 incl- wine, pens. 10-15 fr. ; Grand Hotel (PI. a; C, 4); Maison Rouge (PI. c; C, 4) , R. & A. 3, dej. 3»/2, D. 4fr.; du Commebck (PI. d; C, 3, 4) ; these four near the cathedral. Hotel du Noed (PI. e ; B, 3), Place Drouet 75, near the station ; *de l'Edeope, Rue Buirette29(Pl. e;B, 3-4), commercial, R. from 2, B.3/4, dej.2V2, D.2Vz fr. incl. wine, pens, from 6V2, omn. '/a fr. •, du Nord (PI. f ; B, 3), Bebgee, Place Drouet-d'Erlon 75 and 81; de Champagne, Boul de la Republique 43.

Cafes. De la Douane, Place Royale; de la Banque, Place de I'Hotel-de- Ville ; du Palais, Rue de Vesle, opposite the theatre; Courtois, Rue Talley- rand 24. — Cafe'-Concert du Casino, Rue de l'Ktape 20. — Brasserie de Stras- bourg, Rue de TEtape 18. — Restaurants. An Chat Friand, Rue Nanteuil 4 (first turning on the left in the Rue Ceres , as we come from the Place Royale); Taverne Flamande, Rue de l'Etape 37, de]. 2:/4, D. 2!/2 fr. ; 'Buffet, at the station.

Cabs. Per drive, 1-2 pers. 1 fr., 3-4 pers. I1/4 fr. ; with two horses , 1-4 pers. 1 fr. 40 c. ; at night (10 p.m. to 6 a.m. , in winter 7 a.m.) 1 fr. 40 1 fr. 75, 1 fr. 90 c. Per hour, 2 fr., 2 fr. 25, 2 fr. 80 c. ; at night 2 fr. 80 c. 3 fr., 3 fr. 25 c. Each box 20 c.

Tramways (eomp. the Plan). From the Avenue de Laon (PI. B, 1) to the suburb of Ste. Anne or Flechambault (PI. C, 6), 4 sections. — From the suburb of Ceres (PI. E, 2) to the Avenue de Paris (PI. A, 4, 5), 4 sec- tions. — From St. Thomas (PI. B, 1, 2) to St. Remi (PI. D, 5, 6), 3 sec- tions. — From the Station (PI. B, 3) to Dieu-Lumiere (PI. D, E, 5, 6), 3 sections. Fares, 5 c. per section, with minimum of 10c. for 2nd cl., 15 c. for 1st cl. and maximum of 15 and 20 c, including 'correspondance*.

Post & Telegraph Office (PI. C, 3) , Rue de Ceres 30 (PI. c, 3) ; Rue Gambetta 64; etc.

Baths. Bains de Sand, Bains Neptune, Place Drouet-d'Erlon 52 and 59.

Banks. Banque de France, Place de THotel-de-Ville 1 ; Credit Lyonnais, Rue Carnot 25.

V. S. Consul, William A. Prickitt, Esq. ; vice consul, J. 1. Crossley, Esq.

English Church, Rue des Moissons; services at 11 and 6. Chaplain, Rev. John J. Pool. — French Reformed Church, Boul. du Temple. Chaplain, Rev. W. Hunter. French service at 10, English at 5.

Rheims, or Reims, one of the most historically interesting cities of France, with 107,963 inhab., is situated on the right bank of the Vesle, in a plain hounded by vine-clad hills. Itis the chief centre of the trade in champagne, and also carries on very important manufactures of woollen and merino fabrics.

Rheims, the Civitas Remorum of Csesar, was an important town even under the Romans. The Vandals captured it in 406, and martyred St. Nicasius, and Attila also destroyed the town. On Christmas Day, 496, Clovis was baptised here by St. Remigius, Bishop of Rheims, with great magnificence. In the 10th cent. Rheims was a centre of learning, and from the 12th cent, it has been the place of coronation of the French kings (see p. 120). The English attacked the town in vain in 1360, but it was ceded to them by the Treaty of Troyes in 1420. Joan of Arc, however, again expelled them and caused Charles VII. to be duly crowned here like his ancestors. Rheims sided with the League, but after the battle of Ivry it opened its gates to Henri IV. In the 16th cent. Rheims, where there was an Eng- lish seminary, was a great centre of the Roman Catholic activity against Queen Elizabeth and England. In 1870-71 it was occupied by the Germans, who laid heavy requisitions upon it.

The washing and combing of the fine wools used in the manufacture of merinos, cashmeres, and the fine flannel for which Rheims is celebrat- ed, are almost exclusively carried on in establishments owned by Eng- lish firms. Messrs. Holden & Son of Bradford, Yorkshire, have branches


,*"* ***■,£■> « * 2"! \

RHEIMS. 17. Route. 119

here and at Croix-Roubaix (p. 88). Connected with their Eheima estab- lishment is a colony of ahout 100 English people, for whom the firm pro- vides a church, schools, and a reading and recreation room.

In the square in front of the station (PI. B, 3) is a bronze statue, by Guillaume, of Colbert (1619-83), the illustrious minister of Louis XIV., who was born at Rheiras; and in the Place Drouet- d'Erlon, flanked by arcades, which leads thence to the S.W. towards the town, is a statue of Marshal Drouet-d'Erlon (1765-1834), also a native of Rheims, by Rochet. Beyond the Church of St. James (PI. B, C, 4), dating from the 13th, 16th, and 18th cent, we reach the Rue de Vesle, in which, to the left, are the Theatre and the Palais de Jus- tice. The short street between these two buildings leads direct to the cathedral, in front of which rises a small equestrian statue of Joan of Arc, by Paul Dubois (1896).

The **Cathedral of Notre-Dame (PL C, 4), one of the noblest and most magnificent examples of the early-Gothic style, was founded in 1212 and carried to its present state with hardly an in- terruption by the architects Rob. de Coucy and J. d'Orbais (14th cent.). The superb *W. Facade, 'perhaps the most beautiful struc- ture produced in the Middle Ages' (Fergusson), is adorned with three exquisite recessed portals, containing about 530 statues, some of which, however, have suffered from the ravages of time.

'Nothing can exceed the majesty of its deeply-recessed portals, the beauty of the rose-window that surmounts them, or the elegance of the gallery that completes the facade and serves as a basement to the light and graceful towers that crown the composition' (Fergusson).

Though the tympana of the portals are, curiously enough, occupied by rose-windows in lieu of sculptures, the sides and overhead vaulting of the arches, as well as the gables above them, are most elaborately and beautifully adorned with statues and carving. Central Portal : at the sides and in the gable, Scenes from the life of the Virgin; in the vaulting, Angels, ancestors of the Virgin, martyrs, and holy virgins; on the lintel and jambs, the months and seasons, etc. — Left Portal: at the sides, Pa- tron-saints of the cathedral, guardian angels, the arts and sciences; on the lintel, Conversion of St. Paul; in the gable vaulting and adjacent arch, Scenes from the Passion , and the Invention of the Cross. — Eight Portal : at the sides, Patriarchs, Apostles, angels, vices, and virtues; on the lintel, History of St. Paul ; in the vaulting and adjoining arch, End of the world (from the Apocalypse).

The facade above the portals is pierced by three large windows, the magnificent *Rose Window in the centre being nearly 40 ft. in diameter. Sculpture is also lavishly employed : to the left, Christ in the guise of a pilgrim, to the right, the Virgin ; then, the Apostles, David, Saul, History of David and Solomon, David and Goliath. Still higher, extending quite across the facade, is a row of 42 colossal statues in niches, representing the Baptism of Clovis, in the middle, with the Kings of France at the sides. The two fine "W. *Towers, with their large windows and aerial turrets, are 267 ft. high. The spires were destroyed in 1481 by a fire which consumed also five others above the transepts, sparing, however, that (50 ft.) on the ridge of the chevet, which is decorated with eight colossal statues.

The *JV. Portal, with statues of bishops of Rheims, Clovis, etc.,

1 20 Route 17. RHEIMS. Cathedral.

is also very fine. Beside it is another doorway, now walled up, the tympanum of which is filled with a masterpiece of the early-Gothic period, representing the Last Judgment, the finest figure in which is the 'Beau Dieu', or Christ in an attitude of benediction Many of the figures have been mutilated. The S. transept is adjoined by the bishop's palace, and has no portal. — Other noteworthy features of the exterior are the statues in niches crowning the buttresses, the fine flying buttresses themselves, and the open arcade just below the spring of the roof.

Interior. The church, which is cruciform, is 453 ft. long, 98 ft. wide, and 125 ft. high. The transepts are short, and are divided into nave and aisles. They are placed nearer the E. apse than is usual in mediaeval churches, a peculiarity which is counterbalanced by extending the choir so as to embrace not only the crossing, but also two bays of the nave. As a whole the interior is simpler than the exterior, except in the framework of the portals, which are embellished with 122 statues in niches. The statues at the principal portal represent the death of St. Nicasius, the Art arch- bishop of Rheims (p. 118). Most of the windows are filled with fine stained glass of the 13th century. — In the nave and transepts are preserved some valuable tapestry and several paintings. The former comprise the 'Tapisseries de Lenoncourt', fourteen pieces representing scenes from the life of the Virgin, and named after the donor (1530); two 'Tapisseries du Fort Roi Clovis', presented in 1573, but of a much greater antiquity; two 'Tapis- series de Pepersaek' (fifteen others not shown), of the 17th cent.; and two elaborate pieces of (he 19th cent., after Raphael's cartoons of St. Paul atLystra and St. Paul on Mars Hill. The following are the chief pictures : in the S. transept. Nativity, by Tintoretto; Christ appearing to Mary Magdalen, by Titian; Christ and angels, by Zuechero; Shower of Manna, by Poussin. In the N. transept, Baptism of Clovis, by Abel de Pujol; Christ washing the Disciples' feet, by Mutiano; Crucifixion, by Germain. — The Clock, with mechanical figures, in the N. transept, dates from the 16th century.

The Treasury is open 9-12 and 2-5 (Sun. & holidays 12.30-2) to visitors provided with tickets (50 c.) , to be obtained in the 'sacristie des chaises' in the left transept. It contains some costly reliquaries and church-plate, a chalice and monstrances of the 12-14th cent., vessels and ornaments used at the coronations of different kings, and the Sainte Ampoule. The last is the successor of the famous Ampulla Remensis, which a dove is said to have brought from heaven filled with inexhaustible holy oil at the bap- tism of Clovis. During the Revolution the sacred vessel was shattered, but a fragment was piously preserved, in which some of the oil was said still to remain. This was carefully placed in a new Sainte Ampoule, and used at the coronation of Charles X. in 1825.

The possession of the Sainte Ampoule probably led to the choice of this cathedral as the coronation-place for the Kings of France; and within its walls the Archbishops of Rheims , as Primates of the kingdom , have crowned, almost without exception, the successive occupants of the throne from 1173 downwards. Henri IV, who was crowned at Chartres, Napo- leon I., who was crowned at Puris, and Louis XVIII., Louis Philippe, and Napoleon III., who were not crowned at all, are the only French mon- archs who since that date have not been anointed with the miraculous oil.

Tickets (1 fr.) for the ascent of the Towers may also be obtained in the 'sacristie des chaises' (see above).

To the S. of the cathedral is the Archiepiscopal Palace (PI. C, 4; apply to the concierge), a large and handsome edifice dating from the 15-1 7th centuries. It contains the apartment used by the kings before their coronation, the hall where the royal banquet was given, and a fine double chapel of the 13th century. The lower chapel

Hotel deVille. RHEIMS. 17. Route. 121

is occupied by a Musee Lapidaire , the most interesting objects in which are a Roman altar dedicated to four gods , a bas-relief of a workman with an easel, and the white marble *Cenotaph of Jovi- nus, prefect of Gaul in the 4th century. This last is hewn from a single block, 9 ft. long and 5 ft. broad, and is adorned with a beautiful bas-relief of a lion-hunt.

The short street running to the N. from the E. end of the cath- edral leads us to the regularly-built Place Royale (PL C, 3), which is embellished with a bronze statue of Louis XV., by Cartellier, erected in 1818. The first statue, by Pigalle, was destroyed at the Revolution, but the original figures of Mild Government and Popular Happiness still adorn the base. — The broad Rue Royale connects this square with the Place des Marches, to the N., No. 9 in which is the Maison Callou (Roy), with a 15th cent, timber facade. In the Rue de Tambour (Nos. 18 and 20), to the right, is the House of the Musicians, the most interesting of the many quaint old houses in Rheims (early 14th cent.). It is named from the figures of seated musicians in five niches on its front. The Maison Couvert, at the corner of the Rue du Marc (parallel with the Rue de Tambour) and the Rue Pluche, has an interesting courtyard and interior.

The Hotel de Ville (PI. C, 3), reached by the Rue Colbert, is a handsome edifice in the Renaissance style, begun under Louis XIII. (whose equestrian statue adorns the pediment), but finished only in the 19th century. It is surmounted by a lofty cam- panile, and contains a Library of 80,000 vols, and 1500 MSS. (open daily, except Mon., 10-4, on Sun. 12-4), and the public Musees.

The latter (open on Sun. and Thurs. 1-4 in winter , 1-5 in summer, but accessible on other days also after 10 a.m. , except Mon.) include a collection of paintings, embracing a few German, Flemish, and Dutch paint- ings, a large triptych of the school of Rheims (15th cent.), and some modern works; a museum illustrating the manufacture of champagne; collections of faience and china; a Japanese collection; a collection of local caricatures; a collection of scenery ('toiles peintes1) used in mystery plays in the 15th cent.; an antiquarian museum; and an archaeological museum. On the second floor is a large Roman mosaic, discovered at Rheims, 35 ft. long by 26 ft. broad, representing the sports of the amphitheatre.

M. Morel, No. 3 Rue Sedan, beyond the Hotel de VilJe, possesses a valu- able collection of Roman, Gallo-Roman, Merovingian, and other antiquities.

The chief Roman monument at Rheims is the Porte de Mars (PI. B, 2), a triple gateway or triumphal arch, at the N.E. end of the promenades near the station, and reached from the H6tel de Ville by the Rue de Mars, or the Rue Henri IV. It is referred to the 4th cent, of our era and still retains some remains of its ornamenta- tion, including eight fine Corinthian columns, a graceful framework about an empty niche, four genii, a medallion with a head in high relief, and two caducei.

The modern church of St. Thomas, built in the style of the 14th cent., and situated in the suburb of Laon , beyond the railway , contains the tomb and statue (by Bonnassieux) of Cardinal Gousset, late Archbishop of Rheims (d. 1866).

The most ancient ecclesiastical building in Rheims is the abbey

122 Route 17. RHEIMS.

church of *St. Remi (PL D, 5, 6), at the extreme S. end of the town (tramway from the station, comp. the Plan), which, though freely altered in modern times, 'retains the outlines of a vast and nohle hasilica of the early part of the 11th cent, presenting con- siderable points of similarity to those of Burgundy '(Fergusson). The first church on this side was founded in 852, hut this was practi- cally Tebuilt in the ll-12th cent., while the portal of the S. transept is as late as the end of the 15th century. The "W. facade is in the Gothic style of the 12th cent., but both the towers are Romanesque. The nave also is Romanesque, but the choir is Gothic, and the S. transept Flamboyant.

The "Interior produces an effect of great dignity. The aisles are pro- vided with galleries, that in the N. aisle containing tapestries presented by Rob. de Lenoncourt, the donor of those in the cathedral (p. 120), The choir, like the choir of the cathedral, is continued into the nave; part of it is surrounded by a tasteful marble screen of the time of Louis XIII. The choir-windows are still filled with magnificent stained glass of the ll-13th centuries. Off the apse open five chapels, with arcades sup- ported by graceful columns. Behind the high-altar is the "Tomb of St. Remi or Remigius, in the style of the Renaissance, but restored in 1847 for the third time. It presents the form of a kind of temple in coloured marbles, with a group in white marble representing the saint baptising Clovis, surrounded by white marble statues of the Twelve Peers of France (the Bishops of Rheims, Laon, Langres, Beauvais, Chalons, and Noyon, the Dukes of Burgundy, Normandy, and Aquitaine, and the Counts of Flanders, Champagne, and Toulouse). — The S. transept contains a Holy Sepulchre of 1531, and three alto-reliefs of 1610, representing the Baptisms of Christ, Constantine, and Clovis. — There are also a few pieces of tapestry in the sacristy, and an enamelled cross of the 13th cent, and 30 Limoges enamels in the treasury. — The sacristan lives at Rue St. Remi 6.

The Hotel Dieu or Hospital, adjoining the church, occupies the former abbey of St. Remi, the handsome cloisters of which (partly Romanesque) still remain. The neighbouring church of St. Maurice (PI. D, 5) contains groups in memory of two natives of Rheims, viz. N. Rolland (b. 1642), founder of the Congregation de l'Enfant Jesus, and the Abbe de la Salle (b. 1651), founder of the Freres de la Doctrine Chretienne.

The visitor to Rheims should visit one of the vast Champagne Cellars, among the most interesting of which are those of M. Roederer (Route de Chalons; PI. E, 6) and Mme. Pommery (apply Rue Vauthier-le-Noir 7, near the Lycee, PI. C, 4). For an account of the process of champagne- making, see p. 139.

A local line runs from Rheims to (12 M.) Verzy (Hot. Dupuis), skirting the vineyard1 of the 'Montague de Reims'; and "noth^r to (10'/2 M.) Cor- micy (Croix Blanche), both passing numerous small stations

From Rheims to Paris, see R. 16; to Laon, p. 98; to Chalons, p. 98; to Soissons, p. 117; to Metz, R. 19.

18. From Paris to Metz.

a. Via Chalons and Frouard.

244 M. Railway (Gare de VEst; PI. C, 24) in 7y4-12i/4 hrs. (fares 43 ir. 85, 29 fr. 65, 19 fr. 35 c. ; less via Verdun, see p. 124).

From Paris to (214 M.) Frouard, see R. 19. The train returns

PONT-A-MOUSSON. 18. Route. 1 23

in the direction of Paris for about V2 M- — 215 M. Pompey (3094 inhab.), with iron-mines and extensive factories.

A branch-railway runs hence via (l'/< M.) Custinet, formerly Condi, to (13'/2 M.) Nomeny, a small though ancient town on the Seille.

We now enter the beautiful valley of the Moselle, and after cross- ing the river continue to follow its left bank almost the whole way to Metz. A canal also runs along the left bank. — 210 M. Marbaclie; 222 M. Dieulouard (Hot. du Commerce), commanded by a hill bear- ing a ruined castle. In this neighbourhood was situated the Roman town of Scarpona, noted for a defeat of the Allemanni by Jovinus in 366. To the right, in the distance, is the hill of Mousson (see below).

226 M. Pont-a-Mousson (*H6tel de France, Place Duroc ; Hotel de la Poste, Rue Victor-Hugo, near the station), an attractive town of 12,700 inhab., situated on the Moselle. The triangular Place Duroc, surrounded with arcades, contains the Hotel de Ville and a handsome House in the Renaissance style, decorated with sculptures.

In the Rue St. Laurent, leading to the left, near the Hotel de Ville, is the late-Gothic church of St. Laurent (recently restored), with a 17th cent. fa$ade. The vaulting is noteworthy; the stained glass is modern. In the 2nd chapel on the left is a curious 16th cent, altar-piece, consisting of scenes from the Passion in carved and gilded wood, closed by shutters painted on both sides with scenes from the life of Christ and the Virgin. — A street leads from the end of the Place Duroc to the old town, crossing the Moselle by a bridge built in the 16th century. Near the latter, to the left, is the church of St. Martin, dating from the 13-15th cent., with two hand- some towers. It contains a fine Holy Sepulchre in the right aisle, a gallery of the 15th cent., now used as the organ-loft, and a painting of the Baptism of the Queen of Mysore, by Claude Charles (d. 1747) of Nancy. — Farther to the N. is the church of St. Mary, built in 1705, with an ancient abbey, now converted into a seminary.

On a hill (1010 ft.) to the E. of the town is the little village of Mousson, with the scanty ruins of a Castle. The tower of the Chapel of the castle is surmounted by a statue of Joan of Arc, by the Duchesse d'Uzes. Ex- tensive view to the N.

232 M. Pagny-sur-Moselle (Buffet; Hotel-Cafe de laOare) is the frontier-station, with the French custom-house. Good wine is pro- duced on the hills of the left bank. About IV4M. to theW. S.W. are the extensive ruins of the Chateau de Preny , built by the dukes of Lorraine and dismantled in the 17th century. — Railway to Longuyon via Conflans-Jarny, see p. 126.

235 M. Noveant (Buffet), the German frontier-station, with the German custom-house. German time is 55 min. in advance of Parisian time. Corny, connected with Nove'antby a suspension-bridge, was the German headquarters during the siege of Metz. — 237'/2M. Ancy- sur-Moselle. At Jouy-aux-Arches, which lies to the right, and at (239 M.) Ars-sur-Moselle, with iron-works, are perceived the exten- sive remains of a Roman *Aqueduct, 60 ft. in height and 1220 yds.

124 Route 18. STE. MENEHOULD. From Paris

in length , constructed by Drusus to bring water to Divodurum, the modern Metz. Oravelotte (omn.; p. 135) lies 4'/2 M. to the N.E., in the valley of the Mance. The train crosses the Moselle. To the right are the fort of St. Privat and the chateau of Frescati. To the left are the lines to Verdun and to Thionville, and Mt. St. Quentin ; to the right, the lines to Saarbriicken and Strassburg. 244 M. Metz, see p. 134.

b. ViS. Chalons and Verdun.

216 M. Railway in 872-12 hrs. (fares 38 fr. 95 , 26 fr. 30, 17 fr. 20 c). The trains start from the Gare de l'Est (PI. C, 24).

From Paris to (107^2 M ) Chalons-sur- Marne, see R. 19. The line to Metz diverges here to the left, and crossing the Marne and the Rhine and Marne Canal, enters the monotonous district of the Haute Champagne or Champagne Pouilleuse. — 118 M. St. Htlaire-au- Temple is the junction for Rheims (p. 127). — 121 1/% M. Cuperly, near the large military Camp de Chalons (p. 126).

At La Cheppe, 'J 1/2 M. to the B.. is a large circular entrenchment, known as Altila's Camp, though really an ancient Roman camp or a Gallic oppi- dum. The Campi Catalauni, where Attil. was defeated by iEtius in 451 at the famous battle of Chalons (p. 140), were therefore probably in this neighbourhood.

140 M. Valmy (Hotel near the church), noted for the defeat of the Allies under the Duke of Brunswick by the French under Du- mouriez and Kellermann in 1792. This was the famous 'Cannonade of Valmy', 'wherein the French Sansculottes did not fly like poultry' (Carlyle). A pyramid on the battlefield, in a grove to the right, before we reach the station, contains the heart of Kellermann, Due de Valmy (1747-1820), and his statue was added in 1892. Dumou- riez, having afterwards deserted to the enemy, is ignored. The train descends through the fertile valley of the Aisne.

146 M. Ste. Menehould (Hotel de Metz ; St. Nicolas), on the Aisne, a town with 5300 inhab. , noted for its pork. Part of the Walls of the old town are preserved, and also a Church, dating from the 13- 14th century. No. 8 in the Avenue Victor-Hugo is the posting-sta- tion (now the gendarmerie) where Louis XVI. was recognised by 'Old-Dragoon Drouet' on his attempted flight from France in June, 1791 (comp. p. 127). — Railway from Amagne to Revigny and Bar-le-Duc, see p. 127.

A well-wooded and picturesque district is now traversed, in- cluding the Forest of Argonne, well-known from the campaign of 1792. 151 M. Les Islettes has given name to one of the passes of the Argonne. — 154 M. Clermont - en- Argonne (Pomme-d'Or), a small town on a hill to the right (branch-line to Bar-le-Duc, see p. 144; Varennes and Apremont, p. 127). — Several small stations are passed.

174 M. Verdun. — Hotels. Tbois Maukes, Eue de THotel-de-Ville 7, R., L ., & A. 2s/4-4»/i. B- U A&3- 2V2, D. 3 fr.; Coq-Haedi, Petit-St-Martin, Rue du St. Esprit 2 and 3. — Cafes in the Place Ste. Croix, Rue de rH6tel-

to Metz. VERDUN. 18. Route. 125

de-Ville, and Rue St. Paul. — Buffet at the station. — Cabs. Per drive l-2pers. 60 c., 3 per*. 1 fr. 20 c, 4 pera. 1 fr. 60 e.; per hr., I1/2, 2, 2>/2 fir.; double fare after midnight.

Verdun, a strongly fortified town with 22,150 inhab., is situated on the Meuse, which divides at this point into several branches.

Verdun, the Roman Verodunum, holds an important place in early Europ- ean history, for hy the Treaty of Verdun in 843 the possessions of Charle- magne were divided among his three grandsons, Lothaire, Lewis the Ger- man, and Charles the Bald (p. xxv), and the French and German members of the empire were never again united. The town was early the seat of a bishop, and remained a free imperial town until 1552, when it was ta- ken by the French, although it was nnt formally united to France until the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, by which Austria gave up the three fam- ous bishoprics of Verdun , Toul , and Metz. Verdun was bombarded by the Prussians in 1792, and, having surrendered after a few hours, the in- habitants accorded an amicable reception to the conquerors, to whom a party of young girls made an offering of the bonbons ('dragees') for which Verdun is noted. The Revolutionists recovered the town after the battle of Valmy, and sent three of these innocent maidens to the scaffold. The town was again bombarded by the Germans in 1870, and taken after a gal- lant resistance of three weeks.

The Avenue de la Gare and its prolongations intersect the whole town from N. to S. Beyond the Porte St. Paul are the Palais de Justice, on the right, and the large new College, on the left. The first street diverging to the left leads to the Porte Chaussee, a gate- way with two crenelated towers (now a military prison) , part of which dates from the 15th century. Beyond it is a bridge across the Meuse. — The main street, to which we return, leads to another bridge across the main channel of the river. On the left bank is the Place Ste. Croix, embellished in 1855 with a bronze statue, by Lemaire, of General Chevert (1695-1769), a native of the town, distinguished for his capture and defence of Prague (1741-42). — The Public Library (open Thurs. & Sun., 2-4), on the Quai de la Come'die, to the left before the bridge, contains 35,000 vols, and numerous valuable MSS. — In the court of the Hotel de Ville (17th cent.) are four cannons presented to the town by the French Govern- ment in memory of its gallant resistance in 1870. The building contains a small Musee (adm. free on Sun.; on Thurs., 1-4, '/2 &•)• The custodian lives at Rue des Hauts-Fins 7. The attractive Pro- menade de la Digue skirts the Meuse.

The Cathedral, in the upper part of the town, dates from the ll-12th cent, but has been much altered in the 14th and 17th, especially in the interior. The aisles are now divided from the nave by semicircular arches. The space beneath the organ in the W. apse is occupied by a chapel, and there are also lateral chapels, of which the first to the right has fine windows, designed by Didron, and art- istic iron railings. The high-altar is placed beneath a gilded canopy, resting on marble columns. In the S. transept are a relief dating from 1555 and a marble statue of Notre Dame de Verdun.

The Bishop's Palace and the Grand Seminaire adjoin the cath- edral. From the ill-kept Promenade de la Roche a good view is

126 Route 18. CONFLANS-JARNY. From Paris

obtained, to the W., of the pastoral valley of the Meuse. Visitors are not admitted to the Citadel, situated beyond the promenade.

Verdun is also a station on the railway from Sedan to Lirouville (Nancy; see p. 131). — To Bar-le-Duc, see p. 144.

The railway to Metz crosses the Meuse, ascends an incline (Cotes de Meuse) on the other bank (view to the right), passes through a tunnel, 3/4 M. long, and beyond the plateau of the Woevre enters the valley of the Moselle.

I8772M. Etain(H6t. de laSirene, Rue duPont8), a picturesque town on the Orne, with 2800 inhab., has an interesting church of the 13th and 16th cent. , in which is a Madonna attributed to Ligier Richier (pp. 131, 144).

199 M. Conflans-Jarny {Buffet; Hotel opposite), near the con- fluence of the Orne and Yron.

Conflans-Jarny is the junction of the railway from Longuyon to Pagny tur-Moselle (see p. 123). The first station to the S. is (5T/2 M.) Mars-la-Tour (see p. 133). — Branch-railways also run from Conflans-Jarny to (8 M.) Briey (Croix Blanche), an industrial town with 2000 inhab., and to(T/2M.) Uomtcourt-Joeuf, both following the same rails as far as (4^2 M.) Valleroy.

204 M. Batilly, with the French custom-house. The train then crosses the battlefield of Gravelotte (p. 135).

208 M. Amanvillers (Buffet), the first German station, with the German custom-house. German time is 55 min. in advance of Parisian time. Gravelotte lies 41/2 M. to the S., St. Privat (omni- bus) IV4M. to the N., andSte.Ma'rie-aux-Chenes 21/i1A. to the N.E.

We change carriages at Amanvillers, and descend the valley of Monvaux. On the left are the forts of Plappeville and St. Quentin. — 213 M. Moulins-les-Metz. The line to Thionville (p. 133) is seen to the left. The train crosses the Moselle, and joins the railway from Frou- ard (R. 16a), and then the line from Saarbriicken and Strassburg.

217 M. Metz, see p. 134.

c. Via Rheims and Verdun.

(Bheims- Chalons.)

220 M. in 9V4-113/* hrs. , 222>/2 M. in 93/4-I21/2 hrs. , or 230 M. in lO'/z- 12'/2 hrs. , according as Rheims is reached via. La Ferte-Milon (Ligne de 1'Est), via Soissons (Ligne du Nord), or via Epernay (Ligne de l'Est). Fares about 42 fr. , 28 fr. 50, 18 fr. 50 c.

From Paris to (97-107 M.) Rheims, see R. 16. — This line di- verges to the right from that to Laon and Me'zieres-Charleville, and making a wide detour round the town, enters the valley of the Vesle, which it ascends to St. Hilaire. The monotonous plains of La Haute Champagne are traversed. 105 '^ M. (from Paris via La Ferte- Milon; 2^2 or 10M. longer by the other routes) Sillery, which gives its name to a well-known brand of champagne; 110 M. Thuisy; 11272 M. Sept-Saulx. To the left of (115y2 M.) the station of Mourmelon stretches the immense Camp de Chalons (29,650 acres), established in 1857 by Napoleon III., and before 1870 a very im- portant military centre. Since the war it has been used only for

to Metz. RETHEL. 18. Route. 127

manoeuvres and temporary purposes. — At (122 M.) St. Hilaire-au- Temple we join the railway to Metz via Chalons and Verdun (p. 124)

d. Via Rheims and Mezieres-Charleville.

(Oivet, Namur, Luxembourg.)

258 M. in 9V4-143/« hrs. , 2601/2 M. in 9»/<-15V2 hrs. , or 268 M. in IO1/4- 15'/2 hrs., according as Eheims is reached via La Ferte'-Milon, vik Soissons, or via Epernay. Comp. E. 16. Fares 45 fr. 70, 30 fr. 85, 20 fr. 15 c.

From Paris to (97-107 M.) Bheims, see R. 16. At Rheims we

leave the line to Laon on the left and that to Verdun and Metz on

the right, and traverse the monotonous plains of Haute Champagne.

— 102 M. (from Paris via La Ferte'-Milon, 21/-2 and 10 M. more by the other routes) Witry-les-Reims. — 107^2 M. Bazancourt.

Fkom Bazancodrt to Challkkange (see below), 33 M., railway through the valley of the Suippe, with its active woollen industry.

Beyond(115'/2M.) Taynon the train passes through a tunnel and enters the basin of the Aisne, where the scenery becomes more varied.

123 M. Bethel (Hot. de France; de V Europe; du Commerce), an industrial town with 6742 inhab., is partly situated on a hill to the right of the Aisne and of the Canal des Ardennes, which connects the Aisne and the Meuse and is crossed by the railway. The church of St. Nicholas is in reality formed of two churches, different both in size and style, and placed end to end. The oldest part, dating from the 13th cent., belonged originally to a priory. The Hotel Ditu and several other edifices in the town date from the 17th century.

12672 M. Amagne-Lucquy (Buffet-Hotel), with a large sugar factory, is the junction for a line to Hirson (see p. 100).

Fkom Amagne-Luoquy to Eevignt (Bar-le-Duc), 67'/2 M., railway in 31/2-5V2 hrs. (fares 12 fr. 30, 8 fr. 25, 5 fr. 35 c). — 6 M. Attigny (B6t. de la Oare; Cheval Blanc), an ancient and celebrated little town on the Aisne and the Canal del Ardennes. Wittikind, the duke of the heathen Saxons, was baptised here in 786; and here in 822 Lewis the Debonair performed his public penitence at the instigation of his prelates. The town was frequently the scene of public assemblies and state-councils ; and the Merovingian and Carolingian kings had a large and splendid palace here, built about the middle of the 12th cent., of which the D6me, a sort of portieo near the Hotel de Ville, is the unly relic. The Church of Attigny dates from the 13th century. — We now ascend the valley of the Aisne. 18 M. Vouziers (Lion d'Or), a town with 3670 inhab., picturesquely situated on the left bank of the Aisne, has a church of the 15-i6th cent., with a remarkable portal.

— 2572 M. Challerange. Branch-line to Ba/.ancourt, see above.

[A branch - railway also runs from Challerange to (15 M.) Apremont, following the attractive valley of the Aire, and passing (6 M.J Qrandprt, which has given its name to a defile in the forest of Argonne, through which the line passes. Apremont is an iron-working village. About 41/2 M. to the S.W, is the little town of Vavennes-en-Argonne, where Louis XVI. was arrested in 1791 on his attempted flight from France ; and 7 M. farther on is Clermont-en-Argonne (p. 124).]

37>/2 M. Vienne-la- Ville, which appears as Axuenna in the Itinerary of Antoninus, is on the road from Eheims to Metz via Verdun. — 40 M. Laneuville-au-Pont has a modern pilgrimage-chapel, picturesquely situated on a hill % M. to the S. of the railway. The village-church, to the left, was built partly in the 14th, partly in the 16th century. — 4572 M. Ste. Menehould (see p. ii4). The train then continues to ascend the valley of

128 Route 18. MEZIERES-CHARLEVILLE. From Paris

the Aisne, tut finally diverges into that of its tributary, the Ante, and reaches (6T'/2 M.) Revigny (see p. 143).

BeyondflBlV^M.J-Sauices-AfoncZmthe railway enters the wooded and mountainous district of the Ardennes, and the scenery increases in beauty. Several small stations are passed. To the left of the line, a little beyond (145 M.) Boulzicourt, rises the large powder factory of St. Ponee. At (149 M.) Mohon are situated the workshops of the railway. We cross the Meuse twice, the river making a wide bend here to the left.

1517-2 M. Mezieres- Charleville (Buffet-Hotel). The station, which is at Charleville. is common to the two towns of Me'zieres and Charleville. Me'zieres lies about 3/4 M. to the left.

Charleville [*Lion d' Argent, Rue Thiers 20, not far from the station; Grand Hotel; du Commerce; de t Europe; *du Nord, near the station), with 17,800 inhab., forms as it were the commercial and industrial portion of Me'zieres, the peninsular situation of which has effectually prevented its expansion. The chief in- dustries are nail-making, type-founding, and the manufacture of other small hardware goods. The town derives its name from Charles of Gonzaga, Duke of Nevers and Mantua, and Governor of Champagne, who founded it in 1606. The road leading from the station is met at the bridge connecting the two towns by a fine boule- vard, which extends to the Place Ducale, in the centre of Charle- ville, a square bordered by arcades like the Place des Vosges at Paris. The rest of the town is uninteresting. On the N. side of the town the Meuse forms another small peninsula, occupied by Mount Olympus, a height at one time fortified, but now private property.

Mezieres (Hotel du Palais-Royal), the chief town of the depart- ment of the Ardennes, with 7450 inhab., is situated on a peninsula formed by the Meuse, and until recently was strongly fortified.

Me'zieres has undergone several memorable sieges. In 1521 the Chevalier Bayard, with a garrison of 2000 men, successfully defended the town for 28 days against an Imperial army of 35,000. In 1815, after a siege of six weeks, the town was compelled to capitulate to the Germans, though not before the general pacification. In 1810 Mezieres was invested three times, and surrendered on Jan. 2nd, 1871, after a bombardment of three days.

To the right, near the bridge which connects the two towns, is a War Monument, commemorating the inhabitants of the Ardennes who fell in 1870-71. The only noteworthy building in Me'zieres is the Parish Church, a handsome Gothic edifice of the 15-16th cent., with a conspicuous Renaissance tower. It has been restored since the bombardment of 1870. The portal on the S. side is very richly orna- mented. Within this church Charles IX. was married to Elizabeth of Austria in 1570. In the newer part of the town is a Statue of Bayard (see above), by Croisy (1893).

Eaiiways to Hirson, Aulnoye, Valenciennes, Lille, and Calais, see pp. 100, 99 ; to Givet and Namur, see p. 111.

Trains for Sedan, Thionville, and Metz, on leaving Me"zieres- Charleville, return in the direction of Rheims as far as beyond the

to Metz. SEDAN. 18. Route. 129

station of Mohon (p. 128). Here they diverge to the left into the valley of the Meuse, which is crossed at (154Y2 M.) Lumes. From (15672 M.) Vrigne-Meuse a tramway runs to (3 M.) Vrigne-aux- Bois, where large quantities of hardware are produced. — 161 i/2 M. Donchery is the point where the German forces crossed the Meuse, at the battle of Sedan, in order to cut off the retreat of the French army to Mezieres. The railway crosses the river, and immediately to the rightis seen the Chdteau de Bellevue, where Napoleon III. surrendered his sword, and where the capitulation of Sedan was signed on Sept. 2nd, 1870. The captured army were detained as prisoners for three days on the Peninsula of Iges, formed here by the Meuse. The bombardment of Sedan was begun by a battery posted on the heights of Frenois, to the right. The German army took up its position in that direction and still farther to the E., while the French posted themselves on the heights immediately surround- ing Sedan. By the end of the day the French position had been turned by the Germans, who had made themselves masters of the hills commanding it on the N.

164'/2 M. Sedan. —Hotels. Hot.del'Europe, Rue Gambetta27, R., L., & A. 21/2-6, B. I1/4, dej. 3'/2, D. 4fr.; Croix d'Oe, Place Turenne, dej. 3 fr. ; Lion d'Or, Place d' Alsace-Lorraine. — Buffet at the station.

Sedan, a town with 20,163 inhab., formerly strongly forti- fied, is famous for the battle and capitulation of Sept. 1st and 2nd, 1870 (see p. 130). Of no great antiquity, the town at one time belonged to the Dukes of Bouillon (p. 131), and the revolt of one of these noblemen in 1591 led to the siege and capture of Sedan by Henri IV. Sedan is well and regularly built, and carries on a pros- perous manufacture of fine cloth ; but it is uninteresting to the stranger. Within recent years the appearance of the town has under- gone a remarkable change. The fortifications have been removed, and their place is largely taken by handsome houses.

From the station, which has been brought farther to the S.E., near the Meuse, the Avenue Philoppoteaux, crossing the river and traversing the new suburb, leads to the Place d' Alsace-Lorraine, at the S. extremity of the town, in which are situated the War Monument for 1870, the College, and the Etablissement Crussy, embracing an asylum and a small Musee (adm. on application). Thence the Avenue du College leads to the Place d'Armes , in which rises the Parish Church. Beyond the church is the Donjon, of the 15th cent., the only relic of the ancient Castle. The Avenue du College is continued by the Rue Gambetta or Grande Rue, which ends at the Place Turenne, embellished with a bronze statue, by Goix, of Marshal Turenne, erected in 1823. The marshal (1611-75), born at Sedan, was the son of Henri de la Tour-d'Auvergne, Viscount of Sedan and Duke of Bouillon, an ambitious noble who took part in many plots against Cardinal Richelieu, and was finally forced to purchase his life by yielding up to Louis XIII. the barony of Sedan.

Baedeker's Northern Prance. 3rd Edit. o

130 Route 18. SEDAN. From Paris

— Crossing the Meuse, we again enter a new quarter, beyond which are fields traversed hy the Viaduc de Torcy. The suburb of Torcy, beyond the canal, has a modern Gothic Church and Convent. The Rue "Wadelincourt, which passes in front of the former, leads back to the station.

The best point from which to visit the battlefield of Sedan is the village of Bazeilles, about 3 M. to the S.E. (cab, 21/2-3 fr. ; station, see p. 132). The road leads to the S. from the Place Nassau, at the end of the Avenue Philippoteaux.

The Battle of Sedan, fought Sept. 1st, 1870, raged most fiercely in the neighbourhood of Bazeilles. Marshal MacMahon, acting under orders from Paris dictated by political rather than military considerations, and endeav- ouring to march from the camp at Chalons (p. 126) to the relief of Ba- zaine in Metz via Montme'dy (p. 132), had been forced back upon Sedan by the victorious armies of the Crown Prince of Prussia and the Crown Prince of Saxony. The French crossed the Meuse at Mouzon (p. 131) and took up a position on the heights of La Moncelle, Daigny, and Givonne (p. 131), on the right hank of the Givonne, a small tributary of the Meuse, flowing to the E. of Bazeilles, while their line was continued to the W., via Illy and Floing , until it rested upon the Meuse near the peninsula of Iges (p. 129). The battle began at daybreak, and from 4.30 to 10 a.m. Bazeilles and La Moncelle were the chief points of attack. Step by step the fighting was forced farther to the N., to Daigny and Gi- vonne, until finally, about 2 p.m., the right wing of the Saxons, who attacked from the E., and the left wing of the Prussians, who attacked from the W., effected a junction at Illy, and the ring of steel was closed round the French. Early in the afternoon some of the French troops began to retire in disorder upon the town, and not all the brilliant gal- lantry of the cavalry, who dashed themselves against the solid German lines in one desperate charge after another, could turn the tide of battle. When a German battery opened fire upon the town from the heights of Frenois (p. 129), there was nothing for it but surrender. Napoleon III., who was at Sedan, though not in command, delivered his sword to the King of Prussia; and 88,000 men (including 1 marshal, 39 generals, and 3230 other officers), with 10,000 horses, 4000 cannons, 70 mitrailleuses, and an enormous quantity of stores fell into the hands of the victors. The Ger- mans are said to have lost 10,000 men and the French 11,000. The victory was mainly due to the superior strategy of the German commanders. The French were completely out-manoeuvred by the Germans , who had managed to concentrate at Sedan a tried force of 240,000 men, and to coop up there the French army of 130,000 men, who had no time to recover from the disorganization of their previous retreat. The German attack was aided by the double change of command in the French camp. Mac- Mahon was wounded early in the day, and was succeeded by Duerot, who was in turn replaced by De Wimpffen.

Near the beginning of the village of Bazeilles, to the left of the road, is the small tavern A la Demiere Cartouche. The name recalls the fact that this was the last French position in the village, desperately defended by the marines under Martin des Pailleres against Von der Tann's Bavarians. The inn, which was the only house in the whole village not burned down, now contains a small Museum of relics of the battle (fee), and one of the rooms on the first floor is still preserved in the same state as is depicted in A. de Neuville's painting of 'The Last Cartridge', the scene of which is laid in the house which has borrowed its name.

The street to the right of the road leads into the village, passing

to Metz. ST. MIHIEL. 18. Route. 131

near the cemetery, rendered conspicuous by its Ossuaire, containing the bones of 2035 French and German soldiers removed from their temporary graves on the battlefield. Visitors obtain admission on applying at the nearest tavern , the keeper of which is the sexton. The small monument in front of the Ossuaire commemorates 500 Bavarians who fell in the battle; the other large monument in the cemetery does not refer to the events of 1870. — The French soldiers and villagers who were killed in the defence of the place are commemorated by a truncated Pyramid in the village. — Farther down, near the Meuse, is the railway-station of Bazeilles (p. 130). Fbom Sedan to Bouillon, 12 M., diligence (2 fr.) thrice daily. The road ascends to the N.E. by the Fond de Givonne, and crosses part of the battlefield of 1870 (p. 130). 3 M. Givonne, on the streamlet of the same name, was the centre of the French position. At (5 M.) La Chapelle is the French custom-house; and beyond it we enter the Forest of Ardennes. After 3 M. more we enter Belgium. — 12 M. Bouillon (Hdtel de la Poste; de France; des Ardennes), with about 2600 inhab., was formerly the capital of an inde- pendent duchy. From 1795 till 1815 it belonged to France, afterwards it pass- ed to Luxembourg, but since 1839 it has been united with Belgium. The town is prettily situated on a peninsula formed by the Semoy, an affluent of the Meuse, and is commanded by a Castle on an isolated rock. The valley as far as (28-30 M.) Montherme may be explored on foot in one day. Road from Montherme to the most attractive parts of the valley, see p. 112.

Fkom Sedan to LSkouville, 91 M. (to Nancy, 127 M.), railway in 4'/4 - 7i/i hrs. (fares 18 fr. 15, 13 fr. 65, 9 fr. 95 c). — At $1/2 M.) Pont- Maugis the line diverges to the left from that to Metz and begins to ascend the attractive valley of the Meuse. 3V2 M. liemilly. Branch-line to Raucourt, see p. 132. — 9 M. Mouzon, a little old town which enjoyed a certain amount of importance down to the middle of the 17th cent., contains a church of the 13-15th cent, and the remains of an abbey founded in the 10th century. — 15Va M. Litanne-Beaumont is the station for the little town of Beaumont, H/4 M. to the S.W., where 3000 men under General de Failly, posted to guard the passage of the Meuse, were defeated and captured by the Saxon troops on Aug. 30th, 1870. — 24 M. Stenay, a small town in the Pays Messin in Lorraine, was at one time strongly fortified. At (32 M.) Dun-Doulcon the valley expands.

57 M. Verdun, see p. 124. Our line leaves the railway to Metz on the left and that to Chalons and Rheims on the right, and skirts the town of Verdun on the S.W. The valley again contracts and forms picturesque defiles, most of which are fortified.

80 M. St. Mihiel (Hdtel du Gygne), with 9260 inhab., situated on the right bank of the Meuse, grew up round an ancient Abbey of St. Michael, now occupied by the municipal offices. Both the abbey and the Church of St. Michael date in part from the 17th century. The church contains a fine statue of the Madonna, by Ligier Richier (p. 144; in the choir); a child surrounded with skulls, perhaps by Jean Richier (in the 1st chapel on the right); and good choir-stalls, organ-case, and modern stained glass. The Church of St. Stephen, in the old town, contains a group of life-sized statues representing the "Entombment, considered the masterpiece of Ligier Richier. Among the various quaint old houses in this part of the town is one formerly occupied by Ligier Richier, who has embellished it with an elaborate ceiling. Above the town rise the Falaises de St. Mihiel, a group of pointed limestone rocks, 60-70 ft. high.

91 M. Lirouville, on the line from Paris to Nancy, is 37z M. from Commercy (p. 144).

Beyond Sedan the railway continues to skirt the Meuse for some distance. 174 M. Pont-Maugis is the junction for Verdun and Lerou-


1 32 Route 18. MONTMEDY. From Paris

ville (p. 131) and for (6 M.) Raucourt, a town with manufactures of Duckies. Crossing the Meuse, the line now ascends the valley of the Chiers. 175y2 M. Bazeilles (p. 130). — 185 M. Carignan, a town with 2224 inhab., was at one time fortified. Formerly named Yvois, it changed its name when Louis XIV. made it a duchy in favour of Eugene Maurice of Soissons, son of the prince of Carignan. A branch-line runs hence to (4*/2 M.) Messempre, with metal-works.

— 197 M. Chauvency. In the distance, to the right, is the citadel of Montme'dy, beneath which the train passes by means of a tunnel, V2 M. long.

202 M. Montmedy (Hot. de la Gare; Croix d'Or), a fortress of the second class, with 2733 inhab., is picturesquely situated on the Chiers. The rocky and isolated hill (Mons Medius) from which the name is derived is occupied by the citadel. Montme'dy was taken by Louis XIV. from the Spaniards in 1657. It was bombarded by the Germans in Sept., 1870, after Sedan; and returning in December, they forced it to capitulate by reducing it to a heap of ruins. — The church of Avioth, 4Y2 M. to the N., is a fine Gothic edifice of the 13-14th centuries.

A branch-railway runs from Montmedy, via Velosnes-Torgny (see below), Ecouviez (frontier-station, with the custom-house), and Lamorteau (with the Belgian custom-house), to (12'/2 M.) the little Belgian town of Virton. Virton has railway-connection wfth the lines from Longuyon to Arlon (see below), from Namur to Luxembourg (via. Arlon), etc.

206 M. Velosnes-Torgny (see above). Several bridges and two tunnels. — 214 M. Longuyon (Buffet- Hotel; Hotel-Cafe de Lor- raine), with 3247 inhab., pleasantly situated at the confluence of the Chiers and the Crusne, is the centre of the hardware trade in N.E. France.

Fkom Longtjton to Luxembourg, 39!/2M., railway in 374-43/« hrs. [This line is IOV2 M. shorter than that by Thionville. From Paris to Luxembourg by this route, 257 M., in IO-I21/2 hrs. (fares 43 fr. 75, 29 fr. 65, 19 fr. 40c.).]

— We leave the line to Thionville and Metz on the right, and ascend the upper valley of the Chiers, traversing a picturesque region, studded with iron mines and foundries. 5V2 M. Cons-la-Oranville , with a handsome Renaissance chateau (right); 8 M. Rehon.

9M. Longwy (Buffet-Hdtel; de la Croix d'Or et d' Europe), a town with 7788 inhah., and a fortress of the second class, has belonged to France since 1678. It was the first strong border-fortress taken by the Prussians in 1792, and its weak defence excited great indignation among the Revolutionaries at Paris. In 1815 it was again taken by the Prussians, this time after a siege of three months. In February, 1871, it surrendered to the Germans after a destructive bombardment of eight days. In the lower town (Longwy- Bas) are several important factories and porcelain-works. The picturesque and fortified upper town (Longwy -Haul) lies nearly i^|^ M. from the station by the road (omnibus, 40 c), though there are short-cuts for pedest- rians. It occupies a height rising from the Chiers, and commands a fine view. — The branch-line from Longwy to (11 M.) Villerupl-Micneville is chiefly of industrial importance.

11 M. Mont-St- Martin (hotel), the last French station (but custom-house at Longwy), has a handsome Romanesque church and some steel-works. Branch-line via (3Vz M.) Athus (frontier-station) to (13 M.) Arlon, see Bae- deker's Belgium & Holland. — The Luxembourg custom-house is at (14>/2M.) Rodane (Buffet). Luxemboug railway-time is 55 min. in advance of French

to Metz. LUXEMBOURG. 18. Route. 133

railway-time. — 18 M. Pltange; branch-line to Ettelbriick and (35]/2 M.) Die- kirch (see Baedeker's Belgium & Holland). 32 M. Bettembourg is the junc- tion for Metz and Thionville.

34V2M. Luxembourg ("Hdtel Brasseur; de VEurope; de Cologne), a town with 19,900 inhab., at one time a fortress of the German Confederation, is the capital of the grand-duchy of Luxembourg, The situation of the town is peculiar and picturesque. The upper part is perched upon a rocky table- land, which is bounded on three sides by abrupt precipices , 200 ft. in height. At the foot of these flow the Pitrusse and the Alzette, which are bounded by equally precipitous rocks on the opposite bank. In this narrow ravine lie the busy lower portions of the town. Apart from its curious situation and pretty environs, Luxembourg offers little to detain the traveller. The station is connected with the town by means of a huge viaduct. The Hotel de Ville and the Athe'nee contain small Musies; and the Place Guillaume , near the centre of the town , is embellished with a Statue of King William III. of Holland, by Mercie. To the W. of the town lies a public Park. For further details and for the railways from Luxem- bourg to Spa, to Treves , and to Thionville, see Baedeker's Belgium and Holland and Baedeker's Rhine.

Fkom Longuyon to Nancy (and Metz, via Confians - Jarny or Pagny- sur-Moselle) , 79>/2 M. , railway in 3V4-4>/« hrs. (fares 15 fr. 85, 11 fr. 90, 8 fr. 75 c). This line forms part of the route traversed by the through trains from Calais to Nancy, Strassburg, etc. (R. 14). It diverges to the right from the line to Thionville and runs to the S. E. through a monotonous district. — 26 M. Conflans-Jarny (Buffet) is also a station on the line from Verdun to Metz (p. 126). — At (31'/2 M.) Mars-la-Tour (Hot. du Commerce) several sanguinary cavalry-engagements took place during the battle of Eezonville, on Aug. 16th, 1870. A large Monument, passed before we reach the station, commemorates the French who fell, and is surrounded with vaults containing the bones of 10,000 soldiers. — From (4 M.) Onville a branch-line runs to (6V2 M.) Thiaucourt, situated to the S.W. in the pretty valley of the Bupl de Mad, which the main line also traverses towards the E. — At (46 M.) Pagny-sur-Moselle (p. 123) our line unites with that from Metz to Frouard (p. 146).

Beyond Longuyon the line to Thionville and Metz threads a tunnel and enters the valley of the Crusne, which it continues to ascend, crossing the stream several times. Beyond (220 M.) Pierre - pont, picturesquely situated, a tunnel (Y2 M.) is traversed. — We quit the valley by a tunnel.

230 M. Audun-le-Roman is the frontier-station, with the French custom-house. The German custom-house is at (235 M.) Fentsch (Fr. Fontoy), where the time is 55 min. in advance of French rail- way-time. Beyond another tunnel we begin to descend the valley of the Fentsch. 240 M. Hayingen (Fr. Hayange), with important iron- works.

2441/2 M. Thionville, or Diedenhofen (Hotel du Commerce; St. Hubert), a. small fortified town on the Moselle, with 7000 inhab., was captured in 1643 by the Prince of Conde, and on Nov. 24th, 1870, by the Germans, after a bombardment of two days.

From Thionville to Luxembourg (see above), see Baedeker's Belgium and Holland or Baedeker's Rhine; to Treves (43'/2 M.), Saarbriicken, Saargemiind, etc., see Baedeker's Rhine or Baedeker's Northern Germany.

The Metz line now ascends the valley of the Moselle. 245 M. Ueckingen (Fr. Uckange); 250 M. Reichersberg (Fr. Richemoni) • 251 M. Hagendingen (Fr. Hagondange) , the centre of the iron- founding carried on in the valley of the Orne, which is traversed by

134 Route 18. METZ.

a short goods-line (see p. 126); 253 M. Maizi'eres; 261 M. Devant- les-Ponts, near Fort Moselle. The line describes a curve to the W. and crosses the Moselle. To the right diverges the line to Verdun and Paris, then the lines to Frouard and Paris and to Saarbriicken and Strassburg. — 263 M. Metz.

Metz (for details, see Baedeker's Rhine). — Hotels. "Grand Hotel, 'Grand Hotel de Metz, Rue des Clercs 4 and 3, both of the first class} d'Angleteeee, Rue au Ble, near the cathedral and expensive; de France, be Paris, near the Place de Chambre, etc. — Cafes on the Esplanade.

Cabs. To the station, 1 person 1 M ; drive in the town 60 pf., each addit. pers. 20 pf. ; per >/2 hr., 1 Vers- 1 •$■> 2 pers. 1 M 20 pf., etc. — Tram- way from the station to the suburb on the left bank, passing near the cathedral.

Metz, the capital of German Lorraine, with 60,200 inhah. and a garrison of 20,000 men, lies in a wide basin on the Moselle, which flows in several arms through the town, at the lower end of which it is joined on the right by the Seille.

Metz was the Divodurum of the Romans, the chief town of the Gallic tribes of the Mediomatici , and in the 5th cent, began to be known as Metlis. In 406 it was plundered by the Vandals, and in 451 it suffered the same fate from the Huns. It afterwards passed into the possession of the Franks, and in 512 became the capital of the kingdom of Austrasia. Subsequently Metz was a free city of the German Empire, until it was taken by the French in 1552, and successfully maintained by them against an army which besieged it under Charles V. By the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 it was ceded to the French together with Toul and Verdun , and in 1871 it was again incorporated with the German Empire.

Metz has always been strongly fortified (at one time by Vauban), and under the later French regime was rendered one of the greatest fortresses in Europe by the construction of forts on the neighbouring heights. Until its surrender to the Germans on 27th Oct., 1870, the fortress had never succumbed to an enemy. The fortifications have been much extended since 1871 ; and the outworks now form a girdle round the town of about 15 M. in circumference.

Behind the Place Royale, reached from the station, is the Espla- nade, laid out in pleasant walks and embellished with a bronze sta- tue, by Petre, of Marshal Ney (1769-1815) and a bronze equestrian statue of Emperor William I., by F. von Miller. The W. side of the Esplanade affords a beautiful view of the valley of the Moselle, with the Mont St. Quentin rising on the left.

The *Oathedkal, in the centre of the town, is a magnificent Gothic structure of the 13-16th centuries. The unsightly principal portal was added in the 18th century. The whole was thoroughly restored in 1830-35. The choir contains fine stained-glass windows, the oldest, of the 13th cent., on the S. side. The tower, 387ft. high, commands a fine view of the town and the fertile '■Pays Messin.

Visitors are forbidden to walk about the cathedral during the services, «'?. 8-12.30 and 1.30-5 on Sun. & holidays, and 2-3 on other days.

The Place d'Armes, adjoining the cathedral, is adorned with a Statue of Marshal Fabert (1599-1662) , a native of Metz , who dis- tinguished himself in the campaigns of Louis XIV.

METZ. 18. Route. 135

The Library and the Museum, containing collections of Roman antiquities, natural history, and paintings, occupy the same build- ing in the Rue Chevremont, which leads from the Place d'Armes. — A little farther on we reach a branch of the Moselle, above the islarTd on which are the former Prefecture, the Theatre, etc. Near the opposite bank, faTther down, is the Porte Chambiere or Schlacht- haus-Thor, to the N. of which is the cemetery, with a monument to French soldiers who fell here in 1870. The quarter on the lie Cham- bilre has a handsome new Protestant Church in the Gothic style. The farther side of the island is washed by the main arm of the Moselle, beyond which rises a fort, near Devant-les-Ponts (p. 134).

The Rue Fournirue leads in the other direction from the Place d'Armes to the older quarters, with their picturesque Tanneries. Farther on, on the banks of the Seille, is the Porte des Allemands ( 1445-48), a quaint old town-gate, restored in 1892.

The Battle Fields of 16th and 18th August, 1870, lie to the W. of Metz, on the road to Verdun. A visit to them occupies a whole day (9-10 hrs.), and may be most conveniently accomplished either entirely by carriage (two-horse carriage 30-35 fr., the best at the principal hotels), or by taking the train to Ars (p. 123) or to Amanvillers (p. 126), and proceed- ing thence by omnibus. The Battle of Rezonville, fought on the 16th Aug., was one of the bloodiest of the whole war. In the course of the day no fewer than 138,000 French troops and 476 guns were engaged at intervals, while the German forces amounted to 67,000 men with 222 guns. The French loss was estimated at 879 officers and 16,128 men, and the German loss at 711 officers and 15,069 rank and file. — The eight German Corps dArme'e engaged in the Battle of Oravelotte, fought on the 18th Aug., num- bered about 230,000 men, opposed to whom were 180,000 French. The Germans lost 899 officers and 19,260 men, the French 609 officers and 11,705 men.

To the E. of Metz lie the Battle Fields of 14th Aug. and of 31st Aug. and 1st Sept., 1870. The former battle is known to the French as the battle of Borny, while the Germans have named it the battle of Oolombey-Nouilly , as the ground between these villages was the principal object of attack (see Map). Its result was to cause a fatal delay in the intended march of the French to Verdun. — The battle of 31st Aug. and 1st Sept. was fought un the occasion oi the first and most determined attempt of Marshal Ba- zaine to break through the German army which had surrounded Metz since 19th August. The chief object of dispute was the small village of Noisse- ville, 5 M. from Metz, on the road to Saarlouis.

To the N. of Metz, not far from the road to Thionville, lies Woippy, where Bazaine's last sortie, on 7th Oct., terminated in the retreat of the French after a battle of nine hours' duration. — At the chateau of Fres- eati, 23/j M. to the S. of Metz, on 27th Oct., was signed the capitulation of Metz, whereby the fortress, with 3 marshals, 50 generals, 6000 other officers, 173,000 men (including 20,000 sick and wounded), 53 eagles, 66 mitrailleuses, 541 field-pieces, and 800 fortress-guns, together with a vast quantity of other munitions of war, was surrendered to the Germans.

From Metz to Strassburg via. Saarburg, 98 M., railway in 23/4-43A brs. (express-fares 14 ^f 60, 19 Jl 30 , 7 Jl 30 pf., ordinary 12 J? 80, HJl 50, 5 M 50 pf.). — 13V2 M. Remilly is the junction for the line from Metz to Saarbrucken. 39 M. Bensdorf or Binestroff is also a station on the Nancy and Saargemund line (p. 152). At (47 M.) Berthelmingen we join the line from Saarbrucken. From (54V2 M.) Saarburg (Fr. Sarrebourg) our route coincides with that from Paris and Nancy to Strassburg (see p. 325).

From Metz to Strassburg, via, Frouard and Nancy, 127 M. (no through trains), comp. ER. l«a and 44. — To Nancy, 36 M. in 2 hrs. (fares 5 Jl 10, 3 Jt 45, 2 Jl 20 pf.).


19. From Paris to Nancy (Strassburg).

219 M. Railway (Gare de l'Est; PI. C, 24) in 51/2-91/2 nrs. (fares 30 fr. 65, 26 fr. 80, 17 fr. 30 c). — From Paris to Strassburg , 312 M. , Chemin de Fer d' Alsace-Lorraine beyond Avricourt (p. 325), in ca. 8-13 hrs. Express fares 1st class, 56 fr. 80, 2nd cl. 38 fr. 70 c; ordinary 55 fr. 40, 37 fr. 30, 24 fr. 35 c; mixed tickets (1st cl. to the frontier, thence 2nd cl.) 53 fr. 70 c. The German second-class carriages are as good as the French first-class carriages.

Besides the ordinary express-trains an Oriental Express leaves Paris every evening about 6.50, reaching Nancy in 51/2 nrs. and Strassburg in 91/2 hrs. This train, which is made up of a limited number of sleeping-carriages, saloons, and dining-carriages, takes passengers for all intermediate stop- ping-places , if there is room. Fares to Chalons-sur-Marne 5 fr. 35 c. , to Nancy 11 fr., to Avricourt 12 fr. 80 c, and to Strassburg 15 fr. 10 c, in addition to the ordinary express-fares. Places may be booked in advance at the office of the Compagnie des Wagons-lits, Place de TOpe'ra 3, in Paris, and at 122 Pall Mall, London. — Dinner 6 fr., wine extra. — Passports necessary in crossing the frontier.

Another line has been opened to Vitry-le-Francois (p. 142), via Coulom- miers (p. 292), but though l'/4 M. shorter it is served by slower trains (7-7V4 brs. instead of 3-5i/2 hrs.).

I. From Paris to Ch&lons-sur-Marne.

1071/2 M. Railway in 21/2-41/2 brs. (fares 19 fr. 50, 13 fr. 20, 8 fr. 55 c).

The train passes under several streets, intersects the Chemin de Fer de Ceinture, and crosses the Canal de St. Denis and the fortifi- cations. — 31/) M. Pantin (25,600 inhab.). Beyond the Canal de l'Ourcq we reach (51/2 M.) Noisy-le-Sec. To the left is the large station of the Chemin de Fer de Grande Ceinture; to the right di- verges the railway to Belfort (R. 39). — 7 M. Bondy.

A branch-line runs hence to (2'/2 M.) Gargan, where it forks, the right branch running to (41/2 M.) Livry, with an ancient abbey, the left branch via the Forest of Bondy to (5 M.) Anlnay-Us-Bondy ', on the line to Soissons (p. 115).

8M. Le Raincy-Villemomble. Le Raincy, to the left, is a modern town of 6826 inhab., built in the park of the chateau, which belong- ed to the Orle'ans family and was pillaged in 1848.

From Le Raincy to Montfekmeil, 272 M., electric tramway in 1/2 hr. (fares 45 c, 35 c.)

The Plateau d'Avron, beyond Villemomble, to the right, was occupied by the French during the siege of Paris to cover their sortie of Nov. 30th 1870; but they were forced to abandon it on Dec. 28th and 29th.

IIV2 M. Chelles, to the left, formerly celebrated for its abbey, destroyed after 1790. Farther on is a fort. — 14 M. Vaires-Torcy. At Noisiel, V2 M. to the E. of Torcy, are the huge chocolate-factory and the model village founded by M. Menier.

17^2 M. Lagny {Hotel du Pont de Fer, on the bank of the Maine), a commercial town of 5340 inhab., situated on the Marne. The early-Gothic Church of St. Pierre, with double aisles, is really the choir of an immense abbey-church, no more of which was ever built. In spite of its unimportant exterior it is worth a visit. In the square near the church is a curious old fountain ; and not far off are some remains of the abbey.

MEAUX. 19. Route. 137

A branch-railway runs from Lagny to (lsfa M.) Villeneuve-le-Comte. The trains start from a local station on the left bank of the river, about 1 M. from the main station (omnibus) by the second turning to the left beyond the bridge. Villeneuve-le-Comte, a place of little importance, contains a church of the 13th century. The line is to be prolonged to (4'/2 M.) Mortcerf, to meet the branch-railway from Gretz to Vitry-le-Francois (p. 292).

Diligence from Lagny to (6 M.) Ferrieres-en-Brie (p. 292), 75 c.

Beyond Lagny the train crosses the Marne and enters a short tunnel. The river here makes a detour of 10 M. , which vessels avoid hy means of the Canal de Chalifert (to the right), which is also carried through a tunnel. — 23 M. Esbly , on the Orand Morin, a picturesque river which frequently floods the environs of Paris.

Branch-line under construction to (7 M.) Cricy-en-Brie (Ours), a small town with remains of its mediaeval fortifications. Chapelle-sur-Cricy, 1/2 M. to the E., has a remarkable church of the 13th century.

28 M. Meaux (Buffet; Hotel des Trois Bois, Rue St. Remy, near the cathedral), a town with 13,520 inhab., situated on the Marne and carrying on an active trade in grain. The curious old Mills are situated in the bed of the river, behind the Hotel de Ville.

We enter the town via the Place Lafayette, adjoined on the left by handsome boulevards. The old buildings on the other side are the remains of a chateau (13th cent.) of the Counts of Champagne. Far- ther on are the Hotel de Ville and the cathedral (to the left).

The* Cathedral of St. Etienne is a Gothic edifice of the 12-1 6th cent- uries. The facade, well worth examination, is unfortunately marred by the slated roof of the still unfinished S. tower. The N. tower, which has no spire, is 250 ft. high and commands an extensive view. Bossuet, who was Bishop of Meaux from 1681 to 1704, is buried in this church, and a statue, by Ruxtiel, was erected in his honour in 1822 on the S. side of the choir. On the left are a handsome portal of the 15th cent, and the kneeling statue of Philip of Castile (d. 1627).

The cathedral contains copies of nine of RaphaeVs Cartoons, including copies of two of the three lost cartoons, viz. Martyrdom of St. Stephen and Conversion of St. Paul. It also has copies of frescoes by Guido Reni and Dominichino , an Adoration of the Magi , after Chanipaigne , and an Annunciation after Stella. — Organ-case of 1627.

To the left of the facade of the cathedral is the Episcopal Palace (17th cent.) ; to the left of the choir, the Mattrise (13th cent.). — In the Place Henri IV is the statue of General Raoult (1810-70), who was mortally wounded at Frceschwiller, by Aube'.

The train passes close to the cathedral as it quits Meaux, and crosses the Canal de l'Ourcq and the Marne. — At (317-2 M.) Tril- port the line to Rheims via La Ferte'-Milon diverges to the left (R. 16a). Farther on is a tunnel, 735 yds. long. 36 M. Changis.

41 M. La Ferte-sous-Jouarre (Hotel de VEpie) , on the Marne, a town with 4770 inhab., is famous for its mill-stone quarries. The valley in which it lies is fertile and well-cultivated, and the hills are covered with woods or vineyards.

Jouarre, 13/4 M. to the S. (omnibus), was formerly noted for its abbey, now replaced by a Benedictine convent. Behind the Church (15th cent.) is a crypt of an earlier structure, with Gallo-Roman columns of marble

138 Route 19. CHATEAU-THIERRY. From Paris

and sarcophagi of the 13th century. — A branch-line runs from LaFerte1- sous-Jouarre to (30 M.) Montmirail (see below).

The train crosses two bridges, threads a tunnel, 1030 yds. long, crosses a third bridge, and skirts the left bank. — 46 M. Nanteuil-Saacy. Beyond (52 M.) Nogent-t Artaud is another tunnel. To the left diverges the line from Chateau-Thierry to La Ferte- Milon (see p. 114).

59 M. Chateau-Thierry (Buffet- Hotel; Elephant; Angleterre), an attractive town with 7063 inhab. and manufactories of wind instruments, is situated on the right bank of the Marne, about '/2 M. from the station.

Beyond the bridge, to the right, is a mediocre Statue of La Fon- taine (see below), by Laitie. Farther on is a Belfry dating from the 16th century. We ascend from the square by a flight of 102 steps to the ruined Castle, which we enter from the right. This castle, said to have been built by Charles Martel in 720, was besieged and taken by the English in 1421, by Charles V. in 1544, and by other assail- ants on various other occasions. It has now almost completely dis- appeared, with the exception of its outer ramparts, and the plateau on which it stood has been converted into a pleasant promenade.

Quitting the ruins by the small gateway in the tower on the outer wall, opposite the entrance, we descend in the direction of the College. The adjoining house (No. 12), protected by a railing, is the house in which J. de la Fontaine (1621-95), the fabulist, was born; it now contains a library and a small museum. In the Grande Rue, lower down, rises the uninteresting Church (15th cent.).

From Chateau - Thierry to Romilly, 541/:! M., railway in 2]/2-3 hrs. (fares 9 fr. 85, 6 fr. 65, 4 fr. 35 c). — This line diverges from the Chalons railway at (5'/2 M.) Mizy (see below), the first station, and ascends the valleys of the Surmelin and the Dhuis. Part of the water-supply of Paris is derived from the Dhuis by means of an aqueduct, 81 M. long, beginning at (15 M.) Pargny-la-Dhuis. — 21!/2 M. Montmirail (HStel du Vert-Galant), a town of 2400 inhab., situated on a hill commanding the pretty valley of the Petit Moria, is noted for a victory gained by Napoleon over the Allies in 1814. A column, a little to the W., commemorates the event. The Chateau, which lies to the S.W., surrounded by a large park, was magnificently rebuilt in the 17th cent, by Louvois, the minister of war of Louis XIV. — 34 M. F.sternay, also a station on the line from Paris to Vitry via Coulommiers (p. 292). — Beyond (51 M.) Lurey-Conflans we cross the Seine and join the line from Paris to Troyes. — 54'/2 M. Romilly, see p. 295.

A branch-line also runs from Chateau-Thierry to (17'/a M.) Oulchy- Breny (p. 115), on the line from Paris to Eheims via La Ferte-Milon.

At Chateau -Thierry begin the vineyards of Champagne. — 64^2 M. Mezy ; branch to Romilly, see above. At (721/2 M.) Dornans Henri of Guise defeated the Germans and Huguenots in 1575, but received the wound which gave him the surname of 'Le Balafre-' or 'the scarred'. A little farther on, to the right, is Troissy, with a handsome church of the 16th cent., and to the left are the ancient priory of Binson and the plateau of Chatillon-sur-Marne, where a colossal statue of Pope Urban II. (1042-99), who was born in the neighbourhood, was erected in 1887, from a design by Roubaud. —

to Nancy. EPERNAY. 19. Route. 1 39

78 M. Port-a-Binson. Near (84 M.) Damery-Boursault, the next station, rises ("to the right) the *Chdteau of Boursault, in the Renais- sance style, now the property of the Duchesse d'Uzes.

88 M. Epemay. — Hotels. De l'Eorope, Rue Porte-Lucas; de Paris, Place Auban-Moet, pens. 7'/2 fr. ; H6t.-R.est. de la Gare, Place Thiers. — Cafes. De Paris, Rue Porte-Lucas ; Sparnacien, Place Thiers; etc. — "Buffet at the station.

Epemay, the Sparnacum of antiquity, a town with 19,377 inhab., prettily situated on the left bank of the Marne, is one of the centres of the champagne-trade. The handsome houses in the suburb of La Folie, on the E., close to which the train passes as it quits the town, afford some indication of the lucrative nature of the local industry. Either here or at Rheims (p. 122) a visit should be paid to one of the vast Cellars of the champagne-makers, consisting of long galleries, hewn in the chalk rock, containing hundreds of thousands of bottles and admirably adapted for the numerous delicate opera- tions necessary for the production of the wine.

Champagne is said to have been invented at the beginning of last century. Its distinguishing quality of effervescence is due to the fact that its fermentation is arrested and recommences on fresh contact with the air. The wine may be made either from black or white grapes; but the pro- duct of the former contains more spirit and 'creams' rather than foams, while that of the latter is distinguished by its fine transparency and by active effervescence. The must produced by pressing the grapes is first placed in casks until it has deposited its lees. The liquid is then drawn off about the middle of December and fined by the addition of tannine and alum. Three months or so later it is again drawn off and put into bottles, where a second fermentation is induced by the addition of a liqueur containing sugar-candy and brandy. The bottles are made of very strong and thick glass, weighing 25-30 oz. each, but nevertheless many of them break during the fermentation. As the fermentation goes on, it be- comes necessary to reduce the temperature by removing the bottles to a cooler cellar. The sediment resulting from this second fermentation is collected, in the second year, in the necks of the bottles by placing them in racks head downward, and is then got rid of by a process called 'disgorging' ('degorger'), in which the cork is allowed to fly out. The bottles are then filled up with fined wine and liqueur, and the champagne is ready for sale.

From Epernat to La Fere-Champenoise (Romilly), 25'/2 M., railway in l'/4 hr. (fares 4 fr. 60, 3 fr. 10 c, 2 fr.). — This line diverges to the right from the Strassburg railway at (4'/2 M.) Oiry-Mareuil, and traverses a wine-growing district, via (8:/2 M.) Avize and (14 M.) Vertus. — 25'/2 M. La Fere-Champenoise is also a station on the line from Paris to Vitry-le- Francois (p. 292), from which there diverges, at Sizanne, 6 M. to the W. , a branch to Romilly (p. 295).

From Epemay to Rheims (Me"zieres; Metz), see p. 117.

92 M. Oiry-Mareuil, see above. About 3 M. to the S. of (99 M.) Jalons - les - Vignes, near the Chateau of Ecury at Champigneul, is a very ancient heronry, occupied by the birds from Feb. to August.

107 Y2 M. Ch&lons-sur-Marne. — Hotels. De la Haute -Mere- Dieu (PI. a; C, 2), do Renard (PI. b; C, 2), Place de la Republique 26 & 24, pens. 7'/2-8 fr. ; dela Cloche b'Ob (Pl.c; D, 2), Rue St. Jacques 2, near Notre Dame; du Chemin-de-Fer, near the station. — Restaurants. Albert, Rue de Marne 85, dej. from l'/z, D. 2 fr. ; Buffet at the station. — Cafes. Bourse, Bellevtie, etc., in the Place de la Republique ; des Oiseaux, Rue de l'Hotel- de-Ville, etc.

140 Route 19. CHALONS-SUR-MARNE. From Paris

Cabs. Per drive between 6 a.m. and 10 p.m. (7-8 in winter), 1 fr. ; between 10 p.m. and midnight, 1V4 ; at night 2 fr. ; per hr., 2, 2V»j Or3fr. — To L'Epine, 6 fr. there and back, with stay of 1 hr. — Electric Tram- ways. From the Station (PI. A, 2) to the Faubourg St. Jean (P). E, 3); from the Petit-Fag niires (comp. PI. A, 2) to the Faubourg St. Jacques (PI. D, 1) ; 15 or 20 c.

Chalons-sur-Marne, with 26,630 inhab. , is the chief town of the department of the Marne , the headquarters of the 6th Army Corps, and the seat of a bishop. It is also an important centre of the champagne trade.

Chalons, the Gatalaunum of the Romans, is mentioned as early as the 3rd century. In 451 the neighbourhood was the scene of the great defeat of Attila and his Huns by the Romans and the allied Franks and Visigoths. This sanguinary and hard-won victory, reckoned by Sir Edward Creasy among the 'Fifteen Decisive Battles of the World', checked Attila's 'mighty attempt to found a new anti-Christian dynasty upon the wreck of the tem- poral power of Rome'. In 1430 and 1434 the town successfully defended itself against attacks by the English; but in 1814 it was occupied by the Prus- sians, in 1815 by the Russians, and in Aug., 1870, by the Germans.

From the Station (PI. A, 2) we turn to the left, cross the rail- way, the Marne (which flows in an artificial channel excavated in 1776), and finally the lateral canal, at the entrance of the town proper. Thence the Rue de Marne leads straight to the Hotel deVille.

The Cathedral (Pl.B, C, 2), to the right in this street, is a hand- some Gothic edifice, built in the 13th cent, and recently restored. The large portal, in the classic style, was added in the 17th century. The fine interior contains some stained glass of the 13-16th cent, a canopied high-altar, with six marble columns, two handsome tomb- stones, on the pillars to the left and right of the choir, and several other works of art. The choir is prolonged into the nave, as at Rheims.

Opposite the cathedral is the Institution St. Etienne, a theolog- ical seminary. The square in front of it is embellished with a re- production of Mercie's 'Gloria Victis', now in Paris. To the left is the Hdtel Dieu (PI. B, 2) , founded in the 16th century. — The Episcopal Palace (PI. C, 2), in the Rue du Cloitre, behind the cath- edral, contains a good collection of 60 ancient paintings, presented by the Abbe Joannes (d. 1864). — The Rue Lochet, diverging from the Rue de Marne beyond the cathedral, leads to the Jard (p. 141), passing the Ecole des Arts et Metiers (PI. C, 1-2).

The Hotel de Ville (PI. C, 2), erected in the 18th cent., presents few features of interest. In front is a Monument to President Carnot. The building to the right contains the Library , with about 70,000 vols, (open daily, except Wed., 12 to 5), and the Musee (adm. Sun. and Thurs., 12 to 4 or 5 ; to strangers on other days also).

In the court between the library and the JIusee a church-portal of the 17th cent, has been re-erected, and a good collection of Hindoo gods arranged. — On the groundfloor are antiquities, casts, and modern sculp- tures. — On the first floor are natural history collections, reproductions in carved wood of noted French works of art, and the Collection Picol, con- sisting chiefly of furniture, small works of art, and paintings. Among tbe last are a St. Jerome by Van Eyck, two Old Men by Holbein, an Old

auidgl' S~

to Nancy. CHALONS-SUR-MARNE. 19. Route. Ill

Woman ascribed to Rembrandt, and a Triumph of Diana by Prirnaticcio. — On this floor also are some mediocre modern French paintings, etc.

The church of Notre-Dame (PI. C, D, 2), a few yards behind the H6tel de Ville, second in interest to the cathedral alone, dates from the 12-14th cent, and presents a union of the Romanesque and Gothic styles. It has two towers, surmounted by modern spires, on the facade, and two others to the E. of the transepts. The stained glass windows (16th cent.) are fine, especially the first two on the left side. The aisles are provided with capacious galleries, and the three chapels in the apse are each preceded by two columns, from which the vaulting springs. There are several fine monuments.

Farther on towards the E., on the outskirts of the town, is the church of St. Loup (PI. B, 2), dating from the 14-15th cent., with a handsome and recently restored interior. It contains a statue of St. Christopher, referred to the 15th cent., and a few ancient paintings, including a small triptych (Adoration of the Magi; visitors may open it), by an early Flemish master, in the 2nd chapel on the right. — The church of St. John (PI. E, 3), at the S.E. extremity of the town, dates from the ll-15th cent, and unites a Gothic choir with Romanesque nave and aisles. — Notre Dame de VEpine, see below.

To the left of the Place de l'H6tel-de-Ville is the church of St. Alpin (PI. C, 2), dating from the 12-13th, and 15-16th centuries. It contains numerous ancient paintings, the chief of which are a Christ, in the style of Albrecht Diirer, signed Ant. Perot and dated 1551 (in the 3rd chapel to the right), a Christ at Emmaus, after Ph. de Champaigne, and a Bearing of the Cross, attributed to Peru- gino (in the following chapels). This church has also some fine stained glass of the 16th century.

The Place de la Republique (PI. C, 2), a little beyond St. Alpin, forms the centre of the town. To the right, at its other end, is the Jard (PI. B, C, 3 ; band on Sun. and Thurs. afternoons) , a public park lying in front of the Chdteau du Marche, a small erection of the 17-18th cent., partly restored, and now occupied by a savings-bank. The Rue Lochet, built above a canal passing under the chateau, leads hence back to the town, passing on its way a handsome Syn- agogue and a Protestant Church. The Jard is bounded on the right by a canal, between which and the Marne lies the Jardin Anglais (P1.B,3). — On the left is the Corns d'Ormesson (PI. C, 3), with an Agricultural Laboratory and the Jardin des Plantes. At the end of the Cours is the Prefecture (PI. D, 3), erected in the 18th cent., fac- ing the Rue Ste. Croix, in which are the modern Archives. The Grand Seminaire, to the right of the prefecture, contains a small geological and archaeological museum. At the end of the Rue Ste. Croix rises the still unfinished Porte Ste. Croix (PI. D, 3), a triumphal arch, 60 ft. high, erected in 1770 to welcome Marie Antoinette.

Not far from the station, from which its two towers are visible, is tbe former Manor of Jacquesson, now used as a distillery, brewery, and malt-house. Connected with it are 7 M. of cellarage, hewn in the chalk, which are generally shown on application.

About 5 M. to the E., on the road to Ste. Menehould, is the village of L'Epine , famous for its beautiful and much-frequented "Pilgrimage

142 Route 19. VITRY-LE-FRANQOIS. From Paris

Church, built in 1420-1529 to shelter a miraculous statue of the Virgin, found in a thorn-hush by some shepherds. The spires of the two W. towers are modern. The portal is especially elaborate. In the interior (completely restored in 1890) the miraculous image (restored) , the organ of the 16th cent., the choir-screen, the treasury, and the representation oi the Holy Sepulchre should be noticed.

From Chalons-sur-Marne to Troyes, see p. 300 (local station near the main-line station); to Metz via Verdun, see p. 124.

II. From Chalons-sur-Marne to Nancy.

112 M. Railway in 2V4-5'/4 hrs. (fares 20 fr. 35, 13 fr. 80, 8 fr. 90 c).

The line skirts the chalk hills on the right hank of the Marne, traversing the wide plain known as the Champagne Pouilleuse. At (10872 M. from Paris) Coolus the line to Troyes (p. 300) diverges to the right. II6Y2 M. Vitry-la-Ville, with a chateau of the 18th cent., to the right; 123'/2lVl. Loisy, with a handsome Gothic church of the 13th cent., to the left. We next cross the Marne and reach —

127 M. Vitry-le-Francois (* Hotel des Voyageurs , Rue de Vaux 34; Cloche d'Or, Rue de Frignicourt 44; de la Oare), a town with 8400 inhah., founded on a regular plan in 1545 hy Francis I. in place of Vitry-le- Brule, 2l/2 M. to the N.E., which was destroyed by Charles V. in 1544. The Avenue Carnot, constructed since 1895 on the site of the former fortifications, leads directly from the station to a new square, embellished with a monument commemorating the Review at Vitry in 1891. Behind is the Hotel de Ville, containing a small Musee, which includes natural history and antiquarian collec- tions and the picture-gallery and curiosities collected by the late Vice-Admiral Page. Thence the Rue Domine-de-Verzet leads to the Place d'Armes, in the centre of the town , whence radiate the three other chief streets (Rue de Frignicourt, Rue de Vaux, and Rue du Pont). On the left side of the Place is the church of Notre Dame, a large and handsome edifice of the 17th cent., containing two noteworthy monuments of the end of the 18th century. In a small square to the right is a bronze statue, by Marochetti, of P. P. Royer-Collard (1763-1845), philosopher and politician, born in the environs.

From Vitrt-le-Fkancois to Jessains (Troyes, Chaumont), 33V2 M., railway in li/2-l3A hr. (fares 5 fr. 95 c, 4 fr., 2 fr. 60 c). — At (21 M.) Valen- ligny, the sixth station, a branch diverges to St. Dizier (p. 307).

25 M. Brienne-le-Chateau (Croix Blanche; Hayard) is famous as the seat of a military school (suppressed in 1790), of which Xapoleon I. was a pupil (1779-84). A bronze statue of Napoleon at the age of sixteen, in front of the Hotel de Ville, commemorates the fact. It was also the scene of a sanguinary struggle on Jan. 29th, 1814, between Napoleon and Bliicher, in which the latter was forced to retire. Brienne has given name to a family of distinction, one of whose members, Jean, was King of Jerusalem in 1209 and Emperor of Constantinople in 1231 - 37. Above the town rises the large Chdteau of the Prince de Bauffremont-Courtenay, dating from the 18th century. The park is open to the public, and the collection of paintings (numerous portraits) in the interior may also be visited. The Church (16th cent.) contains some fine stained glass. — Railway to Troyes via Piney, see p. 300.



llll I I

M filiilk


to Nancy. BAR-LE-DUO. 19. Route. 143

The railway to Jesaains next ascends the valley of the Aube, which it crosses beyond (28l/2 M.) Bienville. We now join the line from Troyes to Chaumont, and reach (33>/2 M.) Jessains (p. 300).

From Vitry-le-Francois to Paris via. Coulommiers, see p. 292.

Beyond Vitry the railway crosses the Marne for the last time and skirts the Rhine and Marne Canal, which begins at Vitry and ends at the 111, near Strassburg, a distance of 195 M. — The scenery now becomes monotonous. 135'/2M. Blesme-Haussignemont (small Buffet) is the junction for Chaumont and Epinal (see p. 307). 143 M. Sermaize (Hot. de la Cloche ; de la Source, at the Etablissement), on the Saulx, with a small Etablissement de Bains, lfe M. from the station, supplied by a mineral spring resembling that of Contrexe- ville (p. 316).

We next cross the Saulx, the Rhine and Marne Canal, and the Ornain, and reach (148 M.) Sevigny-sur-V Ornain.

Branch-railway to (17]/2 M.) St. Dizier, see p. 307; to Amagne-Lucquy, via Ste. Menehould, see p. 127. Local railways also run to the S.E., through the. valley of the Saulx, to (16'/2 M.) Haironville, and to the N.E., to (21 '/z M.) Triaucourt, via (14 M.) Lisle-en-Barrois, whence a branch diverges to Rember- court-aux-Pots (p. 144).

157y2 M. Bar-le-Duc. — Hotels. Du Ctgne (PI. a; B,2); de Metz & du Commerce (PI. b; B, 2), Rue de la Rochelle Nos. 8 & 17; de la Gake, with cafe, opposite the Gare de l'Est (PI. C, 1). — Cafes. Bet Oiseaux, at the theatre (see below); Lambert, at the Hotel de Metz; de la Gare.

Gabs. Per drive in the Ville Basse, 1 fr. ; to the Ville Haute, IV2 fr. ; per hr. (1-2 pers.) 2fr., each addit. pers. 50 c.

Bar-le-Duc, the ancient capital of the Dukes of Bar and the chief town of the department of the Meuse, with 18,250 inhab., is situated on the Ornain and the heights rising on its left bank. It was the birth-place of the second Duke of Guise (1519-63), Marshal Oudinot (1767-1847), and Marshal Exelmans (1775-1852). Bar- le-Duc is noted for its preserves, and it also produces good wine.

The busiest part of the town is the 'Ville Basse', which is inter- sected from E. to W. by the Rue de la Rochelle, the principal street. At the E. end of this street is the new church of St . Jean (PL 8 ; D, 2), an imposing edifice in the Romanesque style, of which the lofty choir, with a canopied altar, is raised above a crypt.

The Rue Entre-deux-Ponts. leading to the left at the other end of the Rue de la Rochelle, begins at the Monument of the Michaux, who introduced important improvements in the manufacture of bicycles, and passes the elaborate Renaissance facade of the Theatre (PI. 18 ; B, 2). Behind the latter is the Cafe des Oiseaux , one of the sights of the town , the fine saloon of which is surrounded by glass-cases, containing stuffed birds and other animals. — Farther on is the Place Reggio (PI. B, 2), embellished with a bronze statue, by J. Debay, of Marshal Oudinot, Duke of Reggio (see above). — Farther up, to the left, is the church of St. Antoine (PI. 6; B, 2), of the 14th cent., with good window-tracery and stained glass. A canalized arm of the Ornain flows beneath the church.

The 'Ville Haute', or upper town, is commanded by a Clock

144 Route 19. BAR-LE-DUC. From Paris

Tower, which may he reached from St. Antoine's, via, the Rue de l'Horloge and the Rue de l'Armurier.

The church of St. Etienne or St. Pierre (PI. 7; 0, 3) is the prin- cipal building in Bar-le-Duc. It dates from the 14th cent., with the exception of the portal, flanked by a tower, which was added at the end of the following century. The screens of the two chapels in the right aisle are noteworthy, but the chief object of interest is a *Statue (in the right transept), by Ligier Richer, of St. Mihiel in Lorraine (p. 131), a pupil of Michael Angelo, representing a corpse in which decay has already set in. It is carved of St. Mihiel stone soaked in wax and oil to give it the appearance and durability of marble, and formed part of the tomb of Rene de Chalons, Prince of Orange, who was killed in 1544 at the siege of St. Dizier.

No. 21, Place St. Pierre, a handsome old house of the early Renaissance period, contains a small Musee, open to the public on Sun., 1-4, and to strangers at other times also.

The collections, occupying four saloons, comprise specimens of natural history, a small gallery of paintings (chiefly modern), some sculptures, a portion of an altar-piece (Death of the Virgin and Assumption), and a handsome chimney-piece. Among the few ancient paintings are a portrait of Tintoretto by himself and some canvases of the old French school; the sculptures include antique busts of Trajan and Hadrian.

There are a number of other interesting old buildings in the 'Ville Haute', especially in the Rue des Ducs-de-Bar. A house in which Prince Charles Edward Stuart lived for three years is also pointed out. At the upper end of the Rue des Ducs-de-Bar is Le Pdquis, a promenade shaded by fine elms. The Avenue du Chateau, at the other end, passes near the remains of the Chateau (PI. 2 j B, 3), destroyed in the 17th century. In the Rue Lapique, which leads down from this vicinity to the Rue de la Rochelle (p. 143), is the Hotel de Ville (PI. C, 2), formerly Oudinot's mansion.

From Bar-le-Duc to Clermont-en-Argonne and to Verdun, 35 and 42 M. This railway has a special station in the Eue St. Mihiel, to the S.E., not far from the canal. At (12'/2 M.) Rembercourt-aux-Pots a branch- line diverges to Lisle-en-Barrois (p. 143). — At (I872 M.) Beauzie the line forks, one branch leading to (35 M.) Clermont-en-Argonne (p. 124), the other to (42 M.) Verdun (p. 124).

161 M. Longeville; I64V2 M. Nancois - Tronville. Railway to Neufchateau-Epinal, see p. 308. To the right is the Marne canal, which farther on makes a wide curve and enters the valley of the Meuse by means of a tunnel 2V2 M. long, while the railway bends to the left. Beyond (171 M.) Ernecourt-Loxeville the train enters the cuttings by which the line pierces the heights between the valleys of the Seine and Meuse. — 178 M. Lerouville.

Railway to Sedan via Verdun, see p. 131.

183 M. Commercy (Hotel de Paris), a town with 8100 inhab., is situated on an arm of the Meuse. The Chateau of the 17th cent., which the train passes on quitting the station, was at one time the residence of Stanislaus, King of Poland and Duke of Lorraine ; and here Cardinal de Retz (d. 1679) wrote his memoirs. It is now used

to Nancy. TOUL. 19. Route. 145

as barracks. In the town is a bronze Statue of Dom Calmet (1672- 1757), the learned historian, who was born in the neighbourhood. Oommercy is noted for its 'Madeleines', a kind of cake (1 fr. 20 c-2 fr. per box).

The train now crosses two arms of the Meuse. 188 M. Sorry, beyond which a tunnel, 612 yds. long, is traversed.

191 M. Pagny-sur-Meuse (Buffet -Hotel). Railway to Neul- chateau and Epinal, see R. 40 c. We now enter the valley of the Moselle by a tunnel 3/4 M. long, and once more approach the Rhine, and Marne Canal. — 194 M. Foug.

199 M. Toul {Hotel de Metz, Rue Gambetta; de la Cloche d'Or, Rue de la Re'publique), the Tullum Leucorum of the Romans, is one of the most ancient towns in Lorraine and has been the seat of a bishop for 1200 years. It is a fortress of the first class, and was taken by the Germans on Sept. 23rd, 1870, after a siege of thirty-eight days. Pop. 12,200. The town is situated between the canal and the Moselle, about Y2 M. from the station. From the Porte de France, by which we enter from the station, the Rue Thiers and Rue Gambetta lead towards the centre of the town and are continued by the Rue de la Re'publique (to the right) in the direction of the Porte de la Moselle, where the river is spanned by a bridge dating from 1770.

The church of St. Gengoult, a fine Gothic edifice of the 13-loth cent., is reached by turning to the left at the end of the Rue Gaui- betta. The interior is unusually lofty, and the large windows are lilled with fine stained glass of the 13th cent. The finest part of the church is, however, the beautiful Flamboyant Cloisters, to the N. of the nave, dating from the 16th century. These are enclosed on botli sides by six double arcades resting on very light and graceful columns and separated from each other by small truncated columns. The clois- ters give on a small square, through which we may reach the church of St. Etienne, via the Rue Lafayette (right), Rue Michatel (left), and Rue Liouville (right).

  • St. Etienne, the former cathedral, is noteworthy for its size

and its harmonious proportions, and still more for its beautiful "W. front, which is flanked by two light and graceful towers, terminating in octagonal lanterns. The choir and transepts date from the 13th, the nave from the 14th and 15th, and the facade from the 15th cent- uries. The * Cloisters which adjoin this fine church on the S. were built in the 13-14th cent, and are larger and even more beautiful than those of St. Gengoult. They form a rectangle, 75 yds. long and 55 yds. broad, and consist of 22 sections with four arches, each with four small clustered columns and two small isolated columns, besides the archway to the court. — The Chapel entered from the cloisters contains a large altar-piece, with figures in full relief, re- presenting the Adoration of the Shepherds.

The large and imposing H6tel de Ville , built in the 18th cent., was formerly the bishop's palace.

Baedeker's Northern France. 3rd Kdit. 10

146 Route 20. NANCY. Hotels.

From St. Etienne the Rue d'Inglemure leads to the Rue and Place de la Republique, in the latter of which is a good cafe.

A branch-line ascends the valley of the Moselle from Toul to (15 M.) Pont- SI- Vincent (p. 315), via Chaudeney - sur - Moselle , near which are some interesting caverns (partly unexplored).

From Toul to Mirecourt and to Epinal, see p. 310.

As the train leaves Toul we enjoy a fine view, to the right, of both its churches and especially of the facade of St. Etienne. We cross the canal and then the Moselle. — ■ 204 M. Fontenoy-sur- Mo- selle. The river and canal run parallel to the railway. We again cross the river and reach (210 M.) Liverdun, finely situated to the left, with remains of fortifications. The church , containing inter- esting sculptures , dates from the 13th cent. ; the governor's house from the 15th. — The tunnel (to the left), 550 yds. long, hy which the canal is carried beneath the town, and the bridge (to the right) by which it crosses the Moselle , near the railway-bridge, are strik- ing examples of engineering skill. The scenery at this point is, per- haps, the most beautiful on the entire journey.

At (214 M.) Frouard (Buffet-Hotel), a village of 3683 inhab., the railway to Metz (R. 18a) diverges to the left, while the line to Nancy quits the valley of the Moselle and enters the valley of the Meurthe. — 216 M. Charnpigneulles, with iron-works. Railway to Chateau- Salins, Vic, etc., see p. 152. — In the distance, to the left, we catch a glimpse of Nancy. — 219 M. Nancy (Rail. Restaurant).

20. Nancy.

Hotels. Geand Hotel (PI. d ; C, 3, 4), Place Stanislas 2, variously spoken of, pens. 11 fr. ; de France (PI. a; B, 4), Rue Gambetta 39, pens. 11 fr. ; de l'Eokope (PI. b; B, C, 4), Rue des Carmes 5, R., L., & A. 2'/2-5, B. IV4, dej. 3'/2, D. 4, pens. 8V2 fr., omn. 60 c. -tfr. ; d'Angleteeee (PI. e; B, 4), Rue Stanislas, pens. 9 fr. ; Amebicain (PI. c; B, 4), Place St. Jean, near the station, well-managed and moderate; "de Metz, Rue du Faubourg-Stanis- las 6, near the station, R., L., & A. 2>/2, dej. 3 fr. ; de Lobraine, Place Dombasle.

Restaurants. Stanislas, Place Stanislas 9 ; at the Grand H6tel and HOtel Ajniricain (see above); Rocher de Cancale, Rue des Carmes 11; and at the Brasseries mentioned below. — Railway Restaurant.

Cafes. Cafi de V Optra, at the beginning of the Promenade, beyond the Porte Royale; Cafe de la Cumidie, Place Stanislas; Cafi du Grand H6tel (see above) ; Continental, des Deux Hemispheres, Place Thiers, etc. — Brasseries. (Irande Brasserie Lorraine, Rue St. Jean 5, dej. 2V2, D. 3 fr. ; Brasserie Viennoise, Rue des Michottes 6 (PI. B, 3), dej. 2'/2, D. 3 fr. ; Grande Brasserie de V'Est, at Maxeville (closed in winter).

Cabs. With one horse, V/t, luggage-cab li/a, with two horses l3/4 fr. per drive; per hr. % fr. more. From midnight to 6 a.m., '/a fr. more per drive or per hr.

Tramways traverse the town from Maxeville (N.) to Bonsecours (S.); from Malzeville (N.E.) to Preville (W.) ; and from the Pont d'Essey (E.) to the Bon-Coin (S.W.). Fare 10, 15, or 20 c.

Theatres. Theatre Municipal, Place Stanislas (PI. C, 3); Eden Thidlre (PI. B, 4), Place St. Jean; Casino des Families, Rue St. Georges, near the cathedral. — Fetes, concerts, and exhibitions take place in the Salle Poirel PI. B, 1), Rue Poirel, near the station.

Place Stanislas. NANCY. 20. Route. 147

Post & Telegraph Office (PI. C, 4), Eue de la Constitution 9; also at the railway-station.

Baths. Bains du Casino, Passage du Casino (PI. C, 4), Rue St. Dizier21. and Rue des Dominicains 40; Bains du Petit-Paris, Rue Pierre-Fourrier IB (PI. C, 4).

French Protestant Service in the Temple, Place St. Jean, at 10a. m. — French Methodist Chapel, Rue Ste. Anne 6; services at 10.30 a.m.

Among the specialties of Nancy are Embroidery, Macaroons, and Art- istic Pottery and Glass.

Nancy, the capital of the Departement de Meurthe-et-Moselle, and the seat of a bishop, formerly the capital of Lorraine and the seat of the dukes, of whom Stanislaus Lesczinski (d. 17G6), ex- king of Poland, was the last, is situated on the Meurthe, and con- tains 96,300 inhabitants. It was greatly embellished by Leopold (d. 1720), predecessor of Stanislaus, and is one of the best-built towns in France. The surrounding vineyards contribute much to the beauty of the situation. The University of Nancy has risen in im- portance since the annexation of Strassburg to Germany, and its Ecole Forestiere, or school of forestry, is the only establishment of the kind in France. Until quite recently the British Government regularly sent pupils to this school under the charge of an officer.

After taking Nancy in 1475 and losing it again in the following year, Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, was defeated and slain beneath its walls by the Duke of Lorraine and the Swiss on Jan. 5th, 1477 (new style). Nancy was one of the first places in which the Revolutionary spirit was shown by the troops in 1790, and Carlyle gives a vivid account iu his 'French Revolution' of the uprising of 'Cbateau-Vieux' and its suppression by Bouille. In 1870 the town was occupied by the Germans without resist- ance. — Among the famous natives of Nancy are Callot (1593-1635), Sylvestre (d. 1691), and St. Urbain (d. 1758), the engravers ; Hire (1701-63), the ar- chitect; Dombasle (1777-1843), the agriculturalist; Marshal Drouot (1774-1847) ; Jsabey (1767-1855), the painter, and Grandville (or Girard; 1803-47), the caricaturist (p. 150).

The Place Thiers (PL A, B, 4), in front of the station, is adorned with a statue of Thiers (1797-1877), President of the French Re- public, by Guilbert, erected in 1879. The town is entered by the Porte Stanislas, one of the seven handsome gates of Nancy. Farther on, to the left, are the Place Camot and Cours Leopold (p. 151). To the right, in a small square in front of the Lycee, is a Statue of Dombasle (see above) by David d'Angers. The former Universite, to the left of the square, now contains a Public Library, with 85,000 vols, and 5000 MSS. (open daily, except Sun. and holidays, 9-12 in summer, 9 a.m. to 10 p.m. in winter). The Rue Stanislas leads hence to the square of that name, crossing the Rue St. Dizitr, the busiest in the town.

The *Place Stanislas (PI. O, 3, 4), the finest point in the town, with a bronze Statue of Stanislaus Lesczinski, by Jacquot, erected in 1831, is surrounded with handsome edifices by He"re', and adorned with tasteful iron railings of the 18th cent., and two monumental fountains. To the E. rises the Episcopal Palace, to the W. the Theatre, to the N. (at a little distance) the Porte Royale ( p. 150), and to the S. the H6tel de Ville.


148 Route 20. NANCY. Musee.

The Hotel de Ville (PI. C, 4), built in the 17th cent., contains a very handsome ball or concert room, with frescoes by Girardet of Nancy (1709-78), and a fine staircase with wrought-iron banisters by Lamour. Several rooms are occupied by a Musee, containing an- cient and modern paintings, open to the public on Sun. and Thurs., from 12 to 4, but accessible to strangers on other days also.

First Floor. — Paintings. Room I. To the right, 50. Duccio, Madonna; 111. Sassoferrato, Madonna ; 129. Early Copy of P. Veronese, Marriage at Cana. — 124. Tobar, Monk praying; 30. Ann. Carracci, Christ at the Sepulchre; 47. C. Dolci, Descent from the Cross; 90. P. da Cortona, Cumsean Sihyl announcing to Augustus the birth of Christ. — 88. S. Contarini, Holy Family; 6. Baroccio, Annunciation; "87. Perugino, Madonna, Christ, St. John, and angels. — 69. Guido Reni, Cleopatra; 238. Koeberger, Martyrdom of St. Se- bastian; 273. Rubens, Transfiguration (painted in Italy under the influence of Caravaggio) ; 272. Rottenhammer (?), Good Samaritan ; 125. A. Vaccaro, Christ appearing to one of the Holy Women; 234. Van Hemes&en, Expul- sion of the money-changers; 423. Le Barbier, Death of De'silles (p. 151); 25. Curdi, Jacob's ladder; 119. Tintoretto, Christ at the Sepulchre; 208. Be Crayer, Plague at Milan; 101. Ribera, Baptism of Christ; 211. Dietrich, Philosopher: 96. Pordenone, Parting of St. Peter and St. Paul; 263. Pourbus the Younger, Annunciation. — 265. After Rembrandt, Good Samaritan; 2. A. del Sarto, Tobias and the angel; 80. Fieravius (il Maltese), Armour; 108. A. Sacchi, Sixtus V. at the 'Corpus Christi' procession. — In the middle, Equestrian statue of Duke Charles III., in bronze, by Chaligny.

Room II, to the left of the entrance. — To the right, 19. Suardi, St. Catharine; 132. School of Verocchio, 58. School of Ghirlandajo , Madonnas; 60. Giordano (?), Lot and his daughters. — 12. Bassano, Christ and Caiaphas; 52. Feli, Melancholy (replica of the painting in the Louvre); 74. L. da Vinci O), Salvator Mundi; 24. Caravaggio, Descent from the Cross; 1. Alberti, Portrait; 36. Cerquozzi, Fruit; 51. Feti, Archangel; 10. Bassano, Deluge; 26. Cardi, Entombment of Christ; 84. Mola, Flight into Egypt; 150. Italian School, The Vestal Tucia vindicating her innocence by drawing water in a sieve; 83. Early Copy of Michael Angela, Rape of Ganymede; 41. Cignani, Madonna; 270. Roos (Rosa di Tivoli) , Shepherd and flock; 285. Stradanus, Bearing of the Cross; 418. Jouvenet, Raising of Lazarus; 190. Bakhuysen, Sea-piece; 250, 251. Jos. Vernet, Roman ruins; 29. Cardi(1), St. Francis; 62. Guardi, Piazza di S. Marco; 138. Bolognese School, Fish merchant; 38. Cerquozzi, Fruit; 105. Ricci, Dido; 40. Cignani, Infant Moses; 113. Schedone, Christ and the Madonna; 121. Tintoretto, Diana; 11. Bassano, Christ and the Holy Women; 49. Domenichino, St. Francis of Assisi; Cer- quozzi, 37. Grapes, 39 (?), Bowls ; 120. Tintoretto, Pentecost ; 362. Le Guaspre, Landscape; 148. Florentine School, St. Cecilia; 144. Spanish School, Marriage of St. Catharine; 109. Sacchi, Trinity; 59. /. Ghisolfi (?), St. John in the wil- derness; 5. School of A. del Sarto, Entombment; no number, Pordenone, Portrait; 54. Fr. Furini, Proserpine and Pluto ; 61. Granacci, Trinity. — 20. Suardi (?), St. Lucy.

Room HI, adjoining, whence a staircase descends to the sculptures (p. 149). To the right: 195. Breenbergh, Landscape; 256. A. van Ostade, Still-life; 223. Fr. Franck, Holy Family; 214. Van Dyck, Madonna aud Child (replica of the painting at Dresden); 198, 199. Breydel, Landscapes; 289. Teniers the Younger, Fortune-teller; 221. Fr. Franck the Younger and J. de Momper, Christ in the desert; 262. Pourbus the Eldtr, Portrait; 292. Van Thulden, Christ after the Scourging; 275. Rubens, Jonah; 201. P. Bril, Landscape; 243, Lievens, Crucifixion; 217. Copy of Van Dyck, Salvator Mundi; 274. Rubens, Christ walking upon the water; 255. G. van Os, Portrait; 227. Jordaens (?), Studies of heads; 222. Van Everdingen, Land- scape; 248. Mcitsys, Money-changers; 258. J. Peelers, Sea-piece; 244. Jean Looten, Oaks; 194. Van Braedael, Poultry-yard; 189. Van Asch, Wind-mill; 281. /. van Ruisdael, Oaks; 196. Brueghel the Younger, Village festival; 226. Van Goyen. Landscape; 290. Teniers the Younger, Village-scene; 282. J. van Ruisduel, Hut; 200. Bril, Ruined tower; 297. Wouters, Andromeda; 202.

Muse'e. NANCY. 20. Route. 149

F. B., Dutch cook ; 228. Van der Hagen, Sunset; 220. Elshaimer, Good Samar- itan; 230. Heemskerk, Pancakes; 261. Van Pool, Winter. — 209. Dekker, Bridge ; 241. Lambrecht, Vegetable-sellers ; 260. C. Poelenburg, Diana bathing ; 293. Van Thulden, Perseus and Andromeda; 221. Van Es, Still-life; 264. /. van Raveslein{<), Portrait. — 251. J. de Momper, Caravan; 197. 'Velvet' Brueghel^!), Landscape; 253. J. Muller , Landscape; 225. Francois, Abbe Gre'goire; 306. Flemish School, Village festival; 212. DUrer, St. Jerome; 227. Guerviller, Calvary; German uchool, 288. Christ at the Sepulchre, 300. Circle of children, 287. Beheading of John the Baptist ; 302. Flemish School, Descent from the Cross; 298. German School, Rape of Helen; 206. Cranach the Younger ('?), Birth of the Virgin; 299. German School, St. Jerome; 303. Flemish School, Adoration of the Shepherds; 12S. Velazquez, Philip IV.; 102. Ribera (?), Sorceress ; 71. J. Labrador, Still-life ; 101. Ribera, Baptism of Christ; 216. Van Dyck (?), Count John of Nassau and his family ; 236. After K. dn Jardin, Thicket.

Boom IV. French School of the end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th centuries. To the right and left, 458, 459. Meunier, Palace-interiors. To the left: 410. Isabiy, Napoleon I.; 320. Brascassat, Ruined house; 355. E. Delacroix, Death of Charles the Bold (p. 147); 385. Fr. Gtrard, Portrait ; 403. Gros, Marshal Duroc. — 467. Monvoisin, Gilbert, the poet, in hospital; 450. Marchal, Hiring-fair in Alsace ; 455. Meixmoron, Landscape ; 454. Con- stance Mayer, Portrait ; 311. De Beaumont, The captain's part ; 523. Gopy of Vernet, Battle of Hanau (1813); 249. Van der Meulen, Army of Louis XIV. before Tournai; 499. Rouillard, Marshal Oudinot; 492. Prudhon, Head of Christ.

Room V. Early French School. To the right of the side-door: 315. Ch. Goypel, Holy Family ; 517. O. Vanloo, Silenus ; above, 428. Largilliere (?), Portrait; 421. Lafossep), Deluge. — 411. Jeaurat de Bertry, Still-life; 444. Lenain, Interior; 463. P. Mignard, Lady as St. Catharine; 426. Largilliere, Portrait; 356. Desporles, Game and fruit; 440. Lemoine, Moderation of Scipio; 466. Monnoyer, Flowers and still-life; 459. Vouet, Venus and Cupids; 475, 476. Octavien, Scenes galantes; 383. Claude Lorrain('!), Landscape. — 317. Boucher, Aurora and Cephalus ; 461. P. Mignard, Madonna ; 427. Largilliere, Portrait; 528. Vouet, Cupid's revenge ; above, Four small portraits attributed to Clouel; 513. De Troy, Diana resting; 518, 519. J. B. Van Loo, Louis XV. ; 323. Callot (?), Bearing of the Cross; 496. Restout, Boffrand, the architect (?) ; 425. Largilliere, Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate, Duchess of Orle'ans.

Room VI. To the right: 378. E. Frianl (of Nancy), Idyl; 470. A. Morol (of Nancy), Crucifixion ; 503. Sellier (of Nancy), Mary Magdalen ; 376. Frianl, The sculptor; 451. E. van Marcke, Fountain. — 522. H. Vernet, Marshal Drouot; 493. Rafaetti, Edmond de Goncourt ; 498. Rigolot, After harvest; 531. Ziegler, St. George and the dragon; 373. Eug. Feyen, Sea-piece; 313. Benouville, Landscape; 413. Jeanniot, Lac d'Annecy; 466. H. L. Livy, Jewish captives. — 358. Devilly, Death of Serg. Blandan (Algeria; 1842); above, 354. Daubigny , Landscape; 359. Diaz de la Pena, The glade; 500. Royer, Nymph; 469. Morot, Incident at the battle of Aquse Sextise (Aix in Provence; 102 B.C.); 408. Henner, Nun; 504. Sellier, Leander; 316. Copy of Bonnat, Thiers ; 322. Feyen-Perrin , Charon's bark ; 424. /. Larcher , Daphnis and Chloe. — 233. Zuber, Autumn evening ; 411. Isabey, Dieppe ; 482. Petitjean, Village-street in Lorraine ; 376. Francais, Ravine of the Puits-Noir.

Room VII, adjoining Boom I, contains chiefly works by the carica- turist Grandville (comp. p. 147).

Ground-Floor. — Sculptures, including casts from the antique and modern French works in marble and bronze.

The Cathedral (PL C, 4), behind the H6tel de Ville, beyond the Prefecture, was built in 1703-40 by J. H. Mansard, after the model of St. Andrea della Valle at Rome. The facade consists of a row of Corinthian columns , surmounted by a row of the Composite order, and is flanked by towers terminating in domes , supporting lofty lanterns. In the interior are a cupola painted by Jacquart, some

1 50 Route 20. NANCY. Porte Boyale.

fine iron-work, and various paintings and sculptures of no great merit. The treasury is rich.

The Rue St. Georges, in front of the cathedral, ends at the Porte St. Georges, of 1606. The Rue Bailly leads to the left before this gate to the Place d' Alliance, embellished with a fountain commemor- ating the alliance concluded in 1756 between Louis XV. and the Empress Maria Theresa. The Rue d' Alliance leads hence to the left to the Place Stanislas.

In the vicinity of the Place d' Alliance are the Ecole Foresliere (PI. D, 4), with an important Forestry Museum, and the interesting Botanic Garden. The latter, entered from the Rue Ste. Catherine, is open all day, and contains the bust of Crevaux (1847-82), the explorer.

The Porte Royale (PI. 0, 3), to the N. of the Place Stanislas, is the finest of the seven triumphal arches which decorate Nancy. It was erected in 1751 by Stanislaus in honour of Louis XV. , his son-in-law, of whom it bears a medallion, and consists of a triple gateway in the Corinthian style, embellished with statues of Ceres, Minerva, Mercury, and Mars, and bas-reliefs of Apollo. — To the left is a bronze Statue of Callot (see p. 147), with busts of Isaac Sylvestre and Ferd. de St. Vrbain (p. 147), by Eug. Laurent (1877). To the right is a Statue of Here (p. 147), by Jacquot.

Outside the arch lies the Place de la Carri'ere, named from the tournaments formerly held here. At the farther end is the Palais du Oouvemement (PI. C, 2), formerly the residence of the governors of the province, afterwards the prefecture, and now the headquarters of the xxth Corps d'Arme'e.

By the gateway on the right we enter the Pepiniere (PI. D, 2, 3), an attractive and umbrageous avenue, with another entrance in the N.E. corner of thePlace Stanislas, to the left of the fountain. A band plays here on Tues., Thurs., and Sun., at 8.30 p.m. in summer and 2.30 p.m. in winter. In 1892 a somewhat singular bronze statue by Rodin was erected hereto Claude Gellee [Claude Lorrain; 1610-82), the celebrated painter, on a curious stone pedestal. A little farther on is a monument to Grandville (p. 147), by E. Bussiere (1893).

A little to the W. of the Place de la Carriere rises the hand- some modern Gothic church of St. Epvre (PI. C, 3), designed by Morey, with a W. tower 285 ft. high, and a spire above the crossing. The interior, which is of very harmonious proportions, is elaborately decorated with fine stained glass and with mural paintings by Art. Sublet. The high-altar is embellished with a large polychrome altar-piece and statues, and the choir-stalls are artistically carved.

In front of the church is a small modern Equestrian Statue of Rene II., Duke of Lorraine (1473-1508), who defeated Charles the Bold at Nancy (p. 147), by M. Schiff.

In the Grande Rue, to the left of the Palais du Gouvernement, is the Palais Ducal (PI. C, 2). The handsome porch, between the oriel windows, dates from the early 16th cent, and is embellished

Franciscan Church. NANCY. 20. Route. 151

with a modern equestrian statue of Antoine de Lorraine (d. 1544), by Viard. It illustrates the latest form of domestic Gothic in France. Within is the Musee Lorrain, open to the public on Sun. and Thurs. 1-4, and to strangers at other times also (ring briskly).

Two rooms on the groundfloor are dedicated to the antiquities and to the sculptures and other objects dating from the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. — A small room, on the first floor, to the right, with a Renaissance chimney-piece, contains the couch of Antoine de Lorraine and the tapestry discovered in the tent of Charles the Bold after the battle of Nancy. The large adjoining hall contains portraits and other paintings (Feyen-Perrin, Finding of the body of Charles the Bold), ancient weapons, pottery, medals, etc. Near the fourth window on the side next the court are a Portrait and a Temptation, by Callot (Nos. 541 and 579), and an astronomical clock. In the centre, Model of one of the fountains in the Place Stanislas i locksmith's work; a series of engravings representing the funeral of Charles III. of Lorraine (1603). Then a collection of medals in glass-cases; MSS.; miniatures; mediteval religious vessels; gems, cameos, enamels, seals, etc.

The Franciscan Church {Eglise des Cordeliers; PL C, 2), ad- joining the ducal palace, was built by Rene II. in memory of his victory over Charles the Bold in 1477, and still belongs to the Emperor of Austria, the descendant of the dukes of Lorraine. It con- tains a few interesting monuments (bell to the left of the portal). On the left side of the church are monuments of Antoine de Vaudemont (d. 1447) and of Marie d'Harcourt (d. 1476), his wife ; Philippa of Oueldres, second wife of Rene II. (d. 1547), with a fine statue by Ligier Richier, representing the deceased in the costume of a nun ; Jacques Callot; Charles V., Duke of Lorraine; and Duke Leopold 1. The third monument on the right side of the church is the curious mausoleum of Rene II. (d.1508). The magnificent polychrome frame- work is antique, but the statues of the duke and the Madonna were renewed in 1825. Adjacent is the tomb of Charles of Lorraine, Cardinal de Vaudemont (d. 1687), with a statue byDrouin, a native of Nancy. To the left of the choir is the Chapelle Ronde, or ducal mortuary chapel, of the 17th cent., with seven black marble sarcophagi.

The Grande Rue, which traverses the 'old town', ends at the Porte de la Craffe (PL C, 2), an ancient gate of the citadel, of the 14-16th cent., with two round towers. Farther on is the similar Porte de la Citadelle (end of 16th cent.).

The Rue de la Craffe leads to the left to the Cours Leopold (PL B, 2, 3), a handsome tree-shaded square, 360 yds. long and 130 yds. wide, at the N. end of which is the Porte Desilles, Ionic on the inside, Doric on the outside, built in 1785 in honour of the birth of the Dauphin , son of Louis XVI., and the alliance with the United States of America. The present name commemorates the devotion of a military officer, killed in 1790 by the mutinous soldiery (comp. p. 147). — To the N. is the handsome modern Gothic church of St. Vincent et St. Fiacre (PL B, 1). — In the centre of the Cours Leopold stands a bronze *Statue of Marshal Drouot (p. 147), by David d' Angers. — The Place Carnot (PI. B, 3) is embellished with

1 52 Route 20. NANCY.

a Monument to President Carnot. To the right is the University, which possesses the four faculties of law, medicine, science, and literature. The architect of the modern buildings was Morey, the designer of St. Epvre. The Natural History Museum of this institution is open to the public in summer (April-Sept.) on Sun. and Thurs., 1 to 4.

A little to the E. of the Academy is the small Place Lafayette (PI. C, 3), with an equestrian statue of Joan of Arc, by Fremiet.

The long Rue St. Dizier (PL C, 4, 5; tramway) traverses the entire S.E. half of the town. About halfway down , somewhat to the right, is the church of St. Sebastian (17th cent. ; PI. B, 4), with the monument of G-irardet, the painter (1709-78). Farther on, the Rue Charles III leads to the left from the Rue St. Dizier to the modern church of St. Nicholas (PI. C, 5), which contains several paintings by early artists of Nancy. At the end of the Rue St. Dizier is the double Porte St. Nicolas, built in the 17th cent. , but altered and added to in modern times.

The Rue de Strasbourg, traversing the suburb of St. Pierre be- yond this gate, passes the Hospital, the Seminary, and the modern church of St. Peter (PL 0, 7), in a style less elaborate but bolder and more striking than that of St. Epvre.

Farther on is the Eglise de Bonsecours, situated about IV4M. to the S. of the Rue Stanislas, a church of the 18th cent., frequented by pilgrims, and containing the handsome mausolea of King Sta- nislaus and his wife.

The W. suburb of St. Jean, not far from the railway-station, is built on the site of the marsh where the hody of Charles the Bold was found after the Battle of Nancy (see p. 147). The modest Croix de Bowgogne marks the exact spot.

The church of St. Lion (PI. A, 4), a handsome modern Gothic edifice, a little to theW., beyond the station, is dedicated to Pope Leo IX., once Bishop of Toul, who was horn at Dabo in Lorraine.

Among other pleasant points near Nancy are Bellefontaine (carr. there and back in 3 hrs.) and Maron (drive there and back, 3'/2 hrs.).

Feom Nanct to Chateao-Salins (Vic; Saargemiind), 24 M., railway in li/s-2 hrs. (fares 4 fr. 30, 2 fr. 90, 1 fr. 95 c). We follow the line to Paris as far as (3 M.) C/iampigneulles (p. 146), where we turn to the right and cross the Meurthe. — 17'/2 M. Moncel (Buffet) is the frontier-station, with the French custom-house. 20 M. Chambrey, with the German custom-house. From (21 31.) Burthicourl, on the Seille, a branch-line runs to (21/2 M.) Vie-sur- Seille, a small town with the ruins of an old castle and some disused salt-works. 24 M. Chdteau-Salins also has some abandoned salt-works, from which it derives its name. — Continuation of the railway to Dieuze (p. 325) and Saargemiind, see Baedeker's Rhine.

From Nancy to Metz, see R. 16 and p. 146; to Dijon, see B. 41; to Spinal, see R. 40 e ; to Strassburg, see R. 44.


21. From Paris to Cherbourg 155

From Evreux to Louviers; to Verneuil; to Dreux; to Glos-Montfort and Honfleur, 156. — From Conches to Laigle. From Serquigny to Rouen. From Bernay to Ste. Gauburge, 157. — From Lisieux to La Trinite-de-Re- ville. Abbey of Val Richer. From Le Mesnil-Mauger to Ste. Gauburge. From Me/idon to Trouville, 15:1 — Asnelles-, Arroinanches ; Port-en-Bessin. From Lison to Coutances via St. Lo. From Neuilly to Isigny. From Carentan to Carteret (Jersey), 161. — From Valognes to Barflear, 162. — Environs of Cherbourg, 166.

22. Caen 166

From Caen to Dives-Cabourg; to Vire, 172.

23. Watering-Places in Calvados 172

a. Trouville -Deauville, Villers-sur-Mer, Beuzeval-

Houlgate, and Cabourg 172

From Pont -l'Eveque to Honfleur, 172. — Villerville. Chateau d'Hebertot, 175. — From Dives-Cabourg to Benouville, 176. 1). Luc-sur-Mer (Lion), Langrune, St-Aubin-sur-Mer,

and Courseulles 176

I. From Caen to Luc-sur-Mer direct 176

II. From Caen to Luc-sur-Mer via. Ouistreham . . 177 III. From Luc-sur-Mer to Langrune, St-Aubin-sur- Mer, and Courseulles 178

24. From Cherbourg to Brest 178

'25. From Paris to Granville 179

From Dreux toMaintenon. FromVerneuil toLaLoupe. From Laigle to Connerrg, 184. — From Ste. Gauburge to Mortagne. La Trappe, 185. — From Briouze to Cou- terne. From Montsecret to Sourdeval, 186. — From Vire to Mortain, 187. — From Granville to Avranches ; Mont St. Michel ; to the Channel Islands, 188.

26. From Caen to Le Mans via. Alencon. Falaise .... 189

From La Hutte-Coulombiers to Mamers; to Sillc-le- Guillaume, 192.

27. From Caen to Laval via Domfront and Mayenne . . 192

From Berjou-Cahan to Falaise, 192. — From Mayenne to Pre-en-Pail; to La Selle-en-Luitre (Fougeres), 194.

28. From Paris to Rennes (Brest) 194

I. From Paris to Chartres 194

From Chartres to Saumur, 198.

II. From Chartres to Le Mans 199

From Cond^ to Domfront, 199. — From Nogent-le- Rotrou to Orleans, 199. — From Connerre to Mamers and to St. Calais, 199. — From Le Mans to La Chartre; to St. Denis-d'Orques, 203 — From Le Mans to Tours, 204.

III. From Le Mans to Rennes 204

From Sille'-le-Guillaume to La Hutte-Coulombiers 5 to Sable". From Evron to Jublains; to Ste. Suzanne, 204.


— From Laval to Gennes-Longuefuye; to Chateau- briant, 208. — From Vitre to Pontorson (Mont St. Michel), 207. — From Vitre' to Martign^-Ferchaud, 20S. — From Rennes to Redon, 212.

29. From Rennes (Paris) to Brest 212

From La Brohiniere to Ploermel, 213. — From Lamballe to Val Andre, Erquy, Montcontour, 213. — From St. Brieuc to Binie, Portrieux, and St. Quay, to Auray, 214. — From Guingamp to Carhaix and Rosporden ; Paimpol, 215; to Tr(5guier, 216. — From Plouaret to Lannion; Perros-Guirec, 216. — From Plounerin to Plestin; Locqnirec, 216. — From Morlaix to Roscoff; to Carhaix; to St-Jean-du-Doigt, 217. — Bodilis. Lam- bader, 208. — La Martyre. Le Folgoet. Plougastel, 218. — Excursions from Brest, 221. — From Brest to Morgat; to Landevennec; to Ploudalme'zeau; to Lan- nilis, 221.

30. From Rennes to St. Malo. Excursions from St. Malo.

Mont St. Michel. Dinan 222

a. From Rennes to St. Malo 222

Marais de Dol, 222.

b. Environs of St. Malo 225

St. Servan. Parame, 225. — Dinard. St. Enogat. St. Lunaire St. Briac, 226.

c. Excursions from St. Malo 226

To Cancale, 226. — To Mont St. Michel, 227. — To Dinan, 2^9. — From Dinan to Dinard, 232.

31. From Paris to Nantes 232

a. Via. Le Mans and Angers 232

From La Su/e to Saumur via La Fleche, 232. — From Sable to Solesmes, 2o2; to La Fleche, 233. — Champto- ceaux, 234.

b. Via Sable' and Segre' (St. Nazaire, Lorient, Quimper) 2d4

From Segre to St. Nazaire, 234-

c. Via Orleans and Tours 235

From Saumur to Fontevrault, 237. — From Les Ro- siers to Gennes, 237.

32. Angers 238

From Angers toPonts-de-Ce ; to La Fleche ; to Segre', 244.

33. Nantes 245

From Nantes toChateaubriant; toPaimboeuf; toPornic; to St. Nazaire, Le Croisic, and Guerande, 252, 253.

34. From Nantes to Brest 253

I. From Nantes to Vannes and Auray 253

From Questembert to Ploermel and to La Brohiniere. Josselin, 254. — The Morbihan. From Vannes to Sar- zeau , 255. — From Auray to Quiberon , Plouharnel, Carnac, and Locmariaquer, 256.

II. From Auray to Lorient and Quimper 268

Port Louis. He de Groix, 259. — From Quimperle to Pont Aven; St. Fiacre; LeFaouet. From Rosporden to Concarneau, 260. — From Quimper to Pont-rAbbe" and Penmarch ; to Douarnenez and Audierne, etc., 261. III. From Quimper to Brest 262

EVREUX. 21. Route. 155

35. From Paris to Tours 262

a. Via Orleans and Blois 262

I. From Paris to Orleans 262

From St. Michel to Montlhe'ry, 263.

II. From Orleans to Tours 265

Chateau de Chaumont, 26o.

b. Via Vendome 267

36. Orle'ans 270

From Orleans to Montargis; to Gien, 274.

37. Blois 275

From Blois to Chambord, 277. — From Blois to Beaure- gard and Cheverny; toPont-de-Braye; to Villefranche- sur-Cher via. Romorantin; to Lamotte-Beuvron via Braeieux (Chambord), 278.

38. Tours 279

Plessis-les-Tours, 283. — Excursions from Tours : Che- nonceaux, 283; Chinon, 284; Loches, 285. — From Tours to Vierzon (Bourges), 287. — From Tours to Chateau- roux, 288.

21. From Paris to Cherbourg.

231 M. Chemin de Fee de i/Ouest, Rive Dkoite (Gare St. Lazare; PI. C, 18), in 81/s-ll hrs. (fares 41 fr. 55, 28 fr. 5, 18 fr. 30 c). See also Map, p. 100.

From Paris to (36 M.) Mantes (Rail. Restaurant) , see R. 4. — 44 M. Breval. — 50 M. Bueil is also a station on the line from Rouen to Orleans via Elbeuf, Dreux, and Ohartres (p. 59).

Beyond Bueil we cross the Eure. 57 M. Boisset (Eure). Beyond two tunnels we have a good view of Evreux to the right.

67 M. Evreux. — Railway Stations. Gare de VOuest (Buffet) , the chief station, to the S. of the town; Gare de Louviers, for Elbeuf, Rouen, etc., about 3/i M. to the E.

Hotels. Cheval Blanc, Rue de la Harpe 44 ; Grand Cekf, Rue de la Harpe 14, R., L., & A. 3'/2-6, B. 1, dej. 2'/2, D. 3 fr. inel. cider, omn. 40-50 c. ; Rochee de Cancale, Grande Rue 35, pens. 7'/a fr. incl. wine. — Cafes in the Grande Rue.

Evreux, on the Iton, is the chief town of the Departement de VEure and the seat of a bishop. Pop. 16,932.

Evreux is a place of considerable antiquity, though the Mediolamtm Aulercolum of the Romans is represented by the village of Vieil- Evreux, 4V2 M. to the S.E , where various Roman remains have been found. This Roman settlement was destroyed by the Franks under Clovis, and the town which succeeded was overthrown by the Norsemen at the end of the 9th century. Henry I. of England burnt Evreux, with the consent of the bishop, on condition of rebuilding the churches; and at the close of the 12th cent, it was once more given to the flames, on this occasion by Philip Augustus. The town gives name to the English family of Devereux.

The Cathedral, not far from the station, is a building of great inter- est, though it confuses all styles of architecture in vogue from the 11th to the 18th cent., and is, unfortunately, not quite detached from other buildings. The main portal, which has two towers of unequal height, dates from the close of the Renaissance period ; but the most inter-

156 Route 21. EVREUX. From Paris

esting feature of the exterior is the Flamboyant N. portal, built in 1511-31. The crossing is surmounted by a handsome Gothic tower, with an open-work spire. The effect produced by the interior (restored 1875-96) is very imposing. The lower portion of the nave, which is remarkably narrow (21 ft.), is Romanesque, the remainder Gothic, of the 13-1 6th centuries. The chapels of the choir and ambulatory are closed with beautiful Renaissance screens of carved wood, and the stalls and delicate,iron-work in the choir and treasury (to the S.) date from the 15th cent.; but the chief glory of the interior is the, "Stained Glass in the large Lady Chapel and the transepts, dating from the 15th and 16th cent, respectively. The rose- window of the S. transept is a fine example of flowing tracery, with the peculiarity of having all the mullions of the same thickness.

The cathedral is adjoined by some remains of Gothic Cloisters, with a small Musee Epigraphique , and by the Bishop's Palace. To the N. is the Tour de VBorloge, a belfry of the 15th century.

The Musee (adm. daily, 10-4, 50 c. ; Sun & Thurs. free), at the corner of the Rue de l'Horloge and the Place de l'H6tel-de-Ville, contains statues and other antiquities chiefly from Vieil-Evreux (p. 156), some modern French pictures, and mediaeval relics. — In front of the handsome Hotel de Ville (1890-95) is a fountain bearing allegorical figures by Decorchemont.

In the extreme W. of the town is the former abbey-church of St. Taurin, a Romanesque edifice of the 11th cent., with a few Gothic additions of later date. It contains a crypt, some antique stained glass, and some good modern wood-carving. On the way thither we pass the Palais de Justice , comprising an ancient Renaissance church, now used as a law-court.

A branch-railway runs from Evreux (Gare de Louviers, p. 155) to (16 M.) Louviers (p. 59), following the valley of the Hon. — Branch-linea run from the Gare de l'Ouest to (33V2 M.) Verneitil (p. 184) via Prey, Dam- ville, Condi-Oouville, and Breteuil; and to (26Yz 31.) Dreux (p. 182) via Prey, St. Andri '-de-VEure, and St. Georges-sur-Eure.

FkomEvkeux to Honflede, 57V2M., in 4-5Vjhrs. — I5V2M. LeNeubourg, a small town with the ruins of a castle and a bronze statue otDupont de I'Eure (1767-1855) , the politician , by Decorchemont. 25Vz M. St-Martin-Brionne. Bronue, see p. 157. — 26 31. Le Bec-ffelloitin, with the scanty remains of the Abbey of Bee, of which Lanfranc and Anselm, the first two archbishops of Canterbury after the Norman Conquest, were inmates before their ele- vation. — 29'/2 M. Glos-Montfort (Buffet); to Serquigny and Rouen, see p. 157. — The line now descends the valley of the Risle. — 39'/2 M. Pont- Audemer (Lion, d'Or), a picturesquely situated industrial village of 6000 inhab., on the Risle. The church of St. Ouen, the chief building, dates from the 11th, 15th, and 16th cent, and contains some good stained glass and some curious wood-carvings. A steamboat plies daily on the Risle from Pont-Aude- mer to (12 M.) Le Havre, in 2'/2 hrs. (fare 2>/2 fr.). Diligence (l'/2 fr.) twice daily to (10 M.) Quilleboeuf. — 5OV2 M. Quetteville (p. 172). — 571/2 M. Eon- fleur, see p. 172.

Beyond Evreux the train traverses a grazing district. Tunnel. Near (7272 M.) La Bonneville is the ruined Abbaye de la Noe, found- ed in 1144 by Matilda, daughter of Henry I. of England and wife of the Emperor Henry II. — Tunnel.

to Cherbourg. BERN AY. 21. Route. 157

78 M. Conches (Buffet; Croix Blanche), near which is a ruined castle (12th cent.). The church of Ste. Foy (15th cent.) has 27 fines tained-glass *Windows (16th cent.), of which 7 in the choir were designed by Aldegrever. The vaulting of the choir and aisles, two reliefs in the chapels, and the elegant spire (rebuilt) should also be noticed.

A branch-line runs hence to (23>/2 M.) Laigle (p. 184), via (17 M.) Buglet >(H6t. de 1'EtOile), which contains two interesting old churches.

At (88 M.) Beaumont-le-Roger (Hot. de Paris) are a ruined abbey (12-13th cent.) and an interesting church (14-15th cent.) — The church of (92 M.) Serquigny (Buffet) is adorned with a fine portal of the 11th century.

From Serquigny to Rouen, 45>/2 M., in ltys-S1/* hrs. (fares 8 fr. 20 5 fr. 50, 3 fr. 60 c). The line follows the attractive valley of the Eisle. — 7 M. Brionne (Hot. de France), an industrial town (3520 inhab.) of some historical importance, with a castle of the 12th century. — 12 M. Olos- Montforl (Buffet); to Evreux and Honfleur, see p. 156. Our line hence runs to the E. via (21 M.) Bourgtheroulde, (31 M.) Elbeuf (St. Aubin; p. 59), where we cross the Seine, (35V2 M.) Tourville, and (37 M.) Oissel (p. 42). — 45'/2 M. Rouen (Rive Droite), see p. 48.

98^2 M. Bernay (Lion d'Or; Cheval Blanc; Normandie), a com- mercial and industrial town with 8000 inhab., is situated on the left bank of the Charentonne. The church of Ste. Croix (14-15th cent.) has an elegant tower and contains a fine high-altar of red marble, dating from 1683-84, and some curious sculptures, including an In- fant Jesus, on the tabernacle of the altar, ascribed to P. Puget. Re- mains of the Abbey, round which the town grew up in the 11th cent, and of the Abbey Church are still extant, the former occupied by the Sous-Prefecture, the Hotel de Ville, and other public offices, the latter serving as a market. The horse-fair of Bernay, held in the 5th week of Lent, is the most important in France. On a hill outside of the town, to the left of the railway, stands the handsome church of Notre-Dame-de-la-Couture, built in the 14-16th centuries.

A branch-railway runs from Bernay to (33 M.) Ste. Gauourge, follow- ing at first the valley of the Charentonne. At (10 M.) La TriniU-de-Riville it is joined by the line from Lisieux (see below), and at (29 M.) Echauffour merges in the railway from Le Mesnil-Mauger to Ste. Gauburge (p. 158).

11872 M. Lisieux (Buffet; Hotel de France; *de Normandie; d,Espagne), the ancient capital of the Lexovii and formerly the seat of a bishop, is a prosperous industrial and commercial town, with 16,350 inhab., situated on the Touques. The leading industry is the manufacture of woollen cloth and flannel. Lisieux still pos- sesses many quaint old houses of the 14-16th centuries.

The imposing Cathedral of St. Pierre lies about 1/i M. to the left of the station, closely adjoined by the former episcopal palace and other buildings. The greater part of the church dates from the 12-13th cent., but the S. tower, the only one with a spire, was re- built in the 16-I7th centuries. The transept is surmounted by a lantern-tower. The facade is simple and severe , but the S. side is ■embellished with a striking portal , which Mr. Ruskin calls 'one of

158 Route 21. LISIEUX. From Paris

the most quaint and interesting doors in Normandy', the work of which is 'altogether rude, hut full of spirit'. The nave, the most ancient portion, was huilt at a single epoch and by a single archi- tect, and is distinguished in consequence by the harmony of its style and proportions. The various chapels were added at various dates. The Lady Chapel was erected in the 15th cent., by Pierre Oauchon, Bishop of Beauvais, one of Joan of Arc's judges, in expiation of his condemnation of that heroine. It contains an elaborate modern altar; and there is another modern altar, in silver repousse-work, in the third side-chapel to the right. The pulpit, the choir-stalls (in the style of the 14th cent.), and six large paintings by Lemonnier, pupil of Vien, in the chapels of the nave, representing scenes from the lives of SS. Peter and Paul, are also noteworthy. Henry II. of Eng- land married Eleanor of Guienne in this cathedral in 1154.

The Episcopal Palace, built in the 17-18th cent., is now used as a court-house , and contains the small Musee. Behind it is a pretty Public Garden. The Musee (open on Thurs. and Sun., 1-4; on other days on application) contains chiefly modern French pictures.

The church of St. Jacques (15th cent.), a little to the S., contains some good stained glass and some ancient paintings and wood-carv- ing, but the only interesting feature of the exterior is the balustrade which runs all round it.

From Lisieux to Tvouville and Honfleur, see pp. 172, 173. — A branch-line runs to (20 M.) La TriniU-de-Riville (p. 157), via (5 SI.) St. Pierre-de-Mailloc, near the ancient Chdteau de Mailloc (visitors admitted), and (12 M.) Orbee (Hot. de France; de l'Equerre), a small town with an interesting church.

At St. Ouen-le-JHn, 7 M. to the W. of Lisieux, is the ancient Abbey of Val Richer, of which Thomas a Becket was for a time abbot. It was transformed into a chateau by Guizot, who died here in 1874.

Beyond Lisieux we pass through a tunnel, 1% M. long, and reach (130 M.) Le Mesnil-Mauger.

A branch-railway runs hence to (39 M.) Ste. Gaubtirge (p. 157), via (15 M.) Vimoutiers (Soleil d'Or), a small town 3 M. to the N. of Camembert, a village noted for its cheese, and (35'/2 M.) Echauffow (see p. 157).

We now cross the Dives. — 134 M. Mezidon (Buffet; Hot. de l'Europe, Ste. Barbe). Railway to Argentan, etc., see p. 189.

From Mezidon to Tkouville, via Cabourg, Beuzeval-Houlgate, and Villers-sur-Mer, 31'/2 M., railway in 2% hrs. (fares 5 fr. 60, 3 fr. 80, 2 fr. 45 c). The train descends the ValUe d'Auge, which is watered by the Dives and noted for its pastures. — 8 M. Hottot, with an interesting church of the 15th cent. ; 9'/2 M. Beuvron. — At (12'/2 M.) DozuU-Putot a line diverges to Caen (p. 172). — 17y2 M. Cabourg. Thence to (31V2 M.) Trouville, see pp. 176-173.

140 M. Moult- Argences. A column at the neighbouring village of Vimont commemorates the battle of Val-'es-Dunes (1047), in which Duke William (William the Conqueror), aided by Henry of France, defeated his rebellious barons. — 144 M. Frenouville-Cagny. Then to the right appears the picturesque town of —

149 M. Caen (p. 166).

A little beyond Caen the railway crosses the Orne. Fine retro-

to Cherbourg. BAYEUX. 21. Route. 159

spect of the town. To the right diverges the branch to the coast railway (p. 177), to the left the railway to Laval. Farther on, to the right, is La Maladrerie (p. 177), with a prison. — 153 M. Carpi- quet. To the right and left rise the picturesque towers of Brette- ville and Norrey. 157 M. Bretteville-Norrey; 163 M. Audrieu, to the left, with a fine church of the 13-14th centuries.

167 M. Bayeux {Hotel du Luxembourg , Rue des Bouchers 25, B. ll/4, D. 3 ft. ; Orand Hotel, Rue St. Jean 46; both at a distance from the station), a town of 7900 inhab. and the seat of a bishop, is situated to the Tight of the railway.

The site of the town was occupied by the capital of the Baiocassi, called by the Romans Augusiodurum. Ausonius, the poet, mentions it under the name of Baiocassis in the 4th century. Subsequently the town became the capital of the Bessin. In the wars with England it was taken by Edward III. in 1346, by Henry V. in 1417, and by Dunois in 1450, after the battle of Formigny.

The *Cathbueai, or Notre-Dame, about V2 M- from the station, from which it is visible, is a striking Gothic edifice of the 12-15th cent., built on the site of an earlier church founded in the 11th cent, by Bishop Odo of Bayeux, half-brother of William the Conqueror. The two Romanesque towers of the W. facade are surmounted by Gothic spires ; the Flamboyant E. tower has a modern dome. The chevet, with its graceful turrets, is one of the most beautiful examples of the early-Gothic style in France. The lateral portals are also note- worthy features of the exterior, which is still elaborately decorated, though many of the sculptures have been mutilated.

The Interior produces an equally dignified impression. The Roman- esque arcades of the nave belonged to a church of the 12th cent. ; the span- drels of the lower arches are covered with rich diapering. The exceed- ingly graceful pointed arches of the apse, constructed in the 13th cent., are among the chief beauties of the church; while, on the other hand, the windows of tbis part of the building fail of effect on account of their small size. The windows of the transepts and above the organ-loft are, however, large and fine. There are 22 chapels in the cathedral, and a large crypt, under the choir, dating from the 8-llth centuries. The first chapel to the left contains a magnificent altar-piece in stone; and the stalls and four sedilia in the choir should be examined.

The Rue de la Maitrise, beginning opposite the principal portal, leads to the handsome Place du Chateau or Place du St. Sauveur, in which (to the right) is the Public Library, containing a small Musee (shown on application). In the latter is preserved the famous

  • Bayeux Tapestry, which is conveniently exposed to view, under

glass, in the second room.

This famous Tapestry consists of a strip of linen cloth, now somewhat brown with age, 230 ft. long and 18 inches wide, embroidered in coloured woollen thread with scenes illustrating the events which led to the con- quest of England by William in 1066. Most of the scenes are explained by Latin inscriptions, the letters of which, about an inch long, are also stitch- ed in wool. The main subjects occupy the centre of the tapestry, and above and below run ornamental borders, filled with scenes from jEsop's Fables, sarming and sporting scenes, fabulous animals of the most grotesque de- ccription, and (towards the end) the bodies of the slain at Hastings. Eight folours appear in the worsted used, but there is little attempt to distribute

160 BouteZl. BAYEUX. From Paris

these according to verisimilitude. The flesh-parts of the figures are merely outlined; the English are uniformly depicted with moustaches and the Normans without; and there is an evident effort made to retain a general resemblance in the recurring figures of William and Harold.

The origin of this interesting work has given rise to much contro- versy. A favourite opinion ascribes it to Matilda, wife of the Conqueror, and tradition has it that it was her death alone that prevented the final scene of William's coronation appearing on the tapestry. Though possibly not by Matilda, the work is undoubtedly a contemporary work of Wil- liam's reign ; so that its importance as a historical document far outweighs its interest as a specimen of the domestic art of the 11th century. It is mentioned in an inventory of goods belonging to Bayeux cathedral in 1476; but general attention was not drawn to it until 1724, when it was locally known as the 'Toilette du Due Guillaume'. In 1803 Napoleon I. exhibited it at the Louvre in Paris in order to incite the French to another conquest of England; but it was afterwards restored to Bayeux. — The first of the 58 scenes is in the middle of the left side of the room: —

1. Edward the Confessor despatches Harold to announce to William that he will one day be king of England. 2. Harold sets out. 3. Church. 4. Harold at sea. 5. Harold driven by a storm to Ponthieu. 6. Harold prepares to land. 7. Guy, Count of Ponthieu, arrests Harold. 8. Guy and Harold ride to Beaurin. 9. Interview between Guy and Harold. 10. Mes- sengers from William arrive to request the release of Harold. 11. They threaten Guv. 12. William receives a messenger. 13. William receives Harold at Eu. 14. William takes Harold to Rouen. 15. A priest and Elgiva, daughter of William. 16. William and his army, accompanied by Harold, reach Mont St. Michel, on a campaign against Conan, Duke of Brittany. 17. They cross the river Couesnon; Harold rescues several Nor- mans from the quicksands. 18. Conan put to flight at Dol. 19. William attacks Dinan. 20. Conan surrenders the keys of the town on the point of a lance. 21. William knights Harold. 22. They return to Bayeux (Bagias). 23. Where Harold takes the oath. 24. Harold returns to England. 25. And reports to Edward the result of his embassy. 26. Funeral of Edward at St. Peter's Church (Westminster Abbey). This scene seems out of order, as Edward lies on his death-bed in No. 27, and dies in No. 28. 29. The crown is offered to Harold. 30. Harold is crowned by Stigand. 81. The people pay homage. 32. Portentous appearance of the comet of 1066. 33. Harold arms himself. 34. English ship on the Norman coast. 35. William orders a fleet to be built. 36. His ships are launched. 37. The fleet is armed and provisioned. 38. William sets sail and arrives at Pevensey. 39. The horses are landed. 40. The Normans march towards Hastings. 41. Wadar, whose name appears in Domesday as a vassal of Odo, William's brother, acts as commissariat-officer. 42. The viands are prepared. 43. Banquet of William. 44. William, Odo of Bayeux, and Robert of Mortain take council. 45. The camp is fortified. 46. William is informed of Harold's approach. 47. A house is burned. 48. The Normans advance. 49. William questions Vital, the scout. 50. William's advance is announced to Harold. 51. William harangues his troops and the battle begins. 52. Death of Leofwine and Gyrth, Harold's brothers. 53. The thick of the fight. 54. Odo encourages the Normans. 55. William raises his visor to show his men that he is not dead as reported. 56. Harold's army is cut to pieces. 57. Death of Harold. 58. Flight of the English. — Reproductions of the tapestry (5 fr.) are best obtained at Tostain's, in the town.

The entrance-hall, as well as that in which the tapestry is shown, contains a few interesting pictures, including two Madonnas and a Cleo- patra of the Italian School, the sage and the three youths, by Goessin, etc.

The Hotel de Ville adjoins the Cathedral. In the garden is a marble statue, by Harivel Durocher, of A. de Caumont (1802-73), the archaeologist, who was horn at Bayeux. — Bayeux still retains many quaint old houses which will delight the antiquarian.

to Cherbourg. ST. iA 21. Route. 161

Omnibuses ply in summer from Bayeux to the small sea-bathing places of Asnelles (8V2 M.; Hotel du Repos; Belle-Plage), Arromanches (7'/2 M-> Hot. du Chemin de Fer), and Port-en- Bessin (6 M. ; Hot. de l'Europe). — To Courseulles, see p. 178.

184 M. Lison (Buffet; H6tel de la Gare).

From LisoN to Coutances (Granville, Avranches, etc.), 29'/2 M., rail- way in l'/2-23A hrs. (fares 5 fr. 40, 3 fr. 65, 2 fr. 35 c). The train enters the valley of the Vire, and ascends it to St. L6. Views to the right.

12 M. St. L6 (H6t. de VUnivers, &£i. 2lfc, D. 3fr.; de Normandie; Cen- tral), a very ancient place, with 11,120 inhab., and the chief town of the department of the Manche, is picturesquely situated on a slope on the right bank of the Vire. It derives its name from St. Laudus, one of its early bishops. The town was fortified by Charlemagne, and was taken several times by the Normans and English. The stained glass in the cathedral was presented by Louis XI., in memory of a successful repulse of the Bretons by the town in 1467. The chief object of interest is the Church of Notre-Bame, formerly the cathedral, built in the 14th and restored in the 17th century. It has two handsome towers; and outside the choir is a fine Gothic stone pulpit. The BSlel de Ville (a modern structure), the Palais de Justice, and the Prefecture are situated in a square near the cathedral. In the vestibule of the first, to the right, is the 'Torigni Marble', an antique pedestal with an important inscription. — In the Eue Havin is a fine monument of J. L. Havin, (1799-1868), the politician, by Leduc. The Mus&e (adm. on Sun., 12-3, on Thurs., 1-4) contains paintings of no great value (one by Jordaens), various works of art (triptych with five large enamels), antiquities, medals, etc. A hall on the first floor con- tains a Natural History Collection; and in a room below are nine old pieces of tapestry and some sculptures.

From St. Lo to Coutances the railway traverses an undulating district. Views to the left. — 29'/i M. Coutances, see p. 179.

To the left flows the Elle, an affluent of the Vire. — 187'/2 M. l^euilly.

Branch-railway to (5 M.) Isigny (H6t. du Commerce; de France), with 2800 inhab. and a small harbour which exports large quantities of butter to England. — A steam-tramway (1 fr. 30 c, 1 fr., 65 c.) plies from Isigny to (6 M.) Orandcamp (Croix Blanche; de la Plage), which has a fine beach.

Crossing the Vire, we now enter the Cotentin, a flat and marshy region, famous for its cattle. The name is said to he a corruption of Ager Constantinus. Many of the followers of William the Con- queror came from this part of Normandy ; and some of the most illustrious names among the English aristocracy are derived from those of humhle villages in the Cotentin. The hedges here give quite an English aspect to the country.

195 M. Carentan (Hdt. d' Angleterre ; du Commerce), to theright, a town with 3740 inhab. and a small harbour on the canalized Taute, exporting vegetables and dairy-produce to England. The church dates from the 15th century.

Fkom Carentan to Cakteket (Jersey), 26V2 M., railway in lt/3-l2/3 hrs. (fares 4 fr. 80, 3 fr. 25, 2 fr. 10 c). — 14 M. La Haye-du-Puits, junction for the Cherbourg and Brest line (p. 179). 21 M. Portbail (Des Voyageurs ; du Nord), a small seaport, whence a service of steamers formerly plied to Corey (see below). — 26V2 M. Carteret (H6t. de la Mer, pens. 71/2-9 fr. ;

  • a" Angleterre ; du Commerce), a thriving bathing-place and seaport, with

a daily service of steamers in summer to (IV2 hr.) Oorey on the island of Jersey (fares 6 fr. 85, 4 fr. 35 c, return-tickets 10 fr., 6 fr. 25 c).

From the station j)f (208 M.) Monlebourg a branch-line runs to

Baedeker's Noriliaiii_E»'>i<"i ^

162 Route 21. CHERBOURG. Hotels.

the town of the same name, 2l/% M. to the S.E., and to (2'/2 M. farther on) the railway from Valognes to Barflenr (see below).

213 M. Valognes (H6tel du Louvre), a small decayed town with 6000 inhab. and a church, part of which dates from the 15th century.

From Valognes to Baefleuk, 22!/2 M., railway in l3/4-2hra. (fares 3 fr. 70, 2 fr. 80 , 2 fr. 5 c). This line has a special station near the main-line station. — 5V2 M. St-Martin-d'Audouville-Vaudreville. Branch to Monte- bourg, see above. — 8>/2 M. Lestre-Quiniville. At Quiniville (Hotel), a sea-bathing place with a good beach, is a curious hollow stone mon- ument, 27 ft. high, known as La Grande Chemine'e, but of doubtful origin and use. King James II. of England watched the battle of La Hogue (see below) from the neighbourhood of Quine'ville. — 15 M. St -Vaast-la- Hougue (Hdtel de France ; de Normandie), a sea-bathing town with 2590 in- habitants. The harbour is defended hy forts on the lie Tatihou, to the N., and on the He de la Hogue or La Hougve, to the S. La Hogue is famous for the defeat of the French admiral De Tourville by the united English and Dutch fleets, under Russell and Rooke, which took place off the coast in May, 1692. Twelve French ships which were beached at La Hogue by the admiral to save them from the enemy, were attacked and burned by boating-parties the next day.

22'/2 M. Barfleur (Hotel du P/iare) is a small seaport and sea-bathing resort, which was of considerable importance in the middle ages as a port of communication between Normandy and England. In 1120 Prince Wil- liam, only son of Henry I., with 140 young noblemen of the English court, set sail here in the ill-fated 'White Ship', which struck on one of the rocks outside the harbour and went down with all on board, except a poor butcher of Rouen. The Pointe de Barfleur or Raz de Oatteville, 21/t M. to the N., the E. extremity of the peninsula of the Cotentin, is marked by a light- house, nearly 245 ft. high. — A public conveyance (2 fr. 10 c.) plies twice daily (6 a.m. ; 2.30 p.m.) in 3 hrs. from Barfleur to (17 M.) Cherbourg.

219 M. Sottevast, to the left, has a chateau of the 17th century. Branch to Coutances, etc., see p. 179. — 223 M. Couville. Beyond a hilly tract lies (226 M.) Martinvast, with a chateau and stud-farm belonging to Baron Schickler. Near Cherbourg we pass through a short tunnel. To the right is the Montague du Route (p. 166).

231 M. Cherbourg. —Hotels. De l'Amieaute et de l'Eueope (PI. a; E, 4), Quai Alexandre III 16; de l'Aigle et d'Angleteeee (PI. b; E, 4), Place Bricqueville, R., L., & A. 3-6, B. 1, dej. 2'/2, D. 3fr. incl. cider, pens. tS'/s-lO, 0mn. 1/2 fr- i de France et du Commeeoe (PI. c; E, 4), Rue du Bassin, pens. 8 fr. ; Etoile (PI. e; D, 4), Rue Gambetta 7; du Locvbe (PI. f ; D, 3), Rue de la Paix 30. — Hotel des Bains de Mee (PI. d; E, 3), beyond the Avant-Port du Commerce, open only in the bathing-season, R. 4-7, dej. 4, D. 5, pens. 12-15 fr.

Cafes. Du Grand-Balcon , de Paris, Quai de Caligny; de V Amirauti, de r Europe, Quai Alexandre III; du Thidtre, Place du Chateau.

Cabs. Per drive l>/2, per hr. 2 fr. — Careiages for excursions at FaisanCs, Rue du Bassin 51.

Tramways. From the Place du Chateau (PI. E, 4) to Tourlaville (PI. G, 3; p. 166); and to Bqueurdreville and Querqueville (comp. PI. A, 3, 4; p. 166). Fares 10 c. within the town, 10 c. per section outside the town, 15 c. for two sections, 25 and 35 c. all the way. — Omnibus to Barfleur (see above), twice daily; to Landemer and to Omonville, see p. 166.

Boats for expeditions within Cherbourg Roads: to the Digue (see p. 164; 2 hrs. there and back) about 10 fr. for 5 pers., 5-6 fr. for 2 pers.; a bargain should be made.

Steamboats to Alderney and Guernsey on Wed. in 5-6 hrs. (fares 12 fr. 50, 8 fr. 75 c). To Southampton (London), see p. xiii.

Sea-Baths, to the E. , beyond the commercial harbour, 50 c, with costume and towel 75 c. (\qqa hM-nh. — Cnninn. adm. 50 c. per day; balls

Roadstead. CHERBOURG. 21. Route. 163

weekly during the bathing-season (adm. 1 fr.). Military hand on Thurs. at 4.30, Sun. at 8.30 p.m.

British Consul, Hon. H. P. Vereter, LL.D. — American Consular Agent, Henry J. 0. Hainneville, Esq.

French Protestant Church, Place Divette; service at 11 a.m. English Church Services are held here in Aug. and Sept. at 10 a.m. and 6 p.m.

Cherbourg, a town with 40,783 inhab. and a fortress of the first class, is the third naval harbour of France. Cherbourg owes its importance to its situation at the N. extremity of the peninsula of the Cotentin (p. 161), in a bay embraced between Cap Levi on the E., and Cap de la Hague on the W., and directly facing the coast of England, which is about 70 M. distant.

Cherbourg is supposed by some authorities to occupy the site of the Roman station of Coriallurn or Coriallo ; others regard the name as a cor- ruption of Caesaris Burgus (Caesar's Castle) , and it has also been suggested that the name is the same as the English Scarborough. The site of the town seems to have been early occupied by a baronial castle; and a Count of Cher- bourg followed William the Conqueror to England in 1066. Its proximity to England exposed it to frequent attack; and it was taken by the Eng- lish in 1295, 1346, and 1418. In 1355 it became the capital of Charles the Bad of Navarre, and it continued to be a favourite landing-place for English expeditions against France until 1450, when it was taken by Charles VII. Finally, in 1758, the English fleet under Lord Howe landed a force here under General Bligh, who destroyed the fortifications and burnt the ship- ping and all the naval stores, though he left the town and its inhabitants unmolested. In April, 1814, the Due de Berri landed here, and in Aug., 1830, Charles X., the ex-king, embarked at Cherbourg for England.

The town, most of which is modern, well-built, and clean, is comparatively uninteresting. On quitting the station (PI. E, 5), the visitor finds himself at the S. end of the Commercial Harbour, which is situated at the mouth of the Divette and the Trotebec. This har- bour, of quite secondary importance to the naval port (see p. 164), comprises two basins and an entrance-channel, 650 yds. long, flanked by granite breakwaters. Large quantities of butter, eggs, and poultry are exported hence to England.

The Roadstead of Cherbourg, which lies in front of the two ports, has a total superficies of 4 sq. M., but as certain parts of it are too shallow for large ships at low water, the total available anchorage is about one-fifth of that , or about 500 acres. Though sheltered on three sides, this roadstead is naturally exposed to the full force of gales from the N., and Vauban, the great military en- gineer, seemed almost to be flying in the face of nature when he proposed to establish a naval port here. The efforts to protect the anchorage by means of a 'digue' or breakwater, placed about 21/2M. from the town, were twice baffled by winds and waves, but a third attempt, begun in 1832, has succeeded in rearing a gigantic barrier which seems likely to withstand the fury of the tempest. The present

  • Digue is a substantial breakwater, 4130 yds. long, from 160 to 202

yds. broad at the base, and 65 yds. broad at low water-mark. It is formed of huge blocks of granite, carefully fitted together and present- ing a sloping face to the sea on each side. On this base rests a mass of masonry, 30 ft. high and 30 ft. thick, rendered practically monolithic


164 Route 27. CHERBOURG. Harbour.

by the use of hydraulic cement. The works cost upwards of 2,790,000i. Visitors are permitted to land on the Digue (boats, see p. 162), which is fortified with four forts and twelve batteries. The excur- sion is one of the pleasantest at Cherbourg, and visitors enjoy an opportunity of viewing at close quarters some of the men-of-war which are usually lying in the roads. The view from the breakwater to the Vf. of the central fort is finer than that from the E. The channels at the ends of the Digue are commanded by forts on the mainland, as well as by detached forts on islets. The defences of the town are completed by a chain of detached forts on the sur- rounding heights.

The Naval Hauboue., or Dockyard (PI. B, C, 1, 2, 3), is strongly defended on the landward, side by a special line of redoubts and a ditch, which practically render it quite separate from the rest of the town to the S.W. It is entered by way of the Rue de lAbbaye, beyond a barrack. Foreigners are admitted only with an order from the minister of marine. The visit takes about l1^ hour.

Louis XIV., with the aid of Vauban, first conceived the idea of establishing a naval harbour at Cherbourg, in opposition to Ports- mouth, about 80 M. distant. The works were, however, soon aban- doned ; and nothing was done until Napoleon I. took up the project with vigour. Its completion was reserved for Napoleon III., who opened the port in presence of Queen Victoria in 1858, exactly 100 years after the last English attack on the town. The harbour and its buildings cover an area of 54 acres, and comprise three principal basins hewn in the solid rock, several smaller basins, well equipped workshops, magazines, and storehouses of every sort, and innumerable sheds, barracks, and other military and naval establish- ments. The three chief basins (the Avant-Port, Arriere-Bassin, and Bassin a Floi) have a minimum depth of 30 ft. at low water and can easily accommodate 40 ships of the line at one time.

Between the Bassin a Flot and the sea is situated the Direc- tion de VArtillerie (PL B, 1), with an extensive Aesenal, perhaps the most interesting point in the dockyard for the ordinary visitor. It contains about 50,000 weapons (20,000 muskets), artistically ar- ranged in geometrical patterns and in the shape of porticos, palm trees, baskets, etc. Visitors are generally conducted over one or more of the Men-of-War lying in the harbour; but as these are usually dismantled, they are not so interesting as when lying outside in the roads. The Museum (in which the mode of constructing the break- water is illustrated) and a Collection of Models are also shown, the latter interesting to naval visitors only.

The town lies to the left or W. of the station (PI. E, 5). Not far from the latter and near the commercial harbour lies the Theatre (PI. 10 ; E,4), a handsome edifice in the classical style, with a richly decorated interior. In a small square adjoining the Avant- Port is a bronze Bust of Bricqueville, a colonel of the first empire,

Hdtel de Vllle. CHERBOURG. 21. Route. 165

by David d' Angers. The Place Napoleon (PI. D, 3), to the left, farther on, is embellished with a bronze Equestrian Statue of Na- poleon I., by A. Le Ve"el. The inscription, 'J'avais resolu de renou- veler a Cherbourg les merveilles de l'Egypte', refers to the con- struction of the Digue, which the emperor compared to the Pyramids. The Church of La Trinite (PI. D, 3, 4), on the S. side of the square, dates from the 15th century. The nave is decorated with polychrome paintings, and above the arches are painted and gilded reliefs representing scenes from the Passion and a Dance of Death.

The H6tel de Ville (PI. 6; D, 3), on theW. side of the Place d'Armes, contains a Musee of some importance (open on Sun., 12-4, free ; other days for a fee). Many of the small ancient paintings in this collection are unfortunately hung too high.

Principal Room. From right to left, *76. Rogier van der Weyden, Descent from the Cross (triptych); 84. Van Vliet, Interior of a temple; 66. Quinten Matsys, Peasants; 9. Florentine School, Descent from the Cross; 42. Bril, Landscape; 83. Teniers, Apes carousing; 50. Van Eyck, Madonna; 2. Albano, The Circumcision; 47. Dietrich, Portrait; 75. Rochman, Landscape; 139. Poussin, Pyramus and Thisbe; 52. Fyt, Genre-scene; 3D. Murillo, Bearing of the Cross; 198. Leleux, The Grandfather; 17. Guercino, The wounded Tancred aided by Herminia; 61 (above), Jordaens, Adoration of the Magi; 88. Wyck, Interior; 8. Florentine School of the 14th cent., Hermitage; 135. Oudry, Eagle and hare; 12. Fra Angelica, Entombment; 37. Ribera, Phil- osopher; 60. Bondecoeter, Ape and parroquet; 45. Cranach, Electors Fred- erick III. and John of Saxony; 79. Rottenhammer, Madonna and Child at- tended by angels; 157. J. Vernet, Landscape; 228. Sienese School, Madonna; 7. Caravaggio, Death of Hyacinth; Phil, de Champaigne, Portrait; 124. Largil- liere, Portrait; 51. Franck the Younger, The Woman taken in adultery; 1. Albano, Annunciation; 158. Vivien, Girardon, the sculptor; 146, 145 (farther on), Hub. Robert, Ruins; 14. Oalbiani, Madonna; 148. Lesueur, Justice; 11. Fontana, Adoration of the Magi; 119. Janet (Clouel), Portrait; 101. Coypel, Scene from Don Quixote; 96. Borgouignon, Cavalry engagement; 125. Largilliere, Portrait; 40. B. van Balen, Offerings to Bacchus and Ceres; 65. J. Van Loo, Melancholy; 172. Couder, Interior; 123. Lafosse, Presentation in the Temple; 199. Leleux, Locksmith's workshop; 216. Leonardo da Vinci, Portrait of the artist; 23. Panini, Coliseum and Arch of Constantine; 94. Boilly, Houdon in his studio ; 4. Baroccio, St. Francis of Assisi ; 180. Flinck, St. Jerome; 143. Rigaud, Portraits; 147. Lesueur, Sermon on the Mount; 211. Soyer, Sacristy; Schiavone, 27. Joseph interpreting Pharaoh's dreams, 28. Joseph's messengers finding the cup in Benjamin's sack; 159. Vouel, Ceres and Neptune; 39. Aelst, Flowers; 80. Ruysch, Flowers; 138. Poussin, Pieta; 16. Giordano, St. Peter; 171. Gonsalvez Nuno, Madonna; Un- known Artitt, Madonna (on marble); 74. Fr. Pourbus, Francis II. de Me- dicis and his daughter, afterwards wife of Henri IV. — In the centre: Flemish School, The head of John the Baptist presented to Herod ; Lefevre, Gretchen in church, in marble.

On the First Floor is the Library, which contains a fine old chim- ney-piece, brought from an ancient abbey; and on the Second Floor are collections of Natural History and Antiquities.

The Rue de la Paix leads to the W. from this church to the Monument des Coloniaux (PI. D, 3), erected in 1895 in memory of soldiers and sailors who have died on colonial service.

On the S. side of the town is the noteworthy modern church of Notre- Dame-du-Voeu (Pl.D, 6), in the Romanesque style, with two towers and spires at the W. end. It replaces an earlier church of

1 66 Route 22. CAEN. Hotels,

the 12th cent. , built in fulfilment of a solemn vow taken by Queen Matilda of England during a storm.

In the pretty Public Garden (PL F, 5), to the E. of the station, a statue to Millet (1815-75), the painter, was unveiled in 1892.

The Montague du Eoule (PL F, 5), beyond this garden, commands a fine view of the town and the roadstead. The summit, reached in Y4 hr., is occupied by a fort, to which visitors are not admitted.

Environs. Pleasant excursions (carr. 2 fr. per hour) may be made from Cherbourg to the Chdteau de Martinvast (p. 162), the park of which is open on Sun. from 12-6; to the (2]/2 M.) Chdteau de Tourlaville (16th cent.), on the Barfleur road (steam-tramway, p. 162) ; to the village of (31/* M.) Quer- queville (steam - tramway, p. 162) , 1 M. beyond which is the Chdteau de Nacqueville, formerly the residence of Count Alexis de Tocqueville, the great political writer and historian. About 2 M. farther on is the bathing- Deach of (6 M.) Landemer ( Voisin ; Millet), to which an omnibus (50 c.) plies

4 times daily (5 times on Sun.) from the tramway terminus. The little port of Omonville-la-Rogue (omnibus from Cherbourg 4 times weekly) lies

5 M. from Landemer. Thence we may proceed to the pretty Bap of St. Martin (2V2 M. farther), beside Cape La Hague (16 M.), from which the Channel Islands are visible.

From Cherbourg to Coutances, Folligny (Granville), Pontorson (Mont St. Michel), Dot (St. Malo), and Brest, see R. 24.

22. Caen.

Railway Stations. Oare de VOuest (PI. F, 5), the chief station (Buffet), to the S.E., used by all trains, including those to the coast (but comp. p. 176); Oare St. Martin or de la Mer (PI. B. 2), to the N.W. — Oare du Tramway a Vapeur (steam-tramway), Boul. St. Pierre (PI. D, 3). — Omni- buses , see below. No hotel-omnibuses.

Hotels. De la Place-Rotale (PI. c; C, 3), Place de la Republique, opposite the Hotel de Ville and the Musee, well spoken of, dej. 23/4, D. 3'/2 fr.; Hot. d'Angleteeke (PI. a; D, 3), Rue St. Jean 77, R., L., & A. 4-5, B. I1/2, dej. 3, D. 4 fr. ; d'Espagne (PI. b; D, 3), Rue St. Jean 71; de Lon- dees, Rue des Quatre-Vents, near the Place de la Republique, unpretend- ing but well spoken of; Ste. Baeee, Rue Ecuyere 13 (PI. B, 3); St. Pieeee (PI. d; C, 3), Rue St. Pierre 42, frequented by commercial travellers; de Noemandie, Rue St. Pierre 25; de Feance (PI. e; E, 5), near the station (at these three, dej. 272, D. 3 fr. incl. cider).

Cafes. Du Orand-Balcon, Rue St. Pierre 50 ; de la Bourse, Rue St. Jean 28, with garden; de Madrid, at the Hotel d'Espagne (see above), with garden. — Restaurant. "Fabre, Place du Marche'-au-Bois, a la carte.

Cabs. Per drive 1 fr., per hr. 2 fr., each additional '/< nr- 50 c. ; V2 *'• more at night (11-7). — Luggage, 25 c. per package. — Omnibus from the Gare de l'Ouest to the omnibus-bureau 30, to the traveller's destination 50 c; at night 50 and 70 c; luggage 20 c. per 65 lbs. (at night 25c.) to traveller's destination. — Omnibus-Tramway from the Gare de l'Ouest to the Rue de Bayeux (PI. A, 2) and to the Gare de St. Martin, 15 c.

Post Office at the Hotel de Ville (PI. C, 3), Rue de l'Hotel -de -Ville.

Baths. Bains-Lavoirs (PI. C, 4), Rue Daniel Huet.

Steamboat daily to Le Havre (quay, see PI. F, 4); see p. 61. To New haven, see p. xiii.

British Vice-Consul, F. Lelhbridge, Esq.

English Church (St. Michael's), Rue Richard Lenoir (left bank of the Canal). — Mission Service at 7 p.m. at the British Seamen's Institute, Quai VendcEuvre (Pl.E, 3). [About 2000 British sailors visit the port annually.]

Caen, the chief town of the department of Calvados, with 45,380 inhab., and next to Rouen the most interesting town in Normandy,


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St. Pierre. CAEN. 22. Route. 167

is situated on the Orne, about 9 M. from the coast, with which it is connected by a canal, a railway (p. 172), and a steam-tramway (p. 172).

Caen, mentioned as Cadomum in the early part of the 11th cent., first rose to importance in the time of William the Conqueror, under whom were built the castle and the two abbeys whose beautiful churches are still the chief ornaments of the town. In 1346 Caen, at that time 'a city greater than any in England save London', was taken and pillaged by Ed- ward III. of England; and Henry V. again captured it in 1417. France did not succeed in finally wresting it from the English until 14S0. Caen suffered much in the religious wars of France and was well-nigh ruined by the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685. Two centuries, however, of comparative peace have largely restored its prosperity, and it now carries on extensive manufactures of colza and rape oil, lace, and other articles, while its port is the centre of the timber trade in the N. of France. In 1793 Caen was the focus of the Girondist movement against the Convention; and it was from this town that Charlotte Corday, born in the neighbour- hood, set out to assassinate Marat. Auber (1782-1871), the composer, and Malherbe (1555-1628), the poet, were natives of Caen, and Beau Brummel (consul at Caen) and Bourienne (secretary of Napoleon I.) died here in the Hospice du Bon-Sauveur. The famous Beau is buried in the Protestant Cemetery, Rue du Magasin a Poudre (PI. C, 1).

The celebrated Quarries of Caen stone, which have for centuries af- forded excellent building-material for the churches and other important edifices of France and England, lie to the W. and S. of the town.

On leaving the station (PI. F, 5), we turn to the right, take the first street to the right again, which leads under the railway and over the Orne, and then follow the quay to the left to the Place Alexandre III, which is embellished with the handsome Monument of the Sons of Calvados, commemorating the war of 1870-71. Hence the Rue St. Jean runs to the right, ending at the Boulevard St. Pierre. — On the right side of the Rue St. Jean rises the handsome late-Gothic church of St. Jean (PL D, 4), with an elegant but un- finished tower. The church is unfortunately much hidden by the adjoining houses, and its fine portal has been disfigured by an un- successful restoration.

  • St. Pierre (PI. D, 3), in the boulevard of the same name, is a

most interesting example of Gothic architecture, though dating from various epochs from the 13th to the 16th century. The chapels and the turret of the *Apse, both very elaborately decorated, were added in the Renaissance period. The most striking feature is the * Tower (255 ft.), to the right of the main portal, a masterpiece of the bold and graceful style of art which prevailed at the beginning of the 14th century. The spire is pierced, and its base is surrounded by eight small turrets. There is a portal in the side of the tower, but the church has no transepts. The church is now under restoration.

The general impression of the interior is one of great harmony. The capitals of the massive pillars in the nave are carved with a curious mis- cellany of sacred, profane, and grotesque subjects. (Note especially the third capital on the left.) The vaulting and keystones of the E. half of the nave are noteworthy. The ornamentation of the five "Chapels of the apse is especially lavish, including unusually large keystones and fine modern stained glass by Marette of Evreux. The pulpit, in a florid modern Gothic style, and the organ-case are handsome.

Opposite the tower of the church is the Exchange, formerly the

168 Route 22. CAEN. La Triniti.

Hotel Valois (16th cent.), the most noteworthy part of which is the court. The Hotel de Than, opposite, is another old mansion of the same period.

On an eminence beyond the small square in front of the main portal of St. Pierre are situated the remains of the Castle (P1.C,D,2), begun by William the Conqueror and finished by Henry I., and several times altered. It is now used as barracks, and presents few points of interest. The castle was held by the English after the rest of the town was taken (see p. 167), but in 1459 the garrison of 4000 men was compelled to surrender to Dunois. — In the Rue de Geole are some quaint old houses (Nos. 17, 31, 37).

The street leading to the left from the church, as we return from the castle, runs to the E. extremity of the town, passing the former church of St. Oilles (PI. E, 2), which is built in the transition style from Gothic to Renaissance.

A little farther on is *La Trinite (PI. E, F, 2), the church of the Abbaye-aux-Dames, founded in 1036 by Matilda, wife of William the Conqueror, while the latter at the same time founded the church of the Abbaye-aux-Hommes (p. 169). These acts of beneficence were intended as an expiation of the sin which the pious founders had com- mitted in marrying within the forbidden degrees of consanguinity. La Trinite, with the exception of one chapel, on the right of the choir, in the Transition style, is Norman-Romanesque ; it has under- gone a thorough restoration in modern times. Two square towers rise on the W. facade and another from the transepts ; all three, long de- prived of their spires, were provided with balustrades in the 18th century. The majestic simplicity of the interior is no less striking than the dignity of the exterior. Small galleries surmount the aisles, and there is an interesting crypt beneath the choir. The choir, which is reserved for the nuns who manage the Hotel-Dieu (see below), is closed to the public ; but it and the crypt are shown to visitors to the hospital. It contains the modest tomb of the foundress.

The Hotel-Dieu or Hospital (PI. F, 2), adjoining the church, is established in the former nunnery, rebuilt in the 18th century. The nuns of La Trinite were generally daughters of noble families and enjoyed considerable privileges. The abbess was known as Madame de Caen. Visitors, generally admitted on application, are expected to make a contribution to the poor-box. The extensive park com- mands attractive views.

As we retrace our steps to St. Pierre, we have a view of the distant towers of St. Etienne (see p. 169). Beyond St. Pierre we follow the Rue St. Pierre (PI. C, 3), Nos. 52 and 54 in which (near the beginning) are quaint houses with wood-carving. Farther on, to the right, is St. Sauveur (PI. C, 3), consisting of two churches placed side by side and forming an immense nave. The building is in the Gothic style, and has a handsome belfry of the 14th cent., a richly decorated apse of the 15-16th cent., and some old stained glass.

St. Etienne. CAEN. 22. Route. 169

The Rue Froide, skirting the church, leads to the Vniversite (PL C, 2), an important academy. The Palais de V Vniversite, partly dating from last century, but recently much enlarged, contains a Natural History Museum (adm. Sun., 12-4) and the ethnograph- ical collections of Dumont d'Urville (p. 192). In front of it, in the Rue Pasteur, are bronze statues of Malherbe (p. 167), by the elder Dantan, and Laplace (1749-1827; a native of Calvados), the math- ematician, by Barre. — Near the Universite are the modern Gothic Benedictine Church, attached to a convent, and the Prome- nade St. Julien. — At the W. end of the Rue Pasteur is the Place St. Sauveur, in which is another church of St. Sauveur (PLB,2, 3), dating from the 12th, 14th, and 18th cent., now a corn-market. On the right side of the square rises the Palais de Justice (18th cent.). In the centre is a bronze statue, by L. Rochet, of Elie de Beaumont (1798-1874), the geologist, a native of the department.

The Rue Ecuyere, continuing the Rue de St. Pierre to the W. from the Palais de Justice, leads to —

  • St. Etienne or -St. Stephen (PL A, B, 3), the church of the Ab-

baye-aux-Hommes, founded by "William the Conqueror at the same date as La Trinite- (p. 168). St. Etienne is in the same style as La Trinite-, though larger, but its unity of style was destroyed by alter- ations in the 12th cent., when the choir was rebuilt in the Pointed style. It is difficult to obtain a satisfactory view of the church, on account of the buildings which hem it in. The "W. facade, with two elegant towers of the 12th cent., 295 ft. high, is remarkably plain; and the interior also, like that of La Trinite, is distinguished by its dignified simplicity. The aisles here too are provided with galleries ; the S. aisle is adjoined by a Gothic chapel added in the 14th century. The transepts are shallow and have no doorways. A lantern-tower of the 17th cent, replaces the pyramidal spire, 400 ft. high, which formerly surmounted the crossing. A black marble slab in front of the high-altar marks the tomb of William the Conqueror (d. 1087) ; but the bones of the monarch were rudely scattered by the Hugue- nots in 1562, and again in 1793, so that the tomb is now empty. The sacristy, itself an interesting specimen of architecture, contains an ancient portrait of the Conqueror. Other noteworthy features are the choir-stalls, the carved clock-case in the N. transept, the pulpit, and the organ-case, supported by colossal figures.

Professor Freeman writes as follows of this highly interesting church, which he describes as perhaps the noblest and most perfect work of its time. 'The choir has given way to a later creation; hut the nave of Wil- liam and Lanfranc is still there, precisely such a nave as we should expect to arise at the bidding of William the Great. Erected at the moment when the Romanesque of Normandy had cast aside the earlier leaven of Bernay and Jumieges, and had not yet begun to develop into the more florid style of Bayeux and Saint Gabriel, the church of William, vast in scale, bold and simple in its design, disdaining ornament, but never sinking into rudeness, is indeed a church worthy of its founder. The minster of Ma- tilda (La Trinite; seep. 168), far richer, even in its earliest parts, smaller in size, more delicate in workmanship, has nothing of that simplicity and

170 Route 22. (jakjn. Bdtel de Ville.

grandeur of proportion which marks the work of her husband. The one is the expression in stone of the imperial will of the conquering Duke; the other breathes the true spirit of his loving and faithful Duchess'. ('Norman Conquest', Vol. iii, p. 109).

The Abbaye-aux-Homnies was rebuilt in the 18th cent., and is now occupied by the Lycee (PI. A, 3). To reach the facade, which is turned away from the church, we retrace our steps to the Palais de Justice, and enter the Place du Pare, to the right, where there is a bronze Statue of Louis XIV., by the younger Petitot.

The Lyce'e contains several handsome rooms (visitors admitted). The Refectory and the Chapel are panelled with oak and adorned with paintings. The railing of the Main Staircase was executed by a monk.

A little to the N. of this point is the secularised Church of St. Nicolas (PI. A, 2), an interesting Norman edifice of the ll-12th centuries. Mr. Fergusson believes it to be the only church in Nor- mandy which retains the original covering of the apse, consisting of a lofty pyramidal roof of stone (visitors not admitted).

In the Rue de Caumont, leading E. from the Place du Pare, is the Old Church of St. Eticnne (PI. B, 3), of the 15th century. No. 33, nearly opposite, formerly a Jesuit college, contains the Antiquarian Museum (PI. B, 3), open to the public on Sun. and Thurs., 2-4, but accessible to strangers on other days also.

Though the collections are not large, they contain some interesting objects, including an antique bronze tripod; Merovingian ornaments, found in a tomb near Caen; a goblet called 'William the Conqueror's', but in reality an Italian work of the end of the 15th cent.; and embroidered chasubles, etc., of the 16th century.

The Rue St. Laurent, running to the S. from the end of the Rue Caumont, leads to Notre Dame or La Oloriette (PI. C, 3), a church built by the Jesuits in the 17th cent., and to the Place de la Pre- fecture, in which are the Prefecture and the Gendarmerie (PI. C, 4), ambitious modern erections of no special interest.

Opposite the Prefecture is an ancient seminary, now occupied as the Hotel de Ville (PI. C, 3). The entrance is on the E. side, in the Place de la Re'publique (PI. 0, 3), where a marble Statue of Auber (p. 167), was erected in 1883, from a design by Delaplanche. The *Musee, in the left wing of the Hotel de Ville, is open to the public on Sun. and Thurs., 11-4, but is accessible to strangers on other days also; apply to the concierge or knock at the door to the left on the first floor. Explanatory labels on the paintings.

On the staircase is a large painting, by N. J. Forestier, representing the Burial of William the Conqueror interrupted by the former owner of the soil, who had been unjustly dispossessed to secure a site for the church (p. 169).

Room I. To the right, 219. Fr. Girard, Death of Patroclus (unfinished); 266. Odier, Incident on the retreat from Moscow; 285. Giraud, Procession of the Circumcision at Cairo; 284. Lanoue, The Tiber; G. Moteley, Land- scape; 213. Ant. Lebel, Sea-piece; 199. J. Vernet, Sea-piece; 185. Rigaud, Portrait of a courtier; F. Tattegrain, Sea-piece; 242. Krug, Condemnation of St. Symphorosius and his seven sons; 26. R. ChrUien, Still-life; above the door, 264. Debon, William the Conqueror entering i/ondon.

E. II. 131. Hondekoeter, Hen and chickens; -'151. Durertf), Madonna and three saints; 33. Feti, Nativity of the Virgin; 102. Quellin the Elder, The Virgin presenting a stole to St. Hubert; 123. Boudewyns , 122. Bouts,

Musee. CAEN. 21. Route. 171

Landscapes; 191. Townieres, Portrait ; **3. Perugino, Marriage of the Virgin, from the cathedral of Perugia, one of the chief works of this master; 170. Patel, Landscape; 85. Rubens, Portrait; 37. Quercino , Madonna; 83. Calvaert, St. Sebastian; 153. Denner, Head of an old man; 96. Seghers and J. van Oost, Virgin in a garland of flowers; 294. J. Bertrand, Cinderella. — No number, Perugino, St. Jerome; 133. Moyaert, Moderation of Scipio; 206. B. N. Lesueur, Solomon hefore the Ark; 134. Ferd. Bol, Portrait of a magistrate; 179. Coypel, Mme. de Parabere (the flowers by Fontenay).

R. III. 101. Ph. de Champaigne, Head of Christ; 1. Vitale da Bologna, Virgin and Child, with an angel; 150. Moucheron, Landscape; 29. Lan- franchi, Head of St. Peter; 103. Bosschaert, Portrait; 110. Van Dyck(1), Communion of St. Bonaventura; 94. Teniers the Elder, Interior; 82. Van Balen, The four elements; 145. Lairesse, Conversion of St. Augustine; 115. J. B. de Champaigne, Richelieu; 81. Fr. Halt, Portrait; 289. Van Marck, Pond and magpies; 273. Luminais, Breton shepherd; 287. Ph. Rousseau, Market; 328. Le Comte-du-Nouy, Contemplation, Toilers of the sea, Orient- als ; Rubens, Open-air ball; 236. After Gerard, Louis XVIII. ; 187. H. Rigaud, Fr. de Neuville, Due de Villeroy; 87. Franck the Younger, Slaves to the passion of love; 275. Legrip, N. Poussin at Paris. — 263, 262. Debon, Battle of Hastings, William the Conqueror; 307. Lematte, The widow; 308. Char- train, The taper; 288. Pasini, Persian horsemen with prisoners; 315. E. Lefebvre, Fruit; 130. Brakenburg, Dutch interior; 291. Thirion, St. Se- verinus giving alms; 171. Jouvenet, Fr. Bomain, architect; 36. Quercino, Dido; 109. Flemalle, Adoration of the Shepherds; 136. Koning, Portrait of a physician; 147. Biga, Landscape; 98, 99. Ph. de Champaigne, Vow of Louis XIII., Annunciation; 140. F. Moucheron, Landscape; 166. Lebrun, Baptism of Christ. — 186. H. Rigaud, Mme. Desjardins, wife of the sculp- tor. — In the middle of the room : Qayrard, Daphnis and Chloe, a marble group; Riviere, Music.

R. IV. 7. Andrea del Sarlo, St. Sebastian; 38. Neapolitan School, A gesture of derision; 5. Leon, da Vinci, Reduced replica of the 'Vierge aux Rochers' at the Louvre; 192. Tourniires, Chapelle and Racine; 26. Strozzi, Mercury and Argus; 190. Tournieres, Portrait of a magistrate; 53. Panini, Reception of 'cordons bleus'; "84. Rubens, Melchisedec offering bread and wine to Abraham; 229. Rob. Lefevre, Mile. Caffarelli; 28. Strozzi, Fauns and Bacchantes; 48. Lauri, Eeturn of the Prodigal Son (architectural accessories by Bibiena); 129. Cornelis, Venus and Adonis. — 42. Sasso- ferrato, Virgin and Child; 173. Jouvenet, St. Peter healing the sick; 310. Cima da Conegliano, Triptych (Virgin, St. James, and the donor); 138. Van der Heist, Portrait; 100. Phil, de Champaigne, The Samaritan Woman; 12. Tintoretto, Descent from the Cross; 97. Jordaens, Beggar; 56. Tiepolo, EcceHomo; 160. N. Poussin, Death of Adonis; 63, 64 (farther on), Ribera, Heads of St. Peter; Paolo Veronese, 14. Judith, 16. Flight into Egypt, 15. Temptation of St. Antony, 17. Christ giving the keys of heaven to St. Peter; 62. Ribera, The Crown of Thorns; B. Lesueur, Christ and the doctors; 172. Jouvenet, Apollo and Tethys.

R. V. Franck, 90. St. Ursula, 89. Adoration of the Shepherds. Then, some copies from the old masters, and some modern canvases of no great interest. In the middle of the room, Schoenewevk, Child and tortoise, in marble. — From this room we ascend to the Collection Mancel (see below).

R. VI. 61. Italian School, Holy Family; 66. P. Brueghel the Elder, Flemish festival; — 108. D'Artois, Landscape; 117, 118. J. van Bloemen, Landscapes; 200. H. Vernet, Portrait; 194. Oudry, Boar-hunt. — 35. Guercino, Coriolanus; 141, 142. S. van Ruysdael, Landscapes; 91. Snyders, Interior; 120, 119. /. van Bloemen, Landscapes; 104. Snyders, Bear-hunt; 50. Cignani, Jael and Sisera. — Statues: Moreau-Vauthier, Bather; Etex, Nizzia.

The Mancel Collection, on the 2nd floor, contains a library, paintings, engravings, and other works of art.

The Monlaran Bequest, on the groundfioor, consists of 60 paintings, including Holy Families by L. Carracci (No. 7) and by Franck and ' Velvet Brueghel (13), portraits by Van Dyck (10), Sprong (36), and Van der Heist (38) , a landscape by Boucher (5), marine pieces and landscapes by Gudin (15-35), a Child by Guido (37), and a Monk by Zurbaran (58).

172 Route 23. HONFLEUR. Watering-Places

The Library, also in the H6tel de Ville, in part of the former chapel of the seminary, contains about 90,000 vols, and 600 MSS., besides portraits of illustrious natives of Normandy and a copy of the celebrated Bayeux tapestry (p. 160).

In the Place Gambetta (PI. C, 4), to the S. of the Hotel de Ville, is the modern Gtndarmerie, opposite the facade of which is the Musee Langlois (Sun., 11-5), containing paintings by Col. Langlois, well known as a designer of panoramas. — Farther to the S. are the fine promenades known as the Cours Sadi-Carnot (PI. C, D,4, 5) and the Grand-Cours, which skirt the Prairie in which is the Hippodrome or race-course (races on the first Sun., Mon., and Tues. in August).

About V2 M. to the E., at Rue Basse 201, is the Manoir des Gens- d'Armes (PI. G, 3), a picturesque ruined edifice, of the 16th cent, so called from two statues of armed men on the main tower. Both towers and the crenelated wall which connects them are ornamented with curious medallions in good preservation, and the main tower still retains a fine grated window.

The interesting, but somewhat remote Jardin des Plantes (PI. B, 1 ; open all day) contains numerous hothouses, important herbaria, and a shady avenue.

From Caen to Dives-Cabourg (Trouville). 1. Railway (20 M., in 1 hr.) from the Gare de f Ouest via (157:2 M.) Dozull-Putol, where we join the line from Mezidon (p. 158). — 2. Tramway (1572 M., in l3/4 hr.) from the Boul. St. Pierre (fares 3, 2V4, 172 fr.) via Benouvitle (p. 176).

Fbom Caen to Viee, 46 M., railway in about 2'/2hrs. — From (33 M.) Guilberville a hraneh-line diverges to (16 M.) St. L6 (p. 161). — 46 M. Vire, see p. 186.

From Caen to Cherbourg, see p. 158.

23. Watering-Places in Calvados.

a. Trouville-Deauville, Villers-sur-Mer, Beuzeval-Houlgate,

and Cabourg.

From Paris to Trouville, 1367.. ML, Railway in b-&/-2 hrs. (fares 24 fr. 75, 16 fr. 75, 10 fr. 95 c.). — From Trouville to Villers-sur-Mer, 7 M., Railway in 7»"72 hr. (fares 1 fr. 25, 85, 55 c); to Beuzeval-Houlgate, V2ll-z M., in 45-50 min. (fares 2 fr. 25, 1 fr. 50 c, 1 fr.) ; to Cabourg, 1472 M., in l-l1/* hr. (fares 2 fr. 45, 1 fr. 65, 1 fr. 10 c). — Another route, see p. 158.

From Paris to (118y2 M.) Lisieux, see R. 21. "We leave the line to Caen on the left, pass through a tunnel 1/2 M. long, and descend the valley of the Touques. 6 M. Le Breuil-Blangy. — lO1^ M. Pont-1'Eveque (Bras d'Or), a small town on the Touques.

From Pont-l'Eveo.ue to Honflecr, 1572 M., railway in 40-50 min. (fares 3 fr. 15, 2 fr. 40, 1 fr. 75 c.). — The train passes through a tunnel 174 M. long. From Olh M.) Quetleville (p. 175) a visit may be paid to Chateau d'Hebertot (see p. 175). The train skirts the Seine.

1572 M. Honfleur (Cheval Blanc, Quai Beaulieu, R., L., & A. 3-7, dej. 272, D. 3 fr. ; du Dauphin, Rue de la Republique. — British Vice-Consul, J. B. D. Charlesson; U.S. Consular Agent, Henry M. Hardy), a seaport town with 9300 inhah., picturesquely situated on the left bank and at the mouth of the Seine, has declined since the foundation of Le Havre, and also owing to the silting up of its harbour. Considerable efforts, however,

in Calvados. TROUVILLE. 23. Route. 173

have recently been made to improve and extend the latter. Honfleur is connected with Le Havre by a regular service of steamboats; and it ex- ports large quantities of eggs, poultry, vegetables, and fruit to England.

The station is situated near the harbour. The Hdtel de Yille, containing a small Muste, and the Lieutenance, with a portal of the 15th cent., stand near the outer harbour. The curious timber Church of St. Catherine, dating from the end of the 15th cent., consists of two parallel naves with aisles. It contains a good organ-loft, a painting of Christ in Getbsemaneby J. Jor- daens, and a Bearing of the Cross by Erasmus Quellin (in the nave). The Cote de Grace, to the W. of the harbour, is so named from a pil- grimage-chapel much resorted to by sailors. It commands a fine view of the mouth of the Seine; and the plateau forms an agreeable and shaded promenade. The hotel and restaurant on the top may be reached in about '/4 hr. from the harbour. We pass the left side of St. Catherine's, follow the Rue de Grace to the right, and then take a path to the left, beside a customs-office. Below, on the road to Trouville, is a Sea-bathing Establish- ment, but the beach is muddy and little frequented.

An omnibus leaves the Cheval Blanc for (10 M.) Trouville regularly in the season at 8 a.m., 12, 2.30., and 5 p.m. (l]/2-l3/4 hr. ; fares, inside 1 fr. 60, outside 2 fr. 10 c). The road runs partly among trees and the view is confined until we reach (5 M.) Griqueboeuf, with its pretty ivy- covered church. 6 M. Villerville, see p. 175. — 10 M. Trouville, see below.

16 M. Touques, a small river-port about 2V2 M. from the mouth of the Touques, with two ancient churches (ll-12th cent."), is 1^4 M. from the ruined Chateau de Bonneville (adm. 50 c). Then, to the left, appear the railway to Cahourg (p. 175) and the race- course of Deauville (p. 175).

18 M. Trouville. — Hotels. Des Roches Noiees, a large establish- ment, at the N.W. end of the town and beach ; de Paeis, also of the first class, better situated, near the casino ; Bellevue et de la Mer; dd Heldee, dej. 3, D. 41/2 fr.; 'de la Plage, R., L., & A. 3-7, B. 11/2, dej. 2, D. 3, pens. 7-12, omn. 72- 1 fr. ; the last three are all in the Place de l'Hotel-de- Ville, near the beach; Beausejode, Q.uai Valle'e; Tivoli, with garden, at the end of the Rue de la Mer, commercial ; d'Angleteeee , Rue de la Plage, well spoken of, Medkice, Rue Carnot, these two behind the casino ; dd Chalet, Rue d'Orle'ans; Cattead, du Louvre, Rue de la Mer, pens. 8-12 fr. ; Bras d'Oe, des Bains, Rue des Bains ; de France, near the sta- tion but at some distance from the beach, mediocre; de Metz, Quai Valle'e; Fkascati, at the station. — Furnished Houses and Lodgings are easily obtained. — The touts at the station should be disregarded.

Restaurants. At the Hdtel du Helder and the other hotels. — Buffet at the station. — Cafes. De la Plage; Eden-Casino (cafe-concert), both on the beach, adm. 1-5 fr.

Sea-Baths at the Casino and the Hotel des Roches Koires; bathing- box 60 c-2 fr. ; costume 50, 'peignoir' 25, towel 10, 'guide baigneur' 50 c.

Casino. Admission for one day 2 fr. (between July 15th and Sept. 16th 3 fr.); per fortnight, for 1 pers. 40, 2 pers. 70; per month, 70 & 110 fr.; per half-season (July 1st to Aug. 10th, or Aug. 10th to the close) 80 & 130; three months 100 & 170 fr.

Cabs. In Trouville: with one horse, between 5 a.m. and midnight, per drive l'/2, with luggage 2 fr. ; with two horses 2 and 2y2 fr. ; for Deau- ville 2 and 3 or 3 and 4 fr.; per hr. 4 fr., each addit. hr. 3 fr., with two horses 1 fr. extra; per day 25 and 30 fr.

Post & Telegraph Office, Rue Pellerin 7, the third cross-street to the left in the Rue de la Mer, as we come from the harbour.

Steamboat to Le Havre, daily during the season, in 3/i hr., see p. 61. — Ferry to Deauville, in summer only, from the Place de la Cahotte (5 c.j 10 c. after 7 p.m.).

Omnibus from the station to the town , 1/i fr., at night 70 c, or 70 and 90 c. with 30 kilos I of luggage. To Honfleur, at 8 a.m.,. noon, 2.30,

174 Route 23. DEAUVILLE. Watering-Places

ands 5.15 p.m. daily during the season, starting from the Hue des Bain 41 (fares 2 fr. 10, 1 fr. 60 c; see p. 173). To Villerville, see p. 175; to Villert- sur-Mer (p. 175), V2 fr-i return-ticket 1 fr.

Brakes. During the season excursion-brakes ply regularly to various points of interest in the vicinity (fares 3-8 fr. according to the distance); office at the Fish Market (Poissonnerie).

British Vice-Consul, Alan F. O'Neill, Esq.

Trouville, pleasantly situated at the mouth of the Touques, is now the most frequented watering-place on the coast of Normandy. The season lasts from July to October and is at its height in August, when living here is extremely expensive. Forty years ago Trouville was a humble fishing-village with a small harbour; now it has 6250 inhab., and the beach and adjacent slopes are covered with hand- some villas and country-houses.

The railway-station is situated on the left bank of the river, be- tween Deauville and Trouville. We cross a bridge to reach the latter. The Harbour is much used by fishing-boats and also carries on some trade in timber. The church on the hill to the right of the harbour, Notre-Dame-des-Victoires, is a modern erection. The Fish Market, near the end of the quay , presents an interesting spectacle when the fishing-boats come in. Thence the important Rue des Bains leads to Notre-Dame-de-Bons-Secours, another small modern church, with a fine facade and a Renaissance tower. Beyond the fish-market rises the Hotel de Ville, in the style of Louis XIII., to the left of which is the Place de la Oahotte (ferry, see p. 173).

The *Beach (Plage) of Trouville, stretching from the harbour to the Hotel des Roches Noires, a distance of about 2/3 M., is one of the finest in France and during most of the day in the season thronged with holiday-makers and bathers in fashionable and attractive cos- tumes. It is bordered for nearly its entire length by a broad paved or boarded promenade, and behind is a row of pleasant villas. It has been epigrammatically described as the 'Summer Boulevard of Paris'.

The Casino, known also as the Salon, a large edifice of brick and stone, rising on a terrace overlooking the beach, offers all the attrac- tions common to fashionable institutions of the sort. Theatrical per- formances take place twice a week, and a grand ball is usually given on Sundays. — Another small Casino was opened in 1892 on the Promennde Pier, at the other end of the beach ; adm. to pier 20 c, gratis to passengers by the steamer to Le Havre, which starts here at low-tide.

Deauville. — Hotels. Grand Hotel de Deauville, de la Tekrasse, on the beach, near the harbour-entrance; de l'Edrope, Frascati, both near the station. — Bouses and Furnished Apartments may be obtained. — Sea Bathing as at Trouville. — Ferry to Trouville, see p. 173.

Deauville, which shares the railway-station with Trouville, may be reached from the right bank of the harbour either by ferry (5-10 c.) or by the bridge near the station. Founded in modern times as a sea-bathing resort, it has broad and straight streets, but the original plan was never carried out and the town presents the appearance.of

in Calvados. VILLERS-SUR-MER. 23. Route. 175

a half-filled canvas. The beach is distinctly inferior to the beach at Trouville, and at low water the tide recedes too far. The Terrasse skirts a number of fine houses, situated somewhat far apart. — From the beach a tramway runs to Tourgeville-les-Sablons (10 c.) and Benerville (20 c), about halfway to Villers-sur-Mer (see below).

During one week in August Deauville is the scene of a highly fashionable race-meeting.

Excursions from Trouville and Deauville (see p. 174 and comp. the Map, p. 58). To the ruins of Bonneville, Lassay, and St. Arnoult, see p. 173 and below. — To the (10 M.) Chdteau d? Hibertot, a castle of the 17th cent., situated at St. Andri-d'1 Hibertot. The road intersects the picturesque Forest of Touques and passes (5 M.) St. Gatien and (9>/2 M.) St. Benolt-d'Hibertot. The station of Quetteville (p. 172) lies 2'/2 M. to the N.W. of the chateau.

About 3V2 M. to the N.B. of Trouville , by the Honfleur road, is the watering-place of Villerville (omnibus 1 fr.; private carr. according to bargain). The road ascends a steep hill, passing the fine Chdteau Cordier and several pretty villas. l3/t M. Hennequeville. — Villerville (Hdtel de Paris; des Bains; de la Plage; etc.) is a picturesquely-situated bathing- place of more humble pretentions than Trouville or Deauville. It has a small Casino and is surrounded by attractive country-houses.

From Trouville to Le Havre, see p. 61 ; to Honfleur, see p. 173.

The Railway to Oabotjug diverges to the right from that from Lisieux to Paris. On the right lies the race-course of Deauville. — 3^2 M. Tourgeville. To the right rises Mont Canisy (330 ft.), sur- mounted by the ruins of the Chdteau de Lassay and of the Church of St. Arnoult, an 11th cent, priory. From Tourge'ville a visit may be paid to the Chdteau de Glatigny (16-17th cent.), which has a fine carved wooden facade. — 8 M. Blonville, with several country-houses.

7 M. Villers-sur-Mer. — Hotels. Des Herbages, on the beach; de Paris, adjacent, R. & L. 472, pens. 10-12 fr. ; Bras d'Or, in the village, R. from 2'/2, D. 3 fr. ; on Casino , near the Bras d'Or. — Sea-Baths l'/2 fr.; bathing-box and foot-bath 60, costume 50, peignoir 25, towel 10 c.

Villers-sur-Mer is a picturesquely situated sea-bathing place resembling Trouville. The environs are undulating and prettily wooded; the shingly beach, 1 M. from the station, is very extensive and flanked by tasteful villas. At one end is a small Casino (adm. 1 fr.). The church, on the cliff, has been partly rebuilt in the Gothic style of the 13th cent, and is embellished with stained glass by Duhamel-Marette. — Interesting excursion to (3'/2 M.) Houlgate via, the Desert and the Vaches Noires (p. 176).

The railway now ascends a steep incline, passing the station of St. Vaast and traversing woods.

12^2 M. Beuzeval -Houlgate. — Hotels. At Houlgate, to the right on arriving from Trouville: Grand Hotel d'Houlgate, Rue Bau- mier, a large house of the first class, with sea- view, separated from the casino by a garden, R. 3-25, L. & A. l3/4, D. 5, pens, from 12 fr.; Beause- jour, Bellevue, Rue des Bains, the continuation of the Rue Baumier towards Beuzeval. — At Beuzeval: Grand Hotel Imeert; de Paris.

Sea-Baths. Bathing-box 50-60, costume 40-50, peignoir 30 c, etc. — Casino. At Houlgate, adm. lfr. ; subscription for a week 12 fr., fortnight 20 fr., month 30 fr.; for 2 pers. 20, 30, & 50 fr.

176 Route 23. CABOURG. Watering- Places

Beuzeval and Houlgate form practically one long village, stretch- ing along a fine sandy beach. Houlgate is of recent origin and con- sists mainly of 'villas with shady gardens. Beuzeval, through which the railway runs, extends to within J/4 M. of the E. end of Dives and to the vicinity of Cabourg (see below).

About 3 M. to the N.E. is the Disert, a chaos of rocks fallen from the cliffs which are known as the Vaches Moires.

The railway now approaches the sea, and passes between the last few houses of Beuzeval and the shore. A little farther on, the Dives enters the sea. Walkers to Cabourg cross the small harbour at its mouth by a ferry. — 133/«iM. Dives- Cabourg, about 3/4 M. from each of the places it serves.

Dives (Guillaume-le-Conquerant, a quaint building, dej. 4, D. 5 fr. incl. cider; des Voyageurs, de'j. 2'/2, D. 3 fr.) was the har- bour from which William the Conqueror first set sail for England in 1066 (comp. p. 11). A column on a neighbouring height com- memorates the event; and the names of his companions, so far as known, have been inscribed inside the porch of the Church, which dates from the 14th and 15th centuries. The timber Market Build- ings, not far from the church , also date in part from the 16th century. Cabourg is only 3/j M. distant.

141/2 M. Cabourg. — Hotels. Grand Hotel, on the beach, adjoining the Casino, at the end of the Avenue de la Mare; des Dues de Uormandie, also on the beach; dd Casino, do Nord, Bras d'Ok, in the Avenue de la Mare; de la JIairie.

Sea -Baths, I1/2 fr- ; bathing-box alone 60 c, costume 50c, etc. — Casino. Adm. 1 fr. snd i fr. extra for the 'Salle des fetes'; subscription for a week 12, fortnight 20, month 30 fr.; for 2 pers. 20, 30, & 45 fr.

Cabourg is of modern origin, at least so far as the sea-baths are concerned. It is laid out on a fan-shaped plan, which, however, as at Deauville, is far from being completed. It has several fine avenues, but the wide sandy beach is bare. There is, of course, the usual huge Casino, with its Terrasse.

From Dives-Cabourg to Benotjville (Caen, Luc-sur-Mer), 972M., steam tramway in 1 hr. (fares 1 fr. 80, 1 fr. 35, 90 c). The line passes the entrance of Cabourg (25, 20, 15 c), and continues at some distance from the sea. — 2'/2 M. Le Home (Grand Hotel), a small watering-place with several villas. — Several other small stations. — 8 M. Ranville. We cross the Orne and a canal. — At (9'/2 M.) Benouville we change cars for the Caen line (p. 172).

The railway, quitting the sea, runs to the S. to (5 M.) Dozuli, where it forks, one branch leading to (171/' M.) Mezidon and the other to (20 M.) Caen. See pp. 158, 172.

b. Luc-sur-Mer (Lion), Langrune, St. Aubin-sur-Mer, and Courseulles. I. From Caen to Luc-sur-Mer direct. 14 M. Railway in V/i-V/i hr. from the Gare de I'Ouest at Caen, in con- nection with the trains on the main line from the S. (fares 2 fr. 35, 1 fr. 80, 1 fr. 30 c); or 10 M. in 30-35 min. less from the Gare St. Martin (p. 166), whence special trains run (comp. the Indicateur) ; fares 1 fr. 75, 1 fr. 35, 95 c.

in Calvados. LION-SUR-MER. 23. Route. 177

Caen, see p. 166. After leaving the Gare de l'Ouest the train makes a wide circuit to the W. of the town, passing the station of La Maladrerie, and reaches the Gare St. Martin (Buffet), where carriages are changed. After a halt of 8 min. the train starts again and runs towards the N. — 6 M. Couvrechef ; 71/-2 M. Cambes ; 9'^ M. Ma- thieu. Before reaching the station of (12 M.) Douvres-la-Delivrande we have a view, to the right, of its graceful tower (12th cent.), sur- mounted by a spire in open stone- work, flanked by turrets. — 12l/2 M. Chapelle-de-la-Delivrande, a hamlet with the famous pilgrimage church of Notre-Dame-de-la-Delivrande. The present handsome church, with two towers, in the style of the 13th cent., is modern.

— 14 M. Luc-sur-Mer, see below.

II. From Caen to Luc-sur-Mer via Ouistreham.

15 M. Steam Tramway (p. 172) in I1/2 lir. (fares 2 fr. 90, 2 fr. 15, 1 fr. 45 c).

Caen, see p. 166. Starting in the Boul. St. Pierre, the tramway skirts the left bank of the canal between Caen and the sea, via Calix, Herouville, and (4^9 M.) Blainville. At (6 M.) Benouville it is joined by the tramway from Dives-Cabourg (p. 176).

9V2 M. Ouistreham (Hot. du Calvados; Univers; de la Marine), an old seaport at the mouth of the canal, with a Romanesque church (12th cent.). Steamboat to Le Havre (p. 61). — 10 M. Riva Bella (Hot. de la Plage) and (12^2 M.) La Br'eche - d' Hermanville have sea-baths.

13 M. Lion-SUr-Mer. — Hotels. Grand Hotel, on the beach, E. from 3-4, dej. 2V'2i D. 3'/2 fr. incl. cider; de la Plage; bo Calvados, Bellevue, dej. 2l/a, D. 3 fr. — Furnished Houses. — Sea-Baths. Bathing-box 20 c, costume 40 c, peignoir 15 c, towel 10 c.

Lion-sur-Mer is the leading watering-place on the W. coast of Calvados, though it is even less pretentious than Houlgate or Ca- bourg and has no casino. The whole coast to the "W. of Caen, though a little shingly, is very suitable for bathing, and at places it rises in cliffs of some height. At certain points the end of the season is apt to be accelerated by the smell of the sea-weed cast up in large quantities by the sea, which though used as manure by the peasants, is seldom wholly carted away before it begins to decay. There are few distractions at these watering-places beyond those offered by the sea and the beach. The bathing-boxes are large enough to be let (25-45 fr. per month) as day-quarters for visitors.

13^2 M. Haut-Lion has a Renaissance chateau.

15 M. Luc-sur-Mer. — Hotels. Belle-Plage, R., L., & A. 2'/i-5Vi, B. 1, dej. 3, D. 3>/2 fr.; du Petit-Enfer, pens, from 7 fr., both on the beach.

— Sea-Baths. Bathing-box 40, costume 30-60, 'peignoir' 30 or 40, towel 10 c.

— Casino. Adm. 1 fr., subs, for a week 7, fortnight 13, month 10 fr.; family-tickets less.

Luc-sur-Mer, which has a small harbour, is the oldest though not now the pleasantest or most frequented bathing-place on this coast. It possesses a tolerable Casino. — The Faculte des Sciences

Baedeker's Northern France. 3rd Edit. 12

178 Route 23. ST. AUBIN-SUR-MER.

of Caen maintains a Maritime Laboratory at the E. end of the heach of Luc, in the direction of Lion.

III. From Luc-sur-Mer to langrune, St. Aubin-sur-Mer, and Courseulles.

V2, 13A, and 5 M. Railway in 3-5, 10-12, and 18-20 minutes.

The footpath along the shore to Langrune and St. Aubin, which are respectively 3/4 M. and 2 M. to the W. of Luc, is shorter than the road past the railway-station, which lies 5-600 yds. from the beach. — Omnibus tramway from Luc to Bernieres, 40 c.

Beyond Luc the railway runs close to the shore. The Rochers du Caluados in the sea are said to derive their name from the 'Salvador', a vessel belonging to the 'Invincible Armada', wrecked here in 1538.

15 M. (from Caen) Langrune. — Hotels. De la Terkasse, on the shore outside the village, halfway to St. Aubin (see below); de Belle vue, D. 3 fr. ; de la Mek, with cafe. — Bathing-box 30 c.

Langrune resembles Luc in its general characteristics, hut it is only 3/4 M. by the shore from Luc and 1 M. from St. Aubin, both of which have casinos. The Church has an elegant stone spire dating from the 13-14th cent, and contains a fine stone pulpit.

16 M. St. Aubin-sur-Mer. — Hotels. De la Terkasse, halfway to Langrune (see above); de Paris, with the casino; St. Aubin, Bellevde, well-situated on the beach; de la Marine, on the outskirts. — Sea-Baths as at Langrune. — Casino, near the E. end of the beach, adm. 50 c. and 1 fr. ; less to subscribers. — Gafi de VUnivers, near the Casino.

St. Aubin-sur-Mer, though only a village like Langrune, with a shingly beach, is on the whole a better sea-bathing place. It has a long 'Terrasse', on the beach, backed by attractive villas, and pos- sesses oyster-beds.

17V2 M. Bernieres (Vigne; de la Mer) also has a few bathing- boxes and an interesting church dating from the ll-13th centuries.

19'/2M. Courseulles {Hot. des Etrangers; de Paris, on the beach, near the station), at the mouth of the Seulles, carries on an active trade in oysters. Its sea-baths are the most primitive on this coast and the most exposed to the sea-weed annoyance. They are at some little distance from the town, and the beach is still in its pristine roughness. The oyster-beds are between the station and the harbour.

At Creully, 5'f-i M. up the valley of the Seulles, is a fine old cha- teau of the 12-16th cent. ; the ruined Priory of St. Gabriel, i'/a M. farther on, dates from the 11th, 13th, and 15th centuries.

A steam-tramwny is to be built along the coast from Courseulles via (3'/z M.) Ver-mr-Mer (Hotel Villa-des-Arts), with sea-baths, and (7 M.) Asnel- les (p. 161) to Port-en-Bessin (p. 161).

24. From Cherbourg to Brest.

(Qranville, Mont St. Michel, St. Malo.)

262 M. Rail wat in 13'/2 hrs. (fares 51 fr. 95, 38 fr. 95, 28 fr. 60 c). — To Granville, changing carriages at Folligny (p. 187), 91 M., in 41/* hrs. (fares 15 fr. 45, 10 fr. 45, 6 fr. 75 c). — To Mont St. Michel. Railway to (100 M.) Pontorson in 5'/2 hrs. (p. 181; fares 19 fr. 95, 14 fr. 95, 10 fr. 95 c); thence (5>/2 M.) by railway-diligence or omnibus (see p. 227). — To St. Malo, changing carriages at Dol (p. 222; halt of 1 hr. 40 min.), 126 M., in 9'/2 hrs-

COUTANCES. 24. Route. 179

(fares 25 fr. 45, 19 fr. 10, 13 fr. 5 c). — Considerable halts at one or more intermediate stations on all these routes.

Cherbourg, see p. 162. The train follows the line to Paris as far as (11 M.) Sottevast (p. 162), where it diverges to the S., travers- ing an undulating and wooded district.

16 M. Bricquebec ( Vieux-Chateau), a small town with an impos- ing ruined Castle of the 14-16th cent., and an interesting Church in the Transition style. Near the castle is a bronze statue, by Canova, of General Lemarois (1776-1836), a native of the town.

22i/2 M. Nehou. — 25 M. St. Sauveur-le- Vicomte is commanded by the ruins of a chateau and an abbey, dating from the 10-llth centuries. — 33 M. La Haye-du-Puits, with an old ruined castle, is also a station on the line from Carentan to Carteret (p. 161).

36 M. Angoville-sur-Ay.— 38 M. Lessay, with a fine abbey-church (11th cent.), is the station for the small sea-baths of St. Germain- sur-Ay, 33/4 M. to the N.W. (2 1/2 M. to the W. of Angoville), and Pirou, 41/2 M. to the S.W. — 45 M. Periers, with an interesting church (14-16th cent.). Beyond (48i/2M.) St. Sauveur-Lendelin we join the line from Lison (p. 1G1).

571/2 M. Coutances (Buffet; Hotel de France; d'Angleterre; du Dauphin; des Trois Rois, well spoken of), a picturesquely situated town with 7400 inhab. and the seat of a bishop, is of ancient origin. , .i'3 °?™.e if derived from Constantius Chlorus, who is believed to have tortihed it in the third century. It suffered much from the incursions of l-n i^ST8' aS well.a? subsequently in the English wars. From 1417

lancet4?n156'iri5TPl063 andthlo6inSUSh' ^ HUgUen°tS Cap'Ured ^ The most conspicuous building is the fine Gothic *Cathedral, dating in great part from the 13th cent., with two W. towers and a beautiful central * Tower of great boldness, which forms a fine lantern in the interior. Mr. Ruskin, in his 'Lectures on Architec- ture', singles out the W. towers of this church as showing one of the earliest examples (if not the very earliest) of the fully developed spire, and points out 'the complete domesticity of the work ; the evident treatment of the church spire merely as a magnified house-roof. The tower should be ascended both for the sake of inspecting it and for the sake of the view from the top, which embraces St. Malo and the island of Jersey. In the interior the chief points of interest in- clude the triforium and the beautiful rose-windows in the nave, the double ambulatory in the choir, with its coupled columns, the Gothic high-altar of the 18th cent., and some Gothic bas-reliefs in the last chapel on the right before the choir. — A little to the S.E. is the simple and attractive Gothic Church of St. Pierre (14-16th cent ) containing finely carved choir-stalls. — To the N.E., in the garden H-rao aqo^ de Justice> is a statue of Lebrun, Due de Plaisance »^ ^' Wh° Was torn near c°utances. — Behind the small

Musee is a fine Public Garden, in the suburb beyond which is a ruined Aqueduct, erected in the 14th and restored in the 16th century.


180 Route 24^ AVRANCHES.

An excursion may be made from Coutances to the picturesque ruined Abbey of Hambye, about 14 M. to the S.E. The ruins seem to date mainly from the 15th century.

A diligence plies from Coutances station to ("P/a M.) Coutainville (Grand Hotel, etc.), a sea-bathing place, via (5 M.) Tourville and (6 M.) Agon.

Beyond Coutances we enjoy a fine retrospect of the town. 62 M. Orval-Eyenville, 2l/2 M. from which is the sea-hathing resort of Montmartin. Beyond (64 M.) Quettreville the Sienne is crossed.

75 M. Folligny (Buffet) is the junction of the line from Paris to Granville (R. 25). — Beyond (82 M.) Montviron-Sartilly we catch a glimpse of Mont St. Michel to the right. The See is crossed.

86'/2 M. Avranches (Ilotel de Londres; de France; d' Angleterre ; Bonneau, near the station, moderate), one of the oldest towns in Normandy, with 7845 inhab., is picturesquely situated on a hill on the left hank of the See, commanding an exquisite and justly famed

  • View of the Bay of St. Michel. The direct footpath to the town leads

to the right from the station, hut carriages must make a detour to the left ( omnibus 45 c, at night 60 c, luggage 20 c).

The name of the town is derived from the Abrincalae, who are men- tioned by Pliny. The Civitas Abrincatum was one of the important cities in the Second Lugdunensis in the 5th century. The bishopric of Avranches was probably founded in the Gth century. From 1421 till 1450 the town was occupied by the English. Avranches suffered severely at the hands of the Huguenots ; and in 1591 it stubbornly resisted the troops of Henri IV, on the ground that he was a Protestant. In July, 1639, the revolt of the Nu-Pieds, or armed rising of the peasantry against the 'Gabelle', broke out at Avranches. The rising was put down with relentless cruelty.

Avranches is a favourite resort of English visitors, and English church services are held here at 11 and 5 in summer, and at 11 and 3.30 in winter.

Avranches at- one time possessed a beautiful Norman-Gothic cathedral, hut it was destroyed in 1790, and only a few shapeless ruins in front of the Sous-Prefecture are left to recall it. An inscrip- tion on a broken column indicates the spot where Henry II. of England did humble penance in 1172 for the murder of Thomas Becket. The Place commands a fine view. The Bishop's Garden, to the right, farther on, contains a marble statue, by Cartellier, of O'eneral Valhubert (1764-1805), who was born at Avranches. The old Bishop's Palace, dating from the 15th cent., is now occupied by law-courts and by a small Musee of antiquities, paintings, and natural history. A little to the S. is Notre-Dame-des-Champs, the principal church in the town, recently rebuilt in a mixed Gothic style of the 13-14th centuries. The stained windows are fine. The church of St. Saturnin, a few yards to the left of the apse of Notre-Dame, has also been restored in a similar style. The interesting Jardin des Plantes (good view) is entered from the E. side of the square in front of Notre-Dame. The church of St. Oervais, nearer the centre of the town, dates from the 17th century.

Beyond Avranches the railway recrosses the See, and beyond (91 M.) Pontaubault it crosses the Selune by a lofty bridge (branch- line to Vire via Mortain, see p. 187). — 96 M. Servon-Tanis.

ST. CYR. 25. Route. 181

100 M. Pontorson, Pontorson and Mont St. Michel, see p. 227. Railway to Fougeres and Vitre, see p. 207.

Our line crosses the railway to Vitre' and the river Couesnon, the boundary between Normandy and Brittany. — 116 M. Dol (Buffet), the junction of the line from Rennes to St. Malo (see p. 222J. At (124 M.) Miniac-Morvan a branch-line diverges to La Gouesnicre- Cancale (see p. 230). Between (127 M.) Pleudihen and (1291/2 M.J La Hisse the railway twice crosses the picturesque valley of the Ranee (p. 230) by viaducts, 100 ft. in height.

1331/2 M. Dinan, see p. 230.

139 M. Corseul, an important strategic point held by the Romans, is identified with the capital of the Curiosilites or the Fanum Martis of the Theodosian Itinerary. I441/2 M. Planco'et (Hot. des Voyageurs), pleasantly situated in the valley of the Arguenon.

From Plancoet diligences ply to the N. and N.W. to (6 M.) St. Jacut- de-hi-Mer and to (8V2 M.) St. Cast [(diligence also from Dinard, see p. 226). — St. Jacut-de-la-Mer (Hot. des Dunes; des Bains; Convent-Pension) is a small seaport and bathing-resort, near which are the picturesque ruined Chateau dti Guildo and the Pierres Sonnantes de St. Jacut , rocks which emit a re- sonant note when struck. — The diligence to the small village of St. Cast passes (5'/2 M.) Matignon (Hot. des Voyageurs), not far from the Chateau du Guildo (see above), and (8 M.) La Garde-St-Cast (H&t. de la Plage), a bathing-place with a sandy beach. — To the N.W. of St. Cast are the (7>/2 M.) old Fort de la latte and the (10 M.) Cap Frihel, with fine cliff scenery (steamer from St. Malo, see p. 223).

1481/2 M. Landebia. The train now traverses a wood. 158 M. Lamballe, and thence to Brest, see pp. 213-218.

25 . From Paris to Granville.

205 M. Railwat (Chemin de Fer de VOuest, Rive Gauche) in 6V4-IOV2 hrs. (fares 36 fr. 85, 24 fr. 90, 16 fr. 25 c). The express trains start from the Gare St. Lazare (PI. C, 16), most of the others from the Gare Montparnasse (PI. G, 16). — To Mont St. Michel, see pp. 187, 188. Comp. the Map, p. 100.

5^2 M. Bellevue is the only station between Paris and Versailles at which the trains stop. — 11 M. Versailles, see Baedeker's Paris. The palace and park are seen to the right, beyond a tunnel. To the left is the fortified plateau of Satory.

14 M. St. Cyr, famous for its military school, founded in 1806, numbering 1200 cadets between the ages of 16 and 20. The building, which is well seen from the train (to the right), was originally oc- cupied by a school for daughters of the nobility, founded by Mine, de Maintenon, and for these 'Demoiselles' Racine wrote his dramas of 'Esther' and 'Athalie'. Railway to Brittany, see R. 28.

21 M. Plaisir-Grignon. Grignon possesses a well-known Agri- cultural Institute, established in a fine chateau of the 17th century. — Branch to (12 M.) Epone-Mezieres (p. 44) under construction. — 25 M. Villiers-Neauphle. At Pontel near Neauphle is the 17th cent. Chateau de Pontchartrain.

28 M. Montfort-V Amaury. The little town, which lies about

182 Route 25. DREUX. From Paris

l3/4 M. to the left of the station, contains an interesting church of the 15-16th cent., and the ruined castle (10th cent.) of the Comtes de Montfort, which was the birthplace of Simon de Montfort, the able though cruel leader in the campaign against the Afbigenses and the father of the famous Earl of Leicester.

The castle at (3972 M.) Houdan (Hot. du Plat - d'Etain), of which the donjon and a round tower with four turrets still stand, also belonged to the counts of Montfort. It was built in 1105- 1137; the Gothic church dates from the previous century. — 46 M. Marchezais-Broue. The river Eure is now crossed. To the right appears Dreux.

51 M. Dreux (Buffet; Hotel de France, Rue St. Martin 24, E., L., & A. 2V2-3V2, B- 174) dej. 23/4,'D. 3 fr. ; du Paradis, Grande Rue 51), with 9718 inhab., is situated on the Blaise, a tributary of the Eure, at the base of a hill on which rise the ruined castle and the Chapelle Royale.

Dreux is a place of high antiquity. Known to the Romans as Duro- cassis or Drocae, in the territory of the Carnutes, it was annually the scene of a great meeting of the Gauls. In the middle ages it gave name to a famous family of counts, which, however, became extinct in 1378. In 1562 the Boman Catholics under the Due de Guise defeated the Protestants in a most sanguinary battle near Dreux, and captured their leader, the Prince of Conde. In 1590, and again in 1593, Henri IV besieged the town; and on the second occasion he destroyed the castle. The Germans made themselves masters of the town in Nov., 1870, after a short resistance.

Quitting the station and crossing the river, we soon reach the Place MeUzeau, named in honour of two famous architects of Dreux, who flourished in the 10th and 17th centuries. Opposite us are the church of St. Pierre and the Hotel de Ville.

The Church of St. Pierre, a Gothic edifice of the 13-15th cent., also shows traces of the handiwork of the Mete'zeaus. Only one of its two towers has been finished (in the 16th cent.); and the exterior generally has been much injured by the flight of time. The Lady Chapel and the chapels of the aisles contain some good old stained glass, restored in modern times. The former has also a fine organ- case, designed in 1614 by Clement Me'tezeau, the constructor of the breakwater at La Rochelle.

The Hotel de Ville, which resembles a large square donjon, was built between 1502 and 1537 and illustrates the transition from the mediaeval to the Renaissance style. The facade on the side farthest from the Place is flanked by two turrets with crow-stepped angles, and is embellished with blind arcades and elaborate carving round the door and windows. The staircase and the vaulting in the interior should be noticed. A clock of the 16th cent., a few works of art, and the small library are also shown to visitors.

The route to the Chapelle Royale crosses the square in front of the Hotel de Ville (to the left, the Hospital Chapel, of the 17th cent.) and follows the Grande Rue and the Rue des Tanneurs (leading to the left to the modern Palais de Justice). We next turn to the right,

to Granville. DREUX. 25. Route. 183

follow a lane behind the Palais de Justice, and finally pass through a small gateway to the left. The remains of the Castle, part of which is seen as we ascend, are insignificant. The Chapelle occupies part of the outer ward, which has been converted into a fine public prom- enade (open daily till 6 p.m. in summer, 4 p.m. in winter).

It is advisable to examine the exterior of the chapel before applying at the gate for admission (fee). The visitor should not hurry over his inspection of the interior, especially as he quits the building by a side- door in the crypt, without returning to the nave. — Mass on Sun. at 10 a.m.

The *Ghapellb Royalb, or Chapelle St. Louis, is a handsome and highly interesting erection, in spite of the medley of architectural styles which it presents. It was begun in 1816 by the Dowager Duchess of Orle'ans, mother of Louis Philippe, and enlarged and completed by her son as a burial-place for the Orle'ans family. In 1876 the remains of the exiled Louis Philippe and his queen were transferred hither from their temporary tombs at "Weybridge in Eng- land. The principal part of the chapel, and the first built, is the rotunda, 80 ft. high, crowned by a dome 43 ft. in diameter. The nave, the apse, and the transepts, which were afterwards added so as to form a Greek cross, are all very short. The strange appearance of the pile is heightened by four balustrades which run round the out- side of the dome, one above the other. On either side of the main entrance is an octagonal turret, in open stone-work; and the portal itself is lavishly ornamented with sculptures, representing the Angel of the Resurrection, the Eternal Father, Ecce Homo, St. Louis beneath the oak-tree at Vincennes, the Apostles (on the door), etc.

The Interior is even more gorgeous than the exterior, and produces the effect of being over-loaded. The first objects to attract attention in the part of the church used for service are the magnificent 'Stained Windows. In the Nave, to the right, Christ in Gethsemane and St. Arnold washing the feet of pilgrims; to the left, Crucifixion and St. Adelaide giving alms, after Lariviere; in the Transepts, Twelve saints, after Ingres; in the cu- pola, Descent of the Holy Ghost, after Lariviire. Many of the sculptures, which are unfortunately difficult to see, are fine; they include statues, bas-reliefs, and stalls. — The funeral monuments are arranged in the Apse, to which steps descend behind the altar. At the sides are marble statues, by Pradier, above the tombs of the young Due de Penthievre and of a young Princes-e de Montpensier. At the foot of the steps is the monument of Louis Philippe (d. 1850) and his consort, Marie Amilie (d. 1866), with a group of the deceased by Mercier. To the right is the tomb of the Princess Marie, Duchess of Wurtemberg (d. 1839), with her effigy, by Lemaire, and a beautiful statue of the Angel of Resignation, sculptured by herself; then the tombs of the Duke of Orle'ans (d. 1842), with a statue by Loison, after Ary Scheffer, and of the Duchess of Orle'ans (Helena of Mecklenburg-Sehwerin ; d. 1858), with a statue by Chapu. To the left of the altar rest Mme. Adilaide (d. 1847), sister of Louis Philippe, with a statue by Millet (1877), the Dowager Duchess of Orlians (d. 1821), foundress of the chapel, with a statue by Barre the Younger, and the Princess of Salerno (d. 1881), mother-in-law of the Due d'Aumale, with a statue by A. Lenoir. There are other tombs in the crypt of the ambulatory, some unoccupied and some without monuments. Among the statues here the most noteworthy are those of two youthful Princes de Montpensier, by Millet; and the charming group by Franceschi, marking the grave of two children of the Comte de Paris. The Duchesse d'Aumale (d. 1859; statue by Lenoir) and the Due d'Aumale (d. 1897) are also interred here. — On each side steps lead down to the Crypt proper. The four mag-

184 Route 25. VERNEUIL. From Paris

nificent "Stained Windows, representing scenes from the life of St. Louis, were designed "by Rouget , Jacquant, E. Delacroix^ E. Watlier, H. Vernet, Bouton, and H. Flandrin. Most of the five other "Stained Windows in the passages, representing scenes from the Passion, were designed hy Lariviere. All the stained glass used in the chapel was made at Sevres. — The large crypt beneath the rotunda and the smaller one heneath the sanctuary con- tain other tombs and funeral urns.

After the circuit of the promenades has been made and the views enjoyed, there is little more to be seen at Dreux. In the square at the end of the Rue de Rotrou, to the N. of St. Pierre, is a bronze statue, by J. J. Allasseur, of Rotrou, the dramatic poet (1609-50), who was born at Dreux.

A branch-railway runs from Dreux through the valley of the Eure to (17 M.) Maintenon, passing (8V2 M.) Nogent-le-Roi, near which is Coulombs, with the ruins of a Romanesque abbey.

From Dreux to Chartres (Orleans) and to Bveil and Rouen, see p. 59.

Beyond (56'/2 M.) St-Germain-St-Remy the railway crosses the Arve, a tributary of the Eure, and traverses a pastoral district, dotted with manufactories. 60 M. Nonancourt, on the Arve ; 67 M. Tillieres, also on the Arve, in a picturesque little valley to the right.

73 M. Verneuil (Hot. du Commerce), a town with 4330 inhab., was fortified in the 12th cent, by Henry I. of England. The battle of Verneuil, fought in 1424 between the English under the Duke of Bedford and the French, resulted in the defeat of the latter. The church of La Madeleine, a remarkable edifice of the ll-17th cent., has a lofty and elegant Gothic Tower of 1506-36, to the left of which is a poor porch, still bearing the inscription 'Temple de la Raison'.

Interior (recently restored). Above the Gothic arches of the nave are round arches. Several of the stained-glass windows and various works of art date from the 15th and 16th cent., while some of the more modern works are noteworthy. Choir-stalls of the 16th cent. ; interesting iron pulpit.

In the street to the left as we quit the church is a House of the 15th cent, with a turret displaying a checquered pattern in stone, brick, and flint. The Rue du Canon leads thence to the church of St. Lawrence (partly 16th cent.) and the Tour Grise, an ancient keep 65 ft. high (accessible to visitors). — The church of Notre-Dame (12-16th cent.) contains a number of interesting sculptures, and has also some good stained glass. — The Tour St. Jean, dating partly from the 15th cent., belongs to a secularized church.

The branch-line from livreux (p. 156) is continued beyond Verneuil to (2431.) La Loupe, via (IOV2M.) La Ferti-Vidame-Lamblore and (18 M.) Senonches ■

79 M. Bourth. The train now enters the Forest of Laigle, and beyond the two branch-railways mentioned below crosses the Rule.

87Y2M. Laigle (Buffet; I' Aigle-d' Or ; duDauphin), anin- dustrial town with 5125 inhab., situated on the Risle, manufactures needles, pins, buckles, etc. The Gothic church of St. Martin, near the railway, to the left, has a handsome tower (15th cent.).

A branch runs from Laigle to (25'/2 M.) Mortagne (p. 199), via the Foret du Perche and (IOV2 M.) Tourowvre. — To Conches (Evreux), see p. 157.

The railway continues to ascend the valley of the Risle, and crosses the river twice. — 97 M. Ste. Gauburge.

to Granville. ARGENTAN. 25. Route. 185

A branch-railway runs hence to (211/* M.) Mortayne (p. 199), via (11 M.) Soligny - la - Trappe , 2'/'2 M. to the N.E. of which is the monastery of La Trappe or Z<* Grande Trappe, in a wild situation near a pond ('trappe'), hut otherwise uninteresting. The monastery, founded in the 12th cent., was most famous under the Abbe de Ranee (d. 1700), who introduced the rule of strict silence, hard work, and plain fare. Expelled at the Revolution, the monks returned in 1815 ; and in 1833 the new monastery and church were consecrated. The Romanesque chapel was added in 1892.

Branches from Ste. Gauburge to Bernay and to Le Mesnil-Mauger, see p. 158.

104 M. Le Merlerault, a pleasantly situated little town. Be- fore reaching the station of (107 M.) Nonant - le - Pin the train passes, on the right, St. Germdin-de-Clairefeuille , the church of which (14-15th cent.) contains some fine, though mutilated, wood- carving, and several antique paintings upon panel. — 113 M. Sur- don (Buffet). Railway to Alencon, etc., see R. 26.

From (115'/2 M.) Almeneches a diligence plies to the village of Mortree, 3'/2 M. to the S., in the neighbourhood of which are the Chateau d'O, a magnificent editice of the Renaissance, and the Cha- teau de Clerai, of a somewhat later period. The railway now crosses the Orne, and Argentan comes into view to the right.

122 M. Argentan {Buffet; Hotel des Trois -Maries, Rue de la Chaussee; de I'Ouest, at the station) is a town with 6300inhab., situated on the Orne. The * Church of St. Germain, reached by the Rue de la Chaussee, dates from the late-Gothic and Renaissance periods. The W. tower is crowned by a Renaissance dome, and the tower over the crossing forms a fine internal lantern. The nave con- tains two galleries, with balustrades, and the transepts terminate in apses. The ambulatory is in the Renaissance style. The vaulting, the choir-screen, the altars in the choir and S. transept, and the organ should be noticed.

Near the church, to the S., stands the Hotel de Ville, behind which extends a large square. Near the Hotel de Ville, to the right, is a ruined donjon, and close by, to the left, is the old Chateau (15th cent.), now used as the Palais de Justice or court-house. In front of the last is a small square, embellished with a monument in honour of Mezerai (1610-83), the historian, Ch. Eudes d'Houay (1611-99), the surgeon, and Jean Eudes (1601-80), founder of the Eudiste's. To the right of the palais is the old Gothic church of St. Nicolas ; to the left is the promenade known as the Cours.

The Rue du Griffon, diverging from the Rue de la Chausse'e near St. Germain, leads to the other side of the town, where are situated the large round Tour Marguerite, with a peaked roof, a relic of the fortifications, and the Gothic church of St. Martin, in which, however, the gallery and the balustrade beneath the windows are in the Renaissance style.

Argentan is also a station on the railway from Caen (Falaise) to AUn- gon and Le Mans (see R. 26). — Diligence to (15 M.) Carrougei (p. 199).

The railway quits the valley of the Orne, after crossing the river. 128 M. Ecouche, beyond which the monotonous plain melts

186 Route 25. FLERS. From Paris

into a pleasant and undulating country, with meadows and woods. Attractive and extensive view to the left. — 140 M. Briouze (Poste), a little town carrying on a trade in cattle and granite.

Fkom Beiouze to Couterne, I81/2 M., railway in l!/4-2 hrs. (fares 3 fr. 35, 2 fr. 25, 1 fr. 50 c.)- — 4 M. Lonlay, with an abbey-church of the 11th and 16th cent.; 8>/2 M. La Ferti-Maci (Cheval Noir), a village with 7775 inhab., carrying on the manufacture of ticking. — 131/z M. Bagnoles- de-l'Ome (Hdtel des Bains; de Paris; de BagnoUs), a hamlet situated in a deep rocky gorge on the Vie, a tributary of the Mayenne. It possesses one sulphurous (warm) and two chalybeate Springs, producing a strong sedative effect and used both internally and externally. A casino, a park, a lake, and pretty walks are among the attractions. — 18l/4 M. Couterne, see p. 199.

148 M. Messei is also served by the railway to Domfront (p. 193).

151 M. Flers (Buffet; Hotel de V Europe; de VOuest; du Gros- Chene, at the station), a modern cotton-manufacturing town with 13,400 inhab., agreeably situated on a hill to the right. It has a fine Norman church. In the neighbourhood is a Chateau, part of which dates from the 16th century.

Flers is also a station on the railway from Caen to Laval (see p. 192).

154 M. Caligni - Cerisy is also a station on the line to Caen (p. 192). — 1571/2 M. Montsecret-Vassy.

A branch-railway runs hence to Sourdeval via (5 M.) Tinchebray (Lion d'Or), a small industrial town, with manufactures of hardware. At the battle of Tinchebray in 1106 Henry I. of England defeated and captured his elder brother Robert Curthose, Duke of Normandy. — 16 M. Sourde- val (Poste) is a similar small industrial town, which is also a station on the railway from Vire to Mortain (see p. 187).

164 M. Viessoix. Fine view to the right as we approach Vire.

168 M. Vire (Hot. St. Pierre, Rue du Calvados; Cheval Blanc, Rue anx Fevres), an old town with 6600 inhab., picturesquely situ- ated on a hill washed by the river of the same name, is an important woollen-manufacturing centre and carries on trade in the granite quarried in the neighbourhood. Much of the blue cloth used for mili- tary uniforms in France is made here.

The long Rue du Calvados ascends to the right from the station to the town. At the top C/2 M.) , in the Rue aux Fevres (to the right), is the square Tour de I'Horloge, with a Gothic gateway of the 13th cent., flanked by two round crenelated towers.

To the left, near the end of the Rue de la Saulnerie, rises the Church of Notre-Dame,& large Gothic structure of the 12-l5th cent., with double aisles and a central tower. Like most of the other build- ings of Vire, it is built of granite. In the interior, to the left of the choir, is a tasteful Gothic door. The high-altar, in gilt bronze, is embellished with statues; the altar in the N. transept is also orna- mented with statues and bas-reliefs, and that in the S. transept with a Pieta ; and the large chapel, to the right of the sanctuary, contains a painted and gilded altar-piece with twisted columns. This chapel also contains the font, encircled by a tasteful balustrade, and two interesting paintings. The polychrome painting in the choir and two carved wooden pillars below the organ are noteworthy. — The

to Granville. VIRE. 25. Route. 187

adjoining Place Nationale is embellished with a bust, by Le- harivel-Durocher, of Chenedolle, the poet (1769-1833), who was born at Vire; and with a Monument to 1789, consisting of a column with a statue of the Republic (erected in 1889).

The ruins of the Chateau, seen from the Place, are scanty, but they occupy a picturesque situation on the brow of a rocky penin- sula, dominating the charming valley of the Vire. A promenade leads to the chateau, which commands a fine view of the lower town.

In this valley in the 15th cent, dwelt Olivier Basselin, the fuller, to whom are attributed the famous drinking-songs, which, known as 'Vaux- de Vire', gave origin to the modern term 'Vaudeville'. The real author was Jean le Houx, who nourished at the close of the 16th century.

This part of the town, called the Valherel, possesses the hand- some modem Norman Church of St. Anne, with a central tower. The choir is adorned with paintings and statues, and there are twenty- five statues in the arcades beneath the windows of the apse.

The Grande Rue, leading from the front of the church to the upper town, passes through the Place de l'H6tel-de-Ville, in which rises a bronze statue, by Debay, of Castel (1758-1832), another native poet of Vire. The crenelated Tower behind is disfigured by modern additions. — The Hotel de Ville contains a Library and a small Musee (Sun. & Thurs., 2-4 ; to strangers on other days also) of paintings, coins, porcelain, carvings, antiquities, curiosities, etc. — In the Public Garden, behind the Hotel de Ville, is a marble statue of Marshal de Matignon (1525-97), attributed to Coustou.

A branch-railway runs from Vire to (221/:; M.) Mortain (Avranches) via the valley of the Vire and Sourdeval (p. 186). Mortain (Poste) is a pictur- esquely situated little town, on a rocky eminence rising from the Gance. The Church is an interesting example of the Transition style. The rocky valley of the Canee is attractive, especially above Mortain, at the Petit Sirninaire, the ancient Abbape Blanche (12- 13th cent.). A good view is obtained from the Chapelle St. Michel, on a neighbouring hill. From Mortain to Bom- front, see p. 193. — The line proceeds to the W. via (36 M.) St. Hilaire- du-Harcouet (branch to Fougeres, p. 207), and joins the line to Avranches at (51 M.) Pontaubault (p. 180).

Beyond Vire the railway to Granville crosses the Vire. Fine view to the right. 174 M. St. Sever, to the left, with an abbey-church, part of which dates from the 13th century. — 181 M. Villedieu-les- Poeles, a small town on the Sienne, to the right, contains numerous boiler-works. The church dates from the 15-16th centuries.

The railway now follows a lofty curved embankment, and crosses the pretty valley of the Airou. On the left, the railway to Avran- ches. — 195 M. Folligny [Buffet; Hotels, near the station).

Railway from Folligny to Coulances, Pontorson (Mont St. Michel), etc., see p. 180.

Beyond (200 M.) St. Planchers we descend the valley of the Bosq.

205 M. Granville. — Hotels. Grand Hotel du Koed et des Trois Couronnes, in the lower town, near the harbour, dear; Grand Hotel, at the beginning of the lower town; *de Paris, Rue du Cours-Jonville, E., L., &A. 2i/2 fr., B. 50-60 c, d6j. 21/2, D. 23/4 fr. incl. cider; des Bains, nearer the beach; Hoellegatte, Cours Jonville; Tivoli. — Cafi-Restcmrant. du Casino, dej. 4, D. 5 fr.; other cafe's in the Rue Lecampion.

188 Route 25. GRANVILLE.

Sea-Baths. Bathing-box 30, costume 50, bathing-drawers 20, peignoir20, towel 10 c. — Casino. Adm. 1 fr. ; subs, for a week 8, fortnight 15, season 30 fr.; family-tickets less in proportion.

British Vice-Consul, General MacLeod.

Granville, a small fortified seaport, with 12,000 inhab., at the mouth of the Bosq , is said to have been originally founded in the 12th century. The English fortified it in 1640 but lost it the following year. They burned it in 1695 and bombarded it in 1808. It consists of two distinct parts , viz. the lower town, the larger half, between the station and the harbour, and the upper town, perched on a steep rock extending into the sea and surround- ed with the old fortifications. The street beginning at the station leads to the Cours Jonville, whence the Rue Lecampion descends, to the left, to the Harbour, which is frequented by numerous fish- ing-boats and a few coasting-vessels. A street diverging from the Cours Jonville a little farther on leads to the beach (see below).

The upper town, reached directly from the harbour, is small but commands a fine view from its unique position. The Gothic Church of Notre-Dame (15-16th cent.) contains some good modern stained glass. A path to the N.E., outside the fortifications, leads down to the Beach, on the opposite side of the town from the harbour. The path passes at the end through the 'Tranchee aux Anglais', a narrow passage between two rocks , beyond which is the firm sandy beach. The Bathing Establishment and the small Casino are situated here. The women of Granville wear a picturesque headdress of white linen.

The small sea-bathing resort of St. Pair (omn. at the station; 75 c.) lies about 2Vz M. to the S.

From Granville to Aveanches. — a. By Railway, 21 M., in l-l'^hr. (fares 3 fr. 80, 2 fr. 55, 1 fr. 70 c), see pp. 187, 180. — b. By the Coast Road, 20 M., omnibus once daily or oftener in the season (fare 3 fr.; return- fare 5 fr.). The omnibus sometimes takes the shorter (16 M.) but less picturesque route via. Sartilly. The coast-road leads by the following villages and sea-bathing resorts : 21/2 M. St. Pair (see above) ; 5 M. Jullou- ville; 7 M. Bouillon; 8 M. St. Michel-des-Lmips ; 10 M. Champeaux; IOV2 M. St. Jean-le-Thomas; etc. — 20 M. Avranches, see p. 180.

Fkom Granville to Mont St. Michel. Railway to (35 M.) Pontorson (fares 6 fr. 25, i fr. 25, 2 fr. 75 c); thence to Mont St. Michel, see p. 227; about 4 hrs. in all (return-fares, incl. omnibus, 8 fr. 75, 7 fr. 25 c, 6 fr.). — Railway to (9'/2 M.) Folligny, see p. 187; thence to Mont St. Michel, see pp. 178, 227. — In the season an omnibus plies direct from Granville to Mont St. Michel (return-fare 6 fr.).

From Granville to Jersey, 28 M. Steamers ply from the Grand Bas- sin on Mon., Wed., and Frid. (returning Tues., Tnurs., Frid.) in summer, and twice weekly (Mon. and Thurs.) at other times, in 3'/2 hrs. (fares 10 fr., 6V4 fr. ; return 15 fr., 9 fr. 40c); the hours of departure vary. Return- tickets are available for a month and allow the return-journey to be made via. Carteret (p. 161) or via, St. Malo (comp. p. 223).

About 71/2 M. out the steamboat passes the lies Chausey, a group of 52 islets telonging to France, all mere barren and uninhabited rocks ex- cept the Grande He, which is remarkable for its luxuriant vegetation. Steamboats ply from Granville to the Grande He every Sun. (return-fare 3 fr.). — Jersey and the other Channel Islands, see Baedeker's Great Britain.


26. From Caen to Le Mans via Alencon. Falaise.

104 M. Railway in 4-5!/2 hrs. (fares 18 fr. SO, 12 fr. 75, 8 fr. 25 c). To AUngon, 69 M., in 23A-33A hrs. (fares 12 fr.. 55, 8 fr. 40, 5 fr. 45 c); to Falaise, 30>/2 M., in l'/j-2 hrs. (fares 5 fr. 80, 3 fr. 95, 2 fr. 55 c).

Caen, see p. 166. Our train follows the Paris railway to (15 M.) Mezidon (p. 158), then turns to the S. and ascends the valley of the Dives. — 19'/2 M. St. Pierre-sur-Dives, a small town to the left, possesses a Gothic abbey-church with three fine towers, one of which is a relic of an earlier Norman building. 23 M. Vendeuvre- Jort. 27 M. Couliboeuf is the junction of a line to (4 M.) Falaise (see helow), where it joins a line to (18'/2 M.) Berjou (see p. 192). Continuation of the railway to Le Mans, see p. 190.

Falaise (Hotel de Normandie, Rue Amiral-Courbet, to the left of the main street; Grand Cerf, farther on, beyond the market- place), a town with 8163inhab., is picturesquely situated on a rocky height, on the right hank of the Ante, a small affluent of the Dives.

William the Conqueror was horn here in 1027. His mother was the daughter of a simple tanner of Falaise, who won the heart of Robert the Magnificent, also called Robert the Devil, sixth Duke of Normandy. Wil- liam's successors, the kings of England, remained in more or less peace- able possession of the town until 1450, when it was finally captured by Charles VII. of France. Falaise underwent one siege more in 1590, when it was occupied hy the Leaguers and retaken by Henri IV.

The town lies to the right as we approach from Couliboeuf; to the left is the suburb of Guibray (p. 190). The Rue d'Argentan descends directly to the Place St. Gervais and the river. The Church of St. Oervais is a Norman and Gothic edifice, the most noteworthy feature of which is the fine Norman tower above the transept. In the interior we notice the bosses of the choir and chapels, the balustrade under the windows of the choir, and the beautiful niches in the ambulatory. The Church of the Trinity, reached by the street of that name on the other side of the Place St. Gervais, is a hand- some Gothic structure , with a Renaissance W. front , consisting of an ancient triangular porch converted into a chapel. The choir possesses a fine arcaded balustrade like that at St. Gervais. — A few paces farther on is an *Equestrian Statue of William the Con- queror, in bronze, by Rochet, erected in 1851. Round the base are bronze figures of the first six dukes of Normandy. Adjacent stands the Hotelde Ville, to the right of which passes the streetleadingtothe castle. We should, however, first turn to the left to obtain a view of the exterior.

The Castle of Falaise, a picturesque Norman ruin dating back to the 10th cent., is finely situated on a rugged promontory jutting out over the valley, opposite another rocky height named the Mont Mirat. During the middle ages it was a fortress of great strength and importance. The remains include the outer Enceinte, strengthened with round towers of the 12th cent, and now enclosing the build-

190 Route 26. SEES. From Caen

ings of a college; the Donjon or Keep, a massive Norman structure of the 11th or 12th cent., measuring 65 ft. in height and the same in breadth ; and Talbot's Tower, a round tower 130 ft. high, added by the English in the 15th century. The interior of the donjon, which is shown by the concierge, contains little of interest. A small chamber is pointed out by tradition as the birthplace of William the Conqueror. The dungeon in which King John Lackland is said to have confined his nephew Arthur of Brittany is also shown. The top (to which, however, visitors are now denied access) commands a fine view, and it was hence, or from one of the windows, that Robert the Devil is said to have first seen Arlette, the tanner's daughter (see p. 189), washing linen in the small stream at the foot of the castle rock. Talbot's Tower contains two vaulted chambers. The breach through which Henri IV entered the castle is seen at the end of the disengaged part of the enceinte next the promenade. This part was formerly defended by a moat.

Returning to the Place St. Gervais, we now descend the main street to the Bridge, which affords a picturesque view of the lower town and the castle.

At the suburb of Guibray, beyond the railway, a much-frequented horse- fair has been held since the lith cent., lasting from Aug. 10th to Aug. 25th. The Church ia mainly a Norman structure of the 11th century. Above the high-altar is a line group of the Assumption by an unknown sculptor.

Continuation op Railway to Lb Mans. The first station beyond Coulibceuf is (29 M.) Fresne-la-M'ere. Beyond (35 M.) MontalaH the line to Granville (R. 25) diverges to the right. From (42 M.) Argentan (p. 185) to (51 M.) Surdon (p. 185) our line coincides with that from Granville to Paris , from which it diverges to the right at the latter. To the left are seen the towers of Se'es.

55 M. Sees (Cheval Blanc), a town with 4275 inhab. and the seat of a bishop, is of ancient origin but has been repeatedly de- vastated and rebuilt.

The main street leads in a straight line from the station to the Place de la Cathe'drale, which is embellished with a bronze Statue of Conte (1756-1805), a local celebrity, by Jules Droz.

The Cathedral is a handsome Gothic edifice of the 13-14th cent- uries. The "VV. front is preceded by a porch with a fine iron grille and is flanked by towers (230 ft. high), the stone spires of which have been restored. The lofty arches and beautiful triforium of the nave are supported by round columns. The transepts are lighted by good rose-windows, and the N. arm contains a fine tympanum and a modern monument. The choir is remarkable for the extreme lightness of its construction. An old well, surrounded by a stone coping, has been discovered to the right of it. The high-altar, with its two faces, is adorned with bas-reliefs in bronze and marble. The adjacent panelling is embellished with four fine bas-reliefs of scenes from the life of the Virgin.

to Le Mans. ALENQON. 26. Route. 191

Beyond Sees the scenery improves. 6IY2 M. Vingt-Hanaps, a prettily situated village.

68 M. Alencon (Grand Cerf, de France, Rue St. Blaise Nos. 13 and 1 ; de la Qare. — Cafe's in the Rue St. Blaise), the chief town of the department of the Orne, with 17,840 inhab., is situated at the confluence of the Sarthe and the Briante. It carries on extensive manufactures of woollen and linen cloth, and the famous 'Point d'Alencon' lace is still highly valued. Alencon was repeatedly taken and retaken in the wars with England and in the time of the League, and it was occupied by the Germans in 1871 after a slight resistance. The duchy of Alenron, created in the 14th cent., was an apanage of the house of Valois.

The Rue de la Gare, the Rue St. Blaise (containing the Prefec- ture; 17th cent.), and the Grande Rue lead from the railway-station to the centre of the town. The church <of Notre-Dame , in the Grande Rue, is a building of Flamboyant Gothic, with a handsome triple porch flanked by graceful turrets. The gable of the central bay of the porch contains a group representing the Transfiguration. The exterior is adorned with balustrades. The most noteworthy features of the interior are the fine vaulting, the stained-glass windows (15-16th cent.), the Renaissance organ-loft, the canopied altar, and the pulpit.

The Rue aux Sieurs, farther on, to the right, leads to the Grain Market, a huge circular building, and then passes a large modern house, with a handsome Renaissance facade, and reaches the Place dArmes. Here stand the remains of the old Castle, now a prison, consisting mainly of the gateway, flanked with two towers, and of a third tower of the 14th century.

Adjacent is the Hotel de Ville, a building of the close of the 18th cent., containing a small Musee (open on Sun. and holidays, 1-4, and to strangers at other times also).

Besides objects of natural history (including numerous 'Diamants d'Alen- con', i.e. smoky quartz-crystals found in the neighbouring granite-quarries) the collections comprise a number of paintings and drawings. On the Staircase : 155. Altar-piece by an Italian Master of the 15th century. — Room opposite the Entrance : 140. London, Paul and Virginia; 153. Phil, de Cham- paigne('i\ The Trinity; numerous portraits. — Salle Godard. To the right: 50. QtSricauH, Shipwrecked; 177. Oudry, Still-life. To the left: 109. Qiroux, Horses fighting; 102. Meinier, Ney in the hospital at Innsbruck; 99. Court, Charlotte Corday; 166. Collin, Daphnis and Chloe; Maillarl, Dr. Dereins; 138. Italian School, Holy Family; /. Leman, Lovers' quarrel; 78. Legros, Vocation of St. Francis. — Grande Salle : 128. Veyrassat, Watering hnrses ;

1. Jouvenel, Marriage of the Virgin; 149. J. P. Laurens, Duke of Enghien; 126. Legrip, Ph. de Champaigne painting lime, de la Valliere as a nun;

2. Ph. de Champaigne, Assumption; 35. Blin, Landscape; 147. Em Adam, Christening in Alsace; 125. Gid, Monks labouring; 9. Restoul, St. Bernard and the Duke of Aquitaine; 27. Buat, Due de Berry; 17. Ouvrii, Heidelberg Castle; 105. Court, Nymph and faun; 12. Domenichino, Lot and his daughters; Lansyer. Autumn in Brittany; 106. Ribera, Bearing of the Cross; 148. Gautherot, St. Louis in the camp of Mansourah; 134. Courbet, Landscape; 123. Char. Lefebre, Last Judgment; Lansyer, Breton landscape; 60. Pala- medes, Interior; 167. Lawyer, Rocks at Granville; 56. Francois, Sunset;

1 92 Route 27. CONDti-SUR-NOIREAU. From Caen

0. La Touche, Holy Family, Adoration of the Magi and the Shepherds; 139. Desportes (?), Animals; 38. L. Duveau, Viaticum in Brittany; 64. Dutch School, Judith and Holofernes; 81, 80. Chardin, Still-life; Lavieille, Sum- mer-night; 79. French School, Francis, Duke of Alencon, brother of Charles IX. ; 8. /. Dumont, St. Francis of Assisi.

The Promenade at the back of the Hotel de Ville affords a view of the Church of St. Leonard, at the end of the Grande Kue, an edifice of the 15th cent., lately restored. In the interior we may notice its fine altars, the pulpit, a metal screen, and the modern stained-glass windows.

From Alencon to Condi-sur-Huisne (for Chartres) and to Domfront, see p. 199.

Beyond Alencon the Le Mans railway crosses the Sarthe. 74 M. Bourg-le-Roi, with the considerable remains of a 12th cent, castle. — 77'/2 M. La Hutte-Coulombiers , junction of branch-lines to (1572 M.) Manners (p. 193) and to (18 M.) Sille - le - GuUlaume (p. 204). — The train continues to follow the winding Sarthe, re- crossing the river. 84*/2 M. Vivoin-Beaumont. Vivoin, '/j M, to the left of the line, possesses the interesting remains of a church and convent of the 13th century. The small town of Beaumont-sur- Sarthe, picturesquely situated on the river, about the same distance to the right, contains some relics of an old castle. — We again cross the Sarthe. 97 M. Neuville. The train now crosses the Sarthe for the last time and joins the line from Rennes (R. 28).

104 M. Le Mans, see p. 200.

27. From Caen to Laval via Domfront and Mayenne.

97 M. Railway in 5-6s/4 hrs. (fares 17 fr. 70, 11 fr. 95, 7 fr. 75 c). To Domfront, 55 M., in 3-4 hrs. (fares 9 fr. 95. 6 fr. 75, 4 fr. 40 c); to Mayenne, 78 M., in 4-5 hrs. (fares 14 fr. 20, 9 fr. 55, 6 fr. 20 c).

Caen, see p. 166. Our train follows the Cherbourg line (p. 158) for a short distance, but soon diverges to the left from it and from the lines to Courseulles (p. 178) and Aunay (Vire; p. 186). It then ascends the valley of the Orne, crossing that river several times and passing several .small stations. Beyond (26 M.) Clecy the train crosses the Orne for the last time and passes from its valley into that of the Noireau by a tunnel upwards of 1 M. long. 28 V2 M. Berjou- Cahan is the junction of a line to (18l/2 M.) Falaise (p. 189), which also leads partly through the valleys of the Noireau and the Orne.

The valley of the Noireau, which we cross repeatedly, is pleas- antly diversilied. 31!/2 M. Pont-Erambourg. — 33 M. Conde-sur- Noireau (Lion d'Or), a manufacturing town with 6663 inhab. and numerous spinning- factories, was the birthplace of Dumont d'Urville (1790-1842), the distinguished navigator, to whom a bronze statue, by Molknecht, has been erected here. At (38 M.) Caligni-Cerisy we join the Granville line (p. 186). Beyond (41 M.) Flers (p. 186) we continue to follow the main line for sometime in the direction of Paris, and then turn to the right. — 44 M. Messei; this station is nearer the

to Laval. MAYENNE. 27. Route. 193

market-town of Messei than that on the Paris railway (p. 186). The town contains considerable remains of a castle of the 10th century.

We now descend the valley of the Varenne, crossing the stream

several times. — As we near Domfront, we have a fine view of the town to the right.

55 M. Domfront (Hot. Larsonneur; du Commerce, both cen- trally situated), an ancient town with 4966 inhab., is picturesquely situated on a hill rising steeply from the Varenne. Its position made it one of the chief fortresses of Normandy , and it was repeatedly besieged in the Hundred Years' War and in the religious contests of later date. Its military history begins in 1048 with its siege and capture by William the Conqueror, and ends in 1574, when Gabriel de Montgomery, the Scottish knight who accidentally killed Henri II in a tournament (1559) and afterwards became a Hu- guenot leader, sought refuge here but had to yield to Marshal Matignon.

It takes '/4 hr. to ascend from the station to the town by Toad, but pedestrians may follow short-cuts to the left. The small Church of Notre-Dame-sur-l'Eau, at the base of the hill, near the station, is a Norman edifice of the 11th century. The Castle (to the left, on the top of the rock) has been in ruins since the 16th cent., and little now remains of it except a picturesque corner dominating the valley. Henry II. of England here received the papal nuncio sent to reconcile him with Thomas Becket. The ramparts have been con- verted into a promenade, and command a beautiful view. A street leads hence to the Hdtel de Ville, a large modern building, and to the uninteresting Church of St. Julien. Behind these are some well preserved remains of the Town-Walls.

From Domfront to Alengon, see p. 199. — A branch-line runs to tho W. from Domfront to (16'/j M.) Mortain, (p. 187). Thence to Avranches, see p. 187.

Beyond Domfront the railway traverses a district of some inter- est. 69 M. Ambri'eres, with a ruined castle founded by Henry I. of England. We now reach the banks of the Mayenne, which we cross almost immediately.

78 M. Mayenne (Hotel de V Europe, Rue St. Martin, near the station ; Grand Hotel , Grandguillot, on the quay), an ancient cloth- manufacturing town with 10,300 inhab., is situated on both banks of the Mayenne, here a wide and navigable stream.

The lordship of Mayenne was advanced to a marquisate in favour of Claude I., Duke of Guise, and in 1573 it was created a duchy and peerage for Charles of Lorraine, who styled himself henceforth Due de Mayenne. Its strongly fortii'ed castle was frequently besieged during the middle ages and was taken by the English, under the Earl of Salisbury, in 1424.

On quitting the railway-station , we turn first to the right and then to the left, and descend the Rue St. Martin to the Mayenne, where we obtain a fine view of the town proper on the opposite bank, withNotre-Dame and the castle in the foreground. The views up and down stream are also fine.

Baedekek's lfortiferirT?9!!BSl!*i i nn J3

194 Route 28. RAMBOUILLET. From Paris

The Church of Notre-Dame (12th cent.) was in great part skil- fully rebuilt in the original style in 1868-72. In front is a statue olJoan of Arc (1896). The Castle, reached by the streets to the left beyond the bridge, is now a prison , but part of its enclosure has been converted into a public promenade.

Behind the Hotel de Ville, at the upper end of the main street beginning at the bridge, is a bronze statue of Cardinal Jean de Che- verus (1768-1836), Bishop of Boston (U. S. A.) and Montauban and Archbishop of Bordeaux, who was a native of Mayenne. The statue itself and the bronze reliefs on the pedestal are by David d'Angers.

Branch-railways run from Mayenne to (29 M.) Pri-en-Pail (Alencon; p. 199) and to (30 M.) La Selle-en- Luitri (Fougeres; p. 207). The latter passes (18'/2 M.) Ernie, an industrial town of 5150 inhab., with a fine chateau of the 16th century. — Jublains (p. 204) lies about 7 M. to the S.E. of Mayenne.

Farther on we cross a viaduct 78 ft. high. — 82^2 M. Commer; 86Y2 M. Martigne-Ferchaud. At (91 M.) La Chapelle-Anthenaise we join the line from Paris via Le Mans (R. 28). $&l/i M. Louverne.

97 M. Laval, see p. 204.

28. From Paris to Rennes.

232 M. Railway (Chemin, de Fer de VOuest), from the Gare Mont- parnasse (see PI. G, 16; p. 1) or the Gare St. Lazare (PI. C, 18), in 7-ll'/-2 hrs. (fares 42 fr., 28 fr. 3j, 18 fr. 55 c). — From Paris to Le Mans, 131 M., Bail- way in 3V2-5Vi hrs. (fares 23 fr. 75, 16 fr. 5, 10 fr. 50 c).

I. From Paris to Chartres.

55 M. Railway in l3/4-2'/2 hrs. (fares 9 fr. 85, 6 fr. 65, 4 fr. 35 c), from the Gare Montparnasse or the Gare St. Lazare (see above). Comp. the Map, p. 10).

From Paris to (14 M.) St. Cyr, see p. 181. Farther on , the line to Cherbourg diverges to the right, and we pass, on the same side, the fort of St. Cyr. — 17'/2 M. Trappes. About 3 M. to the S.S.E. lie the remains of the ancient Abbaye de Port-Royal, a favourite retreat, from 1625 to 1656, of men of learning and religion, around whom clustered some of the most illustrious younger men of the day, such as Pascal and Racine. The attachment of the society to Jansenism led to its dispersion and to the destruction of the con- vent. — 2072 M. La Verri'ere ; 24 M. Les Essarts-le-Roi ; 25 M. Le Perray. We traverse a small wood.

30 M. Rambouillet (Lion d'Or, Croix Blanche, Rue Nationale, near the chateau), a town with 6090 inhab., known for its old chateau, where Francis I. died in 1547. The chateau afterwards belonged to Charles d'Angennes, husband of the celebrated Marquise de Rambouillet (d. 1665), and was acquired for the crown by Louis XVI. Charles X. signed his abdication here in 1830.

The street to the left as we quit the station leads to (5 min.) the Place de la Foire, whence we may enter the Small Park (see p. 195).

to Renne*. MAINTENON. 28. Route. 195

The Chateau or Palais National, reached by the Rue Nationale and the avenues in the park beyond the ornamental water, consists of a number of incongruous buildings, surrounding an old crenelated tower. Neither exterior nor interior is of any special interest.

The great attraction of Rambouillet is the "'Parks of the chateau, which surpass the gardens of Versailles in size, variety, and natural beauty, and contain many charming and secluded walks. In front of the chateau is a Parterre, adjoined by the Small Park. The sheet of water in the latter is diversified by several islets (boat 50 c. per hr. for each pers.). To the right beyond this lake is the Pare An- glais, which we reach most directly by skirting the left margin of the lake and passing through a magnificent avenue of Louisiana cypresses, said to be unique in Europe. The English Park contains streams of water, a chalet , and a hermitage. To the right of this park, to the N.E. of the lake, is a Dairy constructed by Louis XVI., with a temple and an artificial grotto. Beyond, at the top of the avenue, is a Farm, where Napoleon I. kept the first merino sheep brought from Spain to France. To the right, between the Pare Anglais and the N. part of the town, lies the Great Park, which covers 3000 acres and contains numerous avenues of noble trees. — To the N. of the town extends the Forest of Rambouillet.

At (38 M.) Epernon, a small and ancient town, to the right, an obelisk has been erected to its defenders in 1870.

43 M. Maintenon (St. Pierre ; de la Gare), a small town on the Eure, to the right of the railway, possesses a handsome chateau of the 16-17th cent., from which Franroise d'Aubigne, widow of the poet Scarron, took the title of Marquise de Maintenon on her mar- riage to Louis XIV. in 1684, at the age of forty-nine. To the right, beyond the station, are the ruins of the huge Aqueduct begun by Louis XIV. to conduct the waters of the Eure to his gardens at Ver- sailles. Upwards of 30,000 men, chiefly soldiers, were employed on this work from 1684 to 1688, but it was then discontinued owing to the great mortality among the labourers. Louis XV. used part of the materials to construct a chateau for Mme. de Pompadour, which, however, has disappeared. — Branch-lines hence to Dreux (see p. 182) and to Auneau (p. 267).

Beyond Maintenon the train crosses the valley of the Voise by a lofty viaduct and ascends the valley of the Eure. A8l/o M. Jouy ; 51 M. La Villette-St-Prest. The train crosses the Eure, and the spires of Chartres now come into sight on the left.

55 M. Chartres. — Hotels. Gkand Monakque, b., L., & A. 3'/2-5Vz,

?-1V2Vdfy- 3' D- 4' pens" i0_jl2> omn- V*fr.; de France, R. 3-7, B. 1, dej. d, D. d'/s fr. ; Due de Chaktres; all in the Place de3 Epars (PI. b, c, a; A, 4, 5); de l'Ouest, near the station, dej. 2y2, D. 3 fr.

Cafes. In the Place des Epars ; Boul. Chasles 20; and near the railway station. — Buffet at the station. — Restaurant-Patisserie, Bue de Change 45, near the cathedral.

Cabs. Per drive '/*, per hr. l3/4 fr.


1 96 Route 28. CHARTRES. From Paris

Chartres, the Autricum of the Gauls and now the capital of the Departement d'Eure-et-Loir, is a town with 23,180 inhab., situated on the left bank of the Eure.

Chartres, one of the most ancient places in France, is said to have been founded by the Carnuteu (whence Chartres) 600 years before the Christ- ian era, and it was the centre of early Gallic worship and the seat of the College of Drnids. The powerful Counts of Chartres play an impor- tant part in the history of the gradual development of the French mon- archy. The city also became the capital of the fertile grain-producing province of Beauce, and it is still one of the most important corn-markets in France. Chartres was several times besieged in the Norman, Burgundian, and religious wars. Henri IV, of Navarre, was crowned king of France here in 1594. Charlres was occupied by the Germans in 1870, and formed a useful point d'appui in their operations against the Army of the Loire. It gives its name to a duchy, held since 1661 as an apanage of the Orleans family, but now merely titular. Most of the streets are narrow, steep, and tortuous'

The American visitor will not forget that it is to 'a day at Chartres' and to the inspiration of its: — 'Minster's vast repose,

'.Silent and gray as forest-leaguered cliff 'Left inland by the Ocean's slow retreat' — that we owe Mr. Russell Lowell's 'Cathedral'. The pilgrim must be left to himself to identify the 'pea-green inn' at which the prudent bard 'first ordered dinner'.

'• li o **Oathedbal of Notke-Dame (PI. B, 3), one of the grandest Gothic edifices in France, is dedicated to the Virgin, and tradition avers that it is built above a grotto where the Druids celebrated the worship of a 'maiden who should bear a child'. The oldest part of the building is the crypt, a relic of an earlier church destroyed by Are in the 11th century. The rebuilding of the cathedral was under- taken about 1120, amid great popular enthusiasm, the devout peasants yoking themselves to carts and dragging materials for the towers; but a great part of the church was again destroyed by Are in 1194, and the cathedral in its present form probably dates mainly from the first half of the 13th century. The principal tower was almost wholly rebuilt in 1507-14. Its vast dimensions, the huge blocks of stone employed in its construction, the simplicity of its design, and the grandeur of its conception combine to invest this cathedral with an air of the most impressive dignity.

The large * W. Facade, which is somewhat severe in general aspect, is pierced by three doorways lavishly adorned with sculp- tures, representing scenes in the life of Jesus Christ, with statues and statuettes of Prophets, the Elders of the Apocalypse, and other Biblical characters. Above the doors are three pointed windows, surmounted by a handsome rose-window, above which again runs an arcade with sixteen large statues. Over the arcade rises a gable, containing a figure of the Virgin between two angels and bearing on its apex a figure of the Saviour. The lower part of this facade dates from the 12th, the rose-window from the 13th, and the higher parts from the 13-14th centuries. The statues in the doorways are stiff and Byzantine in type, with flat faces, short arms, elongated bodies, and ungraceful drapery. The facade is flanked by two fine

to Rennes. CHARTRES. 28. Route. 197

  • Towers, rising to a height of 350 ft. and 376 ft. The older of the

two, to the S., beautiful as it is, is thrown into the shade by the richly adorned spire added to the N. tower in 1507-14, which is described by Fergusson ('History of Architecture') as the most beautifully designed spire on the continent of Europe, surpassing those at Strassburg, Vienna, and Antwerp in elegance of outline and appropriateness of design.

The *Side Portals, which are much more elaborately decorated than those in the W. front, date from the 13th cent, and are preceded by porches of the 14th century. The sculptures on the N. portal represent scenes from the life of the Virgin, and those on the S. the Last Judgment. The noble style of the large statues, the wonderful expressiveness of the statuettes, the variety and life of the bas- reliefs, and the finish of the mouldings combine to range these portals among the most splendid examples of monumental sculp- ture. The other parts of the exterior of the church are also conspicu- ous for the originality of their conception and the richness of their ornamentation. There are two other towers flanking each of the side-portals and one on each side of the beginning of the apse, but none of them have been carried above the springing of the roof. — The Chapelle St. Piat (16th cent.), adjoining the chevet to the right, is entered from within the cathedral by a staircase. To the left of the chevet is the Bishop's Palace (17th cent.).

The 'Interior produces a no less imposing effect than the exterior through the vast and majestic harmony of its proportions and the purity of its details. It is 428 ft. long, 105 ft. wide across the nave, 150 ft. across the transepts, and 120 ft. high. The superb 'Stained Glass dates chiefly from the 13th cent., perhaps the finest being that in the three wheel windows of the W. front, each of which is 36 ft. in diameter. Above the arches of the nave runs a low triforium-gallery , surmounted by a lofty clerestory. The wide and lofty windows are either plain single openings, or are divided into two lights by a mullion of unusual slen- derness. On the floor of the nave is a curious maze of coloured lines, called La Lieue, the total length of which is said to be 967 ft. It is supposed to have served as a penitential path for worshippers, the stations on it corresponding to the beads of a rosary. Each arm of the transept has an aisle and is embellished with a rich wheel-window above a row of single-light pointed windows.

The Choir and Apse are surrounded by a double ambulatory, and the latter is adjoined by seven chapels. The 'Wall enclosing the Choir is adorned with exquisite sculptures ('like point-lace in stone), begun by Jean Texier (architect of the N. spire) about 1514 and not finally com- pleted till two centuries later. At the beginning of the N. choir-aisle is a Madonna (the 'Vierge du Pilier*) of the 15th or 16th cent., which is an object of great veneration. In the Treasury is shown the Veil of the Virgin Mary, said to have been presented to Charlemagne by the Em- press Irene.

The large Crypt, below the choir, contains some mediocre mural paintings, but is of little interest to the ordinary traveller. It is reached by a flight of steps adjoining the N. portal. It is open before 9 a.m., but after that hour those who wish to see it apply at the Maison des Clercs, to the S. of the choir.

At the corner of the Rue des Changes, to the S. of the cathedral, is the post-office in a fine 13th Cent. House (PI. B, 4), and in the

198 Route 28. CHARTRES. From Paris

Place de la Poissonnerie, reached thence by the second street on the left, is a House of the 15th Century. From this point we may follow the Rue St. Eman (PI. 0, 3, 4) and the Rue du Bourg (PL C, 4) to the Porte Guillaume (PL D, 4), an interesting relic of the mediaeval fortifications of the town. Crossing the moat here and following the houlevard to the right as far as the first bridge (PL D, 4), we then ascend to the church of St. Pierre (PL C, D, 5), a fine edifice of the ll-13th centuries. The apsidal chapel contains twelve splendid Li- moges *Enamels, by Leonard Limosin (1547), each 2 ft. high and 11 in. wide, brought from the Chateau d'Anet (p. 59) and represent- ing the Apostles (bell for the custodian on the left).

The Rue St. Pierre leads hence to the N., passing near the Church of St. Aignan (PL C, 4), a building of the 13th, 16th, and 17th centuries. A little to the S.W. stands the Hotel de Ville (PL B, C, 5), of the 17th cent., containing a small Musee (open on Sun. & Thurs., 12-4, and shown on application on other days 11-4).

Proceeding towards the W". from the Hotel de Ville , we reach the expansion of the boulevards called the Place des Epars (PL A, 5), in the centre of which rises a bronze statue , by Preault, of General Marceau (1769-96), a native of Chartres.

The finest part of the boulevards is the Butte des Charbonniers (PL A, B, 2, 3), on the N.W. side of the town. To the right, at this point, are some remains of the old city-walls.

Line from Rouen to OrUans via Chartres , see p. 59. — A branch-line runs from Chartres to (18 M.) Auneau (p. 267).

Fbom Chaetees to Saumde, 123 M., railway in 474-6V4 hrs. (fares 19 fr. 30, 14 fr. 95, 9 fr. 75 c). The line at' first traverses an uninteresting plain and crosses the Eure. — 15V2 M. Illiers, a small town on the Loir. — 23 M. Brou (Hdlel des Trois- Maries), a small town on the Ozanne, with important markets and a Church of the 13th century. — Beyond (32 M.) Arrou, the junc- tion for Nogent-le-Rotrou (see p. 199), we see the chateau of Courtalam (15th cent.) to the left and cross the Yerre by a large viaduct. — 34 M. Courtalain-St- Pellerin (Buffet) is the junction of a line to Orleans (see p. 199). The country now becomes more varied. — Beyond (47>/2 M.) Mondoubleau, on the Grenne, with a picturesque ruined castle of the 10- 15th cent., the train descends the valley of the Braye, crossing the stream several times. From (53 M.) Sargi a line runs to (50'/2 M.) Tours (p. 279) via Ch&teaurenault and Vouvray (p. 266). From (60 M.) Bessi-sur-Braye, a small industrial town, a line diverges to St. Calais and Connerre (see p. 199). — 65 M. Pont-de-Braye is the junction of the line to Vendome and Blois (p. 278), traversing the pretty valley of the Loir, which our train also follows for some time. Ronsard, the poet (1524-85), was born at the manor of La Poissonniere (relics; visitors admitted), V/2 M. to the S. — To the right are the chateau of La Flotte (15th cent.), twu other chateaux, and several grottoes. — 71 M. La Chartre, connected with Le Mans by a steam-tramway (see p. 203). 81 M. Chateau-du-Loir, a small town with another station on the railway from Le Mans to Tours (p. 204). We now cross the Loir and quit its valley, of which we obtain a fine view as we ascend. We then descend into another beautiful valley. — 92'/2 M. Gh&teau- la-Vallih'e, on the Fare, was the capital of a duchy which gave title to Mdlle. de la Valliere (1644-1710), mistress of Louis XIV. Railway from Chateaurenault to Port-Boulet, see p. 270. — 104 M. Noyanl-M&on, junction of a line 1o Angers (p. 238). — 119 M. Vivy, the junction of a line to La Fleche (p. 232). — 123 M. Saumur (Gare d% Orleans), the principal station, V2 M. from the town proper fsee p. 2361.

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II. From Chartres to le Mans.

76 M. Railway in 2-3'A hra. (fares 14 fr., 9 fr. 35, 6 fr. 10 c).

The first station beyond Chartres is (61 '/2 M. from Paris) St-Au- bin-St-Luperce. At (66 M.) Courville the line approaches the Eure, the course of which it now follows, quitting the plains of La Beauce for the pastures of Le Perche , on which are reared the excellent draught-horses known as 'Percherons'.

About 5 M. to the S. of Courville , on the road to Illiers (p. 198) , ia the extensive and interesting chateau of Villebon, , built in the 15th cent, and restored and altered subsequently. It afterwards came into the pos- session of Sully, the powerful minister of Henri IV, who died here in 1641.

71 M. Pontgouin; 77 M. La Loupe (Chene-Dore), the junction of a branch -line to (24 M.) Verneuil (p. 184) ; 84 M. Bretoncelles. — 87!/2 M. Conde-sur-Huisne (Lion d'Or).

From Conde to Alencon and Domfbont, 84'/2 M., railway in 5-5'/3 hrs. This line at first ascends the valley of the Huisne, traversing a hilly dis- trict. — 18 M. Mortagne (Grand Cerf; Paste; de France), an ancient but decaying town with 4277 inhab., possesses a church of the 15-16th cent., the tower of which fell in 1890. It ia an important horse-breeding centre, and is the junction of lines to Laigle (p. 184), Mamers (see below), Ste. Gau- burge (p. 184), etc. — 411/! M. Alencon, see p. 191. Line from Surdon (Caen) to Le Mans, see pp. 190, 194. — From (54 M.) La Lacelte a diligence plies to (7'/2 M.) Carrouges, with a curious chateau (15-17th cent.), contain- ing a 16th cent, staircase, portraits, and tapestry. — The small town of (59 M.) Pri-en-Pail is the junction of a line to (28>/2 M.) Mayenne (p. 193). 70 M. Couterne , the junction for La Ferte-Mace and Briouze (see p. 186). At (76 M.) Juvigny-sous-Andaine is the so-called Phare de Bonvouloir, an ancient fortified enclosure or watch-tower. — 84'/2 M. Domfront, see p. 193.

Our line now crosses the Huisne, the valley of which it descends all the way to Le Mans.

927-2 M. Nogent-le-Rotrou (Buffet; Hotel du Dauphin), a town with 8490 inhab., was the birthplace of Remy-Belleau , the poet (1528-77), to whom a statue was erected here in 1897. The Castle, of the ll-15th cent., was once the property of Sully (1560-1641), minister of Henri IV (comp. p. 399). At the Hotel Dieu is the handsome tomb of Sully, with marble statues of himself and his wife, by Boudin (1642). The church of St. Hilaire dates from the 10th, 13th, and 16th centuries.

From Nogent-le -Rotkou to Orleans (p. 270), 72 M., railway in 4'A hrs., via (26 M.) Arrou (see p. 198); 28 M. Courtalain-St-Pellerin ; 39 M. Ch&teaudun (p. 267); and (57 M.) Patay (p. 159).

10572 M. La Ferte-Bernard (St. Jean; Chapeau-Rouge), a small town to the left, with a fine church in the style of the transition from Gothic to Renaissance, with curious galleries and elaborate sculptures. The Hotel de Ville is established in one of the old town- gates (15th cent.). — 111 M. Sceaux. — 116 M. Connerre-Beille.

A branch-line runs hence to (;8 M.) Mamers (Hot. d'Espagne; Cygne), a cloth-making town (6000 inhab.), connected by railway with Mortagne (see above) and with La Hutte - Goulombiers (p. 192). — Connerre is also the point of divergence of lines to (33'/v! M.) Courtalain (p. 198), and to (20 M.) St. Calais (Hdlel de France), a small town with a ruined castle and an abbey-church of the 14-16th centuries. The last is connected by a short branch-line with (7'/2 M.) Besst, on the railway from Chartres to Saumur (p. 198).

200 Route 28. LE MANS. From Paris

We again cross the Huisne. Beyond (120 M.) Pont-de-Oennes- Montfort and (122'/2 M.) St. Mars-la-Briere the train passes through plantations of pines. 126 M. Yvre-l'Eveque. The names of these last stations are all known in connection with the important battle of Le Mans in 1871 (see below). On the Plateau d'Auvours, above Yvre-l'Eveque, are a column commemorating the battle and the tomb of General Gougeard (d. 1886), one of the French commanders. There is another commemorative monument in the industrial suburb of Pontlieue, which our train crosses before entering the station of (131 M.) Le Mans. To the left diverges the line to Tours. Pontlieue is a station on the steam-tramway to La Chartre (p. 203).

Le Mans. — Hotels. Gkand-Hotel (Bottle dWr), R. 3-6, B. ii/4, dej. 3, B. 3'/2fr.; Hotel de France, R., L., & A. 3V'2-5, B. li/4, dej. 3, B. 31/2 fr-; Sacmon, R., L., & A. 2-3, B. i, dej. 2'/2, D. 3 fr. inch wine; dtj Dauphin; all four in the Place de la Re'publique (PI. a, b, c, d; B, 3); Hotel du Maine (PI. e; B, 3), Rue des Minimes 10, R. 2, dej. 2'/2, D. 3 fr. ; de Paris (PI. f; B, 5), at the station, R. 2-6, B. 1, dej. 2V2, B. 3 fr. — Cafes in the Place de la Republique and the Place des Jacobins. — Restau- rants. Soyez, Place de la Re'publique; Buffet at the railway-station.

Cab with one horse l'/« fr. per 'course', 1 fr. R0 c. per hr. ; at night 1 fr. 75 and 2 fr. 25 c. ; with two horses 1 fr. 60, 2 fr. 25 c., 2 fr., 2 fr. 50 c.

Electric Tramways from the Place de la Re'publique (PI. B, 3) to the Station, (PI. A, B, 5), to the Jardin d? Horticulture (PI. D, 2, 3), to Pontlieue (PI. D, 6), etc. ; fare 15 c. — Steam- Tramways, see p. 203.

Post and Telegraph Office (PI. B, 3), Place de la Republique.

Le Mans, formerly the capital of Maine, and now the chief place of the Departement de la Sarthe, the headquarters of the lVth Corps d'Armee, and the seat of a bishop, is an ancient town with 60,000 tn- hab., situated on the Sarthe, chiefly on a height rising from the left bank. Le Mans manufactures linen, sail-cloth, wax -candles, and numerous other articles, and carries on a large trade in poultry.

Le Mans , the ancient capital of the Aulerci - Cenomani , afterwards occupied and fortified by the Romans, became under Charlemagne one of the most important cities in the kingdom of the Franks. Taken by Wil- liam the Conqueror in the 11th cent., it had afterwards, like the towns of Normandy, many vicissitudes to bear during the Anglo-French wars, and it is said to have undergone upwards of twenty sieges. The Vende'ens were defeated here by General Marceau in 1793; and the victorious troops, in spite of the efforts of some of their officers, massacred many thousands of the unfortunate Royalists in the streets of the town, not even sparing women and children. In 1871 the Germans under Prince Frederick Charles defeated the Second Army of the Loire here in a 'week of battles' (Jan. 10-17th), effectually preventing the attempt to relieve Paris.

Le Mans was the birthplace (in 1133) of Henry II., the first of the Plan- tagenet line of English kings.

The Avenue Thiers, a long street of recent construction, leads from the railway-station to the Prefecture and the church of Notre- Dame-de-la-Couture, in the centre of the town. In the Square de la Prefecture is a bronze statue, by Filleul, of Pierre Belon, a phy- sician and botanist of the 16th century.

The church of Notre-Dame-de-la-Couture (i.e. 'de culturaDei'; PI. C, 3), dating mainly from the 12th and 14th cent., has a fine W. front, flanked with two, unfinished. towers. The *Portal, which is pre-

to Renncs. LE MANS. 28. Route. 201

ceded by a porch, is lavishly adorned with sculptures representing the Last Judgment (tympanum), statues of Apostles, and statuettes of saints (on the vaulting). The nave, which is in a very primitive Gothic style, has no aisles and is roofed by domical vaulting, stilted in the same way as that of St. Maurice at Angers (p. 239). The choir, which is surrounded by an ambulatory and chapels, is still earlier than the nave, the end of it being in the Romanesque style. Beneath it is a crypt. The nave contains the following noteworthy pictures (named from right to left) : Sleep of Elijah, by Phil, de Champaigne ; Entombment, by 6. Zeghers; Abraham and the Angels, by Restout; Feast of Pentecost, by Van Thulden; Crown of Thorns, by Bart. Manfredi; St. Veronica, by L. Carracci. The large chapels opening off the aisles of the choir contain handsome marble altars and altar- pieces of the 18th cent., and the high-altar is a piece of elaborate modern work. The Lady Chapel, to the right of the choir, is em- bellished with good modern stained glass. In the sacristy is preserv- ed the shroud of St. Bernard, Bishop of Le Mans in the 6th cent., made of some Oriental fabric.

The conventual buildings of the Abbaye de la Couture, rebuilt in the 18th cent., contain the Prefecture (see p. 200) and the muni- cipal Museum (open daily, except Mon., 12-4). We enter by the iron gate and the door opposite it.

The first Gallery entered and the Gallery to the left contain objects of natural history, 27 scenes and portraits from Scarron's 'Eoman Comique', by Coulom. (of Le Mans; ca. 1712-16), engravings, pottery, weapons, sculp- tures, Egyptian antiquities, etc. — Room at the end, adjoining Ihe first gallery. Paintings (from right to left): 305. Tidemand, Korwegian bride's toilet; 269. Ribera, Christ delivered to the executioner; 226. After Q. Matsys, St. Jerome; 173. Beemskerck, Abhemist; 353. Unknown Artist, Portrait of Scarron, the author; 223. Marilhut, Landscape. — The glass-cases contain bronzes, antiquities, cameos, medals, enamels, etc. Among these is the famous "Enamel of Geoffrey Plantagenet (d. 1151), a plaque of Champleve enamel, 2 ft. high and 1 ft. wide, representing Geoffrey, Count of Anjou, father of Henry II. of England (see p. 200) and founder of the Plantagenet line. It originally adorned his tomb in the cathedral. A richly chased and enamelled knife with the arms of the Dukes of Burgundy; a casket of the 13th cent.; and the grave-plate of a surgeon of Le Mans, in the 16th cent, may also be noticed. — Room to the right: 183. Troyon, Farmer; 297. Sorieul 272. Royer, Battles of Le Mans in 1793 and 1871; 138. L. David, Portraits; 333. Moreau de Tours, Blanche of Castille. In the glass-cases are curiosities and works of art.

Gkande Galeeie (from right to left). By the 1st window: Several Madonnas, by Italian artists, including one by Perugino (No. 30). — 2nd win- dow : 39. Baroccio, Entombment, sketch for a painting at Rome. — 3rd win- d>w: 179. Huysmans. Landscape; 192. Kalf, Still-life. — 4th window: 46. Van Bloemen, Peasants; 303. Tenters, Tavern; 251. Poussin, Child awakened by Cupid; above, Fr. Floris, Last Judgment. — Beyond the 5th window: A. Hesse, Germain Pilon — At the end: 285. Ulysse Roy, Execution of a murderer in the 13th century. — On the other side: 105. Constable, 74. Corot, Landscapes; 244. C. Norte, Waterfall in the Jura; 153. Francois, Landscape; nt- /" DuPrii Harvesters; 52. L. Boulogne, Jupiter and Semele; 49. F. Bol, Child and go>t; 61. Bronzino, Portrait; 252. Poussin, Rebecca; 57. French School, Adoration of the Magi ; 183. K. du Jardin, A magistrate ; 311. Valentin, bt. John in Patmos; 312. Valdes Ual, Nun; 247. Palma Vecchio, Madonna with SS. Jerome and Antony; 109. Cuyptf), Portrait; 218. Attributed to

202 Route 28. LE MANS. From Paris

Luini, St. Catharine; 473. Attributed to Rubens, Portrait; 189. Jouvenet, Presentation in the Temple; 191. Kalf, Still-life; 38. Ouercino, Orpheus and Eurydice; 220. Lesueur, Diana hunting; 42. Pieiro da Corlona, Re- conciliation of Jacoh andLaban; 34. Caravaggio, Prodigal Son; 60. Cignani, Fortune-teller; 63. Lebrun, Hosannah; 137. Van Dyck, St. Sebastian ; 20. Italian School, Purification of the Virgin; 110, 111. Jeanet, sumamed Clouet, Por- traits. On the ceiling : 282. Eiss, Assassination of a Russian patriarch (a large canvas about a yard of which has had to be folded back). To the right of the door: 45. Bias, St. Christopher.

The Prefecture also contains the Public Library, open daily, 11-4, exceptonSun.,Wed., and holidays. It contains 50,000 printed volumes and 700 MSS.

The Boulevard Kene'-Levasseur leads hence to the Place de la Republique (PI. B, 3), in which stands a *War Monument for 1871 (see p. 200"). The statue of General Chanzy, commander of the Army of the Loire, is by Crauk ; the fine groups of Attack and Defence are by Croisy.

In this Place are the Bourse and the Tribunal de Commerce, completed in 1890, and, farther on, the Palais de Justice and the Church of the Visitation, two 18th cent, buildings, belonging originally to the Convent of the Visitation. — The Rue Gambetta, which descends from this point towards the Grand Pont, passes between the Oeneral Hospital (PI. A, B, 3), an edifice of the 17th cent., with a fine chapel, and the Place de I'Eperon (PI. B, 3), where upwards of 5000 Vende'ens were wounded or slain in 1793 (comp. p. 200).

The Rue Dumas (adjoining the Grand Hotel; PI. B, 3) and the following streets (Rue Marchande, etc.) lead from the Place de la Republique to the Place des Jacobins (PL C, 2) and the Theatre, the latter constructed in 1842 on the site of a Gallo-Roman amphi- theatre and surrounded by tastefully laid out pleasure-grounds. The basement contains a small Museum of Historical Monuments, open to the public on Sun., 12-4, and shown on application on other days also (entr. to the right). Its contents consist of antiquities and of mediaeval and Renaissance objects of art, including some ancient vases, pottery, faience, enamels, funereal monuments, an ancient relief-plan of the town, and a colossal bust of General Ne'grier, a native of Le Mans, slain at Paris in the insurrection of June, 1848. — On the W. side of the Place is a modern Tunnel descending to the Sarthe (see p. 203).

On the "W. side of the Place des Jacobins rises the *Cathedral (PL C, 1, 2), which is dedicated to St. Julian, the traditional founder of Cenomanian Christianity and the first Bishop of Le Mans (3rd cent). The building consists of two distinct parts, differing widely from each other: the nave of the ll-12th cent., with some modifications in the Transitional style; and the choir and transept rebuilt on an ampler scale in the 13th and following cent., the one in the early-Gothic style, the other partly in the late-Gothic of the 15th century. In spite of this discrepancy, however, the Cathedral of Le Mans ranks among the leading churches of France, and the

to Eennes. LE MANS. 2 S. Route. 203

general effect is one of great nobility. The W. portal, dating from the 11th cent., is severe and simple, and is unrelieved by a tower. Between two buttresses to the right is a stone supposed to be a 'menhir' or 'long stone'. On the S. side of the nave is a Lateral Portal in the Transition style of the 12th cent., preceded by a crene- lated porch, adorned with statues resembling those of the great portal of Chartres Cathedral (p. 196). The transept terminates at each end in a tower, of which the base is Romanesque and the upper portions of the 15-16th centuries. The soaring apse, with its girdle of chapels, is one of the most imposing features of the exterior.

The Interior presents the same striking contrast as the exterior, but each of the two parts is a line example of its own style. The nave is divided into five bays roofed with domical vaulting; the aisles consist of ten bays, with groined vaulting. The richly ornamented capitals also de- serve attention. The transept, the vaulting of which is loftier than that of the nave, has an open triforium and a magnificent rose-window (N. arm) filled with ancient stained glass. The "Choir, with its double ambulatory, is in the purest Gothic style and is beautified by fine "Stained-Glass Win- dows of the 13-14th centuries. Among the minor features of interest in the interior are five pieces of tapestry of the 15-16th cent. (N. aisle); the tomb of Mgr. Bouvier (d. 1854), in the style of the 13th cent. (N. transept); two Renaissance tombs, in a chapel opposite; the tomb of Queen Berengaria of Sicily, wife of Richard CoEur-de-Lion (13th cent.), brought to the cathedral from the abbey-church of Epau (S. transept); the organ-screen, in the Re- naissance style; a Holy Sepulchre of 1610, in terracotta, painted and gilded (chapel adjoining the screen); and the door leading from the ambulatory to the sacristy, constructed' from the fragments of a rood-screen of 1620.

The Hotel du Orabatoire, a Renaissance building opposite the cathedral, was formerly the canons' hospital. The Rue des Cha- noines and the Grande Rue (PL B, C, 1, 2) , to the S. of the cath- edral, also contain several quaint old houses. No. 11 Grande Rue is named the House of Queen Berengaria, because it occupies the site of a mansion said to have been occupied in the 13th cent, by the widow of Richard Cceur-de-Lion (see above). It contains a small art-museum (9-11 and 1-5; fee).

Crossing the river by the Pont Yssoir, we next reach the church of Notre-Dame or St. Julien-du-Pre (PI. B, 1), dating mainly from the ll-12th cent, and well illustrating the Romanesque style of that period. Below the choir is a crypt. The N. aisle contains a bas- relief of the 16th cent., representing a procession. The church is decorated with modern frescoes, by Andrieux and Jaffard.

About ]/2 M. to the E. of the Place des Jacobins is the Horti- cultural Garden (PL D, 2), open to the public on Sun. and Thurs. and on Tues. when the band plays, and to strangers on other days on application.

From Le Mans to Angers and to Nantes, see R. 31a; to Alencon, see R. 26.

F5OM ^E Mans to La Chartrk, 30 M., steam-tramway in 3 hrs. (fares d fr., 2 fr. 25 c.) via Pontlieue (p. 200), Purigni, Grand-Luci , etc. — 30 M. La Chartre, see p. 198. '

From Le Mans to St. Denis-d'Orques, 2S1/* M-, steam-tramway on the right bank of the Sarthe, with about twenty stations. At (22»/2 M.) Loui this tramway intersects Jh_e line from SilU-le-Guillaume to Sable (see p. 204).

204 Route 28. SILLfi-LB-GUILLAUME. From Paris

From Le Mans to Tours, 61'/z M., railway in 2l/-2-3lh hrs. (fares 9 fr. 95, 6 fr. 75, 4 fr. 40 c). This line at first coincides for a short distance with that to Paris, then turns to the S. and traverses the Huitne. At (5 M.) Arnage we quit the valley of the Sarthe. To the right and left are several chateaux. 23'/2 M. Aubigne (Buffet) is the junction of a branch-line to (201/2 M.) La Fleche (p. 232), which passes the small town of (7»/« M.) Le Lade, with its handsome chateau of the 15-17th centuries. In- the neigh- bourhood of (26 M.) Vaas, a large village on the Loir, are several interest- ing chateaux and castles. 31 M. Chdteau-du- Loir, also a station on the line from Chartres to Saumur (p. 198). We now cross the Loir and as- cend the valley of the Escotais. 44 M. Neuilli-Pont-Pierre, a small town 1 M. to the right, on the Chateaurenault and Port-Boulet line (p. 270). About 2 M. to the W. of (48>/2 M.) St. Anloine-du-Rocher lies Semblanrsay , with the picturesque ruins of a castle of the 12-13th centuries. 53'/z M. Metlray, with a well-known agricultural reformatory for boys. A little farther on we join the railway from Paris to Tours via Vendome (see p. 267). Beyond (56'/2 M.) Fondettes-St-Cyr we cross the Loire and reach the Nantes railway (R. 31b). — 61 V2 M. Tours, see p. 279.

III. From Le Mans to Kemies.

101 M. Railway in 3-43/4 hrs. (fares 18 fr. 45, 12 fr. 50, 8 fr 10 c).

On leaving Le Mans we cross the Sarthe and obtain a fine view of the town to the right. The line to Angers (R. 31a) runs to the left, and the line to Alencon (R. 26) diverges to the right, farther on. — 138'/2M. (from Paris) La Milesse-la-Bazoge; 144 M. Dom- front; 146 M. Conlie; 149 72M. Crisse.

153'/2 M. Sille-le-Guillaume (De Bretagne, dej. or D. 272 fr-)i a town with 3152 inhab., possesses a ruined castle of the 15th cent., the keep of which is 125 ft. high, and a Gothic church with a beau- tiful portal of the 13th cent., ami a large crypt of the 12th. The castle was several times taken by the English.

A branch-railway runs hence to (18 M.) La Hutte-Coulombiers (p. 192), passing (14 M.) Fresnay-sur-Sarthe (Chevalier), a small town on a steep, rocky hill, with a ruined castle and a church in the Transitional style.

Another branch-line leads via (15V* M.) Loui (tramway to Le Mans, see p. 203), and (20 M.) Brulon to (327* M.) Sabli (p. 232).

168 M. Evron (Aigle d'Or), a small town with an interesting church (ll-14th cent.). Part of the rich ornamentation of the interior refers to a miracle attributed to some of the 'Milk of the Madonna', brought from the Holy Land by a pilgrim, and now preserved in the church. The timber Market Buildings date from the 14th century.

From Evron an omnibus runs to Jublains (H6t. de VOnesl), a village 9 M. to the N.W., occupying the site of the Roman Neodunum, of which considerable remains still exist. The most notable of these is the Castellum, or fort, the walls of which , strengthened by round and square towers, are standing up to a height of about 15 ft. — The omnibus goes on to (7 M.) Mayenne (p. 193).

Another omnibus plies to Ste. Suzanne (Lion d'Or) , an old town 4'/2 M. to the S. of Evron, with an ancient fortified wall and a ruined chateau.

180 M. La Chapelle-Anthenaise, the junction of a line to Caen via Flers, Domfront, and Mayenne (see R. 27).

186 72 M. Laval (Buffet; Hdtels de I'Ouest, de Paris, Rue de la Pais.), the capital of the department of the Mayenne and the seat

to Bennes. LAVAL. 28. Route. 205

of a bishop, is a busy town with 29,850 inhab., situated on the river Mayenne. For 500 years it has been the centre of an active manufacture of linen, now chiefly producing tickings. The marble found in the neighbourhood is sawn or made into lime here. Laval was taken by Talbot in 1428, and changed hands several times during the wars of the League and La Vende'e.

The ancient part of the town, rising in tiers on the right bank of the river and dominated by the cathedral and the castle, pre- sents a very picturesque aspect as seen from the railway-viaduct (see p. 206) or from the bridge. Its streets, however, are narrow and irregular. To reach it we follow the Rue de la Gare and the Rue de la Paix, crossing the river by the Pont-Neuf. Beyond the bridge we reach the Place de l'H6tel-de-"Ville, embellished with a bronze statue, by David d' Angers, of Ambroise Pare, styled the 'Father of French Surgery', who was horn near Laval about 1510.

Thence the Rue de THotel-de-Ville leads to the left to the Castle, which consists of two parts, the 'Old' and the 'New'. The Old Castle, a sombre-looking edifice now transformed into a prison, is seen to most advantage from the Rue du Val-de-Mayenne, near the river. Visitors are admitted (on application at the Prefecture , Rue des Trois-Croix) to the court, to the interesting donjon (12th cent.), with its fine timber-roof, and to the chapel (11th cent.). The New Castle dates partly from the Renaissance period and is now the court-house.

The Cathedral, an unimposing and irregular building of the 12th and 16th cent., was finally freed from the neighbouring build- ings in 1889. The Romanesque W. portal is modern; but the S. portal, with its unfinished tower, also Romanesque, and the Renais- sance N. portal are ancient. The interior is more interesting than the exterior. The oldest part is the transept (12th cent.). The choir (16th cent.) has five radiating chapels.

To the S.W. of the cathedral stands the Porte Beucheresse, one of the old town-gates, in the Gothic style, flanked by two towers. — The Rue Marmoreau descends hence to the Place de Herce", in which are the Galerie de I'Industrie (18th cent.) and the Musee des Beaux Arts, built in 1891-96 and containing a small collection of paint- ings, by Flandrin, Isabey, Lenepveu, Meissonier, etc.

In the Place de la Bibliotheque, between the cathedral and the Place de l'H6tel-de-Ville, stands the Museum, containing the public library and a small archaeological collection. — To the left, in the Rue Joinville, which begins at the Place de 1 H6tel-de-Ville, is the church of Notre-Dame, a structure of the 14-15th cent., containing several fine marble altars of the 17th century.

Below the Pont Neuf is the Pont Vieux, or Pont de Mayenne, a Gothic structure of the 14th cent., ^ M. from which is the beau- tiful 12th cent, church of Notre-Dame-d'Avenieres, with a spire of 1534 and a handsome modern pulpit. — In the Rue du Pont-de-

206 Route 28. VITRE. From Paris

Mayenne, beyond the bridge, rises the 15th cent, church of St. Venerand, with double aisles.

From Laval a branch-line runs to (20 M.) Germes-Longuefuye (Sable, Angers; p. 232), via (13'/2 M.) Meslay, whence a visit may be paid to the stalactite caves (adm. 1 fr.) of Saulges (Hot. des Grottes). — From Laval to Mayenne, Domfront, Flers, and Caen, see R. 27.

Fkom Laval to Chateaubriant, 48 M., in 21/3-3 hrs. (8 fr. 60, 5 fr. 80, 3 fr. 80 c). — 137s M. Cosse-le- Vivien (2930 inhab.). — 23 M. Craon (Monnier), with 4250 inhab., on the Oudon, has a fine 18th cent, chateau. Branch to Chemazc , see p. 234. — At (38 31.) Pouanci a branch diverges to Segre (p. 234). — 48 M. Chateaubriant, see p. 234.

In leaving Laval the train crosses the valley of the Mayenne by a lofty granite viaduct (92ft. high), which affords a fine view of the town to the left. — Beyond (192 M.) Le Oenest we have a view to the right of the interesting old Abbey of Clermont, founded in 1150 and now converted into a chateau. The abbey-church contains some magnificent monuments of the Sires de Laval, dating from the 14-15th centuries.

209 M. Vitre (*H6tel des Voyageicrs, *H6tel de France, both near the railway-station), an ancient town with 10,600 inhab., is pictur- esquely situated on the left bank of the Vilaine. It still retains some portions of its former fortifications, a ruined castle, and numer- ous quaint mediaeval houses, and is in many respects one of the most interesting towns in France. Vitre' early embraced the Pro- testant doctrines, and the Huguenots successfully defended them- selves here against the army of the League in 1589.

On leaving the railway-station , we proceed at first to the left and, beyond one of the towers of the old fortifications, turn to the right by the Rue Beaudrairie, which passes farther on between the Rue d'Embas and the Rue Poterie. These streets are the most quaint and picturesque in the town, exhibiting a singular array of old and sombre-looking houses of timber or stone, with galleries, sculptured ornamentation, balconies, and porches of the most varied descrip- tion. In some cases the upper stories project over the foot-pave- ment so as to form covered arcades resembling those at Berne and not unlike the 'Rows' at Chester.

In the Place du Chatelet, to the left of the Rue Beaudrairie, is the remarkable entrance-gateway of the Castle, an imposing brown edifice, dating mainly from the 14-15th centuries. The present re- mains consist of the outer wall, strengthened with machicholated towers, and of the massive donjon, lately restored. Part of the inter- ior has been converted into a prison, but visitors are admitted to the rest on application to the gate-keeper. The Public Museum and Library are established in the donjon-tower. The castle belonged to the Seigneurs de la Tremoille, whose motto ('post tenebras spero lucem'), above the gateway, is supposed to refer to their attachment to the Reformed faith.

The Church of Notre -Dame, in the upper part of the town, reached from the Place du Chatelet via the Rue de Notre-Dame, is

to Rennes. FOUGERES. 28. Route. 207

a handsome Gothic edifice of the 15-16th cent., with a stone spire, recently rebuilt, above the crossing. On the outside, to the right, is a fine pulpit of the 16th cent., bearing a symbol of the Trinity, in the form of a head with three faces.

The chief treasure of the interior is the *Triptych in the chapel to the right of the entrance to the choir, dating from 1544 and consisting of thirty-two Limoges enamels depicting scenes from the New Testament. Among the olher objects of interest are the two marble holy-water basins, the modern pulpit, the stained-glass windows (all modern, except one of the Renaissance period in the S. aisle), a modern tomb on the N. side of the choir, and two tombs of the 15th cent., one in the Lady Chapel and one in the first chapel to the left.

The Rue de Notre-Dame leads to the Place Marchix, with various public buildings, beyond which are the Boulevard du Mail (see below) and the Place de la Halle, which contains several picturesque old houses, with lean-to roofs and outside staircases. Here also stands a round tower, forming a relic of the old fortifications. The street to the left of the tower leads straight back to the station.

We, however, follow the Boulevard du Mail, in order to view the town from its most picturesque side, where the Ramparts are still in existence. Turning to the left into the Promenade du Vol, we have a fine view pf the castle, a little beyond which we regain the station.

About 4 M. to the S. of Vitre, and 2'/2 M. to the N. of Argentre (p. 208), is the Chateau des Rochers , a mansion of the 15th cent. , where Mme. de Sevigne frequently resided. It contains a gallery of portraits of the 17th cent., including one of Mme. de Sevigne by Mignard , and various souvenirs of the same period. Enquiries as to admission should be made in Vitre. — About 5'/2 M. to the W.N.W. of Vitre is Champeaux, with an interesting church of the 16th cent, and a ruined chateau of tne 14th.

Fkom Vitke to Pontoeson (Mont St. Michel), 49 M., railway in 3-3'/2hrs. (fares 8 fr. 85, 5 fr. 95, 3 fr. 90 c). The train passes in full view of the castle of Vitre (to the right), crosses the Vilaine, and ascends to the N. through the picturesque valley of its affluent, the Cantache. — 12 M. Chd- tillon-en-Vendelais. To the left is a small lake. 19>/2 M. La Selle-en- Luitri, the junction of a branch-line to Mayenne (p. 193).

23 M. Fougeres (St. Jacques, Des Voyageurs, both in the upper part of the town; de la Gare, unpretending), a busy town of 20,735 inhab., with large shoe -making factories, picturesquely situated on the small river Nancon, is still partly surrounded by its ancient fortifications and possesses a feudal castle of great extent and importance. Both castle and town were taken by the English in 1166 and in 1449 and underwent numerous other sieges. Fougeres was also the scene of important contests during the Ven- deen war of 1793.

The modern quarter of the town adjoining the railway-station gives no idea of the picturesque appearance of the town proper on the oppo- site side. The avenue to the right, as we leave the station, ascends to the Place d'Armes. To the left is the Place du Marche, with an equestrian statue of General de la Riboisiere (1759-1812), by G. Recipon (1893). The Rue Rallier leads thence to the Rue Nationale, in which are some old houses resembling those at Vitre', and, farther on, Ihe Church of St. Leonard (15-17th cent.), with a modern portal and a Flamboyant rose-window. In the interior are six large paintings by Eug. Deveria and a war-monument for 1870. — In the opposite direction the Rue Nationale leads to a small square containing the Theatre. We descend to the right by the old Rue de la Pinterie and the Rue de la Fourchette (left) to the Porte St. Sulpice, an old town-gateway (15th cent.), adjoining the wall of the castle. It is

208 Route 28. RENNES. Hotels.

most picturesque when viewed from the outside, and commands a good view of the upper town. A little farther on is the Church of St. Sulpiee, of the 15-18th cent., containing some wood-carving of the lUh and 18th cent., a fine cihorium, a kind of altar-piece in granite (in a chapel off the S. aisle), and an ancient statue of the Virgin. — The Castle, commandingly situated on a rocky height overlooking the town , dates .from the 12-16th cent., and presents a picturesque and imposing appearance, with its eleven bat- tlemented towers. The ruins are now being restored. — A branch-line runs from Fougeres to St. Hilaire (p. 1S7).

In leaving Fougeres the irain passes through a short tunnel below the town. 42>/2 M. Antrain ('inter amnes"), at the confluence of the Oysance and the Couesnon. — 49 M. Pontorson , see p. 227. — Thence to Mont St. Michel, see p. 227.

Another branch-line runs from Vitr.: to (251/2 M.) Martigni-Ferchaud (see p. 194; for Chateaubriant and Nantes). The most important inter- mediate stations are (7 M.) Argentre", with a chateau of the 15th cent., 272 M. to the S. of the Chateau des Rochers (p. 207), and (15l/2 M.) La Guerche-de-Bretagne, a town of 4665 inhab., with an interesting collegiate church, part of which dates from the 13th century.

Beyond Vitre our line descends the valley of the Vilaine, diverg- ing to the left from the line to Pontorson (see above), and passing several small stations. — • 232 M. Rennes (Buffet).

Rennes. — Hotels. *Geand Hotel (PL a; A, 3), Eue de la Monnaie 17; Hotel de France (PI. b; B, 2), No. 6 in the same street, R. 2'/2-7, B. l>/4, dtj. 3, D. 3'/2fr. ; Continental (PI. c; B,3), Rue d'Orleans; Modeene (Pl.d; A, B, 3), Quai Lamennais 17, new; du Bout-do-Monde, Rue St. Michel (PI. B, 2); de Bretagne, opposite the railway-station, R. 2-5, B. %, dej. 2, D. 2'/2 fr. ; Parisien, same place to the right, a good second-class house; des Voyageubs, Avenue de la Gare 20, unpretending.

Cafes. Grand Cafi, Cafi de France, Rue de la Monnaie; de la Comidie, Cafi Glacier, des Flews, at the theatre; de la Paix, at the Palais du Com- merce (p. 210) ; du Palais, de V Europe, on the quay. — Brasserie du Coq- d'Or, at the back of the theatre. — Cafi-Concert de V Alcazar, Rue du Champ-Jacquet (PI. B, 2).

Gabs. Per course l!/4, per hr. l3/4 fr/; at night V,h and 2'/2 fr.

Electric Tramways (all passing the Place de la Mairie; PI. B, 3). 1. From the Station (PI. D, 5) to the Faubourg de Fougeres (PI. D, 1). 2. From the Avenue de la Gare (PI. D, 4) to the Cimetiere du Nord (PI. B, 1). 3. From the Avenue de la Tour-d1 Auvergne (comp. PI. A, 3) to the Octroi de Paris (comp. PI. D, 2). 4. From the Mail (PI. A, 3) to the Croix-St-Helier (comp. PI. D, 4). Fares 10 c. from any terminus to the Place de la Mairie, 15c. beyond that point. — Departmental Tramways (comp. the Plan) to (14 M.) St. Aubin-du- Cormier and (30 M.) Fougeres (p. 207) on the N.E. ; to (22 M.) Plilan, on the S.W. ; to (10 M.) Chdteaugiron, on the S.E. ; and to (15 M.) Hidi and Miniac-Morvan (p. 181), on the N.E.

Post Office (PI. B, 3), at the Palais du Commerce.

United States Consular Agent, Mons. Ernest Folliard.

Rennes, the ancient capital of Brittany, and now the chief town of the department of Ille - et -Vilaine , the headquarters of the Xth Corps d'Arme'e, and the seat of an archbishop and of a univer- sity, is a town of 69,930 inhab., situated at the confluence of the canalized llle and the Vilaine. Few traces of its ancient importance remain , as nearly the whole of the town was burned down in 1720 by a conflagration that lasted for seven days, and since then it has been rebuilt on a regular and monotonous plan. It has now little industry or commerce, and its spacious modern streets are gen- erally dull, lifeless, and deserted.

CnnetT ' chi^ord / B

Grave et rraprimp par-

Warner* Debes,Leipzi|S

Museum. RENNES. 28. Route. 209

Rennes, the capital of the Redones, one of the Celtic tribes inhabiting the Armorican Peninsula, was formerly called Condate (whence Conde) and became a place of some importance under the Romans. At a later date it retained its importance as the capital of the Duchy of Brittany, down to the time when the duchy passed to France through the marriage of Anne of Brittany, first to Charles VIII. in 1491, and secondly to Louis XII. in 1499. Rennes was one of the centres of the Republican army in the Vendean struggle of 1793.

A well-built modern quarter lies between the railway-station and the town proper on the left bank of the Vilaine. To the left of the Avenue de la Gare is the spacious Champ-de-Mars (PI. 0, 4), with the departmental War Monument for 1870. At the foot of the Avenue stands the Lyceum (PI. C, 3), an imposing structure in the style of the 17th cent., with a handsome chapel. It occupies the site of a Jesuit college, of which the only relic now left is the Eglise Toussaints (PI. 0, 3), a little behind the university. Farther on, on the quay, is the Palais Vniversitaire , another imposing modern edifice , partly occupied by the *Musee (PI. C, 3) , which includes various scientific collections and one of the finest provincial picture galleries in France (open on Sun. & Thurs., from 12 to 4 or 5, and to strangers on other days also). The principal entrance faces the quay, but on the days when the museum is not open to the public we enter by the back.

Ground-Floor. — Sculptures. In the middle and from right to left: Barrias, Last funeral ; Blanchard, Bathsheba ; Falguiere, Woman and pea- cock; Longepied, Immortality, Falguiere, Diana; 107. Quinton, Defence of the country; 10. Boisseau, Genius of Evil; 11. Captier, Hebe; Pech, Guido of Arezzo; St. Marceaux, Vine; Millet, George Sand; 105. Dolivet, Magda- len; Mercie", David; Escoula, Spring. By the walls, to the right of the en- trance : Marochetti, Casts of figures from the tomb of Mme. de la Riboisiere in Paris ; Barri, Mary Magdalen ; 48. Dolivet, Mignon ; 23. Lanno, Noah ; 44. Barri, Graziella; David oV Angers, Philopoemen; 74. Quinton, Death of Diagoras; 5, 4 (farther on), Coyzevox, Bronze bas-reliefs from the old monument of Louis XIV. in the Place du Palais (p. 210), representing France triumphant at sea and Brittany offering the design of the statue to the king; David d Angers, Bust of Lamennais; 22. Lanno, Lesbia; 26. Travaux, Day-dream ; 25. Thomas, Thought ; 64. Lanno, Samson ; 27. Florentine Master, Girl caressing a greyhound; 2i. Molknecht, Colossal statue of Louis XVI.; 106. Leofanti, Pro Patria. — The galleries beyond this room contain the Natural History Collections.

First Floor. — Pictures. The staircase and Room I contain Engravings and Drawings. Room II, at the end,to the left, contains several modern French works: 264. CI. Jacqvand,Th& Count of Cominges recognizing Adelaide; 363. T. Abraham, Landscape; 378. M. Roy, The beggars' part.

Room III. To the right: "84. De Crayei; Raising of the Cross; 21. Gior- dano, Martyrdom of St. Lawrence; 251. Ferdinand (of Rennes), Presenta- tion of the Virgin. — 294 (easel), Honthorst, Betting; 271. Jouvenet, Christ in the garden; 38. Ricci, St. Barbara; 31. Bassano, Penelope; 23. Por- denone(1), Totila, King of the Ostrogoths, visiting St. Benedict; 105. Van Kessel, Noah's Ark; 15. L. Carracci, St. Philip; 104. Van Kessel, Terrestrial paradise; 85. De Crayer, Raising of Lazarus; 293. Monnoyer, Flowers and fruit; *101. Honthorst, Denial of St. Peter; 329. French School, St. Peter.— 4. Ouercino, Pieta ; 142. Sandrart, Holy Family, with landscape. — 89. Van Dyck(1), Holy Family; '103. Jordaens, Crucifixion; 102. Huysmans, Land- scape; 95. Sir Peter Lely, Charles I. as a child and the Earl of Arundel; 17. Cerquozzi, Fruit and flowers; 81. Philip de Champaigne, Penitent Mag- dalen ; 139. Rubens (?) and Snyders, Lion and tiger hunt ; *10. Paolo Veronese,

BAEDEKER'S Northern France fli.^1 HAM ^£

210 Route 28. RENNES. Palais de Justice.

Perseus delivering Andromeda ; 110. Loth, Woman taken in adultery ; 144. Schwartz, Crucifixion ; 184. German School, Still-life.

Room IV. No. 165. Wouwerman, Horse-fair; 29. Palomino de Velaico, Vision of St. Antony; 150. Swanevelt, Landscape; 13. Ann. Carracci, Repose in Egypt; 137. Pourbus the Younger, Charron, the author; 292. Monnoyer, Vase and flowers; 296. LeNain, The new-horn child; 146. Snyders, Wounded dog; 143. Schoewaerdts, Landscape; 311. Quesnelj- Portrait; 255. Claude Lor- rain, Landscape; 212. Bon Boulogne, Children and hirds; 221. Casanova, Destruction of a hridge (3 other paintings of this series farther on); 253. Ch. de la Fosse, Iphigenia; 30. J. de Arellano, Flowers; 34. Guido Reni(1), Assumption; 141. S. van Ruysdael(l), Landscape; 135. P. Neeffs the Elder, Interior; 87. Decker (1), Landscape; 305. Poussin, Ruin? of a triumphal arch. — Ant. Coypel, 239. Venus hringing arms to ./Eneas, 240. Jupiter and Juno upon Mt. Ida; 282. Van Loo, Portrait; 168. Wynanls, Landscape; 111. Maas, A magistrate; 96. Franck the Younger, Jesus at the house of Simon; 132. W. van Mieris, Lady at her toilette; 162. Vuchel, Man listening to a woman who robs him; 153. Tenters the Younger, Tavern; 164. /. Wildens, Landscape; 134. Mt/tens, Fete; "159. Van Tol, Dutch interior; 109. Leermans, Trumpeter and maid-servant; 297. Le Main, Madonna, St. Anne, the Holy Child, and angels; *237. Jean Cousin (?), Jesus at the marriage in Cana of Galilee, a large painting from the church of St. Gervais, at Paris; 76. Browner, Topers in a barn ; 99. Van Herp, 'La Vierge au chardonneret' (goldfinch); 73. /. van der Bent, 133. Moucheron, Landscapes. — "161. Heems- kerck(Van Veen), St. Luke painting the Virgin. — Sculpt 'res: Dubois, Floren- tine singer; Delaplanche, Dancing and Music; Moreau-Vauthier, Fortune.

Room V. No. 331. French School, Ball at the court of the Valois; no number, Livy, Death of John the Baptist; 325. CI. Vignon, St. Catharine; 216, 217. Callot(1), 80. '■Velvet Brueghel, Landscapes; no number, Restout, Orpheus ; 14. L. Carracci, Martyrdom of St. Peter and of St. Paul ; 276. Lebrun, Descent from the Cross; 238. N. Coypel, Resurrection; 242. Des- portes, Wolf-hunt; 213. L. Boulogne, The Woman with an issue of blood; 39. Tintoretto, Massacre of the Innocents ; 298. Natoire, St. Stephen.

Room VI contains nothing of importance. The door of the staircase to the 2nd floor opens here.

Room VII. No. 326 (above the door), Voillemot, Velleda; 233. Chaigneau, Forest of Fontainebleau ; no number, Bourgogne, Gifts of autumn. — 234. Couder, Tanneguy-Duchatel carrying off the Dauphin (Charles VIII.) from Vincennes to save him from the attacks of the Duke of Burgundy (1418); 260. Guirin, Ulysses exposed to the wrath of Neptune; 275. Lansper, Land- scape. — 208. Blin (of Rennes), Landscape; 262. Guillemot, Sappho and Phaon; 295. Mouchot, Bazaar at Cairo; no number, Feyen-Perrin, Sleeping nymph; 207. Blin, Landscape; 196. Abel de Pujol, Naomi and Ruth.

The Second Floor is devoted to the Aroh^ological Moseum, com- prising vases, medals, arms, casts of ancient gems and other precious objects found in the district, and various other antiquities. There are also several paintings of the early Italian school, including a triptych ascribed to Giotto , and a representation of Death said to be painted by King Rene1 of Anjou. A small room contains a ceramic collection.

At the end of the Quai de l'Universite', to the left, rises the Chamber of Commerce, a large structure in the Renaissance style, only partly completed. In front is a. Statue of Bastard, maire and benefactor of Rennes.

The Pont de Berlin, to the right of the Quai de rUniversite", and the street forming its continuation lead to the Place du Palais (PI. B, O, 2, 3), one of the principal open spaces of the town. It contains a fine fountain.

On the N. side of this Place stands the Palais de Justice (PI. C, 2), or court-house, the finest secular edifice in Rennes, erected in 1618-54, hy Jacques Dehrosse, the architect of the Luxemhourg,

Cathedral. RENNES. 28. Route. 211

for the Parlement of Brittany. The somewhat heavy facade is pre- ceded by statues of D'Argentre' (1519-46), La Chalotais (1701-85), Gerbier (1725-88), and TouUier (1762-1835), four eminent lawyers of Brittany. Several of the rooms in the interior are adorned with paintings by Coypel, Jouvenet, Gosse, Jobe'-Duval, and other well known artists.

>To the S.W. of the Place du Palais lies the Place de la Maine (PI. B, 3), the centre of the tramway-system (p. 208), with the Hotel de Ville and the theatre. The Hotel de Ville, rebuilt by Gabriel, the architect of Louis XV., after the great fire of 1720 (p. 208), is in the form of a semicircle between two pavilions and is surmounted by a tower ending in a bulbous dome. The Theatre (PI. B, C, 3), dating from 1835, is also in a semicircular form , but presents its convex side to the Place. The facade is surmounted by figures of Apollo and the Muses. The colonnade surrounding the building contains cafe's and attractive shops. — To the N. of the Hotel de Ville is the Library, with 80,000 vols, and several interesting MSS.

The street to the N. of the Hotel de Ville leads to the church of St. Sauveur (PI. B, 3), an uninteresting building of the 18th cent., containing a canopied high-altar, a handsome pulpit, a bas-relief of the marriage of the Virgin (altar on the S.), statues of SS. Peter and Paul, good modern stained glass, a few old paintings, and other works of art.

A little farther on rises the Cathedral (PI. A, 3), a building of ancient foundation but dating in its present form mainly from the 19th century. The facade is in the classical style. The interior, which is scarcely ecclesiastical in style, is richly adorned with paintings by Le He'naff and Jobe'-Duval. The last chapel in the S. aisle contains a fine altar-piece, in carved and painted wood, executed in the 15th century. In the N. arm of the transept is a monument, by Valentin, erected in 1883 to Cardinal St. Marc (1803-78).

In the lane opposite the cathedral rises the Porte Mordelaise (PI. A, 3), an interesting relic of the mediaeval fortifications of the town (15th cent.), surrounded by old houses. Through this gate the Dukes of Brittany and Bishops of Rennes made their formal entries into the town.

A little to the right, farther on, is the Church of St. Stephen (PI. A, 2), of the 17th cent., containing several statues by Barri, stained-glass win- dows by Lavergne, and a painting by Jourjon.

We now follow the Rue de la Monnaie (PI. A, 3, B, 2), towards the E. The fourth turning on the left brings us to a small square with a bronze statue, by Dolivet, of Leperdrit, maire of Rennes dur- ing the Terror, who had the courage to resist the ferocious Carrier (p. 246). Farther to the N. is the large unfinished modern Gothic church of Notre-Dame-de-Bonne-Nouvelle (PI. B, 2), whence the Rue St. Melaine leads to the E. to the church of Notre-Dame-en-Saint- Melaine (PI. D, 2), an abbey-church of the ll-13th cent., with a tower surmounted by a modern statue of the Virgin. The chief


212 Route 28. RENNES.

objects of interest in the interior are the handsome monument by Valentin (near the entrance), the Gothic high-altar, and the choir screen in carved wood, all modern.

A little farther on, to the right, is the Thabor (PI. D, 2), part of the garden of the former Abbey de St. Melaine, and now the chief open-air resort of Rennes; it is embellished with a figure of Liberty and with a statue of Duguesclin, who was born near Rennes in 1314 or 1320. On the E. this promenade is adjoined by the Jardin des Plantes (PI. D, 2), which is open to the public and affords extensive views.

From the Place St. Melaine we return by the Contour de la Motte, passing the modern Chapelle des Missionaires , the Prefecture , and the Motte, a promenade upon an ancient moat-hill. The Rue Victor- Hugo leads thence to the right to the Place du Palais, while the Rue Gambetta descends straight to the Vilaine, which it reaches beside the Universite (PI. C, D, 3), a handsome new stone building. On the opposite bank begins the Avenue de la Gare (p. 209).

A walk may be taken, on the left bank of the Vilaine, to the Chateau de la Privalaye, famous for its butter (2 M. to the S.E. of Rennes).

From Rennes to S(. Malo, Mont St. Michel, Dinan, etc., see R. 30. — A branch-line also runs to (38 M.) Chdteaubriant (see p. 234; for Angers), joining the line from Vitre (p. 208) at (29 M.) Mariigni-Ferchaud. About 2 M. to the N.E. of the station of (21 M.) Reliers lies Eisi , with a large dolmen or 'Allee Couverte' named the Roche avx Fies.

From Rennes to Redon, 44'/2 M., railway in l3/4-2V4 hrs. (fares 8 fr. 5, 5 fr. 45, 3 fr. 55 c). — The valley of the Vilaine, which this line follows more or less all the way to Redon, crossing repeatedly from one bank to the other, affords numerous picturesque views of wooded hills and rocky summits surmounted by castles and chateaux. — At (23 M.) Messac our line is joined by one from Chateaubriant (p. 234), which is to be continued to Ploermel (p. 254). We now cross a viaduct 70 ft. high and traverse a tunnel >/a M. long. 32'/2 M. Besli. The train passes through a marshy district, crossing the Lac de Morin. At (36 M.) Massirac we join the line from Chateaubriant and Segre (p. 234). 40 M. Avessac. To the left runs the railway to Nantes. — 44'/a M. Redon, see p. 253.

29. From Rennes (Paris) to Brest.

155 M. Railway in 5V*-7V2 hrs. (fares 2S fr. 10 c, 19 fr., 12 fr. 40 c).

The ancient duchy of Bretagne or Brittany, 'pays de granit, recouvert de chenes\ forming the extreme N.W. corner of France, still differs in many important respects from the rest of the country. The inhabitants are of pure Celtic race and their native tongue is akin to Welsh. In upper or E. Brittany this language has to a great extent given place to French, but upwards of a million inhabitants in the W. provinces (Fin- istere, Cotes du Nord, Morbihan) still speak it, and in many places in the interior French is not understood. The peasants still retain their ancient picturesque dress, which is seen to greatest advantages on Sundays and at 'Pardons' and other fetes. Many of their manners and customs are also quaint and primitive, and curious old legend and superstitions are met at every turn. In addition to its wild scenery, Brittany offers the traveller a special attraction in the stupendous monuments of the ancient Celts at Carnac and Locmariaquer.

Rennes, see p. 208. On leaving Rennes, our line diverges to the right from those to Chateaubriant and Redon (see above), and crosses the Vilaine. To the right runs the line to St. Malo (R. 30). — 13l/> M. Montfort-sur-Meu (Cheval Blanc), an ancient town, with

LAMBALLE. 29. Route. 213

a tower of the 15th cent, and other relics of its former fortifications. 20 M. Montauban-de-Bretagne (Cosnier), with a chateau of the 14-15th centuries. 23 M. La Brohiniere.

A branch-line runs hence to (26 M.) Ploermel (p. 254), where it meets a branch from Questembert, on the railway from Nantes to Brest (p. 254). — Branch to Dinan, see p. 232.

The train ascends the valley of the Oarun and crosses the Ranee. 28y2 M. Caulnes; 33y2 M. Broom; 40 M. Plenee-Jugon.

50 M. Lamballe (Hotel de France ; du Commerce), a town with 4530 inhab., is picturesquely situated to the right of the railway, on a hill crowned by the Church of Notre-Dame, a handsome and interesting edifice of the 13-15th centuries. Notre-Dame was orig- inally the chapel of the castle of the Comtes de Penthievre, which was destroyed by Card. Richelieu in 1626. It was in besieging this castle in 1590 that La Noue, the 'Bayard of the Huguenots', met his death. A suburb of Lamballe contains the interesting church of St. Martin, dating mainly from the 11th and 12th centuries. — The name of Lamballe is, perhaps, most familiar from its connection with the Princess Lamballe, the unhappy favourite of Marie An- toinette, one of the victims of the atrocious massacres of Sep- tember, 1792.

A diligence plies from Lamballe to Le Val Andre (Grand HStel; de la Plage, etc.), a small sea-bathing place 972 M. to the N., passing (llh ".) the village of Plineuf. — Erquy (Hit. des Bairn), 5lfc M. to the N.E., another bathing-resort, is also served by a diligence (13 M. from Lamballe). Cape Frehel (p. 181) is 11 M. distant.

An omnibus (fare l3/i fr.) runs from Lamballe to Montcontour, a small town 10 M. to the S.W., the parish-church of which (St. Mathurin's) is a favourite resort of Breton pilgrims who bring their cattle to be touched by the reliquary of the saint. It contains some admirable stained glass of the 16th century. The 'Pardon de St. Mathurin' is celebrated here on Whitmonday, attracting great crowds of visitors.

From Lamballe to Dinan, Pontonon, etc., see R. 30.

57 M. Yffiniac. The train now traverses a lofty embankment and viaduct (125 ft. high).

63 M. St. Brieuc. — Hotels. D'Angleteeee, R. 2-8, B. '/4-174, dej. 2>/2-3. D. 34 fr. ; de rUsivERS, R. 2-6, B. 1, dej. 3, D. 41/2 fr. ; de Feance, R. 272-6, B. 1, dej. 2'/2, D. 3 fr. ; Ceoix-Blanche, commercial, R., L., & A. from 21/* fr. — Cafes. Jouhaux, Rue St. Guillaunie; Champ de Mars, Place du Champ-de-Mars ; Univers, near the theatre. — Cabs. Per drive, 2 pers. l'/4, 3-4 pers. lV2fr.; per hr. 2 fr., at night (8-7) 74 and 72 fr- extra.

St. Brieuc, a town with 21,665 inhab., the capital of the Biparte- ment des Cotes-du-Nord and the seat of a bishop, is situated on the left bank of the Gouet, about 1 M. above the point where it flows into the Manche. The town sprang into existence round a monastery founded here at the end of the 5th cent, by St. Brieuc, a missionary from Britain. Though ill built, with irregular streets, St. Brieuc contains many quaint and picturesque old houses.

Following first the Rue de la Gare, opposite the station, and then the Rue du Lyce*e (to the right), we soon reach the Champ-de-Mars, with a War Monument for 1870-71, by Oge", a native of the town.

214 Route 29. ST. BRIEUC. From Rennes

On the other side , to the right , is a boulevard with a Statue of Duguesclin; to the left stands the church of St. Quillaume, dating originally from the 13th cent., but rebuilt in 1854. The first turning to the right in the Rue St. Guillaume leads to the Grande Prome- nade, containing the Palais de Justice. In the neighbouring quarter is the modern church of St. Michel, in the classical style. The street opposite this church , and the Rue Jouallau lead to the Marche' au Ble', with the Theatre. Thence de Rue des Halles, to the right, leads past the end of the Rue des Paves-Neufs, No. 4 in which is the Hotel de Rohan, one of the most interesting old mansions in the town (15th cent.). Farther on in the same direction rises the Cathedral, an unimposing edifice of the 13-15th and 18th cent., containing numerous monuments. Many of these are erected to the bishops of St. Brieuc, including three by Oge" (S. aisle and transept). The Hotel de Ville, adjoining the cathedral, contains a small Muse'e, open on Sun. and Thurs., 2-4 p.m.; in front of the building is a bronze Statue of P. Corbion, by Oge'. Opposite the cathedral is the Pre- fecture, which is adjoined by the Bishop's Palace, dating partly from the 16th century. The street passing to the left of the latter leads to Notre-Dame-d'Esperance or St. Pierre, another 13th cent, church, recently rebuilt. It is resorted to by pilgrims and contains a Calvary. The cross-street to the left brings us back to the Champ-de-Mars.

Good views of the picturesque ravine of the Gouet and of the Bay of St. Brieuc are obtained from the Croix de SanU, to the N.E. of the Grande Promenade, and from the Tertre de Bui, to the N.W., with a figure of the Madonna by Oge\

The port of St. Brieuc is Le Ligui, 1 M. to the N. (railway). About l'/zM. farther on stands the ruined Tour de Cesson, built in 1395 to protect the mouth of the river, but blown up by Henry of Navarre in 1598.

From St. Bkiecc to Binic, Portrieox, and St. Quay, 12'/2 M., diligence daily (fare 3 fr., to Binic i3/4 fr ). — 4 M. Ste. Croix; 5 M. Pordie.

— 71/* M. Binic (De Bretagne; de France), a prettily situated little town and sea-bathing resort, with a small harbour for boats engaged in the cod-fishery.

— 11 M. Portrieux (De la Plage; du Talus, etc.), a village with a good harbour of refuge, also frequented for sea-bathing. On the Sunday nearest the first flood-tide in May the fishing-fleet of the Bay of St. Brieuc (with about 40C0 men) sets sail hence for the Newfoundland fishing-banks. — 12'/2 M. St. Quay (lodging at the Convent), a small town and sea-bathing place affected by the French clergy. — Beyond St. Quay the road goes on to (15 M.) Paimpol (p. 216), passing (4 M.) Plouha, (3 M.) Lanloup, (3 M.) Plouizec, (IV4 M.) Kirity, and the (3/i M.) finely-situated ruins of the Abbaye de Beauport (13-15th cent. ; no admission).

From St. Brieuc to Auray, 79 M., railway in 6 hrs. (fares about 14 fr. 45, 9 fr. 75, 6 fr. 35 c). — 5 M. St. Julien, about 1 M. to the N.E. of which is the Camp de Piran, an ancient vitrified fort. — 12 M. Quintin (Du Commerce; Grand' Maison), picturesquely situated on the Gouet, is noted for its manufacture of 'toiles de Bretagne', a particular kind of linen cloth. The chateau was built in the 17-18th centuries. Diligences ply hence via (lO1/? M.) Corlay to (25 M.) Rostrenen. — 14 M. Le Pas contains iron-works. The Wood of Lorges and the Chateau of Lorges (to the left) are passed. — 31 M. Loudiac, another cloth-manufacturing town, gives name to a forest, 11 sq. M. in extent. The railway now crosses the Oust and the canal from Brest to Nantes. — 39 M. St. Oirand.

45 M. Pontivy (H6lel Grosset; de France), a town with S290 inhab., on the Blavet, grew up round a monastery said to have been founded in the

to Brest. GUINGAMP. 29. Route. 21 5

7th cent., by St. Ivy, a monk of Lindisfarne. Pontivy was situated in the midst of those parts of Brittany most loyal to the house of Bourbon, and in 1805 Napoleon ordered the erection of a new town , to overawe the district. This addition, known as Napolionville and consisting mainly of barracks, gave its name to the whole community under the first and second empires. The old town contains some considerable remains of a Chateau of the 15th cent. , now containing the Musie Le Brigand, and the church of Notre-Dame-de-la-Joie, of the same period. A statue (by Ldofanti) of Dr. Guepin (1805-73), an ardent democrat, stands in the Place Egalite' ; another (by the Comte de Nogent) of General de Lourmel (d. 1855 at Sebastopol) in the Place d'Armes. — A diligence plies hence to (13 51.) Guimint-sur- Scerff via, (l3/4 M.) Stival, with the 16th cent. Chapelle St. iSiriadec.

541/2 M. St-Nicolas-des-Eaux has a 16th cent, chapel of St. Nicodemus, which is annually visited by many pilgrims On the day of the 'Pardon' (the first Sat. in Aug.) the cattle of the neighbourhood, gaily adorned with ribands, are driven to two fountains near the chapel, which are supposed to possess miraculous virtues. Young cattle are presented to the saint, and afterwards sold by auction, the popular belief being that one of them in a herd brings prosperity. — Beyond two short tunnels is the (63 M.) station of Baud. The small town of that name lies 3 M. to the E. At the ruined chateau of Quinipily, about 1 M. from Baud, is the curious 'Venus of Quin- ipily, a rude stone statue, formerly worship ped by the peasantry with obscene rites. The figure, which is of granite, is about 7 ft. high, and on the tillet about the head are the letters 1 1 T. The origin or meaning of the statue is obscure, but it seems clear that it was never intended for Venus. Some authorities ascribe it to Moorish soldiers in the early Roman armies; to others it has an Egyptian appearance. — The train now traverses the Forest of Camors and reaches (72 M.) Pluvignier. The town, with 5160 inhab., lies 3/4 M. to the left. We join the line from Brest to Nantes. — 79 M. Auray, see p. 256.

Beyond St. Brieuc the train crosses the valley of the Gouet by a Viaduct, 190 ft. high. — 69y2 M. Plouvara-Plerneuf. — 74 M. Chatelaudren. The village, V2 M. to the N., has a chapel containing panelling painted in the 15th cent, with 72 Biblical subjects.

82 M. Guingamp ( France; Perisse), atown with 9272 inhab., is notedfor its church of Notre-Dame-de-Bon-Secours (13-16th cent.), one of the chief pilgrim-resorts in Brittany. The 'Pardon' takes place on the Sat. before the first Sun. in July, and presents a most interest- ing spectacle. Guingamp also contains a fine Fountain, reconstructed in the style of the 15th century. The Gothic chapel at Ordces, a village l!/4 M. to the W., dates from 1507-21 and contains some noteworthy sculptures.

Feom Gcingamp to Cabhaix and Kosporden, 64'/2 M., railway in 4!/4- 5 hrs. (fares about 11 fr. 60, 7 fr. 90, 5 fr. 10 c). This line penetrates the heart of Bas*e-Brelagne, a sombre district, comparatively unknown to tourists, and inhabited by a highly superstitious people, with many curious cus'oms. — Coadut, a village about halfway between Guingamp and (7 M.) Mowtfrus-Bourbriac, the first station, is noted for it* 'Pardon des C(iqs' (1st Sun. in Advent), so called from the cocks (sometimes 6-700) presented to St. Ildut. — 12 M. Pont-Melvez, 21/2 M. to the S. of which is Bulat-PtHivien, with an interesting church (15-16th cent.) and a 'pardon' on Sept. 8th. — 20>/2 M. Collar (3300 inhab.), n< te i for its cattle-fairs. — 33V2 M. Carhaix (p. 217). — Beyond (i'/i M.) Molreff the line passes the E. extremity of the Montagues Noires (1070 ft.), a small chain of granite hill- running parallel with the Montagnes d Arre'e fp. 217). — 4 l/v M. Gourin (Cheval Blanc), a mining-town (4723 inhab.). Diligence via Le Faouet to Quimperle (p. 260). — 57 M. Scaer (5t'40 inhab.). — 64V2 M. Rotporden (p. 260).

From Gcingamp to Paimpol, 23 M., railway in l3/4 21/2 hrs. (fares 4 fr. 15, 2 fr. 80, 1 fr. £0 c). The railway crosses the Trieux, passes under the Brest

216 Route 29. M0RLA1X. From Rennet

line, and ascends towards the N. — Beyond (9>/2 M.) Plouec we return to the valley of the Trieux and skirt the river. — 13 M. Pontrieux(UQt. de la Grande-Maison ; de F ranee), a village with a small harbour, on the Trieux. From Pontrieux to Treguier, see below. — 19l/2 M. Plourivo-Lizardrieux. Le"zardrieux (Hot. du C immerce), on the left bank (reached by a suspension bridge), is another small port. — 23 M. Paimpol (Gmicquel; Michel), a small town, has a harbour at the end of a bay, which is of importance as a centre for the French boats engaged in the cod-fishery off "Newfoundland and Ice- land. — About 5 M. to the N., l'/4 M. off the coast, is the He Brihat (Hotels; sea-baths), offering a good harbour of refuge, large enough for men-of-war (boat from the Pointe de VArcouet, 25 c). About 8 M. to the S., and 1 M. to the E. of the direct road to St. Brieuc (see p. 213), is the Temple de Lanleff, an interesting circular church, formerly looked upon as a heathen temple and probably erected by the Templars in the 12th century. — A public conveyance (2-4 fr.) plies from Paimpol to (201/2 M.) Lannion (see below) via (3 M.l Lezardrieux (see above) and (9:/2 M.) Treguier (see below). — Road to St. Quay via, Kirily and the Abbaye de Beaufort, see p. 214.

A diligence (2 fr.) plies from Pontrieux (see above) to (9>/2 M.) Triguier. via, (2'/2 M.) Ploezal, near the curious 15th cent. Chdteau de la Roche-Jagu, (4V2 M.) Pommerit-Jaudy, and (5>/2 M.) La Roche-Derrien, a village with an interesting church and a ruined castle. — 9'/2 M. Treguier (Grand Hotel; de France), a picturesque fishing-town, lies partly on the hills at the con- fluence of the two streams that unite to form the Triguier. The Cathedral (14-15th cent.), with three towers over the transepts, contains the large tomb of St. Yves (1253-1303), patron-saint of advocates, restored in 1890. The Cloisters, entered from the left transept, are as old as the church. Ernest Renan (1823-92) was born at Treguier. — Diligence to Paimpol and Lannion, see above.

The railway skirts Guingamp, affording a pretty view of the en- virons. 91 M. Belle-Isle-Begard. — 98 M. Plouaret (Hot. Rocher).

Fkom Plouaret to Lannion, 10 M., railway in 30-35 min. (fares 2 fr., 1 fr. 35, 90 c). — Lannion (H6tel d'Europe; de France), a town with 6126 inhab. and a small fishing harbour, is situated on the Liguer. In the pretty valley of this river, which deserves a visit, are the ruins of the (2'/2 M.) Chateau de Co'etfrec, the Renaissance Chapel of Kerf oris (2-2'/2 M. farther), the Chdteau of Kergrist (2 M. farther), and the ruined Chateau of Tonquidee, 3 M. beyond Kerfons.

A diligence (75 c.) plies from Lannion to (6 M.) Perros-Guirec (Hdt. du Levant; des Bains), a small port with two bathing-beaches, viz. those of Trestraou (Hot. de la Plage, pens. 6-8 fr. ; Grand Hotel des Bains) and Trestrignel (Grand Hotel de Perros-Guinec, opened in 1897). Thence we may visit the curious rocks of Ploumanac'h, (3 M. to the X.W.) and Tregastel (2J/2 M. farther W.). Tregastel (Communauti de Ste. Anne, kept by nuns, pens. 5-6 fr. ; Hdt. de la Plage, small) is another bathing-resort, also served by a diligence from Lannion (8 M. ; 1 fr.).

The railway traverses an undulating country, and beyond two short tunnels reaches (103 M.) Plounerin.

About 21/2 M. to the S.E. lies the Chapel of Eeramenac,h, a curious structure of the 15th century. — A diligence plies from Ploune'rin to (7'/*M.) Plestin-les-Greves (Grand' Maison), a bathing-resort (3900 inhab.), 6 M. from which is Locquirec (Hdt. des Bains ; du Port), another resort of the same kind. St. Jean-dn-Doigl lies 8 M. to the W. of Locquirec (see p. 218).

To the left of the railway, farther on, lies the village of Plouegat- Moysan, near which is the rude chapel of St. Laurent-du-Poldour, a frequented pilgrim-resort on the night of Aug. 9-10th, when many curious superstitious rites are performed. — 112 M. Plouigneau. We cross the lofty Viaduct of Morlaix (see p. 217).

118 M. Morlaix (Hotel de V Europe; de Provence; Bozellec), a town with 16,000 inhab., picturesquely situated on a tidal river,

to Brest. ROSCOFF. 29. Route. 217

about 4 M. from the English Channel. The Rue Gamhetta describes a considerable curve in descending from the station ; a flight of steps to the left offers a shorter route for pedestrians. At the end is the Hotel de Ville, in front of which is the Place Thiers, with a bronze Bust of Cornic-Duchene (1731-1809), a famous corsair of Morlaix, by Lud. Durand (to be removed to a new arch beyond the viaduct). Between this Place and the harbour is the * Viaduct, 310 yds. long and 190 ft. high, with a bridge for foot-passengers below the railway.

The Harbour is formed by the Jarlot and the Queffleut, which unite in a vaulted channel beneath the Hotel de Ville to form the Riviere de Morlaix. Morlaix carries on an active trade with the N. of Europe in grain, oil-seeds, vegetables, butter, honey, wax, leather, horses, etc. The large building to the left of the wet dock is a To- bacco Manufactory.

On the quay to the right of the same dock is the Fontaine des Anglais, marking the spot where 600 Englishmen were surprised asleep and slain after an attack on Morlaix hy Henry VIII. (1522).

The church of St. Melaine, near the Place Thiers, dates chiefly from the 15th cent.; the carvings on the fonts, organ-case, and vaulting should be noticed. The old streets behind the H6tel de Ville contain quaint old houses, with interesting interiors. — Farther on is St. Mathieu (16th cent), with a massive tower.

In the Place des Jacobins, on the other side of the Jarlot, is an old convent-church (with two fine windows) now containing the Musee (Sun. and Thurs., 1-4, free; other days 25 a). — The quaint costume of the peasants is seen at Morlaix to advantage on market-days.

From Morlaix to Roscoff, 171/j M., railway in 50-55 min. (fares 3 fr. 15,

2 fr. 10, 1 fr. 40 c). — Beyond (6V4 M.) Tauli-Henvic we cross the Pensiz hy means of a viaduct, 100 ft. in height. 10</2 M. Plouinan. — 13>/a M. St. Pol- de-Leon (Hdtel de France), a town with 7620 inhah., is 1/i M. from the sea, on which lies its small port Pempoul. The Cathedral, a partly Eomanesque and partly Gothic structure of the 13-14th cent., possesses two beautiful spires, and contains various tombs and other works of art. Still more interesting, however, is the "Ghapelle de Creizker, chiefly 14th and 15th cent, work, with an exquisite tower and spire, traditionally said to have been built hy an English architect. The cemetery contains Gothic ossuaries and a church of the 15th century. — 171/2 M. Roscoff (Hdtel des Bains-de-Mer ; Talabardon ; de la Maison-Blcmche) , a town with 4730 inhah. and a small harbour, carries on a trade in the vegetables which grow in the neighbour- hood. The Gulf Stream is said to contribute to the fertility of this district. Mary, Queen of Scots, landed here in 1548, at the age of live, on her way to be betrothed to the Dauphin Francis. Prince Charles Edward Stuart also landed here after escaping from Scotland. — About 2'/z M. off the coast lies the small He de Batz (Hot. Robinson), inhabited by mariners.

From Morlaix to Carhaix, 30 51., railway in 2-2'/2 hrs. (fares 5 fr. 50,

3 fr. 70, 2 fr. 40 c). — Beyond (5'/2 M.) Plougonven-Plourin the line crosses the Montagnes d'Arrie (1280 ft.), the principal chain in Brittany. — 2OV2 M. Huelg-oat-Locmaria. Huelgoal (Hot. de Bretagne; de France) is situated 33/4 M. from the station (hotel-omn. 1'/* fr.) near a lake and a wooded valley in which is a huge rocking-stone ('rocher tremblant'). The Church (16th cent.) has some interesting wood-carvings. About 4x/2 M. to the S.W. is St. Herbot, with a remarkable 16th cent, chapel, which is the scene of an interesting 'pardon' in May. — 23V2 M. Poullaouen. — 30 M. Carhaix (.1161. de la Tour-d'Auvergne) , on the Aven or Hiere , an old town with

218 Routed. ST. THEGONNEC. From Rennes

3032 inhab. and two old churches, is the birthplace of La Tour-d'Auvergne, 'the first grenadier of France' (1743-1800). A branch-line runs hence to (13'/2 M.) Rostrenen, whence a diligence plies via (10 M.) Goaree to (30 M.) Loudiac (p. 214). — From Carhai."- to Guingamp and to Rosporden, see p. 215. Other interesting excursions may be made from Morlaix to (8>/2 M.) Carantec (carr. 12-15 fr.); to SI. TMgonnec and Gimiliau (carr. 12 fr.); and to (10 M.) St. Jean-du-Doigt (H6t.St. Jean), the church of which (15- 16th cent.) contains a finger of St. John, in a gold and silver enamelled casket of the 15th century. The local 'pardon' takes place on St. John's Eye (23rd June). St. Jean may he conveniently reached by means of the diligence (1 fr.) from Morlaix to (llV-i M.) Plougasnou (Hotels), l1/* M. from St. Jean. The dil- igence goes on to Primel (Hotels; sea-baths).

114 M. Pleyber- Christ. — 119 M. St. Thegonnec (Hotel Ferer). The town (3073 inhab.), l3/4 M. to the N., has a handsome Renais- sance church. In the churchyard are a curious triumphal arch and an ossuary of the same epoch, a 'Calvary', and a Holy Sepulchre. — The line now crosses the Pensez by a viaduct 100 ft. high. The village of Gimiliau, to the right, contains one of the most curious 'Calvaries' in Brittany, adorned with statues and statuettes (1581). ■ — 125 M. Landivisiau (Hot. de I' Industrie) is a small industrial town (4240 inhab.), IV4 M. to the N. of the railway.

About 3'/2 M. to the N.W. lies Bodilis, with a tasteful Renaissance church, and 4'/2 M farther on, to the left of the road, are the interesting ruins of the Chateau of Kerjean (16th cent.). — About 5 M. to the N.E. is Lambader, with a pilgrimage-chapel of the 14th cent., beyond which are O/2 M.) Plouvorn and (f/2 M.) the Chateau of tiivuzori (17th cent.).

We now descend the valley of the Elom. — 140 M. La Roche, 2'/2 M. to the S.E. of which is La Martyre, a village with a hand- some church (15-16th cent.), and a noted horse-fair in July.

143'/2 M. Landerneau (Buffet; *H6tel de I'Univers; Raould), the junction of the Nantes line (R. 34), is a cloth-manufacturing town with 8038 inhabitants. It contains two churches of the 16th cent., one dedicated to St. Thomas of Canterbury, and a mediaeval bridge across the Elorn.

From Landerneau to Plouneour-Trez, 17'/2 M., railway in l'/i-l'/s nr- (fares 2 fr. 15, 1 fr. 40 c). 10 M. le Folgoet is a pilgrim-resort, with a curious Church of the 15th cent., containing a handsome 'Rood-loft of the same period. IO1/2 Lesneven, (H6(. de France; Trois-Piliers), a small town (HS-i inhab.). 17'/2 M. Ploimlour-Trez (2900 inhab.), near which is Brignogan (Hotels), a small sea-bathing resort

The railway continues to follow the valley of the Elorn and traverses a forest. To the left is the Arise de Kerhuon, a small hay crossed by a lofty viaduct and containing the chief timber depot of the French navy. — 150 M. Kerhuon.

A ferry (10 c.) here crosses the Elorn to Le Passage, whence a road ascends to (l-*/4 M.) Plougastel (Hot. Kervella) , a village noted for the quaint costumes of its inhabitants, and for the 'Pardon' of St. John, which takes place on June 24th. The cemetery contains a curious monumental "Calvary of 1602-04, embellished with numerous statuettes and reliefs. — Diligence (1 fr.) daily to (7 M.) Daoulas (p. 262); steamer from Brest to Le Passage on June 24th and Sun. in summer.

1521/2 M. Le Rody is also situated on a creek. About this point

begin the Roads of Brest, the shores of which are well wooded and

picturesque. The train traverses a long cutting.

Grave et imprxme "par

"Wagner i Bel) es .Leipzig-

to Brest. BREST. 29. Route. 219

155 M. Brest. — Hotels. Hotel Continental (PI. a; D, 3), Place de la Tour-d'Auvergne, R., L., & A. 3-7, B. li/i-2, dej.3, D. 3>/s, omn. i/2-3/4 fr., well spoken of; "des Voyageurs (PI. b; D,2. 3), Rue de Siain 16, R , L., & A. from2'/2, dej.3, D. Whir.; Grand Hotel (PI c; D, 3), Place du Champ - de-Bataille; du Grand-Tdrc (PI. d; D, 2), Place des Portes, R. 1V2-3, B. 1/2, dej- 2, D. 21/2 fr. ; de France (PI. e; D, 3), Rue de la Mairie.

Cafes. Laplanche, du Commerce, de Paris, Rue d'Aiguillon and Place du Champ-de-Bataille; Grand Cafi, Brestois, Rue de Siam 15 and 17. — Gafi- Concert des Folies-Bergere, Rue Guyot 4.

Cabs. For 1-2 pera., per drive i>/«, per hr. l3/t fr. ; 3-4 pera., 2 & 2'/2 fr.

Post Office (PI. D, 3), at the corner of the Rue du Chateau and Rue d'Aiguillon, in the Place du Champ-de-Bataille.

British Consul, Herbert Gye, Esq.; vice-consul, Fred. Bonar, Esq. — American Consular Agent, M. A. Pitel.

French Protestant Church, Rue d'Aiguillon 4 (service at 11 a.m.).

Brest, a town with 74,538 inhab., the chief naval port of France, and a fortress of the first class, is situated in the department of Finistere, the westernmost part of France, to the N. of the Roads of Brest. Though it also possesses a commercial harbour, its im- portance depends entirely upon its naval dockyard, and its history is practically the history of the latter.

The date of the foundation of the town of Brest is unknown. It was one of the twelve Breton ports given by John IV., Duke of Brittany, to Edward III. of England in 1342, and it repulaed an attack of the French under Duguesclin In 1386, 1387, and 1388 John IV. made attempts to re- cover Brest, but the English did not relinquish it until 1397, when Richard II. sold it to Charles VII. of France for 12,000 crowns. In 1489, during the Breton War of Succession, Brest opened its gates to Charles of Bloia, and offered a successful resistance to Anne of Brittany, who was assisted by an English fleet. The English afterwards threatened Brest several times, and Lord Howard attacked it unsuccessfully in 1513. Though it passed finally to France in 1532, along with the rest of Brittany (see p. 2(19), it did not begin to be a naval port of importance until about 1631. Richelieu began the extensive harbour-works, and Vauban fortified the port in time to beat back an energetic attack of the English and Dutch fleets in 1694. Information of this expedition is believed to have been conveyed to the French court by Jacobite spies. In 1794 Admiral Howe defeated the French fleet, under Villaret and Joyeuse, off Brest.

The town is built on two rocky hills on the banks of the Penfeld, which forms the naval harbour, the chief part being on the left bank. Three roads lead to the town from the Station (PI. E, 3), which lies outside the fortifications. That straight in front conducts us in a few minutes to the Place du Champ-de-Bataille (Pl.D, 3), via the Porte Foy, the Rue Voltaire (left), and the Rue de la Rampe or Rue d'Aiguillon (right). The two last streets lead on beyond the Place to the Rue de Siam (PL 0, 3), the principal street in Brest, while in the other direction they end at the Cours Dajot (see below). — The Avenue de la Gare, to the right from the station, leads to the upper end of the Rue de Siam, which descends thence to the naval har- bour. — The street to the left from the station passes between the commercial harbour and the Cours Dajot to the Place du Chateau.

The Commercial Harbour (PI. E, 3), of recent construction, in- cludes at present four basins, with a total area of 100 acres, with two moles, and a breakwater lfa M long. The Cours Dajot (PI. C, D, 4)

220 Route 29. BREST. Castle.

is a handsome promenade laid out in 1769, and embellished with statues of Neptune and Abundance, by Coyzevox. It communicates with the commercial harbour by flights of steps. The * View of the roadstead thence is particularly fine.

Brest Roads, in which several men-of-war are usually anchored, are formed of an irregular bay, 14 M. long and 7 M. wide, almost landlocked by a peninsula, which leaves free only a single channel on the N., called the Goulel, 1-2 M. broad and 3 M. long. The entrance is thus somewhat difficult, but the Goulet once passed, ships find themselves in perhaps the largest and safest roadstead of Europe, in which 400 men-of-war can ride at anchor at one time. The roads are defended by powerful batteries, for the most part on the level of the water, and commanded themselves by the guns of the vast system of fortifications which guard the harbour and town. The peninsula of Plougastel (p. 218) divides the roadstead into two main parts, from which various smaller bays ramify. The part next the town is called the Bras de Landemeau, into which the Elorn or Lan- derneau falls ; the other is the Bras de Chdteaulin (p. 262), which receives the Chateaulin or Aulne.

At the "W. end of the Gours Dajot, on a rock overlooking the harbour, rises the Castle (PI. C, 4), an important military work, modified by Vauban from a construction of the 13th century. Visitors are admitted on application at the entrance (at 10 a.m., 2 p.m., or 4 p.m. ; fee), but there is nothing of great interest in the interior. The *View from the Tour de Brest, on the side next the harbour, is, however, very fine. Including the donjon, the castle has eight towers, the original conical roofs of which were replaced by Vauban with platforms, on which cannon were mounted. Various cells and dungeons are shown to the visitor, most of them with their special tale of horror or suffering.

The *Naval Harbour (PI. B, 4, 3, 2~) is a sort of canal, 3 M. long, averaging 100 yds. in breadth, and from 30 to 40 ft. deep, excavated in great part from the living rock, at the mouth of a small stream called the Penfeld. It has been made accessible from the castle by levelling the ground. It is most conveniently reached from the centre of the town by the Rue de Siam (PL C, 4).

The *Swing Bridge [Pont Tournant; PI. B, 4), at the end of this street, constructed in 1861 to connect Brest with Recouvrance, is one of the largest of the kind in existence. It is 125 yds. long, with an average height of upwards of 65 ft. The two iron wings of which it is composed turn upon tower-shaped piers ; four men can open or shut the bridge in 10 minutes. The visitor will hardly fail to be struck with the combined boldness and lightness of this re- markable structure. A bridge-of-boats for foot-passengers crosses the harbour below the swing -bridge.

Perhaps the best general survey of the naval port is obtained from the swing-bridge, though as the canal forms a series of curves, concealed by the rising banks, nothing like the whole of it can be seen from any one point. The animation and variety of the port, with the immense magazines, workshops, barracks, etc., lining it on both sides, are more easily imagined than described. No one

Excursions. BREST. 29. Route. 221

at all interested in naval matters should fail to endeavour to obtain permission to inspect the dockyard , which employs between 8000 and 9000 workmen. Foreigners, however, require a special per- mission from the French Admiralty.

The town offers few other points of interest besides those al- ready mentioned. The principal church, St. Louis (PI. C, 2), though founded in 1688, has only recently been finished.

Near the upper end of the harbour, on the right bank, is the Etablisse- meat des Pupilles de la Marine, where orphans are received at the age of seven to be trained as sailors. At thirteen they enter the Ecole des Mousses (ship-boys) on board a vessel lying in the roads, from which they are drafted into the navy, or pass at the age of sixteen to the Ecole des Novices, on board another ship for farther training. The 'Borda', also anchored in the roads, contains the Naval School.

The Musee, in the Place Sadi-Carnot (PI. 0, 3), is open free on Sun. & Thurs., 11-4 or 5, and to strangers on other days also. It contains a collection of modern paintings and the public Library. The Botanic Garden (PI. O, 2), beyond the Quartier de la Marine, is open in summer, on Sun. & Thurs., 2-3. It includes a museum of natural history. Near it is the large Naval Hospital, with 1200 beds. — The suburb of Bel-Air, beyond the fortifications to the N.E., contains the handsome Church of St. Martin (PI. E, 1), a modern building in the Gothic style of the 12th century.

Excursions. Various pleasant excursions may be made in the roads and environs of Brest by means of steamers and public conveyances. Small steam launches may also be had for hire. — Besides Plougastel (see p. 218) per- haps the most interesting points, commanding the finest views, are (13'/2 M.) Le Conquet, a small port, and (14 M.) the Poitite St. Mathieu, the W. ex- tremity of Finistere, near which stands a ruined abbey-church. The road to both starts from Recouvrance (diligence twice a day from No. 1 Grand' Rue). Beyond (P/t M.) St. Pierre- Quilbignon. on this road we may diverge to the Chapel of SI. Ann near (3>/2 M.) Portzic, which is also reached by a picturesque road along the coast. — The lie d'Ouessant, a small islet inhabited by fishermen, lies about 13 M. olf the coast, and is reached by steamers plying from Le Conquet in 3-3V2 hrs. It gives name to the inde- cisive battle of Ushant, fought in 1788 between the English fleet under Keppel and the French under D'Orvilliers. Between this island and the Isle de Moline, to the S.E., are the Pierres Vertes, on which the English liner 'Drummond Castle' was lost, with 300 lives, in June, 1896.

From Brest to Mokgat. Steamer 0/2 fr.) from the commercial harbour on Hon., Wed., Frid., and Sun. at 7 a.m. and 4.30 p.m. to (3/t hr.) Le Fret, and diligence thence to (3V2 M.) Crozon (8276 inhab.) and (4 M.) Morgat (Hdtel Richard), a bathing-resort on the peninsula of Crozon, which offers much curious rock-scenery. — From Morgat we may drive to (22 M.) Chateau- lin (3i/2 hrs.; carr. 20 fr.) or to (27V2 M.) Douarnenez (4 hrs.; 25 fr.) ; see p. 261.

From Brest to Lahdevennec, by special steamer (1 fr.) on Sun. in summer or by the Chateaulin steamer, twice weekly. At Landivennec (Inns), at the mouth of the Chateaulin, is a ruined Abbey (16th cent.)

From Brest to Ploodalmezeau, 20 M., railway in l1/-' hr. (fares 2 fr. 45, 1 fr. 65 c). This line starts from the Qare des Chemins de Fer Diparte- mentaux (PI. C, 3). — 3'/2 M. Lambizellec (16,4CO inhab.), an industrial suburb of Brest. — IOV2 M. SI. Renan. — 20 M. Ploudalmizeau (De Bre- tagne; Grande-liaison), 1% M. from the wild and tempestuous coast.

From Brest to Lannilis, I8V2 M., railway in IV2 hr. This line diverges from the above beyond Lambizellec. I8V2 M. Lannilis (Hot- Lagadec) lies about l>/4 M. from the remarkable estuaries of the Aber-Benoil (N.) and the Abervrac'h (S.). On the latter is Palnden (Hotel), a bathing-resort.


30. From Rennes to St. Malo. Environs of St. Malo. Excursions from St. Malo.

Mont St. Michel. Dinan. a. From Rennes to St. Malo.

51 M. Railway in 13/4-21/2 hrs. (fares 9 fr. 20, 6 fr. 20, 4 fr. 5 c).

Rennes, see p. 208. To the left diverge the lines mentioned at p. 212. We cross the Vilaine and then ascend the pretty valley of the canalized Ille, crossing the stream several times. 8 M. Betton; l2l/-> M. St. Germain-sur-Ule ; 15 M. St. Medard-sur-llle; 17i/2M. Montreuil-sur- llle ; 20 M. he Pas-d'Jlle. The train then leaves the valley of the llle. ■ — 26 M. Combourg (Des Voyageurs; de la Ban- niere). The small town (5541 inhab.) lies about 8/4 M. to the left and possesses a chateau (14-1 5th cent.) belonging to the Chateau- briand family, in which the famous author of that name spent part of Ms childhood. — 31 M. Bonnemain.

36 M. Dol (Buffet; Grand Hotel, near the station ; Grand' Mai- son, in the town), a town with 4762 inhab., still preserves many quaint mediaeval houses, with the first stories projecting over the street and supported by arches. The Cathedral, an interesting building of the 13th and 16th cent., is dedicated to St. Samson, an English monk who is said to have founded a monastery on the site of Dol ; and some authorities are inclined to trace the influence of English architects in the square end of the choir and in other particu- lars (comp. p. 109). The W. facade, with its two towers of the 13th and 16th cent., is remarkably plain, but on the S. side of the church is a handsome 15th cent, portal with a porch. The S. transept also has a portal; but there is none on the N., where the church touches the town- walls, and where the chapels are furnished with battlements. The church also possesses a central tower. The square end-wall of the choir is pierced with a large window, filled with good stained glass of the 13th century. The N. transept contains the tomb of Bishop James (d. 1503), by Jean Juste, sculptor of the tomb of Louis XII. at St. Denis ; unfortunately it has lost the statue aud is otherwise mutilated. In the apse is a fine chapel dedicated to St. Samson.

Excursion-breaks (2 fr. per pers.) leave the Grand Hotel at 9.30 a.m., and 1.30 and 3.30 p.m. and visit the cathedral, Mont Dol, and the Champ Dolent.

Near Carfantain, about IV* M. to the S.E., is the Stone of Dol or of Champ Dolent, a menhir 30 ft. high, surmounted by a cross. — About l3/* M. to the N. is the Marais de Dol, a fertile plain inundated in 709 but re- claimed in the 12th cent. , and protected by a 'digue1 or embankment 22 M. in length. In the middle of the plain rises the Mont Dol (210 ft.), on which is situated a village with a 15th cent, church. — Railways to Pontorson (Mont St. Michel) and Dinan, etc., see p. 181.

The line now crosses the marsh of Dol (see above). 42 M. La Fresnais. From (45 M.) La Gouesni'ere-Cancale an omnibus plies to Cancale (7^2 M. ; see p. 226); and a branch-line diverges to Miniac (p.230). To the left as we approach St. Malo appears St. Servan (p.22o).

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ST. MALO. 30. Route. 223

51 M. St. Malo. — Hotels. "De France, with sea-view from the back-windows , R. 3-5, L. & A. 3//4, dej. 3, D. 4 fr. incl. cider, pens. 10-12, omn. 3/4-l fr. ; Continental ('hotel meuM^'); de l'Univers, all these in the Place Chateaubriand; Franklin, outside the town, near the casino, pens from 10 fr. ; du Centre, de Normandie, du Commerce, Rue St. Thomas-, Union, R., L., & A. from 3fr., de Provence, unpretending, both Rue de la Poisionnerie; du Louvre, Central. Rue Boursaint; Chadoin, des Voyageurs, at the station, dej. 2 fr. — Many English and other visit- ors patronize St. Malo in summer, so that the hotels are often crowded and expensive.

Cafes. Continental, des Voyageurs , de VOuesl, Place Chateaubriand; Grand Cafe", Rue St. Thimos.

Cabs. Stand in front of the castle CPorte St. Vincent), where the tariff is posted up : per drive IV4 fr., per hr. 2]/4 fr., each additional >/4 hr. 1h fr-

Steam- Tramways (comp. the Plan). 1. From the Gale de Dinan to the Porte St. Vincent (10 c). 2. From the Porte St. Vincent to Parami-Bourg via the coast (20 & 30 a). 3 From the Porte St. Vincent to the Mairie at St. Servan via, the railway-station (15 & 20 c). 4. From the Mairie at St. Servan to Parami-Bourg via. the railway-station (15, 20, & 30 c). — Om- nibus to Cancale, see p. 226.

Sea-Baths. Bathing-box and costume 1 fr., towel 10 c. Warm Salt Water Baths (1 fr.), near the Casino. — Casino. Admission 5 fr. per day. Subscription for a week 20, fortnight 30, month 40, season 50 fr. ; for 2 pers. 25, 35, 60, <R 70 fr.; for 3 pers. 30, 40, 60, & 80 fr.

Pont Roulant (see p. 224) between St. Malo and St. Servan (p. 225), fares 10 and 5 c, after 8 p.m. 20 and 15 c, after 10 p.m. 30 and 25 c. — Steam-Ferry to Dinard hourly (from 6. 30 a.m. to 8. 30 p.m.) during the season, starting at the Cale de Dinan, in the outer harbour, the Cale du Grand-Bey (p. 224), or the Cale du Petit-Bey, according to the tide. From Dinard at the full hours. No boats at midday. Passage in 10 min. (fares 50, 25, and 15 c).

Steamers. To Dinan, see p. 229. — To Jersey, thrice a week during the season, under the same conditions as from Granville, by which the return may be made (comp. p. 188). — To the Islands in the bay, Cancale, Mont St. Michel, Granville, Cap Frihel, etc., at irregular intervals ; see local adver- tisements and bills. — To Southampton (London), see p. xiii.

Post & Telegraph Office, opposite the W. facade of the church.

British Vice-Consul, Hon. E. Henniker- Major. — United States Consular Agent, Raymond Moulton, Esq.

English Church, at Parame\ — Work among the British seamen fre- quenting the port is carried on by the St. Andrew's Waterside Mission.

St. Malo, a fortified seaport with 11,476 inhab., occupies a re- markably picturesque situation, on a rock (formerly an island) rising between the harbour and the mouth of the Ranee, flanked on the left by St. Servan, and facing Dinard on the opposite bank.

St. Malo derives its name from the Welsh monk St. Malo or St. Maclou, who became its first bishop in the 6th cent., but its importance, formerly much greater than at present, dates from a considerably later period. The inhabitants of St. Malo early distinguished themselves as bold traders in time of peace and as daring privateers in time of war. Jacques Cartier, who discovered Canada in 1534, was a native of St. Malo; the famous ad- miral Duguay-Trouin (1673-1736) was at first a privateersman from the same port; Surcouf (1773-1827), well known as a corsair, and Mahe^ de la Bour- donnais (1699-1753), who took Madras from the English in 1746, were also 'Malouins'. In 1622 St. Malo sent valuable aid to Louis XIII. at the siege of La Rochelle; and its cruisers had been so successful in war and trade, that in 1711 the town contributed 30 million francs to support Louis XIV . in the wars of the Spanish Succession. The English made various un- successful attempts to capture the town and bombarded it several times. In 1758 the Duke of Marlborough landed at St. Servan with 15,000 men, but though he did immense damage to shipping and other property, he

224 Route 30. ST. MALO.

was unable to take St. Malo. — St. Malo was also the birthplace of Mau- pertuis (1698-1759), Lamettrie (1709-51), Chateaubriand (1768-1848), Broussaia (1772-1838), and Lamennais (1782-1854).

The railway-station is situated in the suburb of Rocabey, near the harbour, between St. Malo and St. Servan, and about lfa M. from each. To reach the former, we turn first to the right, and then to the left, between a wet dock and the inner reservoir. The tramway route (5 min. longer) traverses the Sillon, an embankment 220 yds. long and about 150 ft. broad, which connects the rock on which the town stands with the mainland.

The Harbour (recently completed), in a shallow bay between St. Malo and St. Servan, consists mainly of an outer basin, a tidal harbour, two wet docks, and an inner reservoir. St. Malo is the twelfth port in France in point of importance ; it imports timber and coal, exports provisions of all kinds to England, and takes a consider- able share in the Newfoundland cod-fishery.

At the end of the Sillon next the town, to the right, is the modest Casino (see p. 223), in front of which is a bronze Statue of Chateaubriand, by Millet.

Opposite rises the Castle, dating from the 14-15th cent., now used as barracks. It consists mainly of four towers, one of which may be ascended for the sake of the view. An almost equally extensive and more varied view may, however, be enjoyed from the * Ramparts, which date mainly from the 16th century. Visitors should not omit to make the circuit of the town on the ramparts, both for the sake of enjoying the curious appearance of the town, and also for the view of the bay, which is finest when the tide is full. The bay is dotted with fortified islets, one of which, the Grand-Bey, 550 yds. from the town, contains the simple tomb of Chateaubriand (d. 1848). St. Malo is remarkable for the great height to which the tide rises. Ordinary tides rise from 23 to 26 ft., spring-tides 48 ft. above low-water mark ; and at low water an im- mense tract is uncovered, so that it is possible to walk dryshod to the Grand-Bey.

The town is hemmed in on all sides by the ramparts, and most of its streets are steep, narrow, and tortuous. From the small Place Chateaubriand, in front of the castle, we ascend to the centre of the town by the Rue St. Thomas or the Rue St. Vincent (opposite the gateway), arid then turn to the left.

The Parish Church, formerly the cathedral, is built mainly in the Gothic (15th cent.) and Renaissance styles, but some parts date from the Transition period, and the elegant spire is modern. The best part of the interior is the choir, which has a fine triforium and three windows filled with modern stained glass. The ivory figure of Christ (facing the pulpit), a modern tomb to the right, and other sculptures are well executed, and several of the pictures are also of some value; the latter, however, are badly lighted.

ST. SERVAN. 30. Route. 225

The street nearly opposite the front of the church leads to another small Place, embellished with a marble Statue of Duguay-Trouin (p. 223), by Molknecht. — The Hotel de Ville, also in this square, contains a small Musee (open to the public on Sun. and Thurs., 1-4) and a Library (open on other days only, at the same hours).

The Sea-bathing Establishment lies beyond the castle, to the E. of the town. The beach consists of tine sand, and slopes gradually.

b. Environs of St. Malo. Comp. the Plan and the Map to the right of the Plan. St. Servan. — ' Hotels. Grand Hotel Bellevue, Grande Rue (St. Malo end); de VUnion, Rue Dauphine 21, on the beach; du Pelican, Grande Kue. Pension Primaveka (Miss Qoldham), Rue Ville Pepin.

Steam Ferry to Dinard, every hour from the Port St. Pere (fares 50, 25, 15 c), returning at the half-hours.

English Church, RueChapitre; services at 11 and 5. English Physician, Dr. Ashdown. — English Banker, J. O. Rorke, Rue Ville Pepin.

St. Servan, formerly only a suburb of St. Malo, is now a separate but uninteresting town with 12,240 inhabitants. It may be reached from St. Malo by the road passing the station, or (better) by the Pont Roulant at the mouth of the harbour. This bridge (fares, see p. 224) moves upon rails laid at the bottom of the sea, and is drawn from side to side of the harbour-mouth by means of a stationary steam-engine on the St. Servan side. The platform for passengers is 40 ft. above the rails. The handsome modern Mairie or Hotel de Ville (tramway, p. 223) is at the top of the Grande Rue. To the S. is the Church of Ste. Croix, built in the 18-19th cent, and contain- ing a handsome modern pulpit in carved stone and some mural paintings by Duveau. Besides sharing the harbour of St. Malo, St. Servan has two small harbours at the mouth of the Ranee, the Port de Solidor and the Port St. Pere, between which rises the 14th cent. Tour de Solidor (visitors admitted ; view). These harbours are separated from the bay of Les Sablons by a rocky promontory, crown- ed by a fort on the site of an ancient town called Aleth. The small Bathing Establishment of St. Servan, with its casino, is situated on the bay of Les Sablons, on the side next St. Malo. There is another, even less pretentious, outside the town, near the Ranee.

Parame. — Hotels. At Parami-les-Batns, about 3/t M. from St. Malo by the Sillon (tramway) : Gkand Hotel de Parame, adjoining the Casino, first class, dej. 3>/2, D. d'/sfr. ; Dugiiay-Troiiin, R. with sea-view from 5 fr. — At Rochebonne, about 3/4 M. farther on : Hotel de la Plage (Eng- lish landlady), pens, from 70 fr. per week; Quic-en-Groigne, on the shore; Continental ; des Bains ; de l'Ocean ; de France ; du Centre.

Sea-Baths at the new beach (Ifouvelle Plage) 1 fr. 40 c, at Roche- bonne 1 fr. — Casino, at the new beach; adm. 1 fr. per day; a week 5, fortnight 10, month 25 fr. ; for 2 pers., 10, 20, 40 fr.

Parame (4826 inhab.) is formed by three distinct parts : Pa- rame-les-Bains, Rochebonne, both of recent origin, and the village of Parame, situated at a short distance from the sea, on the road to Cancale (see p. 226). Parame-les-Bains consists mainly of the hotels

Baedeker's NorthjM ¥nmmm*lmLiiAiL 15

226 Route 30. DINARD. Environs

and casino, with a paved terrace and a fine sandy beach, hut the surroundings are flat and shadeless, and there is no promenade ex- cept the terrace. Rochebonne, 1% M. from St. Malo, is more pleas- antly situated and less expensive.

RotMneuf (Grand Hotel), 13A M. from Kochebonne, and La Ouimorais (Hotel, moderate), a little farther on, are also sea-bathing resorts.

Dinard. — Hotels. Des Tekrasses , near the Casino , pens. 10-25, dej. 4, D. 5 fr. incl. cider; oo Casino; Gkand Hotel de Dinard, with a sea- view, though at some distance from the beach; de la Plage, nearer the beach; des Bains, in the village; d'Angleterke et de Pbovence, Rue du Casino; "de la Vallee, on the quay, pens. 8-13, de"j. 3, D. 3»/2 fr. ; de la Bale; Hot. Rest, de la Paix.

Sea-Baths. 'Bain complet' 1 fr., to subscribers, 70 c. at the chief establishment, less at the others. — Casino. Subscription for a week 17, fortnight 25, month 35, season 55 fr. ; for two pers., 30, 45, 65, <fc 95 fr.

Steam Ferries to St. Malo (see p. 223) and to St. Servan (p. 224).

Omnibuses from the quay and from the station to St. Enogat, St. Lunaire (75 c), and St. Briac (1 fr. ; see below). — Diligence thrice a week to (9'/2 M.) St. Jacut-de-la-Mer (p. 181) and (I8V2 M.) St. Cast {La Garde; p. 181).

The Steamboats from St. Malo to Dinan (see p. 229) touch at Dinard i/i hr. after leaving St. Malo.

Dinard is a modern town, with 6095 inhah., picturesquely situated on a rocky promontory on the left bank of the estuary of the Ranee, opposite St. Malo and St. Servan. It is the leading sea- bathing resort in Brittany owing to its attractive site, its spacious sandy beach, its picturesque views, and its pleasant walks. The environs are sprinkled with villas , and it is much frequented by English visitors.

The Oreve de I'Ecluse, the chief bathing-beach, with the Casino, faces the open sea, between the Pointe de Dinard (to the S. of which passengers from St. Malo land) and the promontory of La Malouine. It may be reached either direct via the Grande Rue and the Rue de I'Ecluse (to the right) , or (preferable for walkers) by a footpath ascending the Pointe de Dinard and then skirting the shore. — The other bathing - establishment (Greve du Prieure) is on the bay of Dinard. The Pointe de la Vicomte, farther S., commands a fine view of the estuary of the Ranee.

St. Enogat (Hdtel de la iter; des Etrangers et de St. Enogat, pens. 6- 7 fr., well spoken of; Furnished Villas), a large village about 3/4 M. from Dinard, beyond the second promontory of La Malouine, is also a favourite bathing-resort. — St. Lunaire (H6tel de la Plage; St. Limaire; de Fans) and St. Briac (H6lel des Panoramas, on the beach; du Centre), l3/< and 3V2 M. farther to the E., also afford excellent bathing and beautiful views of the rocky coast and islands. There are good golf-links (18 holes) at St. Briac. Living at all these watering-places is more primitive but hardly cheaper than at Dinard or St. Malo , as the sources of supply are more limited. In all cases it is advisable to make enquiries beforehand.

c. Excursions from St. Malo.

Comp. the Maps to the right and left of the Plan at p. 222.

To Cancale, 9M., Brake in i'/s hr. (fare 2V2 fr. (here and hack) corre» sponding with the omnibus to La Gouesniere (p. 222; 1 fr.). Steamer sometimes ply to Cancale in the season (there and back 3fr.).

ofSt.Malo. CANCALE. 30. Route. 227

The road passes Paramo (see p. 226) and (6 M.) St. Coulomb.

Cancale (Hotel de I' Europe; du Centre; de France), a town with 6641 inhab., is magnificently situated on a height above the bay of the same name, also called the bay of St. Michel. Its small har- bour, known as La Route, lies about l/<2 M. to the S. The leading industry of the town is the rearing of oysters, which enjoy a high reputation. The oyster-beds cover a total area of 430 acres. The Rochers de Cancale form an islet well seen from the neighbourhood of the town. The height above the bay also commands a noble * View.

To Mont St. Michel. Railway to (28 M.) Ponlorson (fares 5 fr. 75, 4 fr. 30, 3 fr. 15 c). Railway-Omnibus thence to (5'/2 M.) Mont St. Michel (return- fare 2i/tlr. ; exchange 'correspondance' - coupon for an omnibus-ticket at the office at the exit); no time to lose. Other Omnibuses, 2 fr. or l'/a fr. (bargain advisable); Carriage (1-3 pers.), 10-12 fr. The entire journey takes 3V4-3'/2 hrs. — Steamers sometimes ply to Mont St. Michel in the season (there and back 5 fr.).

From St. Malo to (15 M.) hoi, where we change carriages, see p. 222. — 20 M. La Boussac; 25 M. Pleine-Fouglres, beyond which we cross the Couesnon and the railway to Vitre'. The Couesnon is the boundary between Brittany and Normandy.

28 M. Pontorson (H6tel de l'Ouest; de Bretagne), a small sea- port with 2455 inhab., at the mouth of the canalized Couesnon. It is the junction of lines to Avranches (Granville; Cherbourg) and to Vitre (see pp. 181 and 208).

The road to Mont St. Michel (5'/2 M.) turns to the right at the public fountain. The last portion runs along an embankment or causeway, nearly 3/jM, in length, constructed in 1879 across the Bay of Mont St. Michel, to afford access to the village at all states of the tide.

On the flat expanse of the Bay of St. Michel (100 sq. M.) the tide re- cedes for a distance of 71/2 M. , but rushes in again quicker than a horse can gallop. There are numerous dangerous quicksands (none, however, near the Mont). Since 1856 nearly 50,000 acres have been reclaimed from the sea here, and converted into pasture. Fine fand impregnated with carbonate of lime (known as 'tangue ) is thrown up by the sea and is u^ed as manure by the peasants.

Mont St. Michel (*Poulard A'me, R. & A. 372, dej. 21/2, D- 3 fr. ;

  • Poulard Jeune or St. Michel; Ridel) is a small village with 200 in-

hab., clinging to a curiously isolated rock, rising 160 ft. above the 'Greve' or sands at the end of the wide bay of the same name, about V2 M. from the shore. Round the foot of the rock run the ancient *For- tiflcations, dating mainly from the loth cent., and consisting of thick and lofty walls, strengthened by towers and bastions. The summit of the rock is occupied by the buildings of the ancient monastery, and on the highest point of all is the church. The general effect is singularly picturesque.

The *Abbby is reached by a flight of steps, beginning at the highest part of the village, or (better) by the ramparts, which we ascend opposite the H6tel Poulard. The ascent of 662 steps is


228 Route 30. MONT ST. MICHEL. Excursions

made in about */4 nr- The buildings, largely hewn out of the rock, are of different forms and various periods, but most of them date from the 12-13th centuries. The largest and most interesting is La Merveille, to the right, at which the visit usually concludes. Visitors are admitted daily in summer from 8 to 11 and from 12.30 to 4, 5, or 6, other seasons 9-11 and 12.30-4 (fee to the guide who conductst he visitor).

The Benedictine Abbey of Mont St. Michel was founded in 709 by St. Aubert, Bishop of Avranches, in obedience to the commands of the Archangel Michael, who appeared to him in a vision. The rock, pre- viously known as Mons Tumba, had been a pagan sanctuary. The monks were protected by Bollo and the succeeding rulers of Normandy, and in 1066 they sent six ships to assist William in the conquest of England. Pilgrims resorted to the rock in great numbers, and their pious gifts greatly enriched the monastery. Learning also flourished here, and in the 12th cent, the abbey was known as the 'City of Books', from its extensive collection of MSS. In 1203 Philip Augustus burned the monastery, then an English possession, but he afterwards rebuilt it when he himself became master of Normandy. Mont St. Michel was the only Norman fortress that successfully defied Henry V. of England. In 1254 St. Louis visited the rock; and in 1469 Louis XI. founded the knightly order of St. Michel. Abuses and disorders began to prevail among the Benedictine monks here, and in 1615 they were replaced by brethren of the order of St. Maur, who remained until the Revolution. The monastery was then converted into a prison, but in 1863 it was restored to its religious uses under the Bishop of Avranches. It now belongs to the state, at whose expense it has been restored. The Abbey of St. Michael's Mount, in the Bay of Penzance, was an offshoot of Mont St. Michel.

We enter by the Chatelet, a lofty donjon of the 15th cent., flanked by two projecting turrets, and after visiting the Salle des Gardes ascend the Abbot's Staircase and the Grand Begre to a platform (245 ft.) known as the Saut Gaultier, from a prisoner who perished in an attempt to escape in the 16th century. The adjoining Church, begun in 1020 in the Norman style, has undergone many modifica- tions. The central tower, with a Gothic spire, has been rebuilt in the original style, and since 1897 has been once more surmounted by a gilded bronze statue of St. Michael. The choir is in the Gothic style of the 15th cent, j the nave has been docked of three bays, which are to be restored. The interior preserves few traces of its once lavish decoration. In a chapel to the left of the choir is an alabaster bas-relief of the 14th century. Another contains a mod- ern silvered statue of St. Michael. The choir-stalls date from the 15th century. The outer gallery and the top of the tower are reached by means of the 'staircase of lace'. — Crypt, see p. 229.

On quitting the church we find ourselves on a level with the third story of *La Merveille ('the marvel') , a huge building abut- ting against the rock on the N. On this story we visit the *Cloisters, a masterpiece of the 13th cent. (1225-28), forming a rectangle 27 yds. long by 15 yds. broad. They contain 220 columns of pol- ished granite , 100 engaged in the walls and the others ranged in double arcades, with graceful vaults, and embellished with exquisite carvings, a beautiful frieze, and inscriptions. Adjacent is the Dor-

from St. Malo. MONT ST. MICHEL. 30. Route. 229

mitory, of the same epoch. — We next descend to the Promenoir (12th cent.), with the Dungeon of La Balue, the prison of Card. La Balue (p. 287) for two years, the Crypte de I'Aquilon (12th cent.), various other dungeons, and a Crypt used as a cemetery. The Wheel for hoisting provisions along an inclined plane is also shown. — On the second floor of La Merveille are the *Salle des Chevaliers, an admirable specimen of 13th cent, architecture, 92 ft. long, with de- pressed vaulting and a triple row of columns, and the *Refectory, one of the finest Gothic halls in France, also dating from the 13th cent, and divided into two parts by columns. Before inspecting the re- fectory visitors are usually conducted to the Crypte des Oros-Piliers, beneath the choir of the church, so called from its nineteen columns, each 12 ft. in diameter. — On the lowest story of La Merveille are the Almonry and the Cellar (1203), which are known as the Mont- gomeries, in memory of an unsuccessful attack by the Sire de Mont- gomery, leader of the Huguenots.

In a lane to the right of the exit from the Abbey is a small local Museum (1 fr.), including representations of various mine or less authentic scenes from the history of the Mont. — The Trisor de Si. Michel (adm. 50 c), lower down, i3 an exhibition of religious objects connected with pilgrimages, etc.

The tour of the rock (1/2 hr.) can seldom be made dry-shod, as there is usually a certain depth of water near the causeway. Visitors who desire to walk on the sands should carefully ascertain the hours of the tides (p. 227).

To Dinan. a. Bi the Rance, 171/* M., Steamboats in 2 hours in the sea- son, starting daily, at hours determined by the tide (see the bills), from the quay near the Porte St. Vincent: from Dinard, 1/thr: later. Fares (sub- ject to alterations): 2-3 fr., according to class; return-tickets (when the tide permits) lfc-2 fr. extra. Dej. on board 2l/2, D. 3 fr.

This is a very agreeable excursion, though the beauties of the Ranee do not, perhaps, quite justify their local reputation. The banks are pictur- esque, but hardly bold enough in comparison with the breadth of the stream, except in the neighbourhood of Dinan, and the general effect wants variety. It is, therefore, hardly advisable both to go and come by the river, especially as the interval allowed by the steamer is not long enough for the proper inspection of the interesting town of Dinan, and as part of the return-journey is made after dark. The steamers also are often late.

The steamer touches at Dinard (p. 226). We have a fine retro- spect of St. Malo, and then (to the left) of St. Servan, with the Tour de Solidor, the roadstead, etc. On the Rocherde Bizeux, between St. Servan and the Pointe de la Yicomte (p. 226), rises a colossal figure of the Virgin (40 ft. high), by Caravaniez. Farther on, to the right, appear La Richardais, the Pointe de Cancaval, and Mont Maria. The little tower rising from the river is named the Tour des Zebres. The wide Bale de St. Jouan, and other picturesque inlets appear to the left. St. Suliac, on a small sheltered bay to the left, has an interesting church of the 13th century. Behind us, to the right, is Le Minihic. To the left is the Pointe du Oarrot, and on the succeeding height, La Ville-es-Nonais.

The channel contracts at the Pointe St. Jean, which is about halfway to Dinan; opposite rises the picturesquely-situated Chateau

230 Route 30. DINAN. Excursions

de la Roche. The river again expands. In the distance, to the left, rises the church of Pleudihen. To the right, above a mill, lies Plou'er. The modern tower of Chene-Vert is a picturesque object as we look back upon it. To the left is Mordreuc. The channel again narrows considerably and the banks become wooded. To the left is the attractive little valley of the Prat. Above the wooded hank rise rocky heights. At a curve of the river we see the imposing Via- duct on the railway from Dol to Dinan, 105 ft. high. Fine cliff-view behind us and to the left. A little beyond the viaduct, and about 2 hrs. from St. Malo, is the Lock of Le Chatelier. The surplus water of the river sometimes escapes in a pretty waterfall (to the left). The banks now become low and the scenery monotonous. To the left is the fine Chateau de Grillemont; to the right are cliffs, and in front appears Dinan. Farther on we see, to the left, more wooded cliffs and obtain a picturesque view of the town and viaduct.

Dinan, see below. Omnibus to the station, on the other side of the town, 1 fr.

b. By Railway, 32 M., in 2 hrs. (6 fr. 50, 4 fr. 85, 3 fr. 55 c).

A junction-line, 9 M. shorter, runs between La Ctouesniere-Cancale, the first station (p. 222), and Miniac-Morvan (p. 181), but there is no difference made either in the time or the fare. The branch passes O/idteaitaeuf, with an old ruined castle.

From St. Malo to (15 M.) Dol, see p. 222. From Dol to (32 M.) Dinan, see p. 181 ; this line is a continuation towards the W. of that from Pontorson (p. 227).

32 M. Dinan (see Plan, p. 222). — Hotels. 'De Bretagne, Place Duclos, R. 3-9, B. l'/4, dej. 3, D. 3V2fr.; do Commebce, dej. 2'/2, D- 3fr.; de la Poste, Place Duguesclin; d'Angleterre, Rue Thiers; i>f. 1'EuRorE, at the station, dej. 2, D. 2>/2 fr. — Miss Waller's Pension, Place Duguesclin 4. — Railway Restaurant. — Cafi Continental, Rue Thiers.

Steamboat to St. Malo, starting from the harbour near the old bridge, at variable hours, announced on bills posted in the town (comp. p. 227). English Church, in the Petits-FossiJs (services at 11 and 6); chaplain, Rev. W. B. Bray.

Dinan, an ancient town of 10,620 inhab., with curious and pictur- esque houses and streets, is finely situated on a height on the left bank of the Ranee. The railway runs on the right bank. — Comp. the Plan to the left of the Plan of St. Malo (p. 224).

Quitting the station, we follow the Rue Thiers to a cross-street. To the left diverges the fine promenade known as the Orands-Fossis, and farther on, beyond the little Place de Bretagne, the Petits-Fosses diverges to the right. On both sides considerable remains of the Ramparts of the 13th and 14th cent, are still extant. Near the end of the Petits-Fosse's is the chateau (see p. 231). The suburb to the right is largely inhabited by the English colony (about 350).

From the harbour we ascend to the viaduct, whence we reach the centre of the town, and visit the promenades and the chateau last. — ■ In the Place Duclos is the Hotel de Ville, a modern building, containing a small but interesting Musee , with collections of all kinds (antiquities, coins, funeral monuments, objects of natural

from St. Malo. DINAN. 30, Route. 231

history, etc.). — The street to the left leads to the Place Duguesclin, embellished with a poor modern statue of the Connetable Duguesclin, who recaptured the town from the English in 1359. The Place occupies the site of the field in which he defeated in single combat an English knight, named by the Breton chroniclers 'Sir Thomas of Cantorbe'Ty'. — Farther on, to the right, is the Castle, now a prison, the donjon of which (112 ft. in height) is usually shown to visitors on application. It is partly built into the ancient walls and belongs to the same epoch (14th cent.). The exterior of this ancient pile is best viewed from the Petits-Fosse's, a little farther on.

The Rue du Chateau leads to the most picturesque parts of the town , skirting the base of steep rocks, till it reaches the banks of the Ranee, the wooded channel of which offers various attractive views. The river is spanned by an imposing stone * Viaduct, 270 yds. long and 130 ft. high. — Thence we ascend direct to the centre of the town, the narrow streets of which contain many quaint old houses.

The church of St. Sauveur, in the neighbourhood, to the left, is a curious edifice, the right side of which is Romanesque, the left Gothic. The Romanesque portal is unfortunately in very bad pre- servation. The right wall is adorned on the exterior with arcades and mouldings, and a tasteful Gothic chapel was added at the third bay in the 15th century. There is but one aisle, consisting of the Gothic part of the W. arm. The choir is also Gothic. The holy- water basin, supported by Caryatides, to the left of the entrance, dates from the 12th century. In the N. transept is a stone marking the spot where the heart of Bertrand Duguesclin is buried; and in one of the choir- chap els, on the same side, are two tasteful Gothic credences. On the other side is a modern tomb in granite. — The cemetery of this church is now a Public Garden.

The narrow street opposite the left transept is continued by the Rue Croix-Quart to the old Rue du Jerzual, leading to the Porte du Jerzual, one of the most curious parts of the old town, Gothic out- side and Romanesque within. A little to the left is the Porte St. Malo, a similar but less interesting structure.

The street leading to the S. from the Porte St. Malo debouches in the Rue de l'Horloge, near the 15th cent. Tour de VHorloge. Farther on, a little to the left, is the Place des Cordeliers, beyond which is the Grande Rue, leading back to the Hotel de Ville.

St. Malo, to the right, near the latter, is a large church of the 15th cent., the W. arm of which was rebuilt in 1855-65. In the interior is a large modern painting by Archenault, representing Christ triumphing over Death and Sin. The handsome high-altar has bas-reliefs from the life of St. Malo, and a statue of that saint, by Savary. In the central choir-chapel is a tomb of the 15th cent. ; the holy-water basin dates from the same period, and the pulpit is also ancient.

About 3/4 M. to the 8.E. of Dinan is Lihon, with a ruined chateau of the 12-13th cent., and the church and other remains of a priory of the

232 Route 31. SABLfi. From Paris

13th century. — The Ch&teau de la Coninnais (15th cent.) is picturesquely situated about ll/t M. to the E. Other excursions may be made to the chateau of La Belliere (5'/2 M.), formerly the residence of Duguesclin's wife, the Lady Tiphaine, with its curious octagonal chimneys ; and to the chateau of La Garaye, famous for the charity and self-sacrifice of Claude Toussaint, Comte de la Garaye, and his wife, whose story has been pleasantly versi- fied by Mrs. Norton.

Railway to Lamballe, joining the line to Brest, see p. 181.

A branch-railway, 13 M. long, runs from Dinan to Dinard (p. 226), passing St. Samson, Pleslin- Plotter, and Pleurtuit. — Another rani to the S., to (24 M.) La Brohiniere (p. 213), on the line from Rennes to Brest.

31. From Paris to Nantes.

a. Via Le Mans and Angers.

246 M. Rail wat in V/s-i&li hrs. (fares 44 fr. 45, 30 fr. 5, 19 fr. 60 c). The trains start from the Gare Montparnasse (see PI. G, 16, p. 1; Chemin de Fer de l'Ouest, left bank) or the Gare St. Lazare (railway of the right bank ; PI. C, 18) ; comp. p. 194. — From Le Mans to Angers, 60M. in 13/4-3% hrs. (fares 11 fr. 10, 7 fr. 40, 4 fr. 85 c). — From Angers to Nantes, 641/2 M., in 11/2-3 hrs. (fares 9 fr. 85, 6 fr. 65, 4 fr. 35 c).

From Paris to (131 M.) Le Mans, see pp. 194-200. — On leaving Le Mans, our line crosses the Sarthe and diverges to the left from the lines to Rennes and Alencon, affording a fine view of the town. Beyond (139 M. from Paris) Voivres we again cross the Sarthe. — 143 M. La Suze (Hotel du Commerce).

From La Suze to La Fleche (for Saumur and Angers), 19 M., railway in 50-55 min. (fares 3 fr. 60, 2 fr. 40, 1 fr. 60 c). — Beyond the village of (12'/2 M.) Villaines our line is joined, on the right, by a branch-rail- way from Sable' (see below). Beyond (16 M.) Verron the railway to Angers diverges on the right (p. 244). — 19 M. La Fleche (Hdtel de I'Image), a town with 10,477 inhab., situated on the Loir, is chiefly famous for its Prytanie, a military college for the sons of officers. It occupies an old Jesuit college, founded by Henri IV in 1604, the most famous pupil of which was Descartes (1596-1650), the philosopher. The market-place is adorn- ed with a bronze statue of Henri IT, by Bonnassieux.

From La Fleche to Angers, see p. 244; to Aubigni (Tours), seep. 204; to SabU, see p. 233.

From La Fleche the line is prolonged to (33V2 M.) Saumur, passing (12J/2 M.) Baugt, a small town on the Couesnon, with an old chateau of the 15th cent., and (24 M.) Longui, another small town, beyond which the line joins the railway from Chartres to Saumur (p. 198).

Beyond La Suze our line crosses the Sarthe for a third time. 157 V2 M. Juigne-sur-Sarthe, with a fine chateau of the 17th century.

161 M. SMifBuffet; *H6tel8t. Martin), a town with 6118inhab., pleasantly situated on the Sarthe, has an 18th cent. Chateau and a ruined Castle. In the vicinity are large quarries of black marble.

About 2 M. to the N.E. (omnibus) is Solesmes (*H6tel Pr&au), celebrated for its Benedictine Abbey, which was suppressed by government in 1880, like the other unrecognized convents, and is no longer open to the public. The abbey in itself is u ° interesting, but its church contains two chefs-d'oeuvre of sculpture dating from 1496-1550, representing the Entombment of Christ and the 'Entombment of the Virgin. These consist of two 'grottoes', containing groups of eight and fifteen life-size figures respectively, besides various subsidiary figures, and adorned with bas-reliefs and other sculp- tural ornamentation. Some of the faces, especially Mary Magdalen's, are wonderfully expressive. The figure of Joseph of Arimathsea is sup to be a portrait of King Rene" (d. 1480).

to Nantes. ANCENIS. 31. Route. 233

From Sable to La Fl£che, 20 ST., railway in 1 hr. — The train passes through a tunnel and crosses the Sarthe. La Chapelle-du-ChSne owes its name to a chapel dedicated to the Virgin (recently rebuilt), which has been a pilgrimage-resort since the beginning of the 16th century. Before reaching (16'/2 M.) Verron our line joins the line from La Suze (see p. 232). — 20 M. La Fleche, see p. 232.

Railway to Nantes via Segri, see p. 234; to SilU-le-Ouillaume, p. 204.

Beyond Sable" the railway to Angers crosses the Sarthe for the last time, but continues to follow its valley for some distance. 179 M. Tierce, to the left, with a fine modern church built in the Gothic style of the 14th century. We cross the Loir, an affluent of the Sarthe, before reaching (184!/2 M.) St-Sylvain-Briollay. — 187'/2 M. Ecouflant is situated at the confluence of the Sarthe and the Mayenne, which combine to form the Maine. Passengers for Segre' and for the Gare St. Serge at Angers (see p. 238) change carriages here. We have a fine view to the right of Angers, with the towers of St. Maurice and St Joseph.

At (190^2 M.) La Maitre-Ecole we join the line from Orleans (p. 237). — 191 M. Angers (principal station), see p. 238.

Our line descends the valley of the Maine, which it crosses before Teaching the next station. 196 M. La Pointe, near the confluence of the Maine and the Loire. The line henceforth follows the right bank of the latter. Fine views of the opposite bank. Beyond (198 M.) Les Forges, to the right, we see a handsome modern chateau. — 201 M. La Possonnilre (Buffet).

From La Possonniere to (24 M.) Cholet, see Baedeker's South - Western. France.

204 M. St. Georges- sur-Loire (Hot. de la Gare), The town, with a ruined abbey, lies 2 M. to the N. of the station.

About 1 M. to the N.E. is the Chateau de Servant, dating from the 15-18th cent., one of the finest of the numerous chateaux of the district. The chapel contains the monument of the Marquis de Vaubrun, one of its former owners, with good figures by Coyzevox.

Beyond (209 M.) Champtoce, to the right, are the ruins of its 15th cent, chateau, once the abode of the wicked Gilles de Laval, Seigneur de Retz, notorious for his excesses and cruelty. He was known as 'Barbe Bleue' and is supposed to be the original of the Blue Beard of the nursery tale. He was executed at Nantes in 1440.

From (217 M.) Varades an omnibus runs to (IV4 M.) St. Flortnt- le-Vieil, at which is the fine monument of the Vendean general Bonchamp (1759-93), by David d'Angers. 220i/2 M. Anetz. The railway now quits the Loire.

225 M. Ancenis (Hot. des Voyageurs), a town with 5048 inhab., has a chateau of the 18th cent., with parts dating from the 15th, situated to the left, on the bank of the Loire. Joachim du Bellay, the poet (1524-60), a native of the town, is commemorated by a monument here (1894). — 231 M. Oudon still preserves the fine donjon of its castle, dating from the 14-16th cent., but recently re- stored (to the right);

234 Route 31. SEGRE. From Paris

Champtoceaux , on the left bank, about l'/2 M. distant, contains the ruins of a huge mediaeval castle, and a church with works of art by Main- dron (1801-81), born at Champtoceaux, and others.

The valley of the Loire now becomes more irregular and the line threads two short tunnels. On a height on the left bank rises the Chateau de la Varenne. — Several small stations. — In entering (246 M.) Nantes (p. 245) we pass under the railway to Paris via Segre (see below), with the line to La Roche-sur-Yon and its two bridges on the left, and the line to Ohateaubriant (see below) on the right.

b. Via Sable and Segre.

(St. Nazaire. Lorient. Quimper.)

246V2 M. Railway in 8-13'/2 hrs. (fares as by RR. a and c). The trains start from the Gare St. Lazare or the Gare Montparnasse (see the Indicateur) and reach Nantes at the Gare de l'Etat (p. 245), not at the Gare d'Orleans. The direct trains to St. Nazaire and Lorient-Qvimper run via, Segre (see p. 252 and R. 34).

From Paris to (161 M.) Sable, see p. 232. The line to Angers now diverges to the left. 166 M. Les Agets-St-Brice; 175 M. Gennes- Longuefuye, the junction of a line to Laval (p. 204).

180 M. Chateau -Gontier (Hotel de I' Europe, on the quay), a town of 7227 inhab., pleasantly situated on the right bank of the Mayenne, with chalybeate springs and a bathing establishment. The church of St. Jean, in the Romanesque style of the 11th cent., hut freely restored at a later date, is the only relic of its castle.

The line now crosses the Mayenne, and passes (to the left) the Chateau of St. Ouen, dating from the 15th century. — 185 L/2 M- Chemaze; branch-line to (8i/2 M.) Croon, see p. 206. — 191 M. La Ferriere. We cross the Oudon near Segre'.

195 M. Segre (De la Poste; de la Gare), with 3720 inhab., is the junction of a line to Angers and of the direct line to St. Nazaire.

From Segkk to St. Nazaire (Lorient -Quimper), 82 M., railway in 3V2-41/* hrs. (fares 15 fr. 10, 10 fr. 25, 6fr. 65 c). — 16 M Pouanci, a town with 3350 inhab., on the Verzie, possesses a ruined castle of the 13-Hth cent, and a fine modern chateau. Branch-line to (15 M.) Graon (p. 206).

26 M. Ohateaubriant (Buffet; Hdtel de la Poste; du Commerce), a town with 7000 inhab., on the Chere, is known for an edict against the Prot- estants issued here by Henri II (1551). It contains an interesting Ghdleau, consisting of the remains of a mediaeval castle and of another built be- tween 1524 and 1538, now occupied by the prison, various public offices, and a small Mutie. In the N.W. suburb, Biri, is the old priory-church of St. Jean (12th cent.). — A branch-line runs hence to (26'/2 M.) Memo (p. 212), via Rouge" , Erci-en- Lamie , and Bain-de - Bretagne ; and a steam tramway plies to (i^/a M.) St. Julien-de- Vouvantes. Railways to Vitre and Rennes, see pp. 208, 212 ; to Nantes, see p. 252.

From (33'/2 M.) St. Vincent-des-Landes a branch-line runs to (29'/2M.) Redon, via, (21 M.) Masserac, the junction of a branch-railway to Rennes. Thi3 is the shortest route from Paris to Lorient and Quimper (R. 34).

At (53'/2 M.) Blain are the remains of a chateau (13-16th cent.) of the Clissons and Rohans. We now cross the canal from Nantes to Brest, and beyond (64!/2 M.) Campbon we intersect the railway from Nantes to Brest. 78 M. Besni-Pont-Chateau is connected by a short branch-line with (12'/2 M.) Pont- Chdteau, on the Nantes and Brest railway (p. 253). At (79 M.) Montoir

to Nantes. CINQ-MARS. 37. Route. 235

we join the railway from Nantes to St. Nazaire. — 82 M. St. Nazaire, see p. 252.

'200 M. ChazS-sur-Argos. — 204 M. Angrie-Loire. Angrie, to the left of the line, has a fine modern chateau. — 208 M. Cande, a small town on the Erdre, the valley of which we now ascend for some distance, passing several small stations. — 215 M. St. Mars-la-Jaille, with a chateau of the 18th cent. ; 222 M. Teille ; 238 M. Carquefou, with a handsome Gothic church. — 243'/2 M. Doulon, also reached by tramway from Nantes. — We soon cross one of the arms of the Loire, obtaining a view of Nantes to the right.

24672 M. Nantes, Gare de l'Etat, see p. 245.

o. Via Orleans and Tours.

265 M. Orleans Railway (PI. G, 25; p. 1) in V/t-iT/i hrs. (fares 44 fr. 45, 30 fr. 5, 19 fr. 60 c). — From Tours to Angers, 67 M., in 2-3»/2 hrs. (fares 12 fr. 20, 8 fr. 15, 5 fr. 30 c). From Tours to Nantes, 12 M., in 4-7 hrs. (fares 22 fr. 5, 16 fr. 90, 9 fr. 65 c). — Passengers by the express-train, with through-tickets, go direct from St. Pierre-des-Corps (p. 266) to Sa- vonnieres without entering Tours. Finest views to the left.

From Paris to (75 M.) Orleans and (145 M.) Tours, see R. 35.

— On leaving Tours , our line diverges to the right from the lines to Orle'ans and Bordeaux, passes underneath the line to Les Sables d'Olonne, and diverges to the left from the lines to Vendome and Le Mans. To the right flows the Loire, to the left the Cher. — 153i/2 M. (from Paris) Savonnieres has some interesting 'caves gouttieres' (dropping caves), open to visitors (1-4 pers. 2 fr.). — "We then cross the Loire, not far from its confluence with the Cher. The towers of Cinq-MaTS come into view on the right.

158 M. Cinq-Mars, a village with many of its houses cut out of the rock , as at other places on this line. It contains the ruins of the chateau of the Marquis of Cinq-Mars, the favourite of Louis XIII., who was beheaded at Lyons in 1642, along with his friend De Thou, for having conspired against Richelieu. About 1 M. to the E. stands the Pile de Cinq-Mars, a solid tower without doors or windows, 95 ft. high and about 15 ft. in diameter, crowned by four small pyra- mids; it is probably of Roman origin and is supposed to be a funer- al monument or a beacon marking the confluence of the Loire and Cher. The line still continues to skirt the right bank of the Loire.

— 161 M. Langeais (Lion d'Or) has a * Chateau regarded as a masterpiece of 15th cent, military architecture (visitors admitted). Near it are the ruins of a donjon of the 10-llth centuries. — 16672 M. St. Patrice. The Chateau de Rochecotte, 72 M. to the W., contains some artistic collections.

From (174 M.) Port-Boulet branch -railways run to Chateau- renault (p. 270) and to (9 M.) Chinon (p. 284). — 179 M. Va- rennes-sur-Loire. Before reaching Saumur we see, to the left, the bridge carrying the Chemin de Fer de l'Etat across the Loire (p. 198).

184 M. Saumur. — Hotels. Budan, at the hridge, opposite the the- atre ; *de LoNDRES, Rue d'Orleans 48; de la Paix, Rue Dacier. — Cafes. De

236 Route 31. SAUMUK. From Paris

la Paix, opposite the hotel of that name ; de. la Eenaiisance, du Commerce, Kue d'Orleans 45 and 17.

Cabs. Per drive l'/2, per hr. 2 fr. — Tramways from the Gare d'Or- leans through the town to Fontevrault (p. 237) and to St-Hilaire-Sl-Florent, 2i/2 M. to the N.W.

Post & Telegraph Office, adjoining the Cafe de la Paix.

Railway Stations. Oare d'Orlians (Buffet), on the right hank, 1/2 M. from the town proper (omn.), for the trains of the Paris & Bordeaux Hall- way ; Oare de VEtal, on the other side of the town, IV4 M. from the Gare d'Orleans, for the slow trains of the Ligne de l'Etat (comp. p. 198).

Saumur, an old town with 18,440 inhab., is situated on the left bank of the Loire and on an island in the river. At the end of the 16th cent, it was one of the chief strongholds of Protestantism in France, and it was the seat of a Protestant university previous to the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. At that time (1685) its prosperity greatly declined, owing to the expulsion of the Hugue- nots, but it began to revive in 1768, when a large Cavalry School was founded here. Its sparkling wines have some reputation. The town proper is backed on the S.E. by a hill crowned with wind- mills and a Castle of the 11th, 13th, and 16th cent, (uninteresting).

Leaving the Gare d'Orleans, we cross the river and the island, on which are the ruins of a Chateau of the Queen of Sicily, built by King Rene of Anjou (15th cent.). We enter the town by the Place de la Bilange, at the ends of the Rues d'Orleans and de Bordeaux, which traverse the whole town. To the left stands the handsome Theatre, built in 1864. Behind it is the Gothic Hotel de Ville, mainly of the 16th cent., containing a small museum (open on Sun. & Thurs., 12-4; closed in Sept.; entr. in the street to the left). Adjacent (No. 3, Rue Cours St. Jean) is the entrance to the pretty Chapelle St. Jean, in the Romanesque and Gothic styles, with fine vaulting (when closed, apply at 25 Rue St. Jean). — The Rue St. Jean leads to the left to the church of St. Pierre, a building of the 12th cent., with a fagade of the 17th cent, and a large chapel in the Renaissance style. The S. transept ends in a fine Roman- esque portal. The beautiful choir-stalls date from the 15th century. The sacristy contains two fine pieces of tapestry (16th cent.). — About V2 M. to the E. is Notre-Dame-des-Ardilliers, a domed church of the 16-17th cent, (interesting interior), at the foot of the Butte des Moulins (view of the Loire).

The quarter at the foot of the hill, beyond St. Pierre, contains the Protestant Church (in the classical style), the College, the Jardin des Plantes, and Notre-Dame-de-Nantilly . The exterior of this church is uninteresting, with the exception of the portal, which belongs to the original edifice but has been spoiled. The interior, however, partly Romanesque (ll-12th cent.) and partly Gothic, is noteworthy and contains some important works of art (bas- reliefs, tapestry of the 15-18th cent., an oratory made for Louis XL, etc.). — The street opposite this church passes near the Gare de l'Etat and ends near the Ponf Foucard, which we cross to reach

to Nantes. FONTEVRAULT. 31. Route. 237

Bagneux (see below). To re-enter the town we keep to the right.

The Ecole de Cavalerie, a handsome building near the river, a little below the town, contains about 400 pupils in training as cavalry officers and riding-masters. Equestrian Exhibitions ('Car- rousels') are given in the latter half of Aug. on the Chardonnet, the large exercise-ground in front of the barracks. — The Church of St. Nicholas dates from the 12th ceitf. but has been modernized.

Beyond the Font Foucard, which spans the Thouel, an affluent of the Loire, at the end of the Rue de Bordeaux (3/4 M. from the theatre), lies a suburb containing a handsome modern church in the Romanesque style. The road diverging at this church leads to Bagneux (3/4 M. from the bridge), with a Dolmen, which is one of the largest in existence. It is 65 ft. long and 22 ft. wide, with an average height of 9 ft., and is composed of 16 ver- tical and 4 horizontal stones (apply to the custodian, in an adjoining house).

From Saumdr to Fontevraclt, 10 M., steam-tramway thrice daily in 70 min. (fares 1 fr. 45, 1 fr. 10 c). The cars start at the Gare d'Orleans, traverse the Place de rHotel-de-Ville, and follow the left bank of the Loire, passing several small stations. — 10 M. Fontevrault (Lion d'Or) possesses the remains of the celebrated Abbey of that name, founded in the 11th cent, by Robert d'Arbrissel. It comprised both a monastery and a nunnery, filled by members of the aristocracy, with an abbess at the head of the joint establishment. It is now used as a prison, and only the unoccupied parts are open to visitors. The Church, which was built between 1101 and 1119 in the style of the cathedral of Angouleme, has only one of its original five cupolas remaining. Henry II. and Richard I. of England, with various members of their family, were interred in this church, but the tombs have been rifled and destroyed. Four fine statues of the l3th cent., however, still remain, representing these two Plantagenet monarchs, Eleanor of Guienne (wife of Henry), and Isabella of Angouleme. The Cloisters, the Refectory, and the Chapter Bouse (16th cent.) are also interesting. The remarkable Tour cTEvrault, formerly the kitchen, belongs to the 12th century.

From Saumur to Chartres (Paris), see p. 198; to La Flechr, p. 232. — To Niort (Bordeaux), see Baedeker's South-Western France.

Beyond Saumur the railway skirts the Levee de la Loire, a huge embankment 40 M. long, which, however, in spite of its great size, has not always been able to protect the country from the temble inundations of the river; it was originally constructed between the 9th and 13th centuries. — 195 M. Les Rosiers.

From Les Rosiers an omnibus runs to (2 M.) Oeniies (fare 30 c), a village situated on the left bank of the Loire. About 2 M. farther up the river is Cunault, with a magnificent Romanesque church, adorned with fine mural I paintings. The elaborate capitals of the columns deserve attention. At Treves, 1 M. farther on, is a noble Keep, 100 ft. high.

Beyond (200 M.) St. Mathurin the Tailway gradually Tecedes from the Loire as it approaches Angers.

At (208 M.) Trelaze, a village with 5147 inhab., are the prin- cipal slate-quarries in the neighbourhood of Angers, to which an interesting visit may be made. Farther on we catch sight of the towers of the cathedral, to the right, and join the railway to Paris via Le Mans. — 212 M. Angers (Buffet), see p. 238. — Thence to Nantes, see pp. 233, 234.


32. Angers.

Stations. St. Laud (PI. E, 5; Buffet), the principal station, to the 8., belonging to the Compagnie d Orleans, hut also used hy the trains of the Western Railway (Chemin de Fer de l'Ouest; see R. 31); St. Serge (PI. B, 1), to the N., belonging to the Compagnie de l'Ouest, the station for the railway to Segre' and Laval; La Maitre-Ecole (beyond PI. G, 3; no cabs), to the E., about the same distance as the others from the centre of the town, the station for the State Line (Ligne de l'Etat) to Loudun and Poitiers and also used by the Western Railway (see above).

Hotels. Gband-Hotel (PI. a; E,3), Place du Ralliement, R., L., & A. 3-7, dej. 3, D. 4 fr., well spoken of; d'Anjod (PI. c; F, 4), Place de Lor- raine, similar charges; Cheval Blanc (PI. b; E, 4), Rue St. Aubin 12, nearer the station; de Londkes (PI. d ; C, 4), Quai Ligny 13, pens. 7>/2 fr. ; Hotel & Restaurant St. Julien, Place da Ralliement, R. from 2 fr.; de la Gake, opposite the Gare St. Laud, plain.

Cafes in the Place du Ralliement, at the Grand-Hotel , and at the theatre ; Grand Cafi du Boulevard, Boul. de Saumur.

Cabs. With one horse, per drive 75 c, per hr. il/t fr., at night (10-6) l'/2 and 2 fr. ; with two horses, l>/2, 21/2, 2, and 3 fr.

Electric Tramways. From the Gare St. Laud (PI. E, 5) to the Gare SI. Serge (PI. D, 1) via the Place du Ralliement (PI. E, 3) or via the Boule- vards ; to the Route de Paris (PI. G, 1). — From the Place du Ralliement (PI. E, 3) to the Place Lionnaise (PI. A, 2); to the Madeleine (beyond PI. F, 9, 4), two routes; to the Ginie (on the S.) via the Gare St. Laud (P1.E,5); to (3V4 M.) Trilazi (p. 244) ; to (3 M.) Ponts-de-Ci (p. 244) and (4'/2M.) Erigni. Fares 10 c., 15 c. with correspondance; outside the town 20 and 25 c.

Post and Telegraph Office, Place du Ralliement.

United States Consular Agent, /. H. Luneau, Esq.

Angers, the Andegavia of the Romans, afterwards the capital of Anjou, and now the capital of the Department de Maine-et-Loire, is an ancient and prosperous town with 77,164 inhab., advantage- ously situated on the navigable river Maine, which joins the Loire 5 M. farther down. The town proper lies on the left bank, and the suburb of La Doutre on the right bank. Angers was formerly very badly built and was known as the 'Black Town' on account of its sombre appearance, but in the 19th cent, it underwent an almost complete transformation. Its ancient ramparts were replaced by handsome boulevards adjoined by modern suburbs, new streets were opened up, others were widened and straightened, and numerous large edifices, quays, and bridges were constructed.

The history of Angers is practically identical with that of Anjou, one of the great fiefs of France, the historical prominence of which, out of all keeping with a district so destitute of geographical individuality, is due, as Mr. Freeman remarks, almost entirely to the energy and marked character of its rulers. Among the most illustrious Counts of Anjou may be mentioned Robert the Strong (d. 866), a valiant adversary of the Nor- mans and founder of the Capet family; Foulques Ne'ra or Fulk the Black (d. 1040); and Foulques V., who became King of Jerusalem in 1131. In 1127 Geoffrey Plantagenet, son of Fulk V., married the Empress Matilda, and the countship of Anjou passed into the possession of England on the accession of their son King Henry II. Plantagenet. In 1204, however, An- jou was reunited to France by Philip Augustus, who wrested it from the feeble John Lackland. In 1246 the province was given by Louis IX. to his brother Charles, afterwards King of the Two Sicilies. It next passed to the house of Valois, was assigned as an apanage to Louis, son of King John II. (1356), and descended to Rene" of Anjou (p. 242), at whose death it was definitely annexed to France by Louis XI. (1480). From that time

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Angers has been a mere provincial town, suffering severely, like other towns, from the Wars of Religion (1560-98), of the League (1532), and of La Vendee (1793), hut otherwise playing no important part in history. It has now an extensive trade in slate. The celebrated sculptor Jean Pierre David , generally known as David d' Angers (1788-1856? p. 244), and the chemist Chevreul (1786-1889) were natives of Angers. The Duke of Wel- lington and the Earl of Chatham received part of their education at Angers in a military college which has since been removed to Saumur (p. 237).

The Gate St. Laud (PI. E, 5) lies on the S. side of the town. From the Place de la Gare we first proceed to the N.W. to the Place de la Visitation (PI. D, E, 5) and then turn to the right into the Rue des Lices (PI. E, 5, 4), which crosses the Boulevard du Roi- Rene' (p. 242) and passes between the tower of St. Aubin and the Prefecture, both relics of a Benedictine abbey of St. Aubin.

The Tour St. Aubin (PI. E, 4) is a good example of the type of tower usual in the S.W. of France at the beginning of the Gothic period, consisting of a square base surmounted by an octagonal story, with four turrets at the springing of the spire. In the court- yard of the Prefecture (PL E, 4), the entrance to which is in the street to the right, is a screen of fine arches of the ll-12th cent., decorated with sculpture and painting, which Mr. Fergusson de- scribes as unrivalled even in France 'as a specimen of elaborate exuberance in barbarous ornament'. The other parts of the building date from the 17th and 19th centuries. — A little to the N. of the Prefecture is the ancient Church of St. Martin (PI. E, 4) , said to date from the 9th century. It is now a mere fragment, but possesses details of great antiquarian interest. — The Rue St. Aubin (PI. E, 4), at the end of the Rue des Lices, leads W. to the cathedral. From it diverges thefiwe Voltaire (PI. E, 3, 4), which ends behind the theatre, near the Place du Ralliement, in the centre of the town (p. 244).

The *Cathedral of St. Maurice (PI. D, 3, 4) is an interesting Romanesque and Gothic building dating from the 12-13th cent., except the spires of the two flanking towers of the W. front and the whole of the tower between them, which were added in the 16th century. The eight statues of warriors on the central tower, which is surmounted by an octagonal dome, also date from the 16th century. The Facade, originally too narrow, has been farther spoiled by the addition of this tower, but is adorned with interesting carv- ings of the 12th cent., recently restored and renewed, like many other parts of the building.

The interior consists of a long nave without aisles , novel in style and of imposing effect. The Domical Vaulting, or depressed cupolas, of the nave may be said to mark the transition from the Byzantine dome to groined or Gothic vaulting. The chief objects of interest are the Stained Glass Windows, magnificent works of the 12th, 13th, and 15th cent.; the Tapestry, of the 14-18th cent.; a Calvary, by David d'Angers, in a chapel to the left; a St. Cecilia, by the same master, in the choir; the Pulpit (16th cent.); and the Organ-Loft, supported by Caryatides (16th cent.). In the nave, to the left, is a monument to Mgr. Angebault (d. 1876), with a marble statue by Bouriche'. To the left of the entrance is a Holy Water Basin in verde antico, supported by two white marble lions, said to have

240 Route 32. ANGERS. Museum.

been executed at Byzantium. — The tomb of Rene" of Anjou (p. 242) was rediscovered in 1895 in a vault beneath the choir.

The Bishop's Palace, to the N. of the cathedral, is built on the site of an ancient castle of the Counts of Anjou. It dates from the 12th cent., but was thoroughly restored inside and out by Viollet- le-Duc in 1862-65, and now forms an admirable example of a medi- aeval mansion. To see the back of it, which is the most interest- ing part of the building, we descend the street a little farther, and turn to the right. — In the same street, to the left, are two old Timber Houses, with carving. There is a similar house a little farther up, at the corner of the street to the right, behind the cathedral. We now follow the winding street that begins immediately opposite this house, and turn to the left into the short Rue du Musee.

In this street, to the right, are the *Museum (PI. D, E, 4) and the Public Library, installed in the Logis Barrault, an interesting mansion of the end of the 15th cent., built by Olivier Barrault, Trea- surer of Brittany. In the court-yard are some Gothic and Renaissance Temains. The Museum, comprising sculpture and picture galleries and a natural history collection, is open to the public on Sun. and Thurs., from 1-5 (12-4 in winter), and to strangers on other days also.

The Ground-Floor is devoted to the collection of Sculpture. — Vesti- bule. Plaster Casts of ancient and modern works ; model of the statue of David (p. 239). — Boom to the bight. Continuation of the plaster-casts (inscriptions); model for the pediment of the Pantheon at Paris, by David; casts of worksjby Maindron (p. 234), a pupil of David. Also: 48 bis. Cortoi, Narcissus; 71. Dineehan, Woman and chimeera; 62. MolknerM, Cathelineau, the Vendean leader; 38. Bonnassieux, Las Cases.

1st Room to the left of the Vestibule. Blanchard, Rope-dancer; Leenhoff, Warrior resting, etc. 2nd Room. Drawings, engravings, water- colours; Tourny, Portrait of Chevreul. — Next comes the Musee David, at the beginning of which stands the model of his statue of Philopoemen. This gallery contains models or copies of nearly all the works of the famous and prolific sculptor David. There are also a few original works. Tie names are attached to all the sculptures. The chief works are in Room III, a long gallery. — Room I. 73-75. Bas-reliefs from the monument to Gerbert (Pope Sylvester II.); 3. Death of Epaminondas (this work won for Da- vid the Grand Prix de Rome); 4. TTlysses, a bust, the artist's first work in marble; 42. Reception by the Duke of Angouleme at the Tuileries after the Spanish war; several other busts. — Room II. 882-884. Monument of Boncbamp (p. 233). Drawings and Busts. 28. Statue of Bichat; 1S3, 120. Heads of Riquet and Corneille; 9. Statue of Fcinelon; Bronze Medal- lions; 13, 12, 19. Statues of Gouvion-Saint-Cyr, Talma, and Armand Carrel; 33-35. Bas-reliefs from Fe'nelon's monument; 45. Battle of Fleurus, bas-relief; 61-64. King CEdipus, the Cid, the Clouds, Tartuffe, bas-reliefs. — Room III. No. 24. Jean Bart, a statue; 51-54. Benefits of printing, bas- reliefs from Gutenberg's monument at Strassburg; 20, 27, 8. Statues nf Ambroise Pare, Bernardin de St. Pierre, and King Rene of Anjou; 41. Funeral of General Foy, bas-relief; 10. Statue of General Foy; 39, 40. Another bas-relief from Foy's monument; 128. Bronze bust of Paganini; 17. Statue of Cuvier; 85, 174. Bronze busts of Volney and Olivier d'Angers; 7. Statue of the Great Condi? ; 69-72. Bas-reliefs from General Gobert's monument; 119. Bronze bust of Proust, the chemist; 22. Statue of Bichat; 97. Marble bust of Be"clard; 23. Mgr. de Cheverus, Bishop of Boston (Mass.) and Archbishop of Bordeaux; 57-60. Bas-reliefs from his monument; 21. Statue of Gutenberg; 25. Statue of Larrey; 65-68. Bas-reliefs from a monu- ment. In the middle: 11. Greek girl at the tomb of Marco Bozzarisj 743.

Museum. ANGERS. 32. Route. 241

Marble bust of David, by Toussaint, on an altar carved in wood by David's father; 18. Statue of Barra, the heroic drummer-boy killed in the Ven- dean War; 26. General Gobert. Among the numerous busts in this room may be mentioned those of Lamennais (No. 155 ; to the right, near the middle of the room), Washington (105), Jeremy Bentham (102), Fenimore Cooper (99) , Goethe (116), Victor Hugo (149, 165), Racine (121), Corneille (128), Humboldt (167), and Kanaris (175). — Room IV (to the left of the preceding). Model (if the monument to Chevreul (p. 244); casts; paintings. — Room V. Daumas, After the war; 54. Houdon, Bust of Voltaire; 858. Gwnery, Dancing (originally intended for the Opera House at Paris); Saulo, Awakening; Rambaud, Oath of Agrippa d'Aubigne'.

On the First Floor is the Museum of Natural History, which is specially rich in birds, and also interesting for the opportunity it affords of study- ing the mineralogy of the district.

On the Second Floor are the Paintings — On the Staircase : Cartoons by Lenepveu, a native of Angers, amongst which are (Nos. 267 and 268) those from the ceilings of the Grand Opera at Paris and the theatre of Angers fp. 244). — Room I. to the left: No. 332. Solimena, Annunciation. To the right: 25. Mine. Lebrun, Innocence seeking refuge in the arms of Justice (crayon) ; opposite, no number, De Richemont, Legend of St. Mary of Brabant ; 73. Girodet-Trioson, Death of Tatius; 65. Gerard, Joseph and his brethren; above, Tessier, Sea-piece. — Bay to the left of the entrance: to the left, 145. Patrois, Joan of Arc; 112. Leprieur, Canoness; 251. Lenepveu, Cincinnati (youthful work) ; 810. Wencker, Saul and the Wich of Endor ; 806. H. Scheffer, Col. de Sevret; 10. Benner, Landscape; 805. A. Scheffer, Marquis de Las Cases. — 412. J. Duban, Death of a Trappist monk. — 66. Qirard and Van Spaendonck, Lareveillere-Lepeaux ; 253. Lenepveu, St. Saturninus ; QlS.Maignan, Louis XI. and a leper. — End - bay : no number, Aug. Lancon, Funeral at Champigny; 229,227. Ingres, Studies; Giacomatti, Italian girl; 207. De Pig- nerolle, Gondola; Guercino, St. Catharine of Bologna. Also, Muse of Andre Chenier, in marble, by Louis-Noel; medals; Minerva's sliield, by Simart, and other reliefs, etc. — Bay on the other side of the door: to the right, 88. Jacque. Oxen drinking; 71. Gide, Sully quitting the court of Louis XIII. ; <vl. Flandrin, Nymphaeum; 131. Minagtot, Astyanax torn from the arms of Andromache; no number, Leloir, Baptism of the king of Lancerotte; 175. Vien, Priam returning with the body of Hector; 132. Minageot, Cleo- patra at the tomb of Mark Antony; 126. luminals, The two Guardians; 57. P.Flandrin, Environs of Marseilles; 184. Appert, Bacchante. — Lenepveu, 202. Sickness of Alexander, 251 bis. Christ in the Pratorium (two youthful works). — 174. Vetter, Alchemist; no number, Krug, Victim of the sea; l.Anastasi, Roman Forum ; 206. Mercier, Dives ; no number, Checa, Saturnalia ; .41. BerthUemy, Eleazar. — Pradier, Sappho (bronze).

Room H. 179. Chardin, Portrait; 351. Murillo, Young man; 48. Desportes, Animals, flowers, and fruit; 336. Domenichino , S. Carlo Borromeo. — 282 Flemish School. Calvary; 37. Michel Corneille, Madonna and Child with St John; no number, Garofalo, Holy Family; 316. Lor. di Credi, Holy Family; AiV. Giordano (V), Paradise; 189. Marie Bouliard (of Angers), Portrait of the artist; 312. Guercino, Time and Truth; 154. H. Robert, Fountain of Minerva (Rome); 380. Van Thulden, Assumption; 137. Mignard, Madonna, Infant Christ, and John the Baptist; 824. Ribera, Portrait; 373. Rubens, Silenus; Jordaens, 367. Francois Flamand, 366. St. Sebastian; 363. De Ghampaigne, Christ among the doctors; 397. Honthorst, Violin-player; 358. Rottenhammer, Banquet of the gods; Ribera, Old man; 386. Flemish School, Holy Family; dia. Giordano, Adam and Eve. — 273. Tiepolo, Ceiling-painting; 115. Lethiere, Ine Canaamtish woman; 274. Italian School, Christ with the reed; 279. Berghem, Ruins; 277. School of the Francks, The Ten Virgins; 272. Raphael, anly Family (variation of a painting now at Madrid); 281. Velazquez, Fruit; ^78. School ofRogier van der Weyden, Calvary; 389. Flemish School, Caritas Romana; 91. Lagrenie, Death of the wife of Darius. — 374. Snyders, In- jured dog; 399. Van Mieris, Rape of the Sabine women; 405. /. van Ruisdael, Landscape; 402. Poelenburg, Women bathing; 376. Teniers the Younger, The tete-a-tete; 182. Watteau, Fete champetre; 791. Boucher, Allegory of love; d24. C. Maratta, Madonna adoring the Child; 377. Teniers the Younger, The Baedekers Northern France. 3rd Edit. 16

242 Route 32. ANGERS. Statue of Bene.

unkind mother; 121. /. B. Van Loo, Kinaldo and Armida (from Tasso's 'Jerusalem Delivered'); pictures by Leprince, Lancret, and Pater; 361. Ph. de Champaigne , The disciples at Emmaus; 172. J. Vernet, Sea-piece; 74. Qreuze, Mme. de Porcin; 38. Ant. Coypel , Olympus (sketch for a ceiling painting); 47. Desportts, Fox-hunt; 167. De Troy, Bathsheba.

Room III. Works by Bodinier (1795-1872), of Angers; 230. Montesmy, Soothsayer predicting the papacy of Sixtus V.

Adjoining the Muse'e, with the entrance in the Rue Toussaint, are the interesting ruins of the ancient ahbey-church of Toussaint, dating from the 13th cent., which may he visited on application to the keeper of the Muse'e.

At the end of the Rue Toussaint is the *Castle (PL C, D, 4), which is still one of the most imposing buildings of the kind in exist- ence, in spite of the fact that many of its seventeen towers have been razed and though the construction of a boulevard to the S. has swept away one of its bastions and filled in its immense moat. This powerful feudal stronghold dates chiefly from the 13th cent.; it is built in the form of a pentagon and stands on a rock dominating the course of the Maine to the W. Visitors are admitted to the interior, which, however, possesses little interest.

Between the Boul. du Roi-Rene' and the Boul. du Chateau rises a bronze *Statue of King Rene (PI. D, 4,5), by David a" Angers,

Rene' (1408-80), second son of Louis II. of Anjou, became ruler of that duchy and of Provence by the death of his brother Louis III. in 1434. He was also for some time King of Naples, in virtue of the will of Joanna II. After a life of misfortune, during which he had been deprived of nearly all his lands, he retired in 1473 to Aix, in Provence, to spend his last years in peaceful occupations among the devoted subjects left to him. He cultivated literature and the fine arts with great zeal, and well de- served his surname of 'the Good'. Some of his writings are still extant. Rene appears as one of the characters in 'Anne of Geierstein', but is viewed by Sir Walter Scott in a somewhat unflattering light.

The pedestal of the statue is surrounded by twelve bronze statuettes, also by David , representing Dumnacus, defender of the Andegavi against Cfesar; Roland, the paladin; and ten illustrious members of the house of Anjou, viz. Robert the Strong, Foulques Ne'ra, Foulques V., Henry II. Plantagenet (see p. 238); Philip Augustus, Charles of Anjou, Louis I. of Anjou; Isabella of Lorraine and Jeanne de Laval, Rene's wives; and Mar- garet of Anjou, Queen of England.

To the S. is the handsome church of St. Laud (PI. D, 5), rebuilt in 1872-82 in the Angevin variety of the Romanesque style, with transepts, ambulatory, lateral chapels, and a crypt under the chevet. The arches in the nave are supported by very slender columns. The fine altars are adorned with sculptures.

We now follow the Boulevard du Chateau, which runs westward to the Maine. It is continued by the Pont de la Basse - Chatne (PI. B, C, 4), replacing a suspension-bridge , which gave way in 1850, during the passage of a battalion of infantry, 223 men being drowned or killed by the fall. The next bridge farther up is named the Pont du Centre (bearing a statue of General Beaurepaire ; 1740- 92], and still higher up is the Pont de la Haute- Chaine, commanded by the old Tower of that name. A good view of the cathedral and the town is obtained from the opposite bank.

St. Serge. ANGERS. 32. Route. 243

In the street beginning at the Pont du Centie is the church of La Trinite (PI. B, 3), another interesting building in the Angevin- Romanesque style, with a fine tower, the upper part of which, how- ever, dates from the 16th century.

The interior, which, like that of other typical Angevin churches, has no aisles, contains a fine wooden staircase of the Renaissance period and a figure of Christ by Maindron. The nave 'is roofed with an intersecting vault in eight compartments of somewhat Northern pattern , but with a strong tendency towards the domical forms of the Southern style'. The details throughout are good, and the general effect is so satisfactory 'as to go far to shake our absolute faith in the dogma that aisles are indis- pensably necessary to the proper effect of a Gothic church' (Fergusson). The vaulting diminishes in height from W. to E., a device to increase the apparent length of the church.

In the same street, to the left, near La Trinite", is an interesting Timbered House. Adjoining La Trinite' are the ruins of the ancient Eglise du Ronceray, dating partly from the 11th cent., and the huge Ecole des Arts et Metiers (PI. B , 2, 3), established in the ancient abbey of Ronceray, which was enlarged and altered for its reception.

Farther on , on the quay on this ^ide of the Pont de la Haute- Chaine, is the ancient Hospice St. Jean (PI. B, 2), said to have been founded in 1152 by Henry II. of England. It now contains an Akch^ological Museum, open at the same times as the other Mu- seum (p.240). The collections occupy a large and handsome Gothic hall, in three equal compartments or aisles, dating from the second half of the 13th cent, and ranking among the earliest specimens of pure Gothic architecture.

The museum contains few antiquities, but a great many objects be- longing to the middle ages and the Renaissance period, often of little im- portance. Among the curiosities may be mentioned an antique porphyry urn, with two masks of Jupiter, which tradition avers to be one of the water- pots from Cana of Galilee; a very fine figure of a man kneeling before a prie-Dieu; several monumental statues; fine wood-carving from a Renais- sance altar; other wood-carvings; chests, on which are glass-cases con- taining objects of smaller dimensions ; and a strong-box with a very com- plicated lock. Labels are affixed to most of the objects.

The modern representative of the Hospice St. Jean is the Hos- pice-Hopital Ste. Marie (PL A, B, 1), situated to the left, some dis- tance beyond the bridge, a building of huge dimensions, containing 1500 beds. The chapel is decorated with frescoes by Lenepveu, Appert, and Dauban, all artists of Angers.

We now cross the bridge and follow the boulevards. To the left is the OareSt. Serge(VLV,l ; p. 238), and beyond it, adjoining the seminary, is the ancient abbey-church of St. Serge (PI. E, 1). This church possesses a flue 15th cent, nave, but the most interesting parts are the choir and transepts, which are in the same style as the cathedral, and are roofed with domical vaulting. The arches of the nave are supported by enormously thick pillars , whereas the columns in the choir are of the most slender proportions. The plan of the choir is interesting, consisting at first of a nave and double aisles, contracting to a nave and single aisles, and finally to a nave only. The outer aisles terminate in apses, the others in straight walls.


244 Route 32. ANGERS.

We now proceed with our circuit round the, old town by follow- ing the boulevards. To the left of the Boulevard Oarnot lies the well-stocked Botanic Garden (PI. E, F, 1), which was founded in 1777 and forms a pleasant promenade. At the entrance is a Statue of Chtvreul (p. 239), by E. Guillaume. The former Palais de Justice, on the other side of the boulevard , now contains the Palaeontol- ogical Museum, open on Sun. and Thurs., 12-4.

Farther on, the Boulevard de la Mairie skirts the Champ-de-Mars (PI. F, 2), in which stands the Palais de Justice, a modern building with an Ionic colonnade, partly hidden by the neighbouring houses. To the S. of the Champ-de-Mars lies the Jardin du Mail (PI. F, 2,3), where a band plays on Sunday and Thursday. To the right of the boulevard rises the Hotel de Ville, in an old college of 1691. We next reach the Place de Lorraine, where a bronze statue of Da- vid d' Angers (PI. F, 3), by Louis Noel, was erected in 1880.

The Rue d'Alsace, a little farther on, leads to the right to the Place du Ralliement (PI. E, 3), forming the centre of the town. In this Place are the Theatre,' a fine edifice rebuilt in 1865-71 and adorned with paintings by Lenepveu and Dauban, the Grand-Hotel, a still more recent building, and the Post and Telegraph Office, completed in 1891. — In the Rue de Lespine (PI. D, E, 3) stands the *H6tel de Pince or Hotel d'Anjou, one of the finest private mansions in Angers, erected about 1530 , but largely restored in 1880-84. The interior, interesting for its fine ceilings, chimney- pieces, etc., contains a small Museum of antiquities, faience, and art-objects, in bronze, ivory, enamel, etc., open as the two others.

From Angers excursions may be made by electric tramway (p. 238) to Ponts-de-Ci, 3 M. to theS., and to the slate-quarries of Tr&lazl (p. 238), 3>/2M. to the E. Ponts-de-Ce has a station also on the railway from Angers to Loudun.

Les Ponts-de-Ce (Cheval Blanc; de la Loire; du Commerce), a town with 3530 inhab., is built on three islands in the Loire, connected with each other and with the bank on each side by means of four bridges. The total length of these bridges, together with the roads between, is almost 2 M. They were rebuilt in 1846-66, but are of very ancient origin, being the 'Pons Saii' of the Romans, and they have repeatedly been the object of armed contests from the Roman period down to modern times. A statue of Dumnacus (p. 242), by Noel, was erected on the Pont St. Maurille in 1887.

From Angers to La Fleche, 30 M., railway in l3li-Q}/i hrs., starting from the Gare St. Laud. The chief intermediate station is (21 M.) Durtal, a small town on the Loir, with the remains of fortifications and an inter- esting chateau of the 16th century. The line then crosses the Loir and joins the lines from La Suze and Sable (p. 232). — 30 M. La Fleche, see p. 232.

From Angers to Segre (Laval, Rennes, Redon), 23V2 M., railway in l-l'/4 hr., starting from the Gare St. Serge (p. 238). The chief intermediate station is (15 M.) Le Lion-d'Angers (Hot. de la Grosse-Pierre), with an in- teresting church of the 10-llth centuries. — 23'/2 M. Segri, see p. 234.

From Angers to Le Mans and Paris and to Nantes, see R. 31a; to Tours, etc., see E. 31c. — To Loudun (Poitiers), Cholel, etc., see Baedeker's South- western France.

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33. Nantes.

Railway Stations. The Grande Gare or Gare d'OrUans (PI. G, 4; Buffet), the principal station, lies to the E. of the town. — The Gare de la Bourse (PI. D, 3), on the prolongation of the Orleans line in the direction of Brest, lies nearer the centre of the town, but tickets cannot be obtained here, nor luggage registered, except for the line to St. Nazaire, Guerande, and Le (roisic, and for the Brest line to Redon. — The Gare Maritime (PI. A, B, 3), farther on on the same line, is only used by goods-trains. — The Gare de VEtat (PI. G, D, 5; Buffet), to the S., is for the line to Bordeaux and its branches and for the line to Paris via Segre. It is, however, con- nected with the Gare d'Orleans by a junction-line, and the trains start from either, according to the direction in which they are going.

Hotels. Hotel de France (PI. a; D, 3), Place Graslin, pleasantly situated, but at a distance from the stations, R., L., & A. 3-11, B. I1/2, dej. 3, D. 4, omn. 3/< fr-5 DE Bretagne (PI. b; F, 3), Rue de Strasbourg 23, pens, from 10 fr. ; des Votageurs (PI. c; D, 3), Rue Moliere 2, R., L., & A. 2i/2-5Vz, B. I1/4, dej. 3, D. 3>/2, omn. 3/4 fr. ; dd Commerce (PI. d; D, 3), Rue San- teuil 12; de Paris (PI. f ; D, 3), Rue Boileau, R. from 3, dej. 3, D. 3>/2 fr. ; Duchesse Anne (PI. e; F, 3), Place Duchesse-Anne, R. 2-5, A. tys, dej. 2>/2, D. 3 fr. ; Cholet (Hotel meuble), Rue Gresset 10, near the Place Graslin, etc.

Cafes-Restaurants. Cafe" de France , de la Cigale , de V Univers , Place Graslin ; others in the Place du Commerce (Bourse) , etc. — Restaurant Francois, Cambronne, both Place Graslin (a la carte) ; at the Ildtel du Com- merce, see above.

Cabs. With one horse, per 'course' l'/2fr. , per hr. 2>/ifr. ; at night (12 to 6) 2 and 2V2 fr. ; with two horses, 2, 2]/2, and 3 fr. ; 'Voitures de remise slightly dearer.

Tramways (driven by compressed air). Frum the Place du Commerce (Bourse) to Doulon, on the E., via the Gare d'Orleans; to Chantenay, on the W., traversing the quays; to Pirmil, on the S., via the Garedel'Etat; to the Rennes Road, on the N., via the Rue de Strasbourg ; to the Paris Road, on the N.E., via. the cathedral; to Grillaud and Trois-Moulins; fares 10c. for one, 20 c. for two, and 30 c. for three or four sections. — Omnibuses also ply in the town.

Steamboats ply in summer from the Quai de la Fosse, near the Bourse (Pl.D, 3), to St. Nazaire, touching at Basse-Indre (p. 253), Indret (p. 253), Coueron (p. 253), Le Pellerin, Le Migron, and Paimboeuf (p. 252). The boats start at 8 a.m.. and perform the journey down in 3-33/4, up in 3-4 hrs. (fares to St. Nazaire, 21/*, IV2 fr. ; return-ticket available by railway in one direction 5, 4, 23/4 fr.). Restaurant on board. — Steam Ferry (5 c.) at the end of the He Gloriette (PI. O, 4).

Theatres. Grand Thidlre (PI. D, 3), Place Graslin; fhiatre de la Renaissance (Pl.D, 1,2), Place Brancas; Thiatre des VariiUs (PI. D, E, 2), Rue Mercosur.

Post & Telegraph Office (PL E, 3), Quai Brancas, entered from the Rue du Couedic and Rue La Peyrouse.

Baths. St. Louis, Rue Voltaire 19 (50-70 c); du Calvaire, Rue du Cal- vaire 8. River Baths in the Loire, between the lie Feydeau and He Gloriette.

British Consul, B. Pauncefote, Esq. — United States Consul, Joseph I. Brittain, Esq.; Vice-Consul, Hiram D. Bennett, Esq.

English Church Service in the French Protestant Church, Rue de Gi- gant, at noon.

Nantes, the capital of the Departemenl de la Loire-Inferieure, the headquarters of the Xlth Corps d'Arme'e, and the seat of a bishop, is a town with 123,900 inhab., situated mainly on the right bank of the Loire. The river ramifies here into six arms, and re- ceives the waters of the Erdre and the Sevre-Nantaise, the latter flowing into it to the S., beyond the islands, the former coming from the N. and traversing the town before its confluence. The commerce

246 Route NANTES. History.

and industry of Nantes have long rendered it one of the most flourish- ing towns in France, and with regard to population it ranks seventh in the country. Its harbour has latterly lost much of its im- portance, the approach to it being too narrow for the large ships of modern times, but in 1881 the authorities began the construction of a lateral canal, which, it is hoped, will restore the town to the rank it has lost. Sugar forms the principal article of commerce in Nantes, and the town contains several large sugar-refineries. To- bacco, sardines, and preserved meats of all kinds are also among the chief industrial products, and the outskirts of the town are thickly sprinkled with iron-works, ship-building yards, cotton-mills, glass-works, and other factories.

Nantes was founded anterior to the Roman conquest, but its history, until the end of the 15th cent., may be summed up in the record of its struggles with the Romans, the Normans, the English, and the French in defence of its own independence and the independence of Brittany. It was in the castle of Nantes that the marriage of Anne of Brittany with Charles VIII., King of France, was solemnised in 1491, thus uniting the duchy of Brittany with the crown of France. Anne was pledged by special agreement to marry the successor of Charles, should she survive him, and in consequence of this married Louis XII. in 1499 (see p. 209). Notwith- standing this, Nantes endeavoured to regain its independence under Henri III, during the wars of the League, but finally submitted to Henri IV in 1598. In the month of April in that year was issued the famous Edict of Nantes, granting the Protestants liberty of worship and equal political rights with the Roman Catholics. Nantes was favourable from the very beginning to the cause of the Revolution, and victoriously resisted the Vendeans in 1793; but nevertheless the Comite du Salut Public sent the ferocious Carrier hither to suppress the rebellion. This monster went far beyond his instructions, ordered the execution, without trial, of all who had been imprisoned, and, finding that the executioner's axe and the fusillading of hundreds at a time were too inexpeditious modes of accomplishing his cruel commands, invented the Noyades, or 'Drownings en masse', which were effected by scuttling barges full of prisoners. From six to nine thou- sand persons, if not more, perished by his orders in this town alone within less than four months, until at last he himself was denounced, recalled, and sent in his turn to the scaffold.

Nantes is nowadays a handsome modern town, but the absence of main thoroughfares makes it difficult for the stranger to And his way about its streets. Its most characteristic features are the numerous bridges over the different arms of the Loire and the Erdre, the harbour, and the fine houses of the 18th cent, which line the quays. There are, however, comparatively few buildings of interest.

The railway from Orleans is prolonged along the quays on its way to Basse-Bretagne (E. 34). A short distance from the station, to the right, opens the Place Duchesse-Anne (PI. F, 3), where the Cours St. Pien-e (p. 249) and the new street described at p. 248 begin. On the flight of steps ascending to the Cours is the Monument Pour le Drapeau ('for the flag'), erected in 1897 in memory of 1870-71.

On one side of the Place rises the Castle (PI. F, 3), an imposing building of very ancient origin, but in its present form dating mainly from the end of the 15th century. It had formerly seven towers, but

Nat. Hist. Museum, NANTES. 33. Route. 247

one of them, which was used as a powder-magazine, was blown up in 1800. Visitors may enter the interesting court-yard, where we may notice the Orand Logis, a Renaissance edifice, which has been restored, and the Salle des Gardes. There is also a large well, with an iron coping. The interior of the castle is uninteresting.

The castle was long used as a state-prison, and Card, de Retz (1654), Fouquet, and the Duchess of Berri (ll"32), mother of the Comle de Cham- hord, where confined here. The last w. s arrested in No. 3 Hue Haute du Chateau (behind the castle; visitors admitted), after lying concealed for the test part of a day in a small recess behind a chimney on the third floor.

We continue to follow the quays, passing the end of the Rue de Strasbourg (p. 249), and cross the canalised Erdre at its junction with the Loire. Farther on, in the Place du Commerce, stands the Exchange (PI. D, 3), built in 1792-1812. To the left is the small lie Feydeau. "We next Teach the Gare de la Bourse (PI. D, 3), already mentioned, and the Quai de la Fosse, skirting the haTbour, to which we may return after visiting the interior of the town. The Edict of Nantes is said to have been signed in the Maison des Tou- relles (No. 5). No. 17 also deserves attention.

The Rue Jean-Jacques Rousseau (PI. D, 3) , which leaves the quay between the Exchange and the Gare de la Bourse , leads to the Place Graslin (PI. D, 3), the centre of the town. In it stands the Grand Theatre, built in 1788, but several times restored since then, with a Corinthian colonnade surmounted by the figures of eight Muses. The vestibule contains statues of Corneille and Moliere by Molknecht and the auditorium has a fine ceiling, painted by Hippolyte Berteaux in 1881.

To the S.W. of the Place Graslin extends the Cours de la Re- publique or Cambronne (PI. C, D, 3), a promenade embellished with a bronze statue of General Cambronne (1770-1842), a native of the environs of Nantes, erected in 1848. On the pedestal is inscribed the answer he is said to have given at Waterloo : 'The guard dies, but never surrenders'. The statue was executed by Jean Debay, a native artist.

A little to the N. of the Cours Cambronne, in the Rue Voltaire, stands the Ecole des Sciences (PI. C, 3) , erected in 1821 , and used first as a mint and then as a court of justice. Its handsome facade, in the classical style, with a sculptured pediment, is turned towards the Place de la Monnaie. Besides the law-couTts it now contains an important Museum of Natural History (PI. C, 3), open to the public on Sun., Tues., Thurs., and holidays, 12-4 (closed in Sept.).

The entrance to the museum is in the Place de la Monnaie. — On the Ground-Floor are a large gallery and hall devoted to Geology, Mineralogy, and Palaeontology. There are descriptive labels affixed to the various objects. — On the First Floor is th« Zoological Collection. In a glass- case to the left of the entrance, between two mummies, is the tanned skin of a soldier, killed by the Vendeans in 1793, who requested his comrades to have a drum made of his skin, so that he might continue to be a terror to those 'brigands de royalistes' after his death. His wish has been only half realised. The collection of fishes is very complete. In the upper galleries aro birds , insects , corals , madrepores, and Crustacea, The side-rooms contain a good herbarium, specimens of wood, etc.

248 Route 33. NANTES. Musie T. Dobree-

A little farther on is the Musee T. Dobree (PI. C, 3), consisting of an old country-house of the bishops of Nantes (15th cent.) and an extensive pile of new buildings, erected about 30 years ago by T. Dobree in the Romanesque style of the 12th cent., and presented to the town in 1894.

A series of rooms on the groundfloor is occupied by the large and valuable Mmie d^Archiologie, comprising the Kervien, Siedler, and De Parenteau Collections, etc. (specially objects from ancient Nantes). Two catalogues have been published, and a third is in preparation.

A monumental staircase ascends to the first floor, on which is the Musie T. Dobr&e, comprising important bibliographical collections, a cabinet of engravings with splendid specimens of the principal Flemish and Ger- man masters, and a gallery of French costumes since the time of Louis XIII.; besides works of art of every description, furniture of the Duchesse Anne, an almost complete series of the coins of the Dukes of Brittany, and an excellent collection of autographs. Conservateur-Directeur, P. de Lisle du Drenenc.

With the view of freeing the Museum, which is of considerable importance , the houses of three streets are now being taken down. When these works are finished, the Museum will be unrivalled in the provinces of France.

The Rue Voltaire leads to the W. to the church of Notre-Dame (p. 251) , but we follow it to the E. to the Place Graslin, and then take the Rue CreT)illon (PI. D, 3). To the right , at the first cross- street, is the Passage Pommeraye, a handsome and much-fre- quented arcade, with the peculiarity of being in three stages, with connecting staircases, owing to the fact that the streets which it joins are not on the same level. It is adorned with statuettes by Debay and medallions by Grootaers , both natives of Nantes. It emerges on the other side in the Rue de la Fosse, near the Bourse.

The Rue Orebillon ends at the Place Royale (PI. D, E, 3), an- other scene of great animation, embellished with a large modern

  • Fountain, in granite, by Driollet, with thirteen bronze statues and

statuettes by Ducommun and Grootaers. The marble statue on the top represents the town of Nantes; the others, in the basin below, represent the Loire (seated on a throne) and its principal affluents, the Sevre, Erdre, Cher, and Loir.

In the vicinity rises the handsome modern church of St. Nicolas (PL E, 3), designed by Lassus in the Gothic style of the 13th cent., with double aisles and an imposing tower, 278 ft. high. The most striking points of the interior are the triforium, below which runs a beautiful band of foliage ; the high-altar, in white marble, with bas-reliefs and a ciborium terminating in a lofty pyramid; the gilded choir-screen; the pictures, by Delaunay, in the transept-chapels; the stained-glass- windows ; the altar in the Lady Chapel; and the tomb of Mgr. Foumier (d. 1877), bishop of Nantes, in the left aisle.

The Rue de Feltre, passing betweenHhe church of St. Nicolas and the old Picture Gallery (comp. p. 246) descends to the Erdre. Thence it is to be prolonged through the old quarter on the opposite bank

Cathedral. NANTES. 33. Route., 249

(PL E, F, 3) towaids the Place de la Duchesse-Anne (p. 246), form- ing with de Rue du Calvaire an important new artery of traffic.

At the end of the Rue Lafayette, which diverges from the Rue du Calvaire, is the Palais de Justice (PL D, 2), a large and hand- some building, dating from 1845-53. In the centre of the facade is a colonnade surmounted by an arcade, with a fine group by Sue, of Nantes, representing Justice protecting Innocence against Crime.

We now return to the church of St. Nicolas, descend to the Erdre, and cross it, in order to reach the Basse-Grande-Rue on the opposite bank. In this street, to the right, is the church of Ste. Croix (PL E, 3), erected in the 17th and 19th centuries. Its tower is surmounted by the leaden Belfry from the old Hotel de Ville, adorn- ed with genii blowing trumpets. — The Rue Ste. Croix, to the left, and its continuation, the Rue de la Baclerie, and the Rue de la Jui- verie, contain some interesting old houses. "We now cross the Rue de Strasbourg (PL F, 2, 3), a handsome modern street, which traverses the whole E. paTt of the town in a straight line from N. to S.

A little farther to the E. stands the Cathedral of St. Pierre (PL F, 3). The rebuilding of this church, dating from the Roman- esque period, was undertaken in the 15th cent., but was never finished, and the small 12th cent, choir long stood in incongruous combination with the more ambitious W. end. The work, however, was resumed and was completed in 1892. The facade is flanked by two towers, and the portals are richly adorned with sculptures.

The lofty nave produces a very imposing effect. The triforium is worthy of notice. Under the organ are Alto-relievos and Statues of the 15th cent., recently restored, representing scenes from the lives of the early Pa- triarchs and Bishops, and a Duke of Brittany. To the right, near the door, are a statue of St. Paul in a niche of the 15th century. The last chapel in the S. aisle contains a painting by H. Flandrin, and the 3rd chapel in the N. aisle has an ancient stained-glass window. At the ends of the aisles are tasteful portals. — The chief objects of interest in the interior are, however, the tombs in the transepts. In the S. transept is the "Tomb op Francois II, last Duke of Brittany, and his wife Marguerite de Foix, a very elaborate work in the Renaissance style, ex- ecuted in 1507 by Michel Golomb. The tomb, in black and white marble, supports recumbent figures of the deceased, with statues of Justice, Prud- ence, Temperance, and Power at the four corners, and is surrounded by two rows of sixteen niches containing statuettes of apostles, saints, and mourners. Justice, to the right, is a portrait of Anne of Brittany, daughter of the deceased, who erected this monument in their honour; Prudence has two faces, one of a young woman and one of an old man. — In the X. transept is the *Tomb of LamoriciAee, a native of Nantes (1806- 65). This imposing modern monument is the joint work of the architect Boitte and the sculptor Paul Dubois. Below a canopy lies a white marble figure of the general ; at the corners are bronze statues of History, Charity, Military Courage, and Faith, and bas-reliefs run along the sides.

The street to the left of the cathedral leads to the Place Louis XVI. (PL F, 3), in the middle of which is a Column, 90 ft. high, surmounted by a Statue of Louis XVI., by Molknecht. This Place lies between the Cours St. Andre and the Cours St. Pierre, all three having been laid out as a promenade in 1726 and furnished

250 Route 33. NANTES. Picture Gallery.

with other mediocre statues by Molknecht. The Cours St. Andre extends to the left to the Erdre, while the Cours St. Pierre descends to the right, passing behind the choir of the cathedral, to the Place Duchesse-Anne and the Quai de la Loire, near the chateau (p. 246).

In the Rue St. Clement, which leads to the E. from the Place Louis XVI, is the handsome new church of St. CUment (PI. G, '<>, 3), in the Gothic style of the 13th century. The chapel of the Convent de la Visitation (PI. G, 2), farther to the E., contains some interesting paintings by Elie Delaunay.

In the Rue du Lyce'e, to the E. of the Cours St. Pierre, is the new *MuBee de Peinture (PI. G, 3), an extensive pile erected in 1893-97 by 0. Josso (open daily, 12-4). It is one of the best pro- vincial museums in France, and contains more than 1000 pictures, among which the modern French masters are prominent, the first names from the 18th cent, to the present day being represented by a series of splendid works. As the arrangement was still unfinished in autumn, 1898, we mention the most noteworthy pictures arranged in schools and in alphabetical order.

Italian Schools. Albano, Baptism of Christ; G. Bassano, Annunciation to the Shepherds; Leandro Bassano (1)., Nativity of the Virgin; Botticelli, Madonna; Calabrese, Christ healing the blind man; Canaletto, View of Ven- ice, Piazza Navona at Rome; Caravaggio, Portrait of himself, Delivery of St. Peter; Castiglione, Noah's sacrifice, Entering the ark; Pietro da Cor- tona, Joshua commanding the sun to stand still; Ascribed to Ghirlandajo, Madonna, Infant Christ, and John the Baptist; Giorgione, Portrait ofaVen- itian; Guardi, Carnival at Venice, Assembly of Venetian nobles at the Doge's palace; 'Gvercino, Phocion refusing the presents of Alexander; "Early Italian School, Madonna; Hal. School of the 16th cent., Annunciation, Madonna; "Lorenzo Lotto, Woman taken in adultery; Maratta, St. Filippo Neri ; Pannini, Ruins ; "Perugino, Isaiah and Jeremiah ; Sebastian del Piombo, Bearing of the Cross; Rosselli, Judith; Saloator Ro*a (V), Landscape; "Andrea del Sarto, Charity, probably the first study of the subject, which the artist has repeated three times; Sassoferrato, Head of the Virgin; Paolo Veronese, Portrait of a princess, Old copy of the Marriage at Cana; Solimena, Ma- donna and Infant Christ, with saints; Stella, Assumption; Strozzi, Healing of the man with the palsy, Conversion of Zachseus.

Flemish, Dutch, and Gekman Schools. D. Alsloot, View of the farm of Belle- Alliance at Waterloo (lb'08); "Altdorfer. Conversion of St. Matthew, Christ in the house of S'mon the Pharisee; Bloemarl, Repentant Magdalen; Bouts, Landscape; Boyermans, Vows of St. Louis of Gonzaga; Brakenburgh, Church-fair; ' Velvet' Brueghel, Landscapes; Brueghel the Elder, Snow-scene; 'Ph. de Champaigne, Suger, abbot of St. Denis; 384. Coques, Interior; Ph. de Crayer, Education of the Virgin; A. Cuyp (?), Portrait of a child; Decker, River-scene; Denner, Holy Family; Dietrich, Monk ; Dilrer. St. Christopher; Flinch (?), Prodigal Son; Fouquier, Mountainous landscape; Franck the Elder, Crucifixion, Elevation of the Cross ; German School or the I6th cent., Pro- posal of marriage; Van der Heist, Portrait; Bonlhorst, Adoration of the Shepherds; Matsys f?), St. Jerome; Marinus van Romersvaele, Banker and his wife; Van der Meulen, Investment of Luxembourg; Egbert van der Poel, Conflagration on the riverside; Poelenburg, Ruins; Pourbus the Elder. Por- trait of a lady; Pourbus the Younger, Prince Maurice of Orange; Pynacker, Landscape; Quellyn, Interior; "Rembrandt, Portrait of his wife (?); R»bens, Triumph of a warrior; Salmson, The little gleaner; Swanevelt, Landscape; Van Vliet, He^d of k man; Vinck-Boons, Wood with robbers; Teniers the Younger, St. Theresa; Simon de Voi, Portraits; Ph. Wouwerman, Horsemen preparing to start; Unknown Master of the 18th cent., Frederick II. of Prussia.

Spanish School. Herrera the Elder (?), Two minks ; Mursllo, Madonna,

  • Hurdy gurdy player, Annunciation to the Shepherds; Ribera, Christ among

the doctors; Velazquez, Portrait of a young prince; Unknown Matter of tlie nth cent., St. Joseph.

Picture Gallery. NANTES. 33. Route. 251

Feenoh School. Jean Andri, Meditation of St. Catherine of Siena; Baudry, Repentant Magdalen, Charlotte Corday ; Bin, Madness of Hercules; Boggs, Fishing-boat; Boulanger, Procession of the plague-stricken; Bras- cassat, Cattle; Buffet, The defile of La Hache (Algiers); Chantron, Chry- santhemums; Chaperon, Bacchanal; Chigot, Lost at sea; if. Corneille, Palm- Sunday; Corot, Landscapes; Courbet, Gleaners; Courtois (le Bourguignon), Battlefield; Couturier, Forced march in Oran; Coypel, Dido discovering iEneas and Achates; Curzon, The young mother; Daubigny, On the banks of the Seine; Dawant, The end of the service; Debay (of Nantes), Episode of the year 17S3 at Nantes, Lucretia on the Collatine Hill; Delacroix, Arab judge; Delaroche, Childhood of Pico de la Mirandola, Girl on the swing; sketches for ihe He"micycle of the Ecole des Beaux-Arts and for the Made- leine at Paris (the latter not executed as paintings); /. E. Delaunay (of Nantes), Lesson on the flute, Ixion in Hades, David and Goliath, Death of Nemes, the centaur, Portrait of Eegnier, the actor; Detouche, Starting for town, Waiting for the fancy ball; Dubufe, Portrait of the Duchess of Feltre; Fabre, Portrait of Clarke, Due de Feltre; Hipp. Flandrin, Reverie, Young Girl; Paul Flandrin, Portraits of himself and of his brother (with an album); Fortin, Breton interior; Francais, Landscape; Fromentin, Gazelle-hunting; Glrdme, Plain of Thebes, The prisoner; 758. E. Giraud, Enlisting in the 18th cent. ; Greuze, Portraits of M. de St. Morys and his son; Gros, Battle of Nazareth; Hamon, Juggler; Al. Hesse, Girl carrying fruit, The reaper; Ingres, Portrait; Jacquand, A cardinal visiting Ribera, Marie de' Medicis in the studio of Rubens; Joyant, Church at Venice; Ch. de Lafosse, Apotheosis of vEneas, Venus demanding arms from Vulcan; La Hire, Holy Family; Lancret, Fancy ball, Lady in a carriage drawn by dogs; J. P.Laurens, Popes Formosus and Stephen VII.; Le Blant, Death of General d'Elbe'e; Lehoux, St. Martin; Lenepveu, Virgin at the foot of the Cross; Le Poiltevin, Sea-piece; Moreau de Tour, Entranced girl in the middle ages; Nattier, Camargo, the dancer; Oudry, Rustic scene, Wolf hunt; Pater, Pleasure-party; Raffaelli, Rag-picker lighting his pipe; Rimond, Bridge of Crevola, on the Simplon; Rigaud, Portrait; Liop. Robert, The hermit of Mte. Epomeo, Girls bathing, The little fishers; E.Roger, The body of Charles the Bold discovered after the battle of Nancy ; Roll, After the ball; Phil. Rousseau, The search for perfection; Th. Rovsseau, Land- scape; Sautai, St. Bonaventura; A. Srheffer, The charitable child; Schnetz, Funeral of a martyr in the Soman catacombs; Sigalon, Athalia putting to death the princes of the house of Davirt ; Stella, Assumption ; Steuben, Es- meralda (Victor Hugo), Odalisque Girl reading; Subleyras, The hermit (Lafontaine); Toulmouche (of Nantes), The reading lesson; Valentin (de Boullovgne), The pilgrims to Emmaus; H. Vemet, Abraham ejectirg Hagar and Ishmael, 'The dead ride fast'; Vollon, Kitchen; Wagrez, Perseus; Watteau, Harlequin, Pantaloon, Pierrot and Colombine; Ziegler, Daniel in the den of lions.

Sodlptoees. Aizelin, Child with an hour-glass; Debay, Mercury and Argus; Dieudonni, Christ in Gethsemane; Ducommun du Chocle (of Nantes), Cleopatra; Etex, Hero; Jacquemart, Arab on a camel; Le Bourg (of Nantes), i^ild with a grasshopper, Priestess of Eleusis, etc.

The Jardin des Plantes (PL G, 3, 4) is partly laid out as a pub- lic promenade, with an elaborate arrangement of lakes, waterfalls, rocks, grottoes, and other artificial adornments. It also contains fine groves and avenues of magnolias. There is another entrance in the Boulevard Sevastopol, near the Gare d'Orleans. A band plays in the garden on Sundays.

We may walk along the Quai de la Fosse, which skirts the har- bour, turning aside, however, to visit the domed church of Notre- Dame-de-Bon-Port (Pl.B, C,3), built between 1846 and 1858, and richly decorated with sculptures and paintings. Among the latter

252 Route 33. PORNIO.

may be mentioned a Last Supper by Picou, an Annunciation by Chalot, a Descent from the Cross after Jouvenet, and an Assumption after Murillo.

The Rue de l'Hermitage, to the right of the Quai d'Aiguillon (PI. A, 4), leads to an avenue by which we may ascend to Ste. Anne (beyond PI. A, 3), a modern church in the style of the 15th century. A staircase, at the top of which is a colossal cast-iron statue of St. Anne, by Menard, also leads from the quai to the avenue. A fine view is obtained from the top. The church is a pilgrimage-resort.

From Nantes to Brest, see R. 34; to Bordeaux, see Baedekers South- western France.

Feom Nantes to Chateaubriant (Vitri; Rennes), 39 M., railway in l3/4 hr. (fares 6 fr. 85, 4 fr. 30 c, 3 fr.). Starting from the Gare d'Orleans, this line runs through the beautiful valley of the Erdre, passing (16 M.) Nort, where the river becomes navigable. 38 M. Chateaubriant, see p. 234.

From Nantes to Paimbceuf, 36'/2 M., railway (Chemin de Fer de l'Etat) in 23/4-3 hrs. (fares 4 fr. 65, 3 fr. 50, 2 fr. 55 c.). The trains are formed at the Gare d'Orleans (see p. 245). We cross one or more arms of the Loire, according to the station we start from. — • 9 M. Bouaye. To the left, in the centre of an expanse of meadow-land which it overflows in winter, lies the shallow Lac de Grand Lieu, 51/2 M. long and 3'/2 M. broad. At (I6V2 M.) Ste. Pazanne we diverge from the railway to Bordeaux. 19 M. S(. Hilaire-de-Chalions, the junction of the line to Pornic (see below); 31 M. St. Pere-en-Retz , with 3010 inhabitants. We obtain a fine view of the mouth of the Loire and of St. Nazaire (p. 253) before reaching (35 M.) St. Viand. — 36V2 M. Paimboeuf (Hdtel Tremblet), a decayed town with 2180 inhab., situated on the left bank of the Loire, long played an important part as the port of Nantes but has been supplanted by St. Na- zaire, owing to the accumulation of sand in the roadstead We may also reach Paimboeuf by the Ligne de St. Nazaire, taking the boat from Donges (see below), or by the Steamer from Nantes or St. Nazaire.

From Nantes to Pornic, 35 M., railway (Chemin de Fer de l'Etat, as above) in iVs-2"/* hrs. (fares 5 fr. 80, 4 fr. 30, 2 fr. 80 c). From Nantes to (19 M.) St. Hilaire-de-Chalions, see above. — 26 M. Bourgneuf. The small port of this name lies I1/4 M. to the W. of the station, on a hay, which, though dangerous, is frequented by fishing-boats. It is bordered by salt-marshes. An omnibus runs hence to (26 M.) Noirmoutier (see Baedeker's South - Western France). — 30 M. La Bernerie is a small seaport and bathing- resort; 33'/2 M. Le Clion. — 35'/2 M. Pornic (Hdtel de France; da Mole, R., L., & A. 2-3 fr.; de la Plage), a small seaport, which ranks with Le Croisic and Pornichet (see p. 253) among the most frequented sea-bathing resorts in this district. It is built on the slope of a hill, the top of which commands a fine view, and possesses a Ch&teau of the 13-14th cent., a Chalybeate Spring, and many pleasant villas. In the neigh- bourhood are several small sheltered coves, with fine sandy beaches. Porirrc is the scene of Browning's 'Fifine at the Fair'. About 61/2 M. to the W. is Prifailles (Hotel Ste. Marie), to which an omnibus in connection with the trains runs in 1 hr., a favourite seaside-resort for the people of Nantes. The beach is pebbly and the sea-water very strong. In the neighbourhood is Quirouard, with a chalybeate spring. About 2 M. farther to the W., at the mouth of the Loire, we reach the Pointe de St. Gildas, opposite the Pointe du Croisic (see p. 253).

From Nantes to St. Nazaire and Le Croisic. To St. Nazaire, 40 M., railway in 1 1/2-21/4 hrs. (fares 7 fr. 30, 4 fr. 90, 3 fr. 15 c); to Le Croisic, 55 M., in 21/3-31/4 hrs. (fares 10 fr. 20, 6 fr. 80, 4 fr. 45 c). — From Nantes to (24 M.) Savenay, see R. 34. The railway to St. Nazaire turns to the left and approaches the Loire. Opposite, on the left bank, is seen Paim- boeuf (see above). — 31 JL- Donges. Ferry to Paimbceuf, six times daily. — 86 M. Montoir, the junction for the direct line to Paris via Segre' and

ST. NAZAIRE. 33. Route. 253

Chateaubriant (p. 234). — 40 M. St. Nazaire (Buffet; Grand- ffdtel ; de Bre- tagne; des Mtseageriet ; British vice-consul), a flourishing town with 30,873 inhab., situated at the mouth of the Loire, is the port of Nantes and has gained in importance what Nantes has lost. Its harbour is of recent crea- tion, consisting mainly of two basins, together measuring 80 acres in extent, the excavation of which was begun in 1845. These are surrounded by 2'/2 M. of quays. From St. Nazaire, on the 9th and 2ist of every month, the vessels of the Compagnie Transatlantique start for South America. Steamers also ply thrice a week between St. Nazaire and New- haven. The Young Pretender set sail from St. Nazaire in 1745 in a frigate provided by Mr. Walsh of Nantes. — Steamboat to Nantes, see p. 245.

46'/2 M. Fornichet (Mdtel Casino; des Bains) has an excellent beach for bathing and is one of the most frequented seaside-resorts in Brittany. It is, however, very dusty and lacks shade. — 49 M. Escoublac-la-Banle is the junction of the branch-line to (4 M.) Guerande (see below). La Baule, or La Bdle (Hotel St. Aubin), is also a sea-bathing place and has a pine forest. We now traverse vast salt-marshes. — Hi1/? M. Le Pouliguen (Hotels), a small fishing-village, is also visited for sea-bathing. — 53:/2 M. Batz, or Bourg-de-Batz (pronounced 'Ba' ; Hotel Lehuede), with sea-baths, is famous for the quaint costumes and singular customs of its inhabitants, who are possibly of Saxon stock. Nearly all are 'Paludiers1, or workers in the salt-marshes. — 55 M. Le Croisic (Guillori, pens. 672-7 fr. ; des Etrangers or d'Anjou, pens. 7 fr. ; two bath-establishments), a decayed little town and fishing- port with 2428 inhab., situated on a small bay near the ex- tremity of a peninsula, is visited in summer as a seaside-resort. It has, however, comparatively few attractions. The church dates from the 15- 16th centuries. There are two hospitals for scrofulous children, one of which (the ifaison de St. Jean-de-Dieu) includes a bath-establishment open to the public.

Guerande ("HStel Vincent) is a town with 7050 inhab., still surrounded by Walls of the 15th cent., and containing an interesting church of the 12-16th centuries. The Porte St. Michel is a picturesque old gateway flanked by two machicolated towers with pointed caps.

34. From Nantes to Brest.

221Va M. Railway in IOV2-I2V2 hrs. (fares 40 fr. 30, 27 fr. 25, 17 fr. 80 c). Passengers may start from the Gare d'Orleans or the Gare de la Bourse (see p. 245).

I. Prom Nantes to Vannes and Auray.

To Vannes, 831/2 M., Railway in 3'/2-43/4 hrs. (fares 15 fr. 35, 10 fr. 40, 6 fr. 70 c). From Vannes to (12 M.) Auray in i/a nr. (fares 2 fr. 25, 1 fr. 80 c, 1 fr.). — For Plonharnel, Carnac, etc., see p. 256.

Nantes, see p. 245. The train crosses the town and skirts the Loire. — 3/4 M. La Bourse. Fine view of the harbour to the left. 2'/2 M. Chantenay-sur-Loire , connected with Nantes by tramway (p. 245). The railway continues to skirt the river.

6 M. Basse-Indre is the station also for Indret , with its ex- tensive marine -engine works, on an island to the left. 9*/2 M. Coueron, with large glass-works and an establishment working in argentiferous lead; 14 M. St. Etienne-de-Montluc. — 24 M. Save- nay (Buffet ; Hot. de Bretagne), junction for St. Nazaire, see p. 252. In 1793 the Vendeans were defeated here by Kleber and Marceau. — 33 M. Pont-Chdteau, the junction of another line to St. Nazaire (see p. 234). Beyond (42 M.) Severac the railway crosses and then skirts

254 Route 3d. VANNES. From Nantes

the canal from Brest to Nantes. Lines to Rennes (p. 208) and Sable (p. 234) diverge to the right. The Vilaine is crossed.

50'/2 M. Redon (Buffet; Hotel de France ; de la Poste), a town with 7000 inhab., is situated on the Vilaine and on the canal be- tween Brest and Nantes. The interesting old Church of St. Sauveur (12-14th cent.), near the railway, to the left, has a central tower of the 12th, and a detached W. tower of the 14th century.

The canal and the Oust, a tributary of the Vilaine, are crossed. From (61 M.) Malansac a diligence (50 c.) plies to (3 M.) the interest- ing old town of Roche fort-en- Terre (Lecadre), near the Valley of the Arz and the Landes des Lanvaux, both frequented by artists. — 68 M. Questembert (Hot. du Commerce).

A branch - railway runs hence to (20'/2 M.) Ploermel, joining there another line from La Brohiniere (p. 213). The country traversed is bleak and uninteresting ('landes'), but abounds in rude monolithic monuments. — Ploermel (Hdlel de France), a town with 6000 inhab., still retains part of its old walls of the 15th century. The Church of St. Armel, rebuilt in the 16th cent., is embellished with a very fine lateral portal and good stained glass of the 16th cent. ; it contains an altar-piece dating from the 17th cent., and a curious old tomb (14th cent.), decorated with statues.

A road (omn. l>/2 fr.) leads to the E. from Ploermel to Olh M.) Josse- lin. About halfway, to the left of the road, rises a modern pyramid, commemorating the famous Combat of Thirty, fought between 30 Bretons and 30 English knights in 1351. After a most sanguinary contest the former, commanded by Jean de Beaumanoir, vanquished the latter, who were led by Bembro (Pembroke?). The story rests on the authority of comparatively modern Breton poets , though the names of the conquer- ors are inscribed on the obelisk. It is said that as the English were not numerous enough to provide more than 20 champions , 4 Flemings and 6 Bretons fought on their side. — Josselin (De France; Croix d'Or), a small town on the Oust, is commanded by the fine Castle of the 14-15th cent., in which the famous Conne'table de Clisson died in 1407. It belongs to the Rohan family, whose motto 'a plus' may be deciphered in various places in the stone tracery of the exterior parapets. The Church of Notre-Dame (15th cent.) contains the cenotaph of the Constable, with white marble statues of himself and his wife, surrounded by statuettes of monks. The ancient mural paintings should also be observed. An annual pilgrimage is made to this spot on the Tuesday in Whitsun-Week.

77 M. Elven. The village of that name lies 3[/2 M. to the N. (omn. 50 c). About 1 M. to the S.W. is the ruined castle of Largouet (13-15th cent.), with two towers (65 ft. and 130 ft. high).

Henry of Richmond (afterwards Henry VII.) and his uncle, the Earl of Pembroke, wrecked on the coast on their flight after the battle of Tewkesbury in 1471, were imprisoned here by the Duke of Brittany. Henry remained here nearly fifteen years, before he effected his escape to France.

83>/2 M. Vannes (Hotel du Dauphin, R. Vfe-frfo fr.; de France, R., I,., & A.2V4-31/4 fr. ; du Commerce), with 21,200~inhab., the cap- ital of the Departement du Morbihan, is situated on the Conteau, about 3 M. from the Gulf of Morbihan (p. 255). It has a small har- bour. Vannes was the chief town of the Veneti (p. 257), the mostim- placable foes of the Romans in Armorica, and formerly played a con- spicuous part in the history of Brittany. Now, however, it has sunk into insignificance. Several of the houses in the old town, which lies about ^2 M. from the station, are very quaint and picturesque.

to Brest. MORBIHAN. 34. Route. 255

Turning to the right at the station and farther on following the Avenue Victor-Hugo (to the left) and the Rue du Mene (to the right), we reach the Grande Place, in which are the Hdtel de Ville (1884; small Musee) and the College Jules Simon (rebuilt in 1886), with a chapel of the 17th century.

The Cathedral, which we reach by a street opposite the Hotel de Ville, built originally in the 13th cent, and largely added to in the 15-18th cent., has a large W. portal (rebuilt in 1875) flanked by towers of unequal height. The apsidal chapel is dedicated to the Spanish Dominican, St. Vincent Ferrier, born at Valentia in 1357, who died atVannesin 1419. His tomb is in the N. transept. Several bishops are also buried in the church.

The Porte St. Patern, a little behind the cathedral, is named after the neighbouring church. To the left, as we return, is the large modern Prefecture, from a street before which we have a good view of the City Walls of the 14-17th cent., the principal relic being the Tour du Connetable (14th cent.), so namedbecause the Conne'table de Clisson was confined here in 1387 by the Duke of Brittany, just as the former was on the point of making a descent upon England on behalf of Charles VI. of France. On the opposite side, behind the park of the Prefecture, is the Promenade de la Oarenne.

The first bridge to the right leads to the Place des Lices, No. 8 in which contains the Archaeological Museum (50c; Sun., 2-4, free) and a Museum of Natural History (50 c. ; Thurs., 2-4, free).

The Rue St. Vincent leads thence to the Harbour, which is access- ible to ships of 150 tons burden. To the right is the Promenade de la Rabine, with a monument to Le Sage, author of 'Gil Bias' (see below). The Rue du Port, with a quaint old house, and the Rue Thiers skirt the other side of the old town. The Corn Market, the Palais de Justice, and the Post Office stand in a large square to the left. The Rue Thiers ends at the Place de 1 H6tel-de- Ville.

The Morbihan ('Little Sea'), to the S. of Valines, is a bay or gulf, 6 M. long and 11 M. broad, almost landlocked by the Peninsulas of tthuisfE.) and Locmariaquer (W. ; p. 25:0, between the extremities of which is a chan- nel only i/jlj. wide. The gulf has a flat and very irregular coast-line, and is studded with numerous fertile islets. — Steamers ply in summer from the harbour of Vannes (see above) to (2 hrs.) Port Navalo (Hot. des Voyageurs, rustic), a small fishing-village near the extremity of the Pen- insula of Rhuis (a pleasant excursion). The steamers (fare 1 fr., return l'/s fr.) start at hours varying with the tide, pass the lie de Conleau, and touch at 1he lie (VArz, the He avx Moines, and (when the tide permits; enquire beforehand) Locmariaquer (p. 258). The lie de GavrHnis (p. 258) is visited from Locmariaquer. — Rear Port Navalo are the large village of Arzon and the large tumulus known as the Butte de Turniac. To St. Gildas and Sarzeau, see below. The Pointe de KerpenMr, on the coast opposite Port Navalo (boat across the channel, l'/s fr., not easily obtained) is within ilfc M. of Locmariaquer.

From Vannes to Sakzeao (Peninsula of Rhvis), 15 M., diligence (IV2 & 2 fr.) daily, skirting the E. shore of the Morbihan via (6 M.) Noyalo. — Sarzeau {Hdtel Le Sage; 5100 inhab.), near the centre of the peninsula, is the birthplace of Le Sage (1668-1747), author of 'Gil Bias'. About 2 M. to the S.E. is the Chdteau de Sucinio , the summer-residence of the dukes of

256 Route 34. AURAY. From Nantes

Brittany, founded in the 13th cent., but partly rebuilt in the 15th. On the coast, 3'/2 M. to the S.W. of Sarzeau, is St. Gildas-de-Rhuis (Hot. Gicquel), with an old abbey-church and a convent, of which Abelard waa abbot for some time. Port Navalo (p. 255) lies 6 M. to the W. (7 M. from Sarzeau).

937-2 M. Ste.Anne. About l3/4 M. to the N. is Ste. Anne-d'Auray (omn. 50 c. ; Hotel de France ; Lion d'Or), one of the most frequented pilgrim-resorts in Brittany, where numerous interesting and dis- tinctive costumes may be seen, especially in Whitsun-Week and on July 26th (St. Anne's Day). A new church has been built here in the Renaissance style, with a tower surmounted by a figure of the saint. At the end of the village, on the Auray road, is a Monument to the Comte de Chambord (1820-83), representing the deceased in royal costume, kneeling on a pedestal surrounded with statues of Duguesclin, Bayard, Ste. Genevieve, and Joan of Arc.

95 M. Auray (Buffet; Hotel du Pavilion; de la Poste), a town of 6466 inhab., with a small harbour on the Loch, lies about l!/4 M. to the S.E. of the station. It has few attractions for the tourist, beyond being excellent headquarters for excursions (see below). It is also one of the leading centres of the oyster-culture of France. The battle of Auray, fought in 1364 between Charles of Blois and John of Montfort, resulted in the defeat and death of the former.

A little to tbe N.W. of the station is the Chartreuse d'Auray, now an institution for deaf-mutes. Adjoining the church is a Sepulchral Chapel, erected in 1823-29 in memory of 952 'Emigres' captured at Quiberon in 1795 (see below) and put to death in this neighbourhood on the spot now marked by a Chapelle Expiatoire. The former chapel (visitors admitted) contains a statue of Religion, several busts of the leaders of the expedition, bas-reliefs, etc. — The road passing the Chartreuse and the expiatory chapel forms a picturesque walk to (3 M.) Ste. Anne-d'Auray (see above).

Continuation of the railway to Brest, see p. 258. — Railway to St. Brieuc via Pontivy, see p. 215.

Excursion from Auray to Quiberon, Plouharnel, Carnac,


Railway to Quiberon, 17'/2 M., in 3/4-1 br. (fares 3 fr. 15, 2 fr. 10, 1 fr. 40 c.); to Plouharnel, by the same line, 8l/2 M.; thence Omnibus (50 c.) to (2'/2 M.) Carnac. From Carnac a carriage (about 8 fr.) may be hired to Locmariaquer, T/i M. farther lo the W. — A Diligence (l>/« fr.) plies twice a day from Auray in IV2 hr. to (8V2 M.) Locmariaquer, which may also be reached direct from Auray by Sailing Boat in about 2 hrs. (10 M. ; 18-20 fr.). — Carriage from Plouharnel or Carnac to (1 hr.) Auray, 8 fr.

4y2 M. Ploemel. — Before reaching (8'/>2 M.) Plouharnel- Carnac we see the Menhirs of Vieux- Moulin to the right. The village of Plouharnel lies about i/i M. to the left of the railway (see p. 257). — The line now runs along the Peninsula of Quiberon, 6 M. long, the narrowest part of which is defended by Fort Penthitvre. At (14 M.) St. Pierre are several .groups of menhirs and dolmens.

1772 M. Quiberon (Hotel de France; Penthitvre), a town with 3060 inhab. and a small sea-bathing establishment, is situated near the extremity of the peninsula. About 6000 French 'Emigre's' were landed here in 179oTinder the protection of the guns of the British

to Brest. CARNAC. 34. Route. 257

fleet, but were met and defeated by the Republican forces under Hoche. Some 1800 escaped to the British ships; the rest died on the field or were put to death afterwards.

Good anchorage may be obtained in the Bay of Quiberon, which is memorable for the naval battle fought in 56 B.C. between the Romans under young Decimus Brutus and the Veneti (p. 254), a seafaring people , whose large and strong ships , equipped with chain-cables and leathern sails, used to visit Britain. The Veneti, however, were conquered, their 220 ships destroyed, and the people sold into slavery by Caesar, who had watched the battle from the shore. The harbour of Quiberon is at Port Maria, where there are also sardine- curing factories. Port Haliyuen lies about 3/4 M. dis- tant, on the E. coast of the peninsula.

A steamboat leaves Port Maria or Port Haliguen twice or thrice a day in summer for Belle-Ile-en-Mer (10 M., in 3/4-lhr.; fares 2'/2, 2 fr.), the largest island belonging to Brittany, 11 M. long and 272-6 M. broad. The chief town is Le Palais (Hdtel du Commerce; de France), with 493 L inhab. and a double line of fortification, one modern and one dating from the 16-17th centuries. The inhabitants are engaged in the sardine-fishery and in the preparation of potted fish. There is also a reformatory on the island. The coast is in many places picturesque, with remarkable grot- toes; the most interesting spots may be visited in about Vs day by carriage (8-12 fr.), which should be secured in advance.

Plouharnel (Hdtel des Menhirs) is surrounded, like Carnac, by Ancient Stone Monuments, most of which lie to the W. of the village, scattered on either side of the road. The principal monuments are easily found. The Dolmen de Kergavat lies to the left of the road to Carnac ; the Dolmen of Runesto and the Dolmens of Mane-Kerioned a little to the N.E., to the left and right respectively of the road to Auray. The Menhirs of Vieux-Moulin lie on the other side of the railway, on the road to Belz, and the large Dolmen of Crucuno V2 M. from the road and l3/^ M. from the station. Still farther along the road, V/t M. from the road to Crucuno, are the Lines of Erdeven, consisting of 1030 menhirs resembling those at Carnac (see below).

Carnac (Hotel des Voyageurs), l3/4 M. to the S.E. of Plouharnel, is perhaps even more celebrated for its ancient remains. The Museum here (50 c.) owes its origin to Mr. Miln (d. 1881), a Scot- tish antiquary, who made important excavations and discoveries in this neighbourhood. To the left of the road from Carnac to Loc- mariaquer rises the Mont St. Michel, a 'galgal' or tumulus, 65 ft. high and 260 ft. in diameter, consisting chiefly of blocks of stone heaped up over a dolmen. Fine view from the top, including the 'Lines'. The famous Lines of Carnac, situated about Y2 M. to the N. of the village, near the road to Auray, consist of two principal groups of 8-900 standing-stones (there are said to have been origin- ally 12-15,000), arranged on a moor in the form of a quincunx, and forming 9 or 10 avenues. All these stones have their smaller ends fixed in the ground; some of them are fully 16 ft. high, and some are estimated to weigh at least 40-50 tons. About 1 M. to the

Baedeker's Northern France. 3rd Edit. i'J

258 Route 34. L0K1ENT. From Nantes

E. of Carnac is a piece of moorland, named the Bossenno or Boceno (bocenieu = mcunds), where Mr. Miln's excavations brought to light what is believed to be a Gallo-Roman town.

Farther on, on the way to Locmariaquer (carr., see p. 256), we pass (4'/2 M.) La Trinite-sur-Mer , a small seaport, with oyster- beds. Crossing the river Crach by a ferry at ('/a M.) Kerisper, we And ourselves in the Peninsula of Locmariaquer, which bounds the Morbihan on the N.W. (see p. 255).

Locmariaquer (Hotel Marchand), a small seaport on the Mor- bihan, has in its neighbourhood perhaps the most remarkable me- galithic monuments in France. The chief of these are the Mane- Lud, a dolmen of unusual size, the interior of which should be in- spected; the Mtn-er-Hroeck, a menhir originally nearly 70 ft. high, now overthrown and broken ; and the two dolmens known as the Dol-ar-Marc'hadouiren and the Mane-Rutual. All these are passed on the way from Carnac to Locmariaquer. Beyond the village is the Mane-er-Hroeck, a tumulus with a cavern (key at the Mairie; candle necessary), etc. Various Roman antiquities have also been discovered at Locmariaquer.

The lie de Gavr'inis ('isle of goals'), 2>/2 M. from Locmariaquer, may lie visited hence by boat (1 pers. 5-6 fr. ; two pers. 7 fr. ; bargaining neces- sary). It contains a chambered Tumulus, with sculptures.

Omnibus to Auray, see p. 256; steamboat to Vannes and Port Navalo, see p. 255.

II. From Auray to Lorient and Quimper.

To Lorient, 21'/2 M. , Railway in 45-50 min. (fares 4 fr. 6, 2 fr. 70, 1 fr. 75 c). — From Lorient to Quimper, 40'/2 M., in IV2-IV* nr- (fares 7 fr. 40 c, 5 fr., 3 fr. 25 c).

Auray, p. 256. — To the right appears the Chartreuse (p. 256). — 103'/2 M. (from Nantes) Landevnnt. The railway crosses the Blavet by a viaduct 80 ft. high.

112 M. Heunebont (Hotel du Commerce; de France), a small seaport with 8074 inhab., is finely situated on the Blavet, the banks of which afford a pleasant promenade. The Gothic church of Notre- Dame-de-Paradis, said to have been built by the English, dates from the 16th century. The relics of the old fortifications include a Gothic Gateway, by which we enter the old quarter known as the Ville-Close, where a few quaint old timber-front houses of the 16-17th cent, still linger. Hennebont is noted for its spirited de- fence by Jeanne de Montfort in 1342-45, described by Froissart. — Lorient and its harbour appear on the left. The Scorff is crossed.

117 M. Lorient. — Hotels. Grand Hotel de France, Place d'Alsace- Lorraine, mediocre, de'j. 21,,2 fr. ; de Bretagne, Rue Victor-Masse 10; DU Cygne, Rue Sully, R., h., & A. 2-3, B. 3/4, dej. 2>/2, D. 3 fr., incl. wine; de l'Edrofe, Rue Victor-Masse 16. — Cafes. Grand, de France, Continental, Place d'Alsace-Lorraine; others in the Rue de la Comedie. — Restaurants. Normand, Rue Paul-Bert; Buffet, at the station.

TJ. S. Consular Agent, Mont. Leon Deprez.

Lorient, a fortified military and commercial port, with 41,900 inhab., is situated on the Scorff, near its junction with the Blavet.

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It was founded, under the name of V 'Orient, in the 17th cent, by the powerful Compagnie des Indes Orientales, who established their ship-building yards here. When the company collapsed after the capture of Bengal by the British in 1753, the dockyards and works were purchased by the state.

The town is well built but uninteresting. The Rue Victor-Masse', diverging to the right from the prolongation of the Cours Chazelle, leads to the Place d' Alsace-Lorraine, the principal square. The Rue des Fontaines, quitting the latter at its left angle, conducts us to two smaller squares, in one of which is the Church of St. Louis (18th cent.) and in the other a bronze Statue ofBisson, a young naval lieu- tenant who blew up his ship in 1827 to prevent it falling into the hands of Greek pirates. To the left of St. Louis is a small Municipal Museum (open on Sun. and Thurs., 12 to 4 or 5 ; strangers admitted on other days also). The Cours de la Bove, to the right of the church, leads to the commercial harbour (see below) ; in this promenade is a *Statue of Victor Masse (1822-84), the composer. The Rue du Port leads from this statue to the dockyard.

To visit the Dockyard, with the exception of the part near the Place d'Armes, which is always open, foreigners require a special permit from the Ministry of Marine. At the entrance is a Signal Tower, 125 ft. in height. The arsenal is interesting, though not so important as that of Brest. There are also workshops at Caudan, on the left bank of the Scorff, which is crossed by a floating bridge.

The Commercial Harbour lies at the S. end of the dockyard, between the town proper and a new suburb. It includes a dry dock and a floating-dock. The trade is chiefly connected with the re- quirements of the dockyard.

The Roadstead, beyond the two harbours, is formed by a deep and safe hay, 372 M. long, with a fortified island in the middle.

The first side-street to the left beyond the commercial harbour brings us to a small square with a Statue ofBrizeux (1806-58), the poet.

About ll/i M. from the farther end of the roadstead, on the other hank, is the small fortified town of Port-Louis, also of recent origin. It is fre- quented as a bathing-resort by the inhabitants of the neighbourhood. Steamboats ply hither from Lorient every '/2 hr. (15-20 min. ; fare 25, 20 c). — On the opposite bank is Larmor, 3'/2 M. from Lorient, a pleasure-resort, also visited by pilgrims. — The island of Groix (Hot. Etesse), S'/j M. from Port Louis, about 4l/2 M. long and 13/4 M. broad, is surrounded with cliffs pierced with caverns, and contains some megalithic monuments. Steam- boat from Lorient daily (fare 1 fr. 60, 1 fr. 20 c; return 2 fr. 50 c, 2 fr.).

122M. Oestel. Near Quimperle the railway crosses the La'ita by a viaduct 108 ft. high.

130 M. Quimperle (*Lion d'Or, de France, both moderate), a town with 8300 inhab., is charmingly situated at the confluence of the two rivers which form the La'ita (Kemper signifying confluence in the Breton tongue). The more conspicuous church is that of St. Michel, dating from the 14-15th centuries. The other, Ste. Croix, erected


260 Route 34. QUIMPER. From Nantes

on the model of the church of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem, and rebuilt since 1862, contains an old rood-screen (16th cent.).

A diligence plies twice daily from Quimperle to (10'/2 M.) Pont-Aven C'Hdt. Villa Julia ; Gloanec, plain), a picturesque village to the S.W., much frequented by artists. On the right bank of the beautiful Aven, with its numerous mills, is the Chateau du Hinan (15-16th cent.), 2>/zM. from Pont- Aven. A 'courrier' plies from Pont-Aven to Concarneau (see below). — Another diligence plies twice daily from Pont-Aven, via the pretty Foret de Carno'U and the Abbey of St. Maurice (13th and 17th cent.) to (8 M.) Le Fouldu (Hdt. Goulven), a small bathing-place on the right hank of the Laita.

Excursions may be made from Quimperle to (11 M.) St. Fiacre, with a chapel of the 15th cent., containing a beautiful "Rood-loft of 1440, and to (13 M.) le Faouet (Croix d'Or; Lion d'Or), a characteristic Breton town with 3142 inhab. , near which is the fine 15th cent. Chapelle Ste. Barbe, curiously perched on a rock, 300 ft. above the Elle. A diligence plies daily from Quimperle f o (23 M.) Gourin (p. 215) via (2*/2 hrs. ; fare 2 fr.) Le Faouet ; carr. and pair from Quimperle' 16 fr. — About l3/4 M. to the N.E. of Quimperle is the Chapelle de Rotgrand, with a Renaissance rood-loft.

138 M. Bannalec is within 7 M. of Pont-Aven (see above). — 147 M. Bosporden (*H6tel Continental). Branch to Carhaix, see p. 215.

A branch-railway runs from Rosporden to (10 M.) Concarneau ('Edtel des Voyageurs ; Grand HCtel; de France), a town with 6500 inhab. and a good harbour, picturesquely situated on the E. side of the Bay of La Forest or Fouesnant. The ancient quarter of the town, the Ville-Close, lies upon an islet surrounded by Ramparts, dating in part from the 15th century. The leading industries are the sardine-fishery and the preserving and packing of sardines. At the mouth of the harbour is an Aquarium, communicating directly with the sea, where large quantities of lobsters are reared. — Concarneau is supposed to be the 'Plouvenec' of Miss Howard's charming and pathetic story of 'Guenn\ 'Kevin', where Guenn danced at the Pardon, is probably Pont-Aven, and Les QUnans may be identified with the 'Lannions'. — At Beuzec-Conq (4000 inhab.), IV4 M. to the S.E. of Concarneau, is the handsome modern Chateau de Keryolet or Kiolet, bequeathed with its rich furniture to the department as a kind of Musee, by the Russian Princess Chauveau-Narischkine (d. 1893). — Steamer 4 times daily from Concarneau to O/2 hr.) Beg-Meil (Hotel), a bathing-place on the opposite side of the bay.

158 M. Quimper {Hotel de VEpee ; du Pare, R., L., & A. 2lfrb, B. 3/4-l, dej. 21/2) D. 3 fr. ; both in the Rue du Pare; de France, Rue de la Prefecture, R. 2-5, B. 1, de'j. 2'/2, D. 3 fr.; Buffet, at the station), 'a pleasant river-side city of fables and gables1, the capital of the Departement du Finistere and the seat of a bishop, occupies a fine situation at the confluence of the Steir and the Odet. Pop. 18,557.

The *Cathbdeal op St. Ookentin, near the quay on the right bank, is one of the finest Gothic edifices in Brittany. Though its construction extended over two centuries (13-15th), it is marked by great unity of plan. The Portals are richly sculptured but have suffered from the hand of time. The spires on the towers are modern.

The Choir is the finest part of the interior, although its axis is not parallel with that of the nave. Other features of interest are the stained glass (both ancient and modern), the mural paintings (chiefly by J'an' Dargent, a modern Breton artist), the altar-pieces and statues of the 14th and 15th cent., and the tombs of the bishops. The *High Altar is a gorgeous modern work in gilded bronze, adorned with statuettes and alto-reliefs, and sur- mounted by a canopy of painted and gilded wood.

The Place St. Carentin is embellished with a Statue of Lamnec,

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the physician (1781-1826), inventor of the stethoscope, who was horn at Quimper. The Hdtel de Ville, containing the public library, is also in this square.

The Musbe, in the building to the left, is open daily, except Mon., 12 to 4.

On the groundfloor are two rooms con