Principle of sufficient reason  

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The principle of sufficient reason states that everything must have a reason or a cause. The modern formulation of the principle is usually attributed to Gottfried Leibniz, although the idea was conceived and utilized in various philosophers that preceded him, including Anaximander, Parmenides, Archimedes, Plato and Aristotle, Cicero, Avicenna, Thomas Aquinas, Anaximander of Miletus, and Spinoza. Some philosophers have associated the principle of sufficient reason with "ex nihilo nihil fit"., Hamilton identified the laws of inference modus ponens with the "law of Sufficient Reason, or of Reason and Consequent" and modus tollens with its contrapositive expression.

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