German revolutions of 1848–49  

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The German revolutions of 1848–49 (Template:Lang-de) in the German states, the opening phase of which was also called the March Revolution (Template:Lang-de), were initially part of the Revolutions of 1848 that broke out in many European countries. They were a series of loosely coordinated protests and rebellions in the states of the German Confederation, including the Austrian Empire. The revolutions, which stressed pan-Germanism, demonstrated popular discontent with the traditional, largely autocratic political structure of the thirty-nine independent states of the Confederation that inherited the German territory of the former Holy Roman Empire. They demonstrated the popular desire for the Zollverein movement.

The middle-class elements were committed to liberal principles, while the working class sought radical improvements to their working and living conditions. As the middle class and working class components of the Revolution split, the conservative aristocracy defeated it. Liberals were forced into exile to escape political persecution, where they became known as Forty-Eighters. Many immigrated to the United States, settling from Wisconsin to Texas.

In popular culture

  • The second half of Max Ophüls' 1955 film Lola Montès, lavishly depicts the famous courtesan's affair with Bavarian King Ludwig I, and his eventual downfall in the 1848 uprisings.

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