From The Art and Popular Culture Encyclopedia
Pay television, premium television, or premium channels refers to subscription-based television services, usually provided by both analog and digital cable and satellite, but also increasingly by digital terrestrial methods. Some parts of the world, notably in France and the US, have also offered encrypted analog terrestrial signals, available for subscription.
Most premium channels air unedited, commercial-free movies, as well as sporting events and original shows. Unlike those on basic cable, original series on premium channels may contain a large amount of profanity, nudity/sexual situations, violence, and other adult content since they are not subject to approval by sponsors. Most premium channels air ratings bumpers before each program, containing the film/episode rating (this does not apply to live sporting events), since the mid-1980s, additional features included in the program such as closed captioning and whether the program is broadcast in stereo and since the 1990s in the United States, content descriptors that describe what is included in the program (such as "MV" for mild violence, "SSC" for strong sexual content, etc.).
Pay television channels come in different price ranges. Many channels carrying advertising combine this income with a lower subscription fee. These are called "mini-pay" channels and are often sold as a part of a package with numerous similarly priced channels. Sometimes, the channels are also sold "à la carte", allowing consumers to select which channels they subscribe to. Usually however the regular pricing for premium channels ranges from just under $10 to near $15 per month per suite, with lower prices available via bundling options with cable or satellite providers, or special limited offers which are available during free preview periods or before the launch of a network's prestige series. However some other channels, such as sports and adult networks may ask for monthly pricing that may go as high as near $50 a month.
There are also premium television services which have a significantly higher price than the mini-pay channels, but they compensate for their higher price by carrying little or no advertising and also providing a higher quality output.
As advertising sales are sensitive to the business cycle, some broadcasters try to balance them with more stable income from subscriptions.
Some providers offer channels owned by the same company in a single package. For example, American satellite provider DirecTV offers the Encore channels along with the Starz! channels in its "Starz Super Pack"; and The Movie Channel, Flix and The Sundance Channel along with Showtime in its "Showtime Unlimited" package. HBO in turn almost always packages Cinemax and its sister networks with HBO.
Unlike other cable networks, premium services are almost always subscribed to a la carte, meaning that one can, for example, subscribe to HBO without subscribing to Showtime (In Canada, there are slight modifications, as most providers include U.S. superstations with their main premium package by default). However, subscribing to an "individual" service automatically includes access to all of that service's available multiplex channels and, in some cases, access to content via video-on-demand. Also in Canada, HBO Canada is included in two separate packages: The Movie Network package, as well as the Movie Central package (as the two services are split to serve Western Canada and Eastern Canada, respectively).
There have also been some subscription services on analogue terrestrial television; but free-to-air television has always dominated, and scrambled services have been. Canal+ has operated a national pay channel in the French terrestrial network since 1984 and will do so until the closedown of analogue television. Spanish Canal+ did also broadcast nationally between 1990-2005. Some US stations launched services such SuperTV, Wometco, Prism, Preview, SelecTV and ON-TV in the late '70s, but those services disappeared as they couldn't handle the competition from cable television.
In some countries, the launch of digital terrestrial television has meant that pay television has become increasingly popular in countries with regular antennas.
The major distributors of pay television in Australia are Foxtel, Optus Television, Austar, SelecTV and TransACT, all of which provide cable services in some metropolitan areas, and satellite for all areas of the nation where cable is not available.
Most pay TV services now offer multiplex packages, in which the service offers several channels of programming rather than just one.
Pay-per-view (PPV) services are similar to subscription-based pay TV services in that customers must pay to have the broadcast decrypted for viewing, but usually only entail a one-time payment for a single or time-limited viewing. Programs offered via pay-per-view are most often movies or sporting events, but may also include other events, such as concerts.
"Free" variants are free-to-air (FTA) and free-to-view (FTV); however FTV services are normally encrypted and decryption cards either come as part of an initial subscription to a pay TV bouquet or can be purchased for a one-time cost.
Selective access of free content
- FTA and FTV systems may still have selective access. ABC Asia-Pacific is one example. This channel's content is free-to-air but NRL games are encrypted.
Partial list of premium services
- Template:Flagicon Australia - Movie Network, showtime movie channels
- Template:Flagicon Belgium - Telenet Digital TV, Belgacom TV, Numericable Digital TV, VOO, Scarlet Digital TV, TV Vlaanderen, TéléSAT
- Template:Flagicon Brazil - Telecine, HBO, Max
- Template:Flagicon Canada - Super Channel, The Movie Network, Movie Central, Super Écran, HBO Canada
- Template:Flagicon Czech Republic - UPC Czech Republic, Digi-TV, CS Link
- Template:Flagicon France - Canal+, Numericable Digital TV
- Template:Flagicon Germany - Sky Deutschland, Arena
- Template:Flagicon Greece - Nova Cinema, Nova Sports, Disney Channel, Disney XD, MAD Greekz
- Template:Flagicon Italy - Sky Italia, Mediaset Premium
- Template:Flagicon Japan - NHK World Premium
- Template:Flagicon Mexico - Cinecanal
- Template:Flagicon New Zealand - Sky Network Television
- Template:Flagicon Russian Federation - NTV Plus
- Template:Flagicon Poland - Cyfra+, Cyfrowy Polsat and n
- Template:Flagicon Portugal - TVCine, SportTV, Disney Cinemagic, TV Globo Portugal, Caça e Pesca, Playboy TV, Festa Brava and Hot
- Template:Flagicon Slovakia - UPC, Digi-TV, SkyLink
- Template:Flagicon South Africa - M-Net, DStv, TopTV
- Template:Flagicon Sweden - Canal+, Viasat Sport, TV1000
- Template:Flagicon Turkey - Digiturk, D-Smart, Teledünya
- Template:Flagicon United Kingdom - Sky Sports, Sky Movies, Disney Cinemagic and ESPN
- Template:Flagicon United States - HBO, Cinemax, Showtime, The Movie Channel, Flix, Sundance Channel, Starz, Encore, MoviePlex, Playboy TV, Hustler TV, Baby First TV, Epix, Fox Soccer Plus, NFL RedZone
- Out-of-market sports package
- Pay television content descriptors
- Pirate decryption
- Premium segment