History of Caricature and Grotesque in Literature and Art  

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History of Caricature and Grotesque in Literature and Art by Thomas Wright, 1865
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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.
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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.

History of Caricature and Grotesque in Literature and Art (1865) is a work on caricature and grotesque in art and literature by Thomas Wright with engravings by Frederick William Fairholt.

Contents

TOC

Preface to the New Edition ...v

Introduction: The Meaning of the Grotesque - Frances K. Barash ... vi

Errata ... lix Preface ... lxiii Contents ... lxix

CHAPTER I ... 1 Origin of caricature and grotesque - Spirit of caricature in Egypt - Monsters: Python and Gorgon - Greece - The Dionysiac ceremonies, and origins of the drama - The old comedy - Love of parody - Parodies on subjects taken from Grecian mythology: The visit to the lover; Apollo at Delphi - The partiality of parody continued among the Romans: The flight of the Aeneas

CHAPTER II ... 23 Origin of the stage in Rome - Uses of the mask among the Romans - Scenes from the Roman comedy - The Sannio and Mimus - The Roman drama - The Roman satirists -Caricature - Animals introduced in the characters of men - The Pigmies, and their introduction into caricature; The farm-yard; The painter's studio; The procession - Political caricature in Pompeii; The graffiti

CHAPTER III ... 40 The period of transition from antiquity to the Middle Ages - The Roman Mimi continued to exist - The Teutonic after-dinner entertainments - Clerical satires: Archbishop Heriger and the dreamer; The supper of the Saints - Tansition from ancient to medieval art - Taste for monstrous animals, dragons, etc.; Church of San Fedele, at Como - Spirit of caricature and love of grotesque among the Anglo-Saxons - Grotesque figures of demons - Natural tendency of the early medieval arists to draw in caricature - Examples from early manuscripts and sculptures

CHAPTER IV ... 61 The diabolical in literature - Medieval love of the ludicrous - Causes which made it influence the notions of demons - Stories of the pious painter and the erring monk - Darkness and ugliness caricatured - The demons in the miracle plays - The demons of Notre Dame

CHAPTER V ... 75 Employment of animals in medieval satire - Popularity of fables; Odo de Cirington - Reynard the fox - Burnellus and Fauvel - The Charivari - Le monde bestorne - Encaustic tiles - Shoeing the goose, and feeding pigs with roses - Satirical signs; The mustard maker

CHAPTER VI ... 95 The monkey on burlesque and caricature - Tournaments and single combats - Monstrous combinations of animal forms - Caricatures on costume - The hat - Te helmet - Ladies' head-dresses - The gown, and its long sleeves

CHAPTER VII ... 106 Preservation of the character of the Mimus after the fall of the empire - The minstrel and the jogelour - History of popular stories -The fabliaux - Account of them - The contes devots

CHAPTER VIII ... 118 Caricatures of domestic life - State of domestic life in the middle ages - Examples of domestic ccaricature from the carving sof the misereres - Kitchen scenes - Domestic brawls - The fight for the breeches - The judicial duel between man and wife among the germans - Allusions to witchcraft - Satires on the trades: The baker, the miller, the wine-pedlar and the tavern-keeper, the ale-wife, etc.

CHAPTER IX ... 144 Grotesqe faces and figures - Prevalence of the taste for ugy and grotesque faces - Some of the popular forms derived from antiquity: The tongue lolling out, and the distorted mouth - Horrible subjects: The man and the serpents - Allegorical figures: Gluttony and luxury - Other representations of clerical gluttony and drunkenness - Grotesque figures of individuals, and grotesque groups - ornament sof the borders of books - Unintentional caricature; the mote and the beam

CHAPTER X ... 159 Satitrical literature in the middle ages - John de Hauteville and Alan de Lille - Golias and the Goliards - The Golliardic poetry - Taste for parody - Parodies on religious subjects - Political caricature in the middle ages - The Jews of Norwich - Caricature representations of countries - Local Satire - Political songs and poems

CHAPTER XI ... 188 Minstrelsy a subject of burlesque and caricature - Character of the minstrels - Their jokes upon themselves and upon one another - Various musical instruments represented in the sculptures of the medieval artists - Sir Matthew Gournay and the ring of Portugal - Discredit of the tabor and bagpipes - Mermaids

CHAPTER XII ... 200 The court fool - The Normans and their gabs - Early history of court fools - Their costume - Carvings in the Cornish churches -The burlesque societies of the middle ages - The feasts of asses, and of fools - Theor license - The leaden money of the fools - The bishop's blessing

CHAPTER XIII ... 214 The dance of death - The paintings in the church of La Chaise Dieu - The reign of folly - Sebastian Brandt; The ship of fools - Disturbers of Church service - Troublesome beggars - Geiler's sermons - Badius, and his ship of foolish women - The pleasures of smell - Erasmus; the praise of folly

CHAPTER XIV ... 228 Popular literature and its heroes; Brother Rush, Tyll Eulenspiegel, the Wise Men of Gotham - Stories and jest-books - Skelton, Scogin, Tarlton, Peele

CHAPTER XV ... 244 The age of the Reformation - Thomas Murner; his general satires - Fruitfulness of folly - Hans Sachs - The trap for fools - Attacks on Luther - The Pope as antichrist - The pope-ass and the monk-calf - Other caricatures against the Pope - The good and bad shepherds

CHAPTER XVI ... 264 Origin of medieval farce and modern comedy - Hrothsvitha - Medieval notions of Terrence - The early religious plays - Mysteries and miracle plays - The farces - The drama in the Sixteenth Century

CHAPTER XVII ... 288 Diablerie in the Sixteenth Century - Early types of the diabolical forms - St. Anthony - St. Guthlac - Revival of the taste for such subjects in the beginning od the Sixteenth Century - The Flemish school of Breughel - The French and Italian schools - Callot, Salvator Rosa

CHAPTER XVIII ... 300 Callot and his school - Callot's romantic history - His "Caprichi," and other burlesque works - The "Balli" and the beggars - Imitators of Callot; Della Bella - Examples of Della Bella - Romain de Hooghe

CHAPTER XIX ... 312 The satirical literature of the Sicteenth Century - Pasquil - Macaronic poetry - The Epistolae Obscurorum Vivorum - Rabelais - Court of the Queen of Navarre, and its literary circle; Bonaventure des Perriers - Henri Etienne - The Ligue, and its satire; The "Satire Menippe"

CHAPTER XX ... 347 Political caricature in its infancy - The Reveres du Jeu des Suyesses - Caricature in France - The Three Orders - Period of the Ligue; Caricatures against Henri III. - Caricatures against the Ligue - Caricature in France in the Seventeenth Century - Genral galas - The quarrel of ambassadors - Caricature against Louis XIV; Willima of Furstemberg

CHAPTER XXI ... 360 Early political caricature in England - The satirical writings and pictures of the Commonwealth period - Satires against the bishops; Bishop Williams - Caricatures on the Cavaliers; Sir John Suckling - The Roaring Boys; Violence of the Royalist soldiers - Contest between the Presbyterians and Independents - Grinding the King's nose - Playing-cards used as the medium for caricature; Haselrigge and Lambert - Shrovetide

CHAPTER XXII ... 375 English comedy - Ben Jonson - The other writers of his school - Interruption of dramatic performances - Comedy after the Restoration - The Howards Brothers: The Duke of Buckingham; The Rehersal - Writers of comedy in the latter part of the Seventeenth Century - Indececy of the stage - Colley Cibber - Foote

CHAPTER XXIII ... 406 Caricature in Holland - Romain de Hooghe - The English revolution - Caricatures of Louis XIV. and James II. - Dr. Sacheverell- Caricature brought from Holland to England - Origin of the word "caricature" - Mississippi and the South Sea; The Year of Bubbles

CHAPTER XXIV ... 420 English caricature in the age of George II. - English printsellers - Artists employed by them - Sir Robert Walpole's long ministry - The war with France - The Newcastle administration - Opera intrigues - Ascension of George III., and Lord Bute in power

CHAPTER XXV ... 434 Hogarth - His early history - His sets of pictures - The Harlot's Progress - The Rake's Progress - The Marriage a ala Mode - His other prints - The analysis of beauty, and the persecution arising out of it - His patronage by Lord Bute - Caricature of the times - Attacks to which he was exposed by it, and which hastened his death

CHAPTER XXVI ... 450 The lesser caricaturists of the reign of King George III. - Paul Sandby - Collet: The Disaster, and Father Paul in his Cups - James Sayer: His caricatures in support of Pitt, and his reward - Carlo Kahn's triumph - Bunbury's: His caricatures on horsemanship - Woodward: General complaint - Rowlandson's influence on the style of those whose designs he etched - John Kay of Edinburgh: Looking a Rock in the Face

CHAPTER XXVII ... 464 Gillray - His first attempts - His caricatures begin with the Shelburne ministry - Impeachment of Warren Hastings - Caricatures on the King; New Way to Pay the National Debt - Alleged reasons for Gillray's hostility to the King - The King and the Apple-Dumplings - Gillray's later labours - His idiotcy and death

CHAPTER XXVIII ... 480 Gillray's caricatures on social life - Thomas Rowlandson - His early life - He becomes a caricaturist - His style and works - His drawings - The Cruikshanks

Index to Names and Titles ... 495

Full text

http://www.archive.org/stream/historyofcaricat00wriguoft/historyofcaricat00wriguoft_djvu.txt and http://www.archive.org/stream/historyofcaricat00wrig/historyofcaricat00wrig_djvu.txt


OF


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BY THOMAS\VRIGHT, E SQo , M.A., F.S.A.,

//. M.R.S.L., &c. ;

Corrtfponding Member of the Imperial Inftitute of France (^dcademie da Infer if tions et Belles Lett res).


WITH

ILLUSTRATIONS FROM VARIOUS SOURCES,

DRAWN AND ENGRAVED BY

F. W. FAIR HOLT, Esa., F.S.A.



VIRTUE BROTHERS & CO., i, AMEN CORNER,

PATERNOSTER ROW.



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PREFACE

T HAVE felt fome difficulty in fele&ing a title for ^- the contents of the following pages, in which it was, in fact, my defign to give, as far as may be done within fuch moderate limits, and in as popular a manner as fuch information can eafily be imparted, a general view of the Hiftory of Comic Literature and Art. Yet the word comic feems to me hardly to exprefs all the parts of the fubjed: which I have fought to bring together in my book. Moreover, the field of this hiftory is very large, and, though I have only taken as my theme one part of it, it was neceffary to circum- fcribe even that, in fome degree ; and my plan, there- fore, is to follow it chiefly through thofe branches which have contributed moft towards the formation of modern comic and fatiric literature and art in our own ifland.

Thus, as the comic literature of the middle ages to a very great extent, and comic art in a confiderable degree alfo, were founded upon, or rather arofe out of, thofe of the Romans which had preceded them, it feemed defirable to give a comprehenfive hiftory of this branch of literature and art as it was cultivated among the peoples of antiquity. Literature and art in the middle ages prefented a certain unity of general character, arifing, probably, from the uniformity of the influence of the Roman element of fociety, modified only by its lower degree of intenfity at a greater diftance from the centre, and by fecondary caufes attendant upon it. To underftand the literature of any one country in Weftern Europe, efpeeially during what we may term the feudal period and the remark applies to art equally it is neceflary to make ourfelves acquainted with the whole hiftory of literature in Weftern Europe during that time. The peculiarities in dif- ferent countries naturally became more marked in the progrefs of fociety, and more ftrongly individualifed ; but it was not till towards the clofe of the feudal period that the literature of each of thefe different countries was becoming more entirely its own. At that period the plan I have formed reftri&s itfelf, according to the view ftated above. Thus, the fatirical literature of the Reformation and pictorial caricature had their cradle in Germany, and, in the earlier half of the fixteenth century, carried their influence largely into France and England ; but from that time any influence of German literature on thefe two countries ceafes. Modern fatirical literature has its models in France during the fixteenth century, and the direct influence of this literature in France upon Englifh literature continued during that and the fucceeding century, but no further. Political caricature rofe to importance in France in the fixteenth century, and was tranfplanted to Holland in the feventeenth century, and until the beginning of the eighteenth century England owed its caricature, indirectly or directly, to the French and the Dutch; but after that time a purely Englifh fchool of cari- cature was formed, which was entirely independent of Continental caricaturifts.

There are two fenfes in which the word hiftory may be taken in regard to literature and art. It has been ufually employed to fignify a chronological account of authors or artifts and their works, though this comes more properly under the title of biography and biblio- graphy. But there is another and a very different application of the word, and this is the meaning which I attach to it in the prefent volume. During the middle ages, and for fome period after (in fpecial branches), literature I mean poetry, fatire, and popular literature of all kinds belonged to fociety, and not to the individual authors, who were but workmen who gained a living by fatisfying fociety's wants ; and its changes in form or character depended all upon the varying progrefs, and therefore changing neceffities, of fociety itfelf. This is the reafon why, efpecially in the earlier periods, nearly the whole mafs of the popular I may, perhaps, be allowed to call it the focial literature of the middle ages, is anonymous; and it was only at rare intervals that fome individual rofe and made himfelf a great name by the fuperiority of his talents. A certain number of writers of fabliaux put their names to their compofitions, probably becaufe they were names of writers who had gained the reputation of telling better or racier ftories than many of their fellows. In fome branches of literature as in the fatirical literature of the fixteenth century fociety ftill exercifed this kind of influence over it; and although its great monuments owe everything to the peculiar genius of their authors, they were produced under the preflure of focial circumftances. To trace all thefe variations in literature connected with fociety, to defcribe the influences of fociety upon literature and of literature upon fociety, during the progrefs of the latter, appears to me to be the true meaning of the word hiftory, and it is in this fenfe that I take it.

This will explain why my hiftory of the different branches of popular literature and art ends at very different periods. The grotefque and fatirical fculpture, which adorned the eccleiiaftical buildings, ceafed with the middle ages. The ftory-books, as a part of this focial literature, came down to the fixteenth century, and the hiftory of the j eft-books which arofe out of them cannot be confidered to extend further than the beginning of the feventeenth ; for, to give a lift of jeft- books fince that time would be to compile a catalogue of books made by bookfellers for fale, copied from one another, and, till recently, each more contemptible than its predeceffor. The fchool of fatirical literature in France, at all events as far as it had any influence in England, lafted no longer than the earlier part of the feventeenth century. England can hardly be faid to have had a fchool of fatirical literature, with the ex- ception of its comedy, which belongs properly to the feventeenth century; and its caricature belongs efpecially to the laft century and to the earlier part of the prefent, beyond which it is not a part of my plan to carry it.

Thefe few remarks will perhaps ferve to explain what fome may conlider to be defects in my book ; and with them I venture to truft it to the indulgence of its readers. It is a fubjecl: which will have fome novelty for the Englifh reader, for I am not aware that we have any previous book devoted to it. At all events, it is not a mere compilation from other people's labours.

In conclufion, I ought, perhaps, to ftate that the chapters on the Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque in Art were firft printed in the Art-Journal during the two paft years, but they only form a portion of the prefent volume, and they have been conliderably modified and enlarged.

THOMAS WRIGHT.

Sydney Street, Brompton, Dec. 1864.

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER I.

ORIGIN OF CARICATURE AND GROTESQUE SPIRIT OF CARICATURE IN EGYPT MONSTERS: PYTHON AND GORGON GREECE THE DIO- NYSIAC CEREMONIES, AND ORIGIN OF THE DRAMA THE OLD COMEDY LOVE OF PARODY PARODIES ON SUBJECTS TAKEN FROM GRECIAN MYTHOLOGY: THE VISIT TO THE LOVER; APOLLO AT DELPHI THE PARTIALITY FOR PARODY CONTINUED AMONG THE ROMANS : THE FLIGHT OF .33NEAS


CHAPTER II.

ORIGIN OF THE STAGE IN ROME USES OF THE MASK AMONG THE ROMANS SCENES FROM ROMAN COMEDY THE SANNIO AND MIMUS THE ROMAN DRAMA THE ROMAN SATIRISTS CARICATURE ANIMALS INTRODUCED IN THE CHARACTERS OF MEN THE PIGMIES, AND THEIR INTRODUCTION INTO CARICATURE; THE FARM - YARD J THE PAINTER'S STUDIO; THE PROCESSION POLITICAL CARICATURE

IN POMPEnj THE GRAFFITI


23


CHAPTER III.

THE PERIOD OF TRANSITION FROM ANTIQUITY TO THE MIDDLE AGES THE ROMAN MTMT CONTINUED TO EXIST THE TEUTONIC AFTER- DINNER ENTERTAINMENTS CLERICAL SATIRES: ARCHBISHOP HE- RIGER AND THE DREAMER ', THE SUPPER OF THE SAINTS TRAN- SITION FROM ANCIENT TO MEDL33VAL ART TASTE FOR MONSTROUS ANIMALS, DRAGONS, ETC. ; CHURCH OF SAN FEDELE, AT COMO SPIRIT OF CARICATURE AND LOVE OF GROTESQUE AMONG THE ANGLO-SAXONS GROTESQUE FIGURES OF DEMONS NATURAL TEN- DENCY OF THE EARLY MEDL3EVAL ARTISTS TO DRAW IN CARI- CATURE EXAMPLES FROM EARLY MANUSCRIPTS AND SCULPTURES .


10


xii Contents.

CHAPTER IV.

PASK THE DIABOLICAL IN CARICATURE MEDLEVAL LOVE OF THE LUDICROUS

CAUSES WHICH MADE IT INFLUENCE THE NOTIONS OF DEMONS

STORIES OF THE PIOUS PAINTER AND THE ERRING MONK-^J1ARE>__ KEB1 jmi> TTfiTTTCESS CARICATURED THE DEMONS IN THE MIRACLE PLAYS THE DEMON OF NOTRE DAME 61

CHAPTER V.

EMPLOYMENT OF ANIMALS IN MEDIEVAL SATIRE POPULARITY OF FABLES ; ODO DE CIRINGTON REYNARD THE FOX BURNELLUS AND FAUVEL THE CHARIVARI LE MONDE BESTORNE ENCAUSTIC TILES SHOEING THE GOOSE, AND FEEDING PIGS WITH ROSES fl A TTTUf! ATi. ^IGNgJ THE MUSTARD MAKER 75

CHAPTER VI.

THE MONKEY IN BURLESQUE AND CARICATURE TOURNAMENTS AND

SINGLE COMBATS MONSTROUS COMBINATIONS OF ANIMAL FORMS

__OARICATURES ON COSTUME THE HAT THE HELMET LADIES'


HEAD-DRESSES THE GOWN. AND ITS LONG SLEEVES .... 95

CHAPTER VII.

PRESERVATION OF THE CHARACTER OF THE MTMUS AFTER THE FALL OF THE EMPIRE THE MINSTREL AND JOGELOUR HISTORY OF POPULAR STORIES THE FABLIAUX ACCOUNT OF THEM THE CONTES DEVOTS 106

CHAPTER VIII.

CARICATURES OF DOMESTIC LIFE STATE OF DOMESTIC LIFE IN THE MIDDLE AGES EXAMPLES OF DOMESTIC CARICATURE FROM THE CARVINGS OF THE MISERERES KITCHEN SCENES DOMESTIC BRAWLS THE FIGHT FOR THE BREECHES THE JUDICIAL DUEL BETWEEN MAN AND WIFE AMONG THE OKBMATva AT.T.TT.^Tmsra TO WITCH- _CRAFT SATIRES ON THE TRADES: THE BAKER, THE MILLER, THE WINE-PEDLAR AND TAVERN KEEPER, THE ALE-WIFE, ETC. . . 118


CHAPTER IX.

GROTESQUE FACES AND FIGURES~- J P_REVAJLENCE_^F THE TASTE FOR UGLY AND GROTESQUE FACES SOME OF THE POPULAR FORMS DERIVED FROM ANTIQUITY: THE TONGUE LOLLING OUT, AND THE



Contents. xiii


PAGE DISTORTED MOUTH HORRIBLE SUBJECTS : THE MAN AND THE SER-

P-RTSTTS ^AT.T.T-.OORIGAL FIGURES : GLUTTONY AND LUXURY OTHER REPRESENTATIONS OF ^CLERICAL GLUTTONY AND DRUNKENNESS GROTESQUE FIGURES OF INDIVIDUALS, AND GROTESQUE GROUPS ORNAMENTS OF THE BORDERS OF BOOKS UNINTENTIONAL CARI- CATURE J THE MOTE AND THE BEAM . . 144

CHAPTER X.

SATIRICAL LITERATURE IN THE MIDDLE AGES JOHN DE HAUTEVTLLE AND ALAN DE LILLE GOLIAS AND THE GOLIARDS THE GOLIARDIO POETRY TASTE FOR PARODY PARODIES ON RELIGIOUS SUBJECTS POLITICAL CARICATURE IN THE MIDDLE AGES THE JEWS OF NOR- WICH CARICATURE REPRESENTATIONS OF COUNTRIES LOCAL SA- TIREPOLITICAL SONGS AND POEMS . . . . . . . .159

CHAPTER XI.

MINSTRELSY A SUBJECT OF BURLESQUE AND CARICATURE CHARACTER OF THE MINSTRELS THEIR JOKES UPON THEMSELVES AND UPON ONE ANOTHER VARIOUS MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS REPRESENTED IN THE SCULPTURES OF THE MEDIEVAL ARTISTS SIR MATTHEW GOURNAY AND THE KING OF PORTUGAL DISCREDIT OF THE TABOR AND BAGPIPES MERMAIDS 188

CHAPTER XII.

THE COURT FOOL THE NORMANS AND THEIR GABS EARLY HISTORY


OF COURT rOOTifl TTTTTR OTBTVTtfgr ^^PVT^" 61 IN THE CORNISH CHURCHES THE BURLESQUE SOCIETIES OF THE MIDDLE AGES THE FEASTS OEJu qgii ' g J ATirr> nl? TOnT.S TTTRTB. LICENCE THE T.F.ADEN MONEY OF THE FOOLS THE BISHOP'S BLESSING 200

CHAPTER XIII.

THE DANCE OF DEATH THE PAINTINGS IN THE CHURCH OF LA CHAISE DIEU THE REIGN OF FOLLY SEBASTIAN BRANDT J THE SHIP OF FOOLS DISTURBERS OF CHURCH SERVICE TROUBLESOME BEGGARS GEILER'S SERMONS BADIUS, AND HIS SHIP OF FOOLISH WOMEN THE PLEASURES OF SMELL ERASMUS; THE PRAISE OF FOLLY . 214


xiv Contents.


CHAPTER XIV.

PAGE

POPULAR LITERATURE AND ITS HEROES; BROTHER RUSH, TYLL EULENSPIEGEL, THE WISE MEN OF GOTHAM STORIES AND JEST- BOOKS SKELTON, SCOGIN, TARLTON, PEELE 228

CHAPTER XV.

THE AGE OF THE REFORMATION THOMAS MURNERJ HIS GENERAL

SATIRES FRUITFULNESS OF FOLLY HANS SACHS TTTR TRAP FOR

r FOOLS ATTACKS ON LUTHER THE POPE AS ANTICHRIST THE

POPE-ASS AND THE MONK-CALF OTHER CARICATURES AGAINST

THE POPE THE GOOD AND BAD SHEPHERDS ' 244

CHAPTER XVI.

ORIGIN OF MEDLEVAL FARCE AND MODERN COMEDY HROTSVITHA MEDLEVAL NOTIONS OF TERENCE THE EARLY RELIGIOUS PLAYS ' MYSTERIES AND MIRACLE PLAYS THE FARCES THE DRAMA IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 264

CHAPTER XVII.

DIABLERIE IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY EARLY TYPES OF THE DIA- BOLICAL FORMS ST. ANTHONY ST. GUTHLAC REVIVAL OF THE TASTE FOR SUCH SUBJECTS IN THE BEGINNING OF THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY THE FLEMISH SCHOOL OF BREUGHEL THE FRENCH AND ITALIAN SCHOOLS CALLOT, SALVATOR ROSA 288

CHAPTER XVIII.

CALLOT AND HIS SCHOOL CALLOT' S ROMANTIC HISTORY HIS " CA- PRICI," AND OTHER BURLESQUE "WORKS THE " BALLI " AND THE BEGGARS IMITATORS OF CALLOT; DELLA BELLA EXAMPLES OF DELLA BELLA ROMAIN DE HOOGHE OQQ

CHAPTER XIX.

THE SATIRICAL LITERATURE OF THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY PASQUTL MACARONIC POETRY THE EPISTOL^l OBSCURORUM VIRORUM R A BET. ATS COURT OF THE QUEEN OF NAVARRE, AND ITS LITE- RARY CIRCLE; BONAVENTURE DBS PERIERS HENRI ETIENNE

THE LIGUE, AND ITS SATIRE: THE " SATYRE .MENIPPEE " . . . 312


Contents.


xv


CHAPTER XX.

POLITICAL CARICATURE IN ITS INFANCY THE REVERS DU JEU DES SUYSSES CARICATURE IN FRANCE THE THREE ORDERS PERIOD

OF THE LIGTJE; CARICATURES AGAINST HENRI ni. CARICATURES

AGAINST THE LIGTJE CARICATURE IN FRANCE IN THE SEVEN- TEENTH CENTURY GENERAL GALAS THE QUARREL OF AMBAS- SADORS CARICATURE AGAINST LOUIS XTV. J "WILLIAM OF FURS- TEMBERO ......


347


CHAPTER XXI.

EARLY POLITICAL CARICATURE IN ENGLAND THE SATIRICAL WHITINGS AND PICTURES OF THE COMMONWEALTH PERIOD SATIRES AGAINST THE BISHOPS; BISHOP WILLIAMS CARICATURES ON THE CAVA- LIERS; SIR JOHN SUCKLING THE ROARING BOYS; VIOLENCE OP

THE ROYALIST SOLDIERS CONTEST BETWEEN THE PRESBYTERIANS AND INDEPENDENTS GRINDING THE KING'S NOSE PLAYING-CARDS USED AS THE MEDIUM FOR CARICATURE; HASELRIGGE AND LAM- BERT SHROVETIDE


360


CHAPTER XXII.

ENGLISH COMEDY BEN JONSON THE OTHER WRITERS OF HIS SCHOOL

INTERRUPTION OF DRAMATIC PERFORMANCES i.COMEDY AFTER

THE RESTORATION THE HOWARDS BROTHERS: THE" DUJ^E OF

BUCKINGHAM ; THE R.'B'.Tni'.A'R.HAT. WR.TX'F'.Ra nr'noyp'.'nv iy THE

_T.ATvriBVR^PA^T my TTTP. aTy.VEJgTTR-RNT-FC (TENTPBY jNDEOENny OF TTTR

-STAGE COLLEY GIBBER ^FOOTE 375


\


CHAPTER XXIII.


CARICATURE IN HOLLAND ROMAIN DE HOOGHE THE ENGLISH REVO- LUTION CARICATURES ON LOUIS XIV. AND JAMES II. DR. SACHE- VERELL CARICATURE BROUGHT FROM HOLLAND TO ENGLAND ORIGIN OF THE WORD " CARICATURE " MISSISSIPPI AND THE SOUTH SEA J THE YEAR OF BUBBLES


406


xvi Contents.


CHAPTER XXIV.

PAGE

ENGLISH CARICATURE IN THE AGE OF GEOEGE II. ENGLISH PRINT- SELLERS ARTISTS EMPLOYED BY THEM SIR ROBERT WALPOLE'S LONG MINISTRY THE WAR WITH FRANCE THE NEWCASTLE AD- MINISTRATION OPERA INTRIGUES ACCESSION OF GEORGE HI., AND LORD BTTTE IN POWER 420

CHAPTER XXV.

HOGARTH HIS EARLY HISTORY HIS SETS OF PICTURES THE HARLOT'S PROGRESS THE RAKF.'S PROGRESS THE MARRIAGE A LA MODE HIS OTHER PRINTS THE ANALYSIS OF BEAUTY, AND THE PERSECU- TION ARISING OUT OF IT HIS PATRONAGE BY LORD BUTE CARICA- TURE OF THE TIMES ATTACKS TO WHICH HE WAS EXPOSED BY IT, AND WHICH HASTENED HIS DEATH 431

CHAPTER XXVI.

THE LESSER CARICATURISTS OF THE REIGN OF GEORGE m. PAUL

SANDBY COLLET: THE DISASTER, AND FATHER PAUL IN HIS CUPS

JAMES BAYER : HIS CARICATURES IN SUPPORT OF PITT, AND HIS REWARD CARLO KHAN'S TRIUMPH BUNBURY'S: HIS CARICATURES ON HORSEMANSHIP WOODWARD : GENERAL COMPLAINT ROWLAND- SON'S INFLUENCE ON THE STYLE OF THOSE WHOSE DESIGNS HE ETCHED JOHN KAY OF EDINBURGH: LOOKING A ROCK IN THE FACE . . ' . I 450

CHAPTER XXVII.

GILLRAY HIS FIRST ATTEMPTS HIS CARICATURES BEGIN WITH THE SHELBURNE MINISTRY IMPEACHMENT OF WARREN HASTINGS CARICATURES ON THE KING J NEW WAY TO PAY THE NATIONAL DEBT ALLEGED REASON FOR GLLLRAY'S HOSTILITY TO THE KING THE KING AND THE APPLE -DUMPLINGS GILLRAY'S LATER LA- BOURS HIS EDIOTCY AND DEATH 464

CHAPTER XXVIII.

GILLRAY'S CARICATURES ON SOCIAL LIFE THOMAS ROWLANDSON HIS EARLY LIFE HE BECOMES A CARICATURIST HIS STYLE AND WORKS HIS DRAWINGS THE CRUIKSHANKS 480


CARICATURE AND GROTESQUE IN LITERATURE AND ART.

CHAPTER I.

ORIGIN OF CARICATURE AND GROTESftUE. SPIRIT OF CARICATURE IN

EGYPT. MONSTERS : PYTHON AND GORGON. GREECE. THE DIONY-

SIAC CEREMONIES, AND ORIGIN OF THE DRAMA. THE OLD COMEDY.

LOVE OF PARODY. PARODIES ON SUBJECTS TAKEN FROM GRECIAN

MYTHOLOGY: THE VISIT TO THE LOVER: APOLLO AT DELPHT. THE PARTIALITY FOR PARODY CONTINUED AMONG THE ROMANS : THE FLIGHT OF /ENEAS.

IT is not my intention in the following pages to difcufs the queftion what conftitutes the comic or the laughable, or, in other words, to enter into the philofophy of the fubje6t; I defign only to trace the hiftory of its outward development, the various forms it has aflumed, and its focial influence. Laughter appears to be almoft a neceflity of human nature, in all conditions of man's exiftence, however rude or however cul- tivated j and fome cf the greateft men of all ages, men of the moft refined intellects, fuch as Cicero in the ages of antiquity, and Erasmus among the moderns, have been celebrated for their indulgence in it. The former was fometimes called by his opponents scurra consularis, the "consular jester j" and the latter, who has been fpoken of as the "mocking-bird," is faid to have laughed fo immoderately over the well-known " Epistolæ Obscurorum Virorum," that he brought upon himfelf a ferious fit of illnefs. The greateft of comic writers, Ariftophanes, has always been looked upon as a model of literary perfection. An epigram in the Greek Anthology, written by the divine Plato, tells us how, when the Graces fought a temple which would not fall, they found the foul of Aristophanes :

Al \apirtc r*/itvoc Tt Xa/JeTv OTrtp oi>xl iriffiir fiv ivpov 'Apiffro<f>avov(;.

On the other hand, the men who never laughed, the ayc'Xaorot, were looked upon as the leafl refpectable of mortals.

A tendency to burlefque and caricature appears, indeed, to beji feeling deeply fmplanted in human nature, and it is one of the earlieft talents difplayed by people in a rude ftate lof^fociety. An appreciation of, and fenfitivenefs to, ridicule, and a love of that which is humorous, are found even among favages, and enter largely into their relations with their fellow men. When, before people cultivated either literature or art, the chieftain fat in his rude hall furrounded by his warriors, they amufed themfelves by turning their enemies and opponents into mockery, by laughing at their weaknefies, joking on their defects, whether phyfical or mental, and giving them nicknames in accordance therewith, in fact, caricaturing them in words, or by telling ftcries which were calculated to excite laughter. When the agricultural ilaves (for the tillers of the land 'were then flaves) were indulged with a day of relief from their labours, they fpent it in unreflrained mirth. And when thefe fame people began to erect permanent buildings, and to ornament them, the favourite fub- jects of their ornamentation were fuch as prefented ludicrous ideas. The warrior, too, who caricatured his enemy in his fpeeches over the feftive board, foon fought to give a more permanent form to his ridicule, which he endeavoured to do by rude delineations on the bare rock, or on any other convenient furface which prefented itfelf to his hand. Thus originated caricature and the grotefque in art. In fact, art itfelf, in its earlieft forms, is caricature j for it is only by that exaggeration of features which belongs to caricature, that unikilful draughtfmen could make themfelves underftood.

Although we might, perhaps, find in different countries examples of thefe principles in different flates of development, we cannot in any one country trace the entire courfe of the development itfelf: for in all the highly civilifed races of mankind, we firft become acquainted with their hiftory when they had already reached a confiderable degree of refinement ; and even at that period of their progrefs, our knowledge is almoft confined to their religious, and to their more feverely historical, monuments. Such is efpecially the cafe with Egypt, the hiftory of which country, as repre- fented by its monuments of art, carries us back to the remoteft ages of antiquity. Egyptian art generally prefents itfelf in a fombre and maffive character, with little of gaiety or joviality in its defigns or forms. Yet, as Sir Gardner Wilkinfon has remarked in his valuable work on the "Manners and Cuftoms of the Ancient Egyptians," the early Egyptian artifts cannot always conceal their natural tendency to the humorous, which creeps out in a variety of little incidents. Thus, in a feries of grave hiftorical pictures on one of the great monuments at Thebes, we find a reprefentation of a wine party, where the company confifts of both fexes, and which evidently mows that the ladies were not reftricted in the


No. I. An Egyptian Lady at a Feaft.

ufe of the juice of the grape in their entertainments; and, as he adds, "the painters, in illuftrating this fact, have fometimes facrificed their gallantry to a love of caricature." Among the females, evidently of rank, repre- fented in this fcene, " fome call the fervants to fupport them as they fit, others with difficulty prevent themfelves from falling on thofe behind them, and the faded flower, which is ready to drop from their heated hands, is intended to be charaderiftic of their own fenfations." One group, a lady whofe excels has been carried too far, and her fervant who comes to her afliftance, is reprefented in our cut No. I. Sir Gardner obferves that " many fimilar inftances of a talent for caricature are obfervable in the compofitions of the Egyptian artills, who executed the paintings of the tombs" at Thebes, which belong to a very early period of the Egyptian annals. Nor is the application of this talent reftri6ted always to fecular fubje&s, but we fee it at times intruding into the moft facred myfteries of their religion. I give as a curious example, taken from one of Sir Gardner Wilkinfon's engravings, a fcene in the reprefentation of a funeral proceflion croffing the Lake of the Dead (No. 2), that


No. 2. Cataftrophe in a Funeral Procejfion.

appears in one of theie early paintings at Thebes, in which " the love of caricature common to the Egyptians is mown to have been indulged even in this ferious fubjeft; and the retrograde movement of the large boat, which has grounded and is puflied off the bank, ftriking the fmaller one with its rudder, has overturned a large table loaded with cakes and other things, upon the rowers feated below, in fpite of all the efforts of the prowman, and the earneft vociferations of the alarmed fteerfman." The accident which thus overthrows and fcatters the provifions intended for the funeral feaft, and the confufion attendant upon it, form a ludicrous fcene in the midft of a folemn picture, that would be worthy of the imagination of a Rowlandfon.

Another cut (No. 3), taken from one of the fame feries of paintings, belongs to a clafs of caricatures which dates from a very remote period. One of the moft natural ideas among all people would be to compare men with the animals whofe y<trticular qualities they poflelfed. Thus, one might be as bold as a lior, another ~s faithful as a dog, or as cunning as a fox, or as fwinifh as a hog. The aame of the animal would thus often be given as a nickname to the Kian, and in the fequel he would be reprefented piftorially under the form of the animal. It was partly out of this kind of caricature, no doubt, that the fingular clafs of apologues which have been fince diftinguiflied by the name of fables arofe. Connected with it was the belief in the metempfychofis, or tranfmiifion of the foul into the bodies of animals after death, which formed a part of feveral of the primitive religions. The earlieft examples of this clafs

No 3. A.n Unfortunate Soul.

of caricature of mankind are found on the Egyptian monuments, as in the inftance juft referred to, which reprefents " a foul condemned to return to earth under the form of a pig, having been weighed in the fcales before Ofiris and been found wanting. Being placed in a boat, and accompanied by two monkeys, it is difmifled the facred precincV* The latter animals, it may be remarked, as they are here reprefented, are the cynocephali, or dog-headed monkeys (the Jimia inuus), which were facred animals among the Egyptians, and the peculiar cbarafteriftic of which the dog-ihaped head is, as ufual, exaggerated by the artift. The reprefentation of this return of a condemned foul under the repulfive form of a pig, is painted on the left fide wall of the long entrance-gallery to the tomb of King Ramefes V., in the valley of royal catacombs known as the Biban-el-Molook, at Thebes. Wilkinfon gives the date of the acceffion of this monarch to the throne as 1185, B.C. In the original picture, Ofiris is feated on his throne at fome diftance from the item of the boat, and is difmiffing it from his prefence by a wave of the hand. This tomb was open in the time of the Romans, and termed by them the " Tomb of Momnon j" it was greatly admired, and is covered with laudatory infcriptions by Greek and Roman vifitors. One of the moft interefling is placed beneath this picture, recording the name of a daduchus, or torch-bearer in the Eleufinian myfteries, who vifited this tomb in the reign of Conftantine.

The practice having been once introduced of reprefenting men under th^_chara^er_"of"^nTi'lialb, was Iboii' developed into otheF~applications


,Y . 4. The Cat and the Geefe.

of the fame idea fuch as that of figuring animals employed in the various Ottiupatiora of mankmd^jUKTthat of reverimg the pofitiorToTm^n "and the Infenorjujimals. and reprefentmg the latter as treating their human tyrant in the fame manner as they are ufually treated by him. The latter idea became a very favourite one at a later period, but the other is met with not unfrequently among the works of art which have been faved from the wrecks of antiquity. Among the treafures of the Britifh Mufeum, there is a long Egyptian pifture on papyrus, originally forming a roll, confifting of reprefentations of this defcription, from which I give three curious examples. The firft (fee cut No. 4) reprefents a cat in charge of a drove of geefe. It will be obferved that the cat holds in her hand the fame fort of rod, with a hook at the end, with which the


No. 5. The Fox turned Pifer.

monkeys are furnifhed in the preceding pifture. The fecond (No. 5) reprefents a fox carrying a bafket by means of a pole fupported on his fhoulder (a method of carrying burthens frequently reprefented on the monuments of ancient art), and playing on the well-known double flute, or pipe. The fox foon became a %ourite__peiIbBaga in this HaiL-Of. caricatures, and W Q ir^Jg!^ ? prnrpinpnt part hp afterwards-played in jnedjaacaJUatire.^-Perhaps, however, the moft popular of all animals in this clafs of drolleries was the monkey, which appears natural enough when we conlider its fingular aptitude to mimic the a&ions of man. The ancient naturalifts tell us fome curious, though not very credible, ftories of the manner in which this chara&eriflic of the monkey tribes was taken advantage of to entrap them, and Pliny (Hift. Na,.., lib. viii. c. 80) quotes an older writer, who aflerted that they had even been taught to play at draughts. Our third fubje6t from the Egyptian papyrus of the Britifh Mufeum (No. 6) reprefents a fcene in which the game of draughts or, more properly (peaking, the game which the Romans called the


No. 6. The Lion and the Unicorn.

ludus latrunculorinn, and which is believed to have refembled our draughts is played by two animals well known to modem heraldry, the lion and the unicorn. The lion has evidently gained the victory, and is fingering the money; and his bold air of fwaggering fuperiority, as well as the look of furprife and difappointment of his vanquifhed opponent, are by no means ill pictured. This feries of caricatures, though Egyptian, belongs to the Roman period.

The monftrous is clofely allied to the grotefque, and both come within the province of caricature, when we take this term in its wideft fenfe.

The Greeks, efpecially, were partial to reprefentations of monfters, and monitrous forms are continually met with among their ornaments and works of art. The type of the Egyptian monfler is reprefented in the accompany- ing cut (No. 7), taken from the work of Sir Gardner Wilkinfon before quoted, and is faid to be the figure of the god Typhon. It occurs frequently on Egyptian monuments, with fome variation in its forms, but always

No. 7. Typhon.

charafterifed by the broad, coarfe, and frightful face, and by the large tongue lolling out. It is interefting to us, becaufe it is the apparent origin of a long feries of faces, or maflb, of this form and charafter, which are continually recurring in the grotefque ornamentation, not only of the Greeks and Romans, but of the middle ages. It appears to have been fometimes given by the Romans to the reprefentations of people whom they hated or defpifed ; and Pliny, in a curious paflage of his " Natural History,"* informs us that at one time, among the pictures exhibited in the Forum at Rome, there was one in which a Gaul was reprefented, " thrufting out his tongue in a very unbecoming manner." The Egyptian Typhons had their exact reprefentations in ancient Greece in a figure of frequent occurrence, to which antiquaries have, 1 know not why, given the name of Gorgon. The example in our cut No. 8, is a figure in terra* cotta, now in the collection of the Royal Mufeum at Berlin, f



No. 8. Gvrgirn.

In Greece, however, the fpirit of caricature and burlefque repre- fentation had aflumed a more regular form than in other countries, for it was inherent in the fpirit of Grecian fociety. 'Among the population of Greece, the worship of Dionyfus, or Bacchus, had taken deep root from


  • Plin. Hist. Nat., lib. xxxv. c. 8.

f Panofka Terracotten des Museums Berlin, pi. Ixi. p. 154.


a very early period earlier than we can trace back and it formed the nucleus of the popular religion and fuperftitions, the cradle of poetry and the drama. The moft popular celebrations of the people of Greece, were the Dionyfiac feftivals, and the phallic rites and proceffions which accom- panied them, in which the chief adtors aflumed the difguife of fatyrs and fawns, covering themfelves with goat-fkins, and disfiguring their faces by rubbing them over with the lees of wine. Thus, in the guife of noify bacchanals, they difplayed an unreftrained licentioufnefs of gefture and language, uttering indecent jefts and abufive fpeeches, in which they fpared nobody. This portion of the ceremony was the efpecial attribute of a part of the performers, who accompanied the proceffion in waggons, and a6ted fomething like dramatic performances, in which they uttered an abundance of loofe extempore fatire on thofe who pafled or who accom panied the proceffion, a little in the ftyle of the modern carnivals. It be came thus the occafion for an unreftrained publication of coarfe pafquinades. In the time of Pififtratus, thefe performances are aflumed to have been reduced to a little more order by an individual named Thefpis, who is faid to have invented mafks as a better difguife than dirty faces, and is looked upon as the father of the Grecian drama. There can be no doubt, indeed, that the drama arofe out of thefe popular ceremonies, and it long bore the unmiftakable marks of its origin. Even the name of tragedy has nothing tragic in its derivation, for it is formed from the Greek word tragos (rpayoc), a goat, in the {kins of which animal the fatyrs clothed themfelves, and hence the name was given alfo to thofe who perfonated the fatyrs in the proceffions. A tragodus (rpayydog) was the finger, whofe words accompanied the movements of a chorus of fatyrs, and the term tragodia was applied to his performance. In the fame manner, a comodus (KW/XW^OC) was one who accompanied fimilarly, with chants of an abufive or fatirical character, a comus (*rw/ioc), or band of revellers, in the more riotous and licentious portion of the performances in the Bacchic feftivals. The Greek drama always betrayed its origin by the circumftance that the performances took place annually, only at the yearly feitivals in honour of Bacchus, of which in fat they conftituted a part. Moreover, as the Greek drama became perfected, it Hill retained from its origin a triple divifion, into tragedy, comedy, and the fatiric drama j and, being ftill performed at the Dionyfiac feflival in Athens, each dramatic author was expe6ted to produce what was called a trilogy, that is, a tragedy, a fatirical play, and a comedy. So completely was all this identified in the popular mind with the worlhip of Bacchus, that, long afterwards, when even a tragedy did not pleafe the audience by its fubjecl:, the common form of difapproval was, ri ravra irpog TOV "What has this to do with Bacchus?" and, ovSev irpoe rbv

" This has nothing to do with Bacchus."

We have no perfect remains of the Greek fatiric drama, which was, perhaps, of a temporary character, and lefs frequently preferved j but the early Greek comedy is preferved in a certain number of the plays of Ariftophanes, in which we can contemplate it in all its freedom of character. It represented the waggon-jefting, of the age of Thefpis, in its full development. In its form it was burlefque to a wanton degree of extravagance, and its eflence was perfonal vilification, as well as general fatire. Individuals were not oiuy attacked by the application to them of abufive epithets, but they were reprefented perfonally on the llage as performing every kind of contemptible adion, and as frittering all forts of ludicrous and difgraceful treatment. The drama thus bore marks of its origin in its extraordinary licentioufnefs^pf language and coftume, and in the conftant ufe of the maflt. One of its moft favourite inftruments of fatire was parody, which was employed unfparingly on everything which fociety in its folermi moments refpeded againft everything that the fatirift confidered worthy of being held up to public derifion or fcorn. Religion itfelf, philofophy, focial manners and inftitutions even poetry were all parodied in their turn. The comedies of Ariftophanes are full of parodies on the poetry of the tragic and other writers of his age. He is efpecially happy in parodying the poetry of the tragic dramatift Euripides. The old comedy of Greece has thus been correctly defcribed as the comedy of caricature j and the fpirit, and even the fcenes, of this comedy, being transferred to pidorial reprefentattons, became entirely identical with that branch of art to which we give the name of caricature in modern times. Under the cover of bacchanalian buffoonery, a ferious purpofe, it is true, was aimed at ; but the general fatire was chiefly implied in the violent perfonal attacks on individuals, and thU became fo offenlive that when fuch perfons obtained greater power in Athens than the populace the old comedy was abolifhed.

Ariftophanes was the greateft and moft perfect poet of the Old Comedy, and his remaining comedies are as ftrongly marked reprefenta- tions of the hoftility of political and focial parties in his time, as the caricatures of Gillray are of party in the reign of our George III., and, we may add, even more minute. They range through the memorable period of the Peloponnefian war, and the earlier ones give us the regular annual feries of thefe performances, as far as Ariftophanes contributed them, during feveral years. The firft of them, " The Acharnians," was performed at the Lenaean feaft of Bacchus in the fixth year of the Peloponnefian war, the year 425 B.C., when it gained the firft prize. It is a bold attack on the factious prolongation of the war through the influence of the Athenian demagogues. The next, "The Knights," brought out in B.C. 424, is a direft attack upon Cleon, the chief of thefe demagogues, although he is not mentioned by name ; and it is recorded that, finding nobody who had courage enough to make a maik reprefenting Cleon, or to play the cha- racter, Ariftophanes was obliged to perform it himfelf, and that he fmeared his face with lees of wine, in order to reprefent the flufhed and bloated countenance of the great demagogue, thus returning to the original mode of acting of the predeceflbrs of Thefpis. This, too, was the firft of the comedies of Ariftophanes which he publifhed in his own name. " The Clouds," publilhed in 423, is aimed at Socrates and the philofophers. The fourth, " The Wafps," publifhed in B.C. 422, prefents a fatire on the litigious fpirit of tne Athenians. The fifth, entitled " Peace " ("Etpjjvj/), appeared in the year following, at the time of the peace of Nicias, and is another fatire on the bellicofe fpirit of the Athenian democracy. The next in the lift of extant plays comes after an interval of feveraJ years, having been publiihed in B.C. 414, the firft year of the Sicilian war, a^d relates to an irreligious movement in Athens, which had caufed a great fenfation. Two Athenians are repreiented as leaving Athens, in difguft at the vices and follies of their fellow citizens, and feekir.g the kingdom of the birds, where they form a new ftate, by which the communication between the mortals and the immortals is cut off, and is only opened again by an arrangement between all the parties. In the " Lyfiftrata, believed to have been brought out in 411, when the war was ftill at its height, the women of Athens are reprefented as engaging in a cunning and fuccefsful plot, by which they gain poflefiion of the government of the Hate, and compel their hulbands to make peace. "The Thefmo- phoriazufae," appears to have been publiftied in B.C. 410 ; it is a fatire upon Euripides, whofe writings were remarkable for their bitter attacks on the character of the female fex, who, in this comedy, confpire againft him to fecure his puniihment. The comedy of "The Frogs " was brought out in the year 405 B.C., and is a fatire on the literature of the day ; it is aimed efpecially at Euripides, and was perhaps written foon after his death, its real fubje6t being the decline of the tragic drama, which Euripides was accufed of having promoted. It is perhaps the moft witty of the plays of Ariftophanes which have been preferved. "The Ecclefiazufae," publifhed in 392, is a burlefque upon the theories of republican govern- ment, which were then ftarted among the philofophers, fome of which differed little from our modern communifm. The ladies again, by a clever confpiracy, gain the maftery in the eftate, and they decree a community of goods and women, with fome laws very peculiar to that ftate of things. The humour of the piece, which is extremely broad, curns upon the difputes and embarraffments refulting from this ftate of things. The laft of his comedies extant, " Plutus," appears to be a work of the concluding years of the aftive life of Ariftophanes ; it is the leaft ftriking of them all, and is rather a moral than a political fatire.

In a comedy brought out in 426, the year before "The Archarnians," under the title of "The Babylonians," Ariftophanes appears to have given great offence to the democratic party, a circumftance to which he alludes more than once in the former play. However, his talents and popularity feem to have carried him over the danger, and certainly nothing can have exceeded the bitternefs of fatire employed in his fubfequent comedies. Thofe who followed him were lefs fortunate.

One of the lateft writers of the Old Comedy was Anaximandrides, who caft a refle&ion on the ftate of Athens in parodying a line of Euripides- This poet had faid,

} 0v<rie l[3ov\tO' fj vofidiv ovSiv piXti (Nature has commanded, which cares nothing for the- laws);

which Anaximandrides changed to

s/3ov\0' r\ vofjiwv ovSfv [liXti (The state has commanded, which cares nothing for the laws).

Nowhere is oppreflion exercifed with greater harfhnefs than under demo- cratic governments ; and Anaximandrides was profecuted for this joke as a crime againft the ftate, and condemned to death. As may be fuppofed, liberty of fpeech ceafed to exift in Athens. We are well acquainted with the character of the Old Comedy, in its greateft freedom, through the writings of Ariftophanes. What was called the Middle Comedy, in which political fatire was prohibited, lafted from this time until the age of Philip of Macedon, when the old liberty of Greece was finally crufhed. The laft form of Greek comedy followed, which is known as the New Comedy, and was reprefented by fuch names as Epicharmus and Menander. In the New Comedy all caricature and parody, and all perfonal allufions, were entirely profcribed ; it was changed entirely into a comedy of manners and domeftic life, a picture of contemporary fociety under conventional names and characters. From this New Comedy was taken the Roman comedy, fuch as we now have it in the plays of Plautus and Terence, who were profefled imitators of Menander and the other writers of the new comedy of the Greeks.

Pictorial caricature was, of courfe, rarely to be feen on the public monuments of Greece or Rome, but muft have been configned to objects of a more popular character and to articles of common ufe j and, accord- ingly, modern antiquarian refearch has brought it to light fomewhat abundantly on the pottery of Greece and Etruna, and on the wall-paint- ings of domeftic buildings in Herculaneum and Pompeii. The former contains comic fcenes, efpecially parodies, which are evidently transferred to them from the ftage, and which preferve the mafks and other attributes ibme of which I have neceflarily^mitted proving the model from which they were taken. The Greeks, as we know from many fources, were extremely fond of parodies of ever)' defcription, whether literary or pictorial. The fubje6t of our cut No. 9 is a good example of the parodies


No. 9. A Greek Parody.


found on the Greek pottery ; it is taken from a fine Etrufcan vafe,* and has been fuppofed to be a parody on the vifit of Jupiter to Alcmena. This appears rather doubtful, but there can be no doubt that it is a burlefque reprefentation of the vifit of a lover to the object of his afpira- tions. The lover, in the comic mafk and coftume, mounts by a ladder to the window at which the lady prefents herfelf, who, it muft be confefied, prefents the appearance of giving her admirer a very cold reception. He tries to conciliate her by a prefent of what feem to be apples, inftead of

gold,

  • Given in Panofka, " Antiques du Cabinet Pourtal&s," pi. x.

, but without much effed. He is attended by his fervant with a torch, to give him light on the way, which mows that it is a night adventure. Both matter and fervant have wreaths round their heads, and the latter carries a third in his hand, which, with the contents of his bafket, are alfo probably intended as prefents to the lady.

A more unmiftakable burlefque on the vilit of Jupiter to Alcmena is publifhed by Winckelmann from a vafe, formerly in the library of the Vatican, and now at St. Peterfburg. The treatment of the fubject is not unlike the picture juft defcribed. Alcmena appears juft in the fame pofture at her chamber window, and Jupiter is carrying his ladder to mount up to her, but has not yet placed it againft the wall. His companion is identified with Mercury by the well-known caduceus he carries in his left hand, while with his right hand he holds a lamp up to the window, in order to enable Jupiter to fee the object of his amour.

It is aftonilhing with how much boldnefs the Greeks parodied and ridiculed facred fubjects. The Chriftian father, Arnobius, m writing againft his heathen opponents, reproached them with this circumftance. The laws, he fays, were made to protect the characters of men from flander and libel, but there was no fuch protection for the characters of the gods, which were treated with the greateft difrefpect.* This was efpecially the cafe in their pictorial reprefentations.

Pliny informs us that Ctefilochus, a pupil of the celebrated Apelles, painted a burlefque picture of Jupiter giving birth to Bacchus, in which the god was reprelented in a very ridiculous pofture. f Ancient writers intimate that fimilar examples were not uncommon, and mention the names of feveral comic painters, whofe works of this clafs were in repute. Some of thefe were bitter perfonal caricatures, like a celebrated work of a

painter

  • Arnobius (contra Gentes\ lib. iv..p. 150. Carmen malum conscribere, quo fama

alterius coinquinatur et vita, decemviralibus scitis evadere noluistis impune : ac ne vestras aures convitio aliquis petulantiore pulsaret, de atrocibus formulas consti- tuistis injuriis. Soli dii sunt apud vos super! inhonorati, contemtibiles, viles : in quos jus est vobis datum quae quisque voluerit dicere turpitudinem, jacere quas libido confinxerit atque excogitaverit formas.

t Pliny, Hist. Nat., lib. xxxv. c. 40.

painter named Cteficles, defcribed alfo by Pliny. It appears that Stra- tonice, the queen of Seleucus Nicator, had received this painter ill when he vifited her court, and in revenge he executed a picture in which ihe was reprefented, according to a current fcandal, as engaged in an amour with a common fimerman, which he exhibited in the harbour of Ephefus, and then made his efcape on ftiip-board. Pliny adds that the queen admired the beauty and accuracy of the painting more than {he felt the infult, and that me forbade the removal of the picture.*

The fubject of our fecond example of the Greek caricature is better known. It is taken from an oxybaphon which was brought from the Continent to England, where it pafled into the collection of Mr. William Hope.f The oxybaphon (6vfia<j)ov), or, as it was called by the Romans, acetalulum, was a large veflel for holding vinegar, which formed one of the important ornaments of the table, and was therefore very fufceptible of piftorial embellifhment of this defcription. It is one of the moft remark- able Greek caricatures of this kind yet known, and reprefents a parody on one of the moft interefting ftories of the Grecian mythology, that of the arrival of Apollo at Delphi. The artift, in his love of burlefque, has fpared none of the perfonages who belonged to the ftory. The Hyper- borean Apollo himfelf appears in the character of a quack doctor, on his temporary ftage, covered by a fort of roof, and approached by wooden fteps. On the ftage lies Apollo's luggage, confifting of a bag, a bow, and his Scythian cap. Chiron (XlPQN) is reprefented as labouring under the effects of age and blindnefs, and fupporting himfelf by the aid of a crooked ftaff, as he repairs to the Delphian quack-doctor for relief. The figure of the centaur is made to afcend by the aid of a companion, both being furnilhed with the mafks and other attributes of the comic per- formers. Above are the mountains, and on them the nymphs of Par- naflus (NYM<J>AI), who, like all the other actors in the fcene, are difguifed with malks, and thofe of a very grotefque character. On the right-hand

  • Pliny, Hist. Nat., lib. xxxv. c. 40.

t Engraved by Ch. Lenormant et J. de Witt, "Elite des Monuments Ceramo- graphiques," pi. xciv.

fide ftands a figure which is confidered as reprefenting the epoptes, the infpe&or or overfeer of the performance, who alone wears no malk. Even a pun is employed to heighten the drollery of the fcene, for inftead of IIY6IAS, the Pythian, placed over the head of the burlefque Apollo, it feems evident that the artift had written HEI6IA2, the confoler, in allufion, perhaps, to the confolation which the quack-do6tor is adminifter- ing to his blind and aged vifitor.

The Greek fpirit of parody, applied even to the moft facred fubjeds,

No. 10. Apollo at Delphi.

however it may have declined in Greece, was revived at Rome, and we find examples of it on the walls of Pompeii and Herculaneum." They mow the fame readinefs to turn into burlefque the moft facred and popular legends of the Roman mythology. The example given (cut No. u), from one of the wall-paintings, is peculiarly interefting, both from circumftances in the drawing itfelf, and becaufe it is a parody on one of the favourite national legends of the Roman people, who prided them- felves on their defcent from vEneas. Virgil has told, with great effect, the ftory of his hero's elcape from the deftru6tion of Troy or rather has put the llory into his hero's mouth. When the devoted city was already

No. II. The PKgh. of Mneas from Troy.

in flames, ^Eneas took his father, Anchifes, on his moulder, and his boy, lulus, or, as he was otherwife called, Afcanius, by the hand, and thus fled from his home, followed by his wife


Ergo age, care pater, cer-vici imponere nofirtf ,

Ipfefubibo humeris, nee me labor ifte gra-vablt.

Quo ret cumque cadent, unum et commune perklum,

Unafalus ambobus em. AfiAi parvus lulus

Sit ;, et longejer-vat vefllgla conjux.Virg. JEn., lib. ii. L 707.


Thus they hurried on, the child holding by his father's right hand, and dragging after with " unequal fteps,"

dextrte fe par-vus lulus Implicuit fequiturque patrem non pajjlbus eequis. Virg. lEm., lib. ii. 1. 723.

And thus ./Eneas bore away both father and fon, and the penates, or houfehold gods, of his family, which were to be transferred to another country, and become the future guardians of Rome

j4fcanium, Anchifemque patrem, Tencrofque penates. Ib., L 747.

In this cale we know that the delign is intended to be a parody, or burlefque, upon a pi6ture which appears to have been celebrated

No. 12. The Flight of Mneas.

at the time, and of which at leaft two different copies are found upon ancient intaglios. Tt is the only cafe I know in which both the original and the parody have been preferred from this remote period, and this is fo curious a circumftance, that I give in the cut on the preceding page a copy of one of the intaglios.* It reprefented literally Virgil's account of the ftory, and the only difference between the defign on the intaglios and the one given in our firft cut is, that in the latter the perfonages are repre- fented under the forms of monkeys. ./Eneas, perfonified by the ftrong and vigorous animal, carrying the old monkey, Anchifes, on his left (boulder, hurries forward, and at the fame time looks back on the burning city. With his right hand he drags along the boy lulus, or Afcanius, who is evidently proceeding non pajffilus cequis, and with difficulty keeps up with his father's pace. The boy wears a Phrygian bonnet, and holds in his right hand the inftrument of play which we fhould now call a " bandy " the pedun. Anchifes has charge of the box, which contains the facred penates. It is a curious circumftance that the monkeys in this picture are the fame dog-headed animals, or cynocephali, which are found on the Egyptian monuments.

  • These intaglios are engraved in the Museum Florentinum of Gorius, vol. ii.

pi. 30 On one of them the figures are reversed.

When this chapter was already given tor press, I first became acquainted with an interesting paper, by Panofka, on the " Parodieen und Karikaturen auf Werken der Klassischen Kunst," in the " Abhandlungen der Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin," for the year 1854, and I can only now refer my readers to it.

CHAPTER II.

ORIGIN OF THE STAGE IN ROME. USES OF THE MASK AMONG THE

ROMANS. SCENES FROM ROMAN COMEDY. THE SANNIO AND MIMUS.

THE ROMAN DRAMA. THE ROMAN SATIRISTS. CARICATURE.

ANIMALS INTRODUCED IN THE CHARACTERS OF MEN. THE PIGMIES,

AND THEIR INTRODUCTION INTO CARICATURE ; THE FARM-YARD ; THE PAINTER'S STUDIO; THE PROCESSION. POLITICAL CARICATURE IN POMPEII J THE GRAFFITI.

THE Romans appear to have never had any real tafte for the regular drama, which they merely copied from the Greeks, and from the earlieft period of their hiftory we find them borrowing all their arts of this defcription from their neighbours. In Italy, as in Greece, the firft germs of comic literature may be traced in the religious feftivals, which prefented a mixture of religious worfhip and riotous feftivity, where the feafters danced and fung, and, as they became excited with wine and enthu- fiafm, indulged in mutual reproaches and abufe. The oldeft poetry of the Romans, which was compofed in irregular meafure, was reprefented by the verfus faturnini, faid to have been fo called from their antiquity (for things of remote antiquity were believed to belong to the age of Saturn). Naevius, one of the oldeft of Latin poets, is faid to have written in this verfe. Next in order of time came the Fefcennine verfes, which appear to have been diftinguifhed chiefly by .their licenfe, and received their name becaufe they were brought from Fefcennia, in Etruria, where they were employed originally in the feftivals of Ceres and Bacchus. In the year 391 of Rome, or 361 B.C., the city was vifited by a dreadful plague, and the citizens hit upon what will appear to us the rather ftrange expedient of fending for performers (ludiones) from Etruria, hoping, by employing them, to appeafe the anger of the gods. Any performer of this kind appears to have been fo little known to the Romans before this, that

there


24 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque

there was not even a name for him in the language, and they were obliged to adopt the Tufcan word, and call him a hiflrio, becaufe hifter in that language meant a player or pantomimift. This word, we know, remained in the Latin language. Thefe firft Etrurian performers appear indeed to have been mere pantomimifts, who accompanied the flute with all forts of mountebank tricks, geftures, dances, gefticulations, and the like, mixed with fatirical fongs, and fometimes with the performance of coarfe farces. The Romans had alfo a clafs of performances rather more dramatic in character, confifting of ftories which were named Faluloe AtdlancB, becaufe thefe performers were brought from Atella, a city of the Ofci.

A confiderable advance was made in dramatic Art in Rome about the middle of the third century before Chrift. It is afcribed to a freedman named Livius Andronicus, a Greet- by birth, who is faid to have brought out, in the year 240 B.C., the firft regular comedy ever performed in Rome. Thus we trace not only the Roman comedy, but the very rudi- ments of dramatic art in Rome, either direct to the Greeks, or to the Grecian colonies in Italy. With the Romans, as well as with the Greeks, the theatre was a popular inftitution, open to the public, and the Hate or a wealthy individual paid for the performance ; and therefore the building itfelf was neceflarily of very great extent, and, in both countries open to the fky, except that the Romans provided for throwing an awning over it. As the Roman comedy was copied from the new comedy of the Greeks, and therefore did not admit of the introduction of caricature and burlefque on the ftage, thefe were left especially to the province of the pantomime and farce, which the Romans, as juft ftated, had received from a ftill earlier period.

Whether the Romans borrowed the malk from the Greeks, or not, is rather uncertain, but it was ufed as generally in the Roman theatres, whether in comedy or tragedy, as among the Greeks. The Greek adors performed upon ftilts, in order to magnify their figures, as the area of the theatre was very large and uncovered, and without this help they were not fo well feen at a diftance ; and one object of utility aimed at by the mafk is faid to have been to make the head appear proportionate in fize

to


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2 5


to the artificial height of the body. It may be remarked that the malk feems generally to have been made to cover the whole head, reprefenting the hair as well as the face, fo that the character of age or complexion might be given complete. Among the Romans the ftilts were certainly not in general ufe, but ftill the malk, befides its comic or tragic character, is fuppofed to have ferved ufeful purpofes. The firft improvement upon its original ftru6ture is faid to have been the making it of brafs, or fome



No. 13. si Scene from Ten nee.

other fonorous metal, or at leaft lining the mouth with it,fo as to reverberate, and give force to the voice, and alfo to the mouth of the malk fomethingof the charafter of a fpeaking-trumpet.* All thefe acceflbries could not fail to detraa much from the effecT: of the ading, which muft in general have been very meafured and formal, and have received moft of its importance from the excellence of the poetry, and the declamatory talents of the a6lors. We have pictures in which fcenes from the Roman ftage are

accurately

  • It is said to have received its Latin name from this circumstance, ferfona, u

pcrjonando. See Aulus Gellius, Noct Alt., lib. v. C. 7-


26


Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque


accurately reprefented. Several rather early manufcripts of Terence have been preferved, illuftrated with drawings of the fcenes as reprefented on the ftage, and thefe, though belonging to a period long fubfequent to the age in which the Roman ftage exifted in its original character, are, no doubt, copied from drawings of an earlier date. A German antiquary of the laft century, Henry Berger, publifhed in a quarto volume a feries of fuch illuftrations from a manufcript of Terence in the library of the Vatican at Rome, from which two examples are ielec\ed, as fhowing the



No. 14. Geta and Demea.


ufual ftyle of Roman comic ading, and the ufe of the mafk. The firil (No. 13) is the opening fcene in the Andria. On the right, two fervants have brought provifions, and on the left appear Simo, the matter of the houfehold, and his freedman, Sofia, who feems to be entrufted with the charge of his domeftic affairs. Simo tells his fervants to go away with the provifions, while he beckons Sofia to confer with him in private :

Si. Vos ijlac intro auferte ; abite, Sofia, Adejdum ; faucis te -volo. So. Difium futa Netffx ut curentur refie h<ec. Si. Imo aliud.

Terent Andr., Actus i., Scena 1.

When


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When we compare thefe words with the pi6ture, we cannot but feel that in the latter there is an unneceflary degree of energy put into the pofe of the figures ; which is perhaps lefs the cafe in the other (No. 14), an illuftration of the fixth fcene of the fifth att of the Adelphi of Terence. It reprefents the meeting of Geta, a rather talkative and conceited fervant, and Demea, a countryfied and churlifh old man, his acquaintance, and of courfe fuperior. To Geta's falutation, Demea afks churliflily, as not at firft knowing him, "Who are you?" but when he finds that it is Geta, he changes fuddenly to an almoft fawning tone :

G Sed ecc urn Demeam. Sal-vus fief

D. OA, qui -vocare ? G. Geta. D. Geta, hominem maximi Pretii ejje te kodie judica-vi animo met.

That thefe reprefentations are truthful, the fcenes in the wall-paintings of Pompeii leave us no room to doubt. One of thefe is produced in our cut No. 15, which is no doubt taken from a comedy now loft, and we



No. 15. Comic Scene from Pomf,eii.


are ignorant whom the charaders are intended to reprefent. The pofe given to the two comic figures, compared with the example given from

Berger,


28


Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque


Berger, would lead us to fuppofe that this over-energetic action was confidered as part of the character of comic acting.

The fubject of the Roman mafks is the more interefting, becaufe they were probably the origin of many of the grotefque faces fo often met with in mediaeval fculpture. The comic maflc was, indeed, a very popular object among the Romans, and appears to have been taken as fymbolical of everything that was droll and burlefque. From the comic fcenes of the theatre, to which it was firft appropriated, it pafied to the popular feftivals of a public character, fuch as the Lupercalia, with which, no doubt, it was carried into the carnival of the middle ages, and to our mafquerades. Among the Romans, alfo, the ufe of the maik foon pafied from the public feftivals to private fupper parties. Its ufe was fo common that it became a plaything among children, and was fometimes ufed as a bugbear to frighten them. Our cut No. 16, taken from a painting at



No. 1 6. Cupidi at Play.

Refina, reprefents two cupids playing with a malk, and ufing it for this latter purpofe, that is, to frighten one another ; and it is curious that the mediaeval glofs of Ugutio explains larva, a malk, as being an image, "which was put over the face to frighten children."* The maik thus became a favourite ornament, efpecially on lamps, and on the antefixa and

" Simulacrum quod opponitur faciei ad terrendos parvos." (Ugutio, ap.

Ducange, v. Mafia.)


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and gargoyls of Roman buildings, to which were often given the form of grotefque malks, monftrous faces, with great mouths wide open, and other figures, like thofe of the gargoyls of the mediaeval architects.

While the comic malk was ufed generally in the burlefque entertain- ments, it alfo became diftinctive of particular characters. One of thefe was the fannio, or buffoon, whofe name was derived from the Greek word oarvoQ, "a fool," and who was employed in performing burlefque dances, making grimaces, and in other a6ts calculated to excite the mirth of the lpetator. A reprefentation of the fannio is given in our cut No. 17,



No. 17. The Roman Sannio, or Buffoon.

copied from one of the engravings in the "DiHertatio de Larvis Scenicis," by the Italian antiquary Ficoroni, who took it from an engraved gem. The fannio holds in his hand what is fuppofed to be a brafs rod, and he has

probably


3


Hiflory of Caricature and Grotefque


probably another in the other hand, fo that he could ftrike them together. He wears the foccus, or low fhoe peculiar to the comic a&ors. This buffoon was a favourite character among the Romans, who introduced him conftantly into their feafts and fupper parties. The manducus was another character of this defcription, reprefented with a grotefque mafk, prefenting a wide mouth and tongue lolling out, and laid to have been peculiar to the Atellane plays. A character in Plautus (Rud., ii. 6, 51) talks of hiring himfelf as a manducus in the plays.

" S}mdji aliquo ad ludos me pro manduco locem /"'

The mediaeval glofles interpret manducus by joculator, " a jogelor," and add that the charadteriftic from which he took his name was the practice of making grimaces like a man gobbling up his food in a vulgar and gluttonous manner.

Ficoroni gives, from an engraved onyx, a figure of another burlefque performer, copied in our cut No. 18, and which he compares to the



No. 1 8. Roman Tom Fool.

Catanian dancer of his time (his book was publilhed in 1754), who was called a giangurgolo. This is confidered to reprefent the Roman mimus, a clafs of performers who told with mimicry and action fcenes taken from

common


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common life, and more efpecially fcandalous and indecent anecdotes, like the jogelors and performers of farces in the middle ages. The Romans were very much attached to thefe performances, fo much fo, that they even had them at their funeral proceffions and at their funeral feafts. In our figure, the mimus is reprefented naked, malked (with an exaggerated nofe), and wearing what is perhaps intended as a caricature of the Phrygian bonnet. In his right hand he holds a bag, or purfe, full of objects which rattle and make a noife when fliaken, while the other holds the crotalum, or caflanets, an inftrument in common ufe among the ancients. One of the ftatues in the Barberini Palace reprefents a youth in a Phrygian cap playing on the crotalum. We learn, from an early authority, that it was an inftrument efpecially ufed in the fatirical and burlefque dances which were fo popular among the Romans.

As I have remarked before, the Romans had no tafte for the regular drama, but they retained to the laft their love for the performances of the popular mimi, or comeedi (as they were often called), the players of farces, and the dancers. Thefe performed on the ftage, in the public feftivals, in the ftreets, and were ufually introduced at private parties.* Suetonius tells us that on one occafion, the emperor Caligula ordered a poet who compofed the Atellanes (Atellance poetam) to be burnt in the middle of the amphitheatre, for a pun. A more regular comedy, however, did flourifh, to a certain degree, at the fame time with thefe more popular compofitions. Of the works of the earlieft of the Roman comic writers, Livius Andronicus and Naevius, we know only one or two titles, and a few fragments quoted in the works of the later Roman writers. They were followed by Plautus, who died B.C. 184, and nineteen of whofe comedies are preferved and well known ; by feveral other writers, whofe names are almoft forgotten, and whofe comedies are all loft; and by Terence, fix of whofe comedies are preferved. Terence died about the year 159 B.C. About the fame time with Terence lived

Lucius


  • See, for allusions to the private employment of these performances, Pliny,

Epiit. i. 15, and ix. 36.


32 Htftory of Caricature and Grotefque

Lucius Afranius and Quin&ius Atta, who appear to clofe the lift of the Roman writers of comedy.

But another branch of comic literature had fprung out of the fatire of the religious feftivities. A year after Livius Andronicus produced the firft drama at Rome, in the year 239 B.C., the poet Ennius was born at Rudiae, in Magna Graecia. The fatirical verfe, whether Saturnine or Fefcennine, had been gradually improving in its form, although ftill very rude, but Ennius is faid to have given at leaft a new polifti, and perhaps a new metrical (hape, to it. The verfe was ftill irregular, but it appears to have been no longer intended for recitation, accompanied by the flute. The Romans looked upon Ennius not only as their earlieft epic poet, but as the father of fatire, a clafs of literary compofition which appears to have originated with them, and which they claimed as their own.* Ennius had an imitator in M. Terentius Varro. The fatires ot thefe firft writers are faid to have been very irregular compofitions, mixing profe with verfe, and fometimes even Greek with Latin ; and to have been rather general in their aim than perfonal. But foon after this period, and rather more than a century before Chrift, came Caius Lucilius, who raifed Roman fatirical literature to its perfection. Lucilius, we are told, was the firft who wrote fatires in heroic verfe, or hexameters, mixing with them now and then, though rarely, an iambic or trochaic line. He was more refined, more pointed, and more perfonal, than his predeceflbrs, and he had refcued fatire from the ftreet performer to make it a clafs of literature which was to be read by the educated, and not merely liftened to by the vulgar. Lucilius is faid to have written thirty books of fatires, of which, unfortunately, only fome fcattered lines remain.

Lucilius had imitators, the very names of moft of whom are now for- gotten, but about forty years after his death, and fixty-five years before the birth of Chrift, was born Quintus Horatius Flaccus, the oldeft of the fetirifts whofe works we now poflefs, and the moft polifhed of Roman

poets.

  • Quintilian says, " Satira quidem rota nojtra eft." De Instir. Orator., lib. x. c. i.


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poets. In the time of Horace, the fatire of the Romans had reached its higheft degree of perfection. Of the two other great fatirifts whofe works are preferred, Juvenal was born about the year 40 of the Chriftian era, and Perfius in 43. During the period through which thefe writers flourished, Rome faw a confiderable number of other fatirifts of the fame clafs, whofe works have periftied.

In the time of Juvenal another variety of the fame clafs of literature had already fprung up, more artificial and fomewhat more indirect than the other, the profe fatiric romance. Three celebrated writers reprefent this fchool. Petronius, who, born about the commencement of our era, died in A.D. 65, is the earlieft and moft remarkable of them. He compiled a romance, defigned as a fatire on the vices of the age of Nero, in which real perfons are fuppofed to be aimed at under fictitious names, and which rivals in licenfe, at leaft, anything that could have been uttered in the Atellanes or other farces of the mirni. Lucian, of Samofata, who died an old man in the year 200, and who, though he wrote in Greek, may be confidered as belonging to the Roman fchool, compofed feveral fatires of this kind, in one of the moft remarkable of which, entitled " Lucius, or the Afs," the author defcribes himfelf as changed by forcer)' into the form of that animal, under which he paries through a number of adventures which illuftrate the vices and weaknefles of contemporary fociety. Apuleius, who was considerably the junior of Lucian, made this novel the groundwork of his " Golden Afs," a much larger and more elaborate work, written in Latin. This work of Apuleius was very popular through fubfequent ages.

Let us return to Roman caricature, one form of which feems to have been efpecially a favourite among the people. It is difficult to 'imagine how the ftory of the pigmies and of their wars with the cranes originated, but it is certainly of great antiquity, as it is fpoken of in Homer, and it was a very popular legend among the Romans, who eagerly fought and purchafed dwarfs to make domeftic pets of them. The pigmies and cranes occur frequently among the piftorial ornamentations of the houfes of Pompeii and Herculaneum ; and the painters of Pompeii not only reprefented them in their proper charaaer,but they made ufe of them for

F the


34


Hijlory of Caricature and Grotefque


the purpofe of caricaturing the various occupations of life domeftic and focial fcenes, grave conferences, and many other fubjects, and even perfonal character. In this clafs of caricatures they gave to the pigmies, or dwarfs, very large heads, and very fmall legs and arms. I need hardly remark that this is a clafs of caricature which is very common in modern times. Our firft group of thefe pigmy caricatures (No. 19) is



The Farm-yard in Burlefque.

taken from a painting on the walls of the Temple of Venus, at Pompeii, and reprefents the interior of a farm-yard in burlefque. The ftructure in the background is perhaps intended for a hayrick. In front of it, one of the farm fervants is attending on the poultry. The more important- looking perfonage with the paftoral ftaff is poflibly the overfeer of the farm, who is vifiting the labourers, and this probably is the caufe why their movements have aflumed fo much activity. The labourer on the right is ufing the qfilla, a wooden yoke or pole, which was carried over the moulder, with the corlis, or bafket, fufpended at each end. This was a common method of carrying, and is not unfrequently reprefented on Roman works of art. Several examples might be quoted from the antiquities of Pompeii. Our cut No. 20, from a gem in the Florentine

Mufeum, and illuftratirig another clafs of caricature, that of introducing animals performing the actions and duties of men, reprefents a grafshopper carrying the qfilla and the carles.

A private



No. 20. An Afilla-Bearer.


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A private houfe in Pompeii furnifhed another example of this ftyle of caricature, which is given in our cut No. 21. It reprefents the interior of a painter's fludio, and is extremely curious on account of the numerous details of his method of operation with which it furnifhes us. The



No. 21. A. Painttr^i Studio.

painter, who is, like mod of the figures in thefe pigmy caricatures, very fcantily clothed, is occupied with the portrait of another, who, by the rather exaggerated fulnefs of the gathering of his toga, is evidently intended for a darning and fafliionable patrician, though he is feated as bare-legged and bare-breeched as the artifl himfelf. Both are diftinguifhed by a large allowance of nofe. The eafel here employed refembles greatly the fame article now in ufe, and might belong to the fludio of a modern painter. Before it is a fmall table, probably formed of a flab of (lone, which ferves for a palette, on which the painter fpreads and mixes his colours. To the right a fervant, who fills the office of colour- grinder, is feated by the fide of a veflel placed over hot coals, and appears to be preparing colours, mixed, according to the directions given in old writers, with punic wax and oil. In the background is feated a ftudent, whofe attention is taken from his drawing by what is going on at the other fide of the room, where two fmall perfonages are entering, who look as if they were amateurs, and who appear to be talking about the portrait. Behind them flands a bird, and when the painting was firft

uncovered


36 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque

uncovered there were two. Mazois, who made the drawing from which our cut is taken, before the original had periflied for it was found in a (late of decay imagined that the birds typified fome well-known fingers or muficians, but they are, perhaps, merely intended for cranes, birds fo generally aflbciated with the pigmies.

According to an ancient writer, combats of pigmies were favourite reprefentations on the walls of taverns and (hops ;* and, curioufly enough, the walls of a (hop in Pompeii have furniflied the picture reprefented in our cut No. 22, which has evidently been intended for a caricature,



No. 22. Part of a Triumphal Procejjion.

probably a parody. All the pigmies in this picture are crowned with laurel, as though the painter intended to turn to ridicule fome over- pompous triumph, or fome public, perhaps religious, ceremony. The two figures to the left, who are clothed in yellow and green garments, appear to be difputing the poflefiion of a bowl containing a liquid. One of thefe, like the two figures on the right, has a hoop thrown over his fhoulder. The firft of the latter perfonages wears a violet drels, and holds in his right hand a rod, and in his left a ftatuette, apparently ot a

deity,

  • liri riav KairT}\in>v. Problem. Aristotelic Sec. x. 7.




in Literature and Art.


37


deity, but its attributes are not diftinguifliable. The laft figure to the right has a robe, or mantle, of two colours, red and green, and holds in his hand a branch of a lily, or fome fimilar plant ; the reft of the picture is loft. Behind the other figure Hands a fifth, who appears younger and more refined in character than the others, and feems to be ordering or directing them. His drels is red.

We can have no doubt that political and perlbnal caricature flourifhed among the Romans, as we have fome examples of it on their works of art, chiefly on engraved ftones, though thefe are moftly of a character we could not here conveniently introduce ; but the fame rich mine of Roman art and antiquities, Pompeii, has furnifhed us with one fample of what may be properly confidered as a political caricature. In the year 59 of the Chriftian era, at a gladiatorial exhibition in the amphitheatre of Pompeii, where the people of Nuceria were prefent, the latter exprefied themfelves in fuch fcornful terms towards the Pompeians, as led to a violent quarrel, which was followed by a pitched battle between the inhabitants of the two towns, and the Nucerians, being defeated, carried their complaints before the reigning emperor, Nero, who gave judgment in their favour, and condemned the people of Pompeii to fufpenfion from all theatrical amufements for ten years. The feelings of the Pompeians on this occafion are difplayed in the rude drawing reprefented in our cut No. 23, which is fcratched on the plafter of the external wall of a houfe in the ftreet to which the Italian antiquarians have given the name of the ftreet oi Mercury. A figure, completely armed, his head covered with what might be taken for a mediaeval helmet, is defcending what appear to be intended for the fteps of the amphitheatre. He carries in his hand a palm-branch, the emblem of victory. Another palm-branch ftands ere6t by his fide, and underneath is the infcription, in rather ruftic Latin, " CAMPANI VICTORIA VNA CVM NVCER1NIS PERISTIS " "O Campa- nians, you perifhed in the viftory together with the Nucerians." The other fide cf the picture is more rudely and haftily drawn. It has been fuppofed to reprefent one of the vidors dragging a prifoner, with his arms bound, up a ladder to a ftage or platform, on which he was perhaps to be exhibited to the jeers of the populace. Four years after this event,

Pompeii


Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque


Pompeii was greatly damaged by an earthquake, and fixteen years later came the eruption of Vefuvius, which buried the town, and lef". it in the condition in which it is now found.

This curious caricature belongs to a clafs of monuments to which archaeologifts have given technically the Italian name of graffiti, fcratches or fcrawls, of which a great number, confifting chiefly of writing, have been found on the walls of Pompeii. They alfo occur among the remains on other Roman fites, and one found in Rome itfelf is efpecially intereft-




A Popular Caricature.


ing. During the alterations and extenfions which were made from time to time in the palace of the Caefars, it had been found necefTary to build acrols a narrow ftreet which interfered the Palatine, and, in order to give fupport to the ftru&ure above, a portion of the ftreet was walled off, and remained thus hermetically fealed until about the year 1857, when fome excavations on the fpot brought it to view. The walls of the flreet were found to be covered with thefe graffiti, among which one attracted efpecial attention, and, having been carefully removed, is now preferved in the mufeum of the Collegio Romano. It is a caricature upon a Chriftian

named


in Literature and Art.


39


named Alexamenos, by fome pagan who defpifed Chriftianity. The Saviour is reprefented under the form of a man with the head of an als, extended upon a crofs, the Chriftian, Alexamenos, ftanding on one fide in the attitude of worftiip of that period. Underneath we read the infcrip-



-OEQ'

No. 24. Early Caricature upon a Chriftian,

tion, AAEBAMENO2 CEBETE (for ffejSe-a-) EON, "Alexamenos wormips God." This curious figure, which may be placed among the moft interefting as well as early evidences of the truth of Gofpel hiftory, is copied in our cut No. 24. It was drawn when the prevailing religion at Rome was ftill pagan, and a Chriftian was an object of contempt.


40 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque


CHAPTER III

THE PERIOD OF TRANSITION FROM ANTIftUITY TO THE MIDDLE AGES. THE ROMAN MIMI CONTINUED TO EXIST. THE TEUTONIC AFTER- DINNER ENTERTAINMENTS. CLERICAL SATIRE.? , ARCHBISHOP HE-

RI6ER AND THE DREAMER ; THE SUPPER OF THE SAINTS. TRANSI- TION FROM ANCIENT TO MEDIAEVAL ART. TASTE FOR MONSTROUS

ANIMALS, DRAGONS, ETC. j CHURCH OF SAN FEDELE, AT COMO. - SPIRIT OF CARICATURE AND LOVE OF GROTESQUE AMONG THE ANGLO-SAXONS. GROTESQUE FIGURES OF DEMONS. NATURAL TEN- DENCY OF THE EARLY MEDIAEVAL ARTISTS TO DRAW IN CARICATURE. EXAMPLES FROM EARLY MANUSCRIPTS AND SCULPTURES.

THE tranfition from antiquity to what we ufually underftand by the name of the middle ages was long and flow ; it was a period during which much of the texture of the old fociety was deftroyed, while at the fame time a new life was gradually given to that which remained. We know very little of the comic literature of this period of tranfition ; its literary remains confift chiefly of a mafs of heavy theology and of lives of faints. The ftage in its perfectly dramatic form theatre and amphitheatre had dis- appeared. The pure drama, indeed, appears never to have had great vitality among the Romans, whofe taftes lay far more among the vulgar performances of the mimics and jeflers, and among the favage fcenes of the amphitheatre. While probably the performance of comedies, fuch as thofe of Plautus and Terence, foon went out of fafliion, and tragedies, like thofe of Seneca, were only written as literary compofitions, imitations of the iimilar works which formed fo remarkable a feature in the litera- ture of Greece, the Romans of all ranks loved to witnefs the loofe atti- tudes of their mimi, or Men to their equally loofe fongs and ftories. The theatre and the amphitheatre were ftate inftitutions, kept up at the national expenfe, and, as juft ftated, they perilhed with the overthrow of the weftern empire j and the fanguinary performances of the amphitheatre,

if


in Literature and Art. 4 1


if the amphitheatre itfelf continued to be ufed (which was perhaps the cafe in fome parts of weftern Europe), and they gave place to the more harmlefs exhibitions of dancing bears and other tamed animals,* for deliberate cruelty was not a chara&eriftic of the Teutonic race. But the mimi, the performers who fung fongs and told ftories, accompanied with dancing and mufic, furvived the fall of the empire, and continued to be as popular as ever. St. Auguftine, in the fourth century, calls thefe things nefaria, deteflable things, and fays that they were performed at night.f We trace in the capitularies the continuous exiftence of thefe performances during the ages which followed the empire, and, as in the time of St. Auguftine, they ftill formed the amufement of no6turnal aflemblies. The capitulary of Childebert profcribes thofe who pafled their nights with drunkennefs, jefting, and fongs. % The council of Narbonne, in the year 589, forbade people to fpend their nights "with dancings and filthy fongs." The council of Maye-nce, in 813, calls thefe fongs "filthy and licentious " (turpia atque luocuriofa) ; and that of Paris fpeaks of them as "obfcene and filthy" (obfccena et turpia); while in another they are called "frivolous and diabolic." From the bitternefs with which the ecclefiaftical ordinances are exprefied, it is probable that thefe performances continued to preferve much of their old paganifm j yet it is curious that they are fpoken of in thefe capitularies and a6ts of the councils as being ftill praftifed in the religious feftivals, and even in the churches, fo tenacioufly did the old fentirnents of the race keep their pofleflion of the minds of the populace, long after they had embraced Chriftianity. Thefe "fongs," as they are called, continued alfo to confift not only of general, but of perfonal fatire, and contained

fcandalous


  • On this subject, see my " History of Domestic Manners and Sentiments,"

p. 65. The dancing -bear appears to have been a favourite performer among the Germans at a very early period.

f Per totam noctem cantabantur hie nefaria et a cantaforibus saltabatur. Augustini Serm. 311, part v.

t Noctes pervigiles cum ebrietate, scurrilitate, vel canticis. See the Capitulary in Labbei Concil-, vol. v.

Ut populi saltationibus et turpibus invigilant canticis.

tt


42 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque

fcandalous ftories of perfons living, and well known to thofe who heard them. A capitulary of the Frankifh king Childeric III., publifhed in the year 744, is directed againft tbofe who compofe and fing fongs in defamation of others (in blafphemiam allerius, to ufe the rather energetic language of the original) ; and it is evident that this offence was a very common one, for it is not unfrequently repeated in later records of this character in the fame words or in words to the fame purpofe. Thus one refult of the overthrow of the Roman empire was to leave comic literature almoft in the fame condition in which it was found by Thefpis in Greece and by Livius Andronicus in Rome. There was nothing in it which would be contrary to the feelings of the new races who had now planted themfelves in the Roman provinces.

The Teutonic and Scandinavian nations had no doubt their popular feftivals, in which mirth and frolic bore fway, though we know little about them ; but there were circumftances in their domeftic manners which implied a neceffity for amufement. After the comparatively early meal, the hall of the primitive Teuton was the fcene efpecially in the darker months of winter of long fittings over the feftive board, in which there was much drinking and much talking, and, as we all know, fuch talking could not preferve long a very ferious tone. From Bede's account of the poet Caedmon, we learn that it was the praftice of the Anglo-Saxons in the feventh century, at their entertainments, for all thofe prefent to fing in their turns, each accompanying himfelf with a mufical inftrument. From the fequel of the ftory we are led to fuppofe that thefe fongs were extemporary effufions, probably mythic legends, ftories of perfonal adventure, praife of themfelves, or vituperation of their enemies. In the chieftain's houfehold there appears to have been ufually fome individual who afted the part of the fatirift, or, as we ihould perhaps now fay, the comedian. Hunferth appears as holding fome fuch pofition in Beowulf ; in the later romances, Sir Kay held a fimilar pofition at the court of king Arthur. At a flill later period, the place of thefe heroes was occupied by the court fool. The Roman mimus muft have been a welcome addition to the entertainments of the Teutonic hall, and there is every reafon to think that he was cordially received. The performances

of


in Literature and Art. 43

of the hall were foon delegated from the gueils to fuch hired ators, and we have reprefentations of them m the illuminations of Anglo-Saxon manufcripts.* Among the earlieft amufements of the Anglo-Saxon table were riddles, which in every form prefent fome of the features of the comic, and are capable of being made the fource of much laughter. The faintly Aldhelm condefcended to write fuch riddles in Latin verfe, which were, of courfe, intended for the tables of the clergy. In primitive fociety, verfe was the ordinary form of conveying ideas. A large portion of the celebrated collection of Anglo-Saxon poetry known as the "Exeter Book," confifts of riddles, and this tafte for riddles has continued to exift down to our own times. But other forms of entertainment, if they did net already exift, were foon introduced. In a curious Latin poem, older than the twelfth century, of which fragments only are preferred, and have been publifhed under the title of " Ruodlieb," and which appears to have been a tranflation of a much earlier German romance, we have a curious defcription of the poft-prandial entertainments after the dinner of a great Teutonic chieftain, or king. In the firtt place there was a grand diftribution of rich prefents, and then were mown ftrange animals, and among the reft came bears. Thefe bears flood upon their hind legs, and performed fome of the offices of a man ; and when the minttrels (mimi) came in, and played upon their mufical instruments, thefe animals danced to the mufic, and performed all forts of ftrange tricks.

Et parties urjl

}ui vas tollebant, ut homo, bipedefque gerebant. Afimi quandojides diglth tangunt modularity, llli faltatant, neumas pedibut variabant. Inter dum faliunt, fefeque fuper jaciebant, Alterutrum dorjo Je portabant refidendo, Amplexando fe, lufJando defduntfe.

Then followed dancing-girls, and exhibitions of other kinds.!

Although

  • The reader is referred, for further information on this subject, to my " History

of Domestic Manners and Sentiments," pp. 33-39-

f This curious Latin poem was printed by Grimm and Schmeller, in their Lateinische Gedichte des x. und xi. Jh., p. 129.


44 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque

Although thefe performances were profcribed by the ecclefiaftical laws, they were not difcountenanced by the ecclefiaftics themfelves, who, on the contrary, indulged as much in after-dinner amufements as any- body. The laws againft the profane fongs are often directed efpecially at the clergy ; and it is evident that among the Anglo-Saxons, as well as on the Continent, not only the priefts and monks, but the nuns alfo, in their love of fuch amufements, far tranfgrefied the bounds of decency.* Thefe entertainments were the cradle of comic literature, but, as this literature in the early ages of its hiftory was rarely committed to writing, it has almoft entirely perifhed. But, at the tables of the ecclefiaftics, thefe ftories were fometimes told in Latin verfe, and as Latin was not fo eafily carried in the memory as the vernacular tongue, in this lan- guage they were fometimes committed to writing, and thus a few examples of early comic literature have fortunately been preferred. Thefe confift chiefly of popular ftories, which were among the favourite amufe- ments of mediaeval fociety ftories many of which are derived from the earlieft period of the hiftory of our race, and are ftill cherifhed among our peafantry. Such are the ftories of the Child of Snow, and of the Mendacious Hunter, preferved in a manufcript of the eleventh century. f The firft of thefe was a very popular ftory in the middle ages. According to this early veriion, a merchant of Conftance, in Switzerland, was detained abroad for feveral years, during which time his wife made other acquaintance, and bore a child. On his' return, me excufed her fault by telling him that on a cold wintry day me had fwallowed fnow, by which fhe had conceived ; and, in revenge, the buiband carried away the child, and fold it into flavery, and returning,

told


  • On the character of the nuns among the Anglo-Saxons, and indeed of the

inmates of the monastic houses generally, I would refer my readers to the excellent and interesting volume by Mr. John Thrupp, " The Anglo-Saxon Home : a History of the Domestic Institutions and Customs of England from the fifth to the eleventh century." London, 1862.

f These will be found in M. Ed61estand du Meril's Po&ies Populaires Latines ant6rieures au douzieme siecle, pp. 275, 276.


in Literature and Art. 45

told its mother, that the infant which had originated in fnow, had melted away under a hotter fun. Some of thefe ftories originated in the different collections of fables, which were part of the favourite literature of the later Roman period. Another is rather a ridiculous ftory of an afs belonging to two fitters in a nunnery, which was devoured by a wolf.* It is curious how foon the mediaeval clergy began to imitate their pagan predeceffors in parodying religious fubjeds and forms, of which we have one or two very curious examples. Vifits to purgatory, hell, and paradife, in body or fpirit, were greatly in famion during the earlier part of the middle ages, and afforded extremely good material for fatire. In a metrical Latin ftory, preferred in a manufcript of the eleventh century, we are told how a " prophet," or vifionary, went to Heriger, archbilhop of Mayence from 912 to 926, and told him that he had been carried in a vilion to the regions below, and defcribed them as a place furrounded by thick woods. It was the Teutonic notion of hell, and indeed of all fettlements of peoples ; and Heriger replied with a fneer that he would fend his herdfmen there with his lean fwine to fatten them. Each " mark," or land of a family or clan, in the early Teutonic fettlements, was furrounded by woodland, which was common to all members of the clan for fattening their fwine and hunting. The falfe dreamer added, that he was afterwards carried to heaven, where he faw Chrift fitting at the table and eating. John the Baptift was butler, and ferved excellent wine round to the faints, who were the Lord's guefts. St. Peter was the chief cook. After fome remarks on the appointments to thefe two offices, archbilhop Heriger alked the informant how he was received in the heavenly hall, where he fat, and what he eat. He replied that he fat in a corner, and ftole from the cooks a piece of liver, which he eat, and then departed. Inftead of rewarding him for his information, Heriger took him on his own confeffion for

  • This, and the metrical story next referred to, were printed in the " Altdeutsche

Blatter," edited by Moriz Haupt and Heinrich Hoffmann, vol. i. pp. 390, 392, to whom I communicated them from a manuscript in the University Library at Cambridge.


46 Hiflory of Caricature and Grotefque

for the theft, and ordered him to be bound to a ftake and flogged, which, for the offence, was rather a light punifhment.

Herlger ilium juffit ad f alum lorit ligarlf Jcoplfque cedi, fermone dura hunc arguendo.

Thefe lines will ferve as a fpecimen of the popular Latin verfe in which thefe monkifh after-dinner ftories were written j but the moft remarkable of thefe early parodies on religious fubje6ts, is one which may be defcribed as the fupper of the faints ; its title is fimply Ccena. It is falfely afcribed to St. Cyprian, who lived in the third century] but it is as old as the tenth century, as a copy was printed by profeffor Endlicher from a manufcript of that period at Vienna. It was fo popular, that it is found and known to have exifted in different forms in verfe and in profe. It is a sort of drollery, founded upon the wedding feaft at which the Saviour changed water into wine, though that miracle is not at all introduced into it. It was a great king of the Eaft, named Zoel, who held his nuptial feaft at Cana of Galilee. The perfonages invited are all fcriptural, beginning with Adam. Before the feaft, they wafh in the river Jordan, and the number of the guefts was fo great, that feats could not be provided for them, and they took their places as they could. Adam took the firft place, and feated himfelf in the middle of the aflembly, and next to him Eve fat upon leaves (fuper folia), fig-leaves, we may fuppofe. Cain fat on a plough, Abel on a milk-pail, Noah on an ark, Japhet on tiles, Abraham on a tree, Ifaac on an altar, Lot near the door, and fo with a long lift of others. Two were obliged to ftand Paul, who bore it patiently, and Efau, who grumbled while Job lamented bitterly becaufe he was obliged to fit on a dunghill. Mofes, and others, who came late, were obliged to find feats out of doors. When the king faw that all his guefls had arrived, he took them into his wardrobe, and there, in the fpirit of mediaeval generality, diftributed to them drefies, which had all fome burlefque allufion to their particular characters. Before they were allowed to fit

down


in Literature and Art. 47

down to the feaft, they were obliged to go through other ceremonies, which, as well as the eating, are defcribed in the fame ftyle of cari- cature. The wines, of which there was great variety, were ferved to the guefts with the fame allufions to their individual characters; but fome of them complained that they were badly mixed, although Jonah was the butler. In the fame manner are defcribed the proceedings which followed the dinner, the warning of hands, and the deffert, to the latter of which Adam contributed apples, Samfon honey; while David played on the harp and Mary on the tabor; Judith led the round dance; Jubal played on the pfalter; Afael fung fongs, and Herodias aded the part of the dancing-girl :

Tune Adam poma miniftrat, Samjonfa-vi dulcia. David cytharum percu]]it t et Maria tympana. Judith choreas ducebat, et Jubal pfalteria. metra canebat, faltabat Herodias.


Mambres entertained the company with his magical performances ; and the other incidents of a mediaeval feftival followed, throughout which the fame tone of burlefque is continued ; and fo the ftory continues, to the end.* We mall find thefe incipient forms of mediaeval comic literature largely developed as we go on.

The period between antiquity and the middle ages was one of fuch great and general deftru6tion, that the gulf between ancient and mediaeval art feems to us greater and more abrupt than it really was. The want of monuments, no doubt, prevents our feeing the gradual change of one into the other, but neverthelefs enough of fats remain to convince us that it was not a fudden change. It is now indeed generally underftood that the knowledge and practice of the arts and manufactures of the Romans were handed onward from matter to pupil after the empire had fallen ; and this took place efpecially in the towns, fo that the workman-

____ {hip

  • The text of this singular composition, with a full account of the various forms

in which it was published, will be found in M. du Mfiril's " Ponies Populates Latines ant6rieures au douzieme siecle," p- 193-


4 8


Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque


Jhip which had been declining in character during the later periods of the empire, only continued in the courfe of degradation afterwards. Thus, in the firft Chriftian edifices, the builders who were employed, or at leaft many of them, muft have been pagans, and they would follow their old models of ornamentation, introducing the fame grotefque



No. 15. Saturn Devouring /in Child.

figures, the fame mafks and monftrous faces, and even fometimes the fame fubjecls from the old mythology, to which they had been accuftomed. It is to be obferved, too, that this kind of iconographical ornamentation had been encroaching more and more upon the old architedural purity during the latter ages of the empire, and that it was employed more profufely in the later works, from which this tafte was transferred to the

ecclefiaftical


in Literature and Art. 40

ecclefiaftical and to the domeftic architecture of the middle ages. After the workmen themfelves had become Chriftians, they Hill found pagan emblems and figures in their models, and ftill went on imitating them, fometimes merely copying, and at others turning them to caricature or burlefque. And this tendency continued fo long, that, at a much later date, where there ftill exifted remains of Roman buildings, the mediaeval architects adopted them as models, and did not hefitate to copy the fculpture, although it might be evidently pagan in character. The accompanying cut (No. 25) reprefents a bracket iti the church of Mont Majour, near Nifmes, built in the tenth century. The fubjecl: is a monftrous head eating a child, and we can hardly doubt that it was really intended for a caricature on Saturn devouring one of his children.

Sometimes the mediaeval fculptors miftook the emblematical defigns of the Romans, and mifapplied them, and gave an allegorical meaning to that which was not intended to be emblematical or allegorical, until the fubjefts themfelves became extremely confufed. They readily employed that clafs of parody of the ancients in which animals were reprefented performing the aftions of men, and they had a great tafte for monfters of every defcription, efpecially thofe which were made up of portions of incongruous animals joined together, in contradiction to the precept of Horace :

Humano capiti cervicem piflor equinam Jungerejl -velit, et varias inducere plumas, Undicjue collatis membris, ut turpiter atrum Dejinet in pijcem mulier formofa Juperne ,- Speflatum admijfi rifum teneatis, amid ?

The mediaeval architects loved fuch reprefentations, always and in all parts, and examples are abundant. At Como, in Italy, there is a very ancient and remarkable church dedicated to San Fedele (Saint Fidelis) ; it has been confidered to be of fo early a date as the fifth century. The- fculptures that adorn the doorway, which is triangular-headed, are efpecially interefting. On one of thefe, reprefented in our cut No. 26, in a compartment to the left, appears a figure of an angel, holding in one hand a dwarf figure, probably intended for a child, by a lock of his hair,

H and



No. a6. Sculpture from San Fedele, at C^mo.


Hijlory of Caricature and Grotefque. 5 1

and with the other hand dire6ting his attention to a feated figure in the compartment below. This latter figure has apparently the head of a fheep, and as the head is furrounded with a large nimbus, and the right hand is held out in the attitude of benedidtion, it may be intended to reprefent the Lamb. This perfonage is feated on fomething which is difficult to make out, but which looks fomewhat like a crab-filh. The boy in the com- partment above carries a large bafin in his arms. The adjoining compart- ment to the right contains the reprefentation of a conflict between a dragon, a winged ferpent, and a winged fox. On the oppofite fide of the door, two winged monfters are reprefented devouring a lamb's head. I owe the drawing from which this and the preceding engraving were made to my friend Mr. John Robinfon, the architect, who made the (ketches while travelling with the medal of the Royal Academy. Figures of dragons, as ornaments, were great favourites with the peoples of the Teutonic race ; they were creatures intimately wrapped up in their national mythology and romance, and they are found on all their artiftic monuments mingled together in grotefque forms and groups. When the Anglo-Saxons began to ornament their books, the dragon was continually introduced for ornamental borders and in forming initial letters. One of the latter, from an Anglo-Saxon manufcript of the tenth century (the well-known manufcript of Caedmon, where it is given as an initial V), is reprefented in our cut on the next page, No. 27.

Cqriratnrp. anH hnrlp.fqnp! are naturally intended to be heard and feen_ publiclj^jmd would therefore be figured on fuch monuments as were moft expofed to popular gaze. Such was the cafe, in the earlier periods of the middle ages, chiefly with ecclefiaftical buildings, which explains how they became the grand receptacles of this clals of Art. We have few traces of what may be termed comic literature among our Anglo- Saxon forefathers, but this is fully explained by the circumftance that very little of the popular Anglo-Saxon literature has been preferred. In their feftive hours the Anglo-Saxons feem to have efpecially amufed themfelves in boafting of what they had done, and what they could do; and thefe boafts were perhaps often of a burlefque character, like the gals of the French and Anglo-Norman romancers of a later date, or fo

extravagant


Htftory of Caricature and Grotefque


extravagant as to produce laughter. The chieftains appear alfo to have encouraged men who could make jokes, and fatirife and caricature others ; for the company of fuch men feems to have been cherifhed, and they are not unfrequently introduced in the ftories. Such a perfonage, as I have remarked before, is Hunferth in Beowulf ; fuch was the Sir Kay of the later Arthurian romances ; and fuch too was the Norman minftrel in the hiftory of Hereward, who amufed the Norman foldiers at their feafts by mimicry of the manners of their Anglo-Saxon opponents. The too perfonal fatire of thefe wits often led to quarrels, which ended iu



No. 27. Anglo-Saxon Dragons.

fanguinary brawls. The Anglo-Saxon love of caricature is fhown largely in their proper names, which were moftly lignificant of perfonal qualities their parents hoped they would poflefs ; and in thefe we remark the pronenefs of the Teutonic race, as well as the peoples of antiquity, to reprefent thefe qualities by the animals fuppofed to poflefs them, the animals moft popular being the wolf and the bear. But it is not to be expected that the hopes of the parents in giving the name would always be fulfilled, and it is not an uncommon thing to find individuals lofing their original names to receive in their place nicknames, or names which

probably


in Literature and Art. 5 3

probably exprefied qualities they did pofiefs, and which were given to them by their acquaintances. Thefe names, though often not very complimentary, and even fometimes very much the contrary, completely fuperfeded the original name, and were even accepted by the individuals to whom they applied. The fecond names were indeed fo generally acknowledged, that they were ufed in figning legal documents. An Anglo-Saxon abbefs of rank, whofe real name was Hrodwaru, but who was known univerfally by the name Bugga, the Bug, wrote this latter name in figning charters. We can hardly doubt that fuch a name was intended to afcribe to her qualities of a not agreeable character, and very different to thofe implied by the original name, which perhaps meant, a dweller in heaven. Another lady gained the name of the Crow. It is well known that furnames did not come into ufe till long after the Anglo-Saxon period, but appellatives, like thefe nicknames, were often added to the name for the purpofe of diftinftion, or at pleafure, and thefe, too, being given by other people, were frequently fatirical. Thus, one Harold, for his fwiftnefs, was called Hare-foot j a well-known Edith, for the elegant form of her neck, was called Swan- neck ; and a Thurcyl, for a form of his head, which can hardly have been called beautiful, was named Mare's-head. Among many other names, quite as fatirical as the laft-mentioned, we find Flat-nofe, the Ugly, Squint-eye, Hawk-nofe, c.

Of Anglo-Saxon fculpture we have little left, but we have a few illuminated manufcripts which prefent here and there an attempt at caricature, though they are rare. It would feem, however, that the two favourite fubjeds of caricature among the Anglo-Saxons were the clergy and the evil one. We have .abundant evidence that, from the eighth century downwards, neither the Anglo-Saxon clergy nor the Anglo- Saxon nuns were generally objeds of much refpeft among the people ; and their character and the manner of their lives fufHciently account for it. Perhaps, alfo, it was increafed by the hoftility between the old clergy and the new reformers of Dunftan's party, who would no doubt caricature each other. A manufcript pfalter, in the Univerfity Library, Cambridge (Ff. i, 23), of the Anglo-Saxon period, and apparently of the

tenth


54 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque

tenth century, illuftrated with rather grotefque initial letters, furnimes us with the figure of a jolly Anglo-Saxon monk, given in our cut No. 28, and which it is hardly neceflary to Hate reprefents the letter Q. As we proceed, we fhall fee the clergy continuing to furnifti a butt for the fhafts of fatire through all the middle ages.

The inclination to give to the demons (the middle ages always looked upon them as innumerable) monftrous forms, which eafily ran into the



No. 28. A Jolly Monk.

grotefque, was natural, and the painter, indeed, prided himfelf on drawing them ugly ; but he was no doubt influenced in fo generally caricaturing them, by mixing up this idea with thofe furnimed by the popular fuper- ftitions of the Teutonic race, who believed in multitudes of fpirits, repre- fentatives of the ancient fatyrs, who were of a playfully malicious defcription, and went about plaguing mankind in a very droll manner, and fometimes appeared to them in equally droll forms. They were the Pucks and Robin Goodfellows of later times; but the Chriftian miflionaries to the weft taught their converts to believe, and probably believed them- felves, that all thefe imaginary beings were real demons, who wandered over the earth for people's ruin and deftruction. Thus the grotefque imagination of the converted people was introduced into the Chriftian fyftem of demonology. It is a part of the fubjed to which we ihall return in our next chapter ; but I will here introduce two examples of

die


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the Anglo-Saxon demons. To explain the firfl. of thefe, it will be neceflary to ftate that, according to the mediaeval notions, Satan, the arch demon, who had fallen from heaven for his rebellion againft the Almighty, was not a free agent who went about tempting mankind, but he was himfelf plunged in the abyfs, where he was held in bonds, and tormented by the demons who peopled the infernal regions, and alfo iflued thence to feek their prey upon God's neweft creation, the earth. The hiftory of Satan's fall, and the defcription of his pofition (No. 29), form the fubjeft of the earlier part of the Anglo-Saxon poetry afcribed to Caedmon, and it is one of the illuminations to the manufcript of Caedmon (which is now preferred at Oxford), which has furnilhed us with our cut,



No. 29. Satan in Bonds.

reprefenting Satan in his bonds. The fiend is here pictured bound to flakes, over what appears to be a gridiron, while one of the demons, rifing out of a fiery furnace, and holding in his hand an inftrument of punimment, feems to be exulting over him, and at the fame time urging on the troop of grotefque imps who are fwarming round and tormenting their vicYtm. The next cut, No. 30, is alfo taken from an Anglo-Saxon

manufcript


Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque


manuicript, preferred in the Britifh Mufeum (MS. Cotton., Tiberius, C. vi.), which belongs to the earlier half of the eleventh century, and contains a copy of the pfalter. It gives us the Anglo-Saxon notion of the demon under another form, equally characteristic, wearing only a girdle of flames, but in this cafe the efpecial fingularity of the defign confifts in the eyes in the fiend's wings.

Another circumftance had no doubt an in- fluence on the mediaeval tafte for grotefque and caricature the natural rudenels of early mediaeval art. The wn'ers of antiquity tell us of a remote period of Grecian art when it was neceflary to write under each figure of a picture the name of what it was intended to reprefent, in order to make the whole intelligible " this is a horfe," "this is a man," "this is a tree." Without being quite fo rude as this, the early mediaeval artifts, through ignorance of perfpective, want of know- ledge of proportion, and of fkill in drawing, found great difficulty in reprefenting a fcene in which there was more than one figure, and in which it was neceflary to diftinguifh them from each other; and they were continually trying to help themfelves by adopting conventional forms or conventional pofitions, and by fometimes adding fymbols that did not exactly reprefent what they meant. The exaggeration in form confifted chiefly in giving an undue prominence to fome characteriftic feature, which anfwered the fame purpofe as the Anglo-Saxon nickname and dif- tinctive name, and which is, in fact, one of the firft principles of all cari- cature. Conventional pofitions partook much of the character of conventional forms, but gave ftill greater room for grotefque. Thus the very firft characteristics of mediaeval art implied the exiftence of caricature, and no. doubt led to the tafte for the grotefque. The effect of this

influence



No. 30 Satan.


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influence is apparent everywhere, and in innumerable cafes ferious pictures of the graveft and moft important fubjefts are (imply and abfolutely caricatures. Anglo-Saxon art ran much into this ftyle, and is often very grotefque in charader. The firft example we give (cut No. 31) is taken from one of the illuftrations to Alfric's Anglo-



ffo. 31. The Temptation.

Saxon verfion of the Pentateuch, in the profufely illuminated manufcript in the Britifti Mufeum (MS. Cotton., Claudius B iv.), which was written at the end of the tenth, or beginning of the eleventh, century. It reprefents the temptation and fall of man ; and the fubjecl: is treated, as will be feen, in a rather grotefque manner. Eve is evidently dictating to her hufband, who, in obeying her, {hows a mixture of eagernefs and trepidation Adam is no lefs evidently going to fwallow the apple whole, which is, perhaps, in accordance with the mediaeval legend, according to which the fruit ftuck in his throat. It is hardly neceflary to remark that the tree is entirely a conventional one ; and it would be difficult to imagine how it came to bear apples at all. The mediaeval artifts were extremely unfkilful in drawing trees j to thefe they ufually gave the forms of cabbages, or fome fuch plants, of which the form was fimple, or often of a mere bunch of leaves. Our next example (cut No. 32) is alfo

i Anglo-


Hi/lory of Caricature and Grotefque


Anglo-Saxon, and is furnifhed by the manufcript'in the Britifh Mufeum already mentioned (MS. Cotton., Tiberius C vi.) It probably reprefents young David killing the lion, and is remarkable not only for the ftrange pofture and bad proportions of the man, but for the tranquillity of the animal and the exaggerated and violent action of its flayer. This is very commonly the cafe in the mediaeval drawings and fculptures, the artifts apparently poffefling far lefs fkill in reprefenting action in an animal than in man, and therefore more rarely attempting it. Thefe illustrations are



No. 32 Da-vid and tht Lion.

both taken from illuminated manufcripts. The two which follow are furnifhed by fculptures, and are of a rather later date than the preceding. The abbey of St. George of Bofcherville, in the diocefe of Auxerre (in Normandy), was founded by Ralph de Tancarville, one of the minifters of William the Conqueror, and therefore in the latter half of the eleventh century. A hiflory of this religious houfe was publiihed by a clever local antiquary M. Achille Deville from whofe work we take our cut No. 33,


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one of a few rude fculptures on the abbey church, which no doubt belonged to the original fabric. It is not difficult to recognife the fubjecl: as Jofeph taking the Virgin Mary with her Child into Egypt j but there is fomething exceedingly droll m the unintentional caricature of the faces, as well as in the whole defign. The Virgin Mary appears without a nimbus, while the nimbus of the Infant Jefus is made to look very like a bonnet. It may be remarked that this fubjecl: of the flight into Egypt is by no means an uncommon one in mediaeval art j and a drawing of



No. 33. The Flight into Egypt.

the fame fubjeft, copied in my " Hiftory of Domeftic Manners and Sentiments" (p. 115), prefents a remarkable illuftration of the contraft of the fkill of a Norman fculptor and of an almoft contemporary Anglo- Norman illuminator. Our cut alfo furnifhes us with evidence of the error of the old opinion that ladies rode aftride in the middle ages. Even one, who by his ftyle of art muft have been an obfcure local carver on ftone, when he reprefented a female on horfeback, placed her in the pofition which has always been confidered fuitable to the fex.

For


60 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque


For the drawing of the other fculpture to which I allude, I am indebted to Mr. Robinfon. It is one of the fubje6ts carved on the fagade of the church of St. Gilles,. near Nifmes, and is a work of the twelfth century. It appears to reprefent the young David flaying the giant GoliaJi, the latter fully armed in fcale armour, and with (hield



No. 34. Druid and Goliah.


and fpear, like a Norman knight ; while to David the artift has given a figure which is feminine in its forms. What we might take at firft fight for a balket of apples, appears to be meant for a fupply of Hones for the fling which the young hero carries fufpended from his neck. He has flain the giant with one of thefe, and is cutting off his head with his own fword.


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CHAPTER IV

THE DIABOLICAL IN CARICATURE. MEDIAEVAL LOVE OF THE LUDICROUS.

CAUSES WHICH MADE IT INFLUENCE THE NOTIONS OF DEMONS.

STORIES OF THE PIOUS PAINTER AND THE ERRING MONK. DARKNESS

AND UGLINESS CARICATURED. THE DEMONS IN THE MIRACLE PLAYS. THE DEMON OF NOTRE DAME.

AS I have already ftated in the laft chapter, there can be no doubt that the whole fyftem of the demonology of the middle ages was derived from the older pagan mythology. The demons of the monkiih legends were fimply the elves and hobgoblins of our forefathers, who haunted woods, and fields, and waters, and delighted in mifleading or plaguing mankind, though their mifchief was ufuallyof a rather mirthful character. They were reprefented in claflical mythology by the fauns and latyrs, who had, as we have feen, much to do with the birth of comic literature among the Greeks and Romans j but thefe Teutonic elves were more ubiquitous than the fatyrs, as they even haunted men's houfes, and played tricks, not only of a mifchievous, but of a very familiar character. The Chriftian clergy did not look upon the perfonages of the popular fuper- flitions as fabulous beings, but they taught that they were all diabolical, and that they were fo many agents of the evil one, conftantly employed in enticing and entrapping mankind. Hence, in the mediaeval legends, we frequently find demons prefenting themfelves under ludicrous forms or in ludicrous fituations ; or performing atts, fuch as eating and drinking, which are not in accordance with their real character; or at times even letting themfelves be outwitted or entrapped by mortals in a very undignified manner. Although they affumed any form they pleafed, their natural form was remarkable chiefly for being extremely ugly; one of them, which appeared in a wild wood, is defcribed by Giraldus Cambrenfis, who wrote at the end of the twelfth century, as being hairy,

flaggy.


62


Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque


lhaggy, and rough, and monftroufly deformed.* According to a mediaeval ftory, which was told in different forms, a great man's cellar was once haunted by thefe demons, who drank all his wine, while the owner was totally at a lofs to account for its rapid difappearance. After many unfuccefsful attempts to difcover the depredators, fome one, probably fufpe&ing the truth, fuggefted that he fhould mark one of the barrels with holy water, and next morning a demon, much refembling the defcription given by Giraldus, was found ftuck faft to the barrel. It is told alfo of Edward the Confefibr, that he once went to fee the tribute



No. 35. The Demon of the Trcafure.


called the Danegeld, and it was fliown to him all packed up in great barrels ready to be fent away for this appears to have been the ufual mode of tranfporting large quantities of money. The faintly king had the faculty of being able to fee fpiritual beings a fort of fpiritual fecond- fight

  • " Formam quandam viliosam, hispidam, et hirsutam, adeoque enormiter

deformem." Girald. Camb., Itiner. Camb., lib. i. c. 5.


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fight and he beheld feated on the largeft barrel, a devil, who was " black and hideous."

Vit un deable faer defut

Le trefor, noir et hidus. Life of S. Edward, 1. 944.

An early illuminator, in a manufcnpt preferred in the library of Trinity College, Cambridge (MS. Trin. Col., B x. 2), has left us a pi&orial reprefentation of this fcene, from which I copy his notion of the form of the demon in cut No. 35. The general idea is evidently taken from the figure of the goat, and the relationship between the demon and the claffical fatyr is very evident.

{Tglinpfe was an pflfcnfja] rharacteriftic of the demons, and, moreover, <lheir features_have ufually a mirthful caft. as though fhpy grgatly enjoyed Jhejr occupation^ There is a mediaeval flory of a young monk, who was facriftan to an abbey, and had the directions of the building and orna- mentation. The carvers of ftone were making admirable reprefentations of hell and paradife, in the former of which the demons " feemed to take great delight in well tormenting their victims "

Qui par femblant ft delitoit En ce que bien Us tormentolt.

The facriftan, who watched the fculptors every day, was at laft moved by pious zeal to try and imitate them, and he fet to work to make a devil himfelf, with fuch fuccefs, that his fiend was fo black and ugly that nobody could look at it without terror.

Tant qu'un deable a fere emfrijl ; Sf / miftfa polne et fa cure, Que la forme fuji of cure Etji /aide, que cil doutafl Que entre deus oik refgardaj}.

The facriftan, encouraged by his fuccefs for it muft be underftood that his art was a fudden infpiration (as he had not been an artift before) continued his work till it was completed, and then " it was fo horrible and fo ugly, that all who faw it affirmed upon their oaths that they had


64 ' Hi ft or y of Caricature and Grotejque

never feen fo ugly a figure either in fculpture or in painting, or one which had fo repulfive an appearance, or a devil which was a better likenefs than the one this monk had made for them "-

Si horribles fu etji lez,

Que treftou-z celi que le vcoicnt

Seur leur ferement afermoient

C'onquei mesji laide figure,

Ne en faille ne en peinture,

N^avolent a nul jor -veue,

Qulji cuft lalde veue,

Ne deable miex contrefet

<$ue ell moines leur etvoit fet. Meon's Fabliaux, torn. ii. p. 414.

The demon himfelf now took offence at the affront which had been put upon him, and appearing the night following to the facriftan, reproached him with having made him fo ugly, and enjoined him to break the fculpture, and execute anothei reprefenting him better looking, on pain of very fevere puniftiment j but, although this vifit was repeated thrice, the pious monk refufed to comply. The evil one now began to work in another way, and, by his cunning, he drew the facriftan into a difgraceful amour with a lady of the neighbourhood, and they plotted not only to elope together by night, but to rob the monaftery of its treafure, which was of courfe in the keeping of the facriftan. They were difcovered, and caught in their flight, laden with the treafure, and the unfaithful facriftan was thrown into prifon. The fiend now appeared to him, and promifed to clear him out of all his trouble on the mere condition that he fliould break his ugly ftatue, and make another reprefenting him as looking handfome a bargain to which the facriftan acceded without further hefitation. It would thus appear that the demons did not like to be reprefented ugly. In this cafe, the fiend immediately took the form and place of the facriftan, while the latter went to his bed as if nothing had happened. When the other monks found him there next morning, and heard him difclaim all knowledge of the robbery or of the prifon, they hurried to the latter place, and found the devil in chains-, who, when they attempted to exorcife him, behaved in a very turbulent manner, and

difappeared


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difappeared from their fight. The monks believed that it was all a deception of the evil one, while thfe facriftan, who was not inclined to brave his difpleafure a fecond time, performed faithfully his part of the contract, and made a devil who did not look ugly. In another verfion ol the ftory, however, it ends differently. After the third warning, the monk went in defiance of the devil, and made his picture uglier than ever; in revenge for which the demon came unexpectedly and broke the ladder on which he was mounted at his work, whereby the monk would undoubtedly have been killed. But the Virgin, to whom he was much devoted, came to his afMance, and, feizing him with her hand, and holding him in the air, difappointed the devil of his purpofe. It is this latter denouement which is reprefented in the cut No. 36, taken from the



No. 36. The Pious Sculptor.

celebrated manufcript in the Britifh Mufeum known as " Queen Mary's Pfalter " (MS. Reg. 2 B vii.). The two demons employed here prefent, well defined, the air of mirthful jollity which was evidently derived from the popular hobgoblins.

There was another popular ftory, which alfo was told under feveral

K forms.


66


Hijlory of Caricature and Grotefque


forms. The old Norman hiftorians tell it of their duke Richard Sanf- Peur. There was a monk of the abbey of St. Ouen, who alfo held the office of facriftan, but, neglecting the duties of his pofition, entered into an intrigue with a lady who dwelt in the neighbourhood, and was accuf- tomed at night to leave the abbey fecretly, and repair to her. His place as facriftan enabled him thus to leave the houfe unknown to the other brethren. On his way, he had to pafs the little river Robec, by means of a plank or wooden bridge, and one night the demons, who had been watching him on his errand of fin, caught him on the bridge, and threw him over into the water, where he was drowned. One devil feized his foul, and would have carried it away, but an angel came to claim him on account of his good actions, and the difpute ran fo high, that duke Richard, whofe piety was as great as his courage, was called in to decide it. The fame manufcript from which our laft cut was taken has furniftied our cut No. 37, which reprefents two demons tripping up the monk, and



No. 37. The Monk" i Difafter.

throwing him very unceremonioufly into the river. The body of one of the demons here affumes the form of an animal, inftead of taking, like the other, that of a man, and he is, moreover, furnifhed with a dragon's wings. There was one verfion of this ftory, in which it found its place among the legends of the Virgin Mary, inftead of thofe of duke Richard. The monk, in fpite of his failings, had been a conftant worlhipper of the Virgin, and, as he was falling from the bridge into the river, me ftepped forward to protect him from his perfecutors, and taking hold of him with her hand, faved him from death. One of the compart- ments of the rather early wall-paintings in Winchefter Cathedral reprefents the icene according to this verfion of the ftory, and is copied in our cut

No. 38. The fiends here take more fantaftic Ihapes than we have

Nn, 38. The Demons Dif appointed.

previously feen given to them. They remind us already of the infinitely varied grotefque forms which the painters of the age of the Renaifiance crowded together in fuch fubjects as " The Temptation of St. Anthony." In fact these ftrange notions of the forms of the demons were not only preferved through the whole period of the middle ages, but are ftill hardly extinct. They appear in almoft exaggerated forms in the illuftrations to books of a popular religious character which appeared in the firft ages of printing. I may quote, as an example, one of the cuts of an early and very rare block-book, entitled the Ars Moriendi, or "Art of Dying," or, in a fecond title, De Tentationilus Morientium, on the temptations to which dying men are expofed. The fcene, of which a part is given in

the


68


Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque


the annexed cut (No. 39), is in the room of the dying man, whofe bed is fur- rounded by three demons, who are come to tempt him, while his relatives of both fexes are looking on quite unconfcious of their prefence. VThe figures of thefe demons are particujarj^-gqrtefaue^juid-thf i r "gl.v features


betray a degree of vulgar cunningj^hichjulds not a little to this effecl.. The one leaning over the dying man fuggeils to him the words exprefied in the label iffuing from his mouth, Provideas amicis, " provide for your friends " while the one whofe heajd appears to the left whifpers to him,



No. 39. A Med'nt-val Death- bed.

Yntende thefauro, "think of your treafure." The dying man feems grievoufly perplexed with the various thoughts thus fuggefted to him. Why did the mediaeval nhr^flians think it neceffary to make the


black and ugly ? The firft reply to this queftion which prefents itfelf is, that the rhqrafteriftirs i ntgadedLXoJbe repreJeJited_were__the.,biaknefe-aBd uglinefs of fin. This, however, is only partially the explanation of the facl: ; for there can be no doubt that the notion was a popular one, and that it had previoufly exifled in the popular mythology ; and, as has been already remarked, the uglinefs exhibited bv them is a vnlgai-j mirthful which makes you laugh inftead of fliudder. Another fcene,

from


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from the interefting drawings at the foot of the pages in " Queen Mary's Pfalter," is given in our cut No. 40. It reprefents that moft popular of mediaeval pi&ures, and, at the fame time, moft remarkable of literal interpretations, hell mouth. The entrance to the infernal regions was always reprefented pidorially as the mouth of a monftrous animal, where the demons appeared leaving and returning. Here they are feen bringing the finful fouls to their laft deftination, and it cannot be denied that they are doing the work right merrily and jovially. In our cut



No. 40. Condemned Souls carried to their Place of Punifhment.

No. 41, from the manufcript in the library of Trinity College, Cambridge, which furnifhed a former fubje<5t, three demons, who appear to be the guardians of the entrance to the regions below for it is upon the -brow above the monftrous mouth that they are ftanding prefent varieties of the diabolical form. The one in the middle is the moft remarkable, for he has wings not only on his fhoulders, but alfo on his knees and heels. All three have horns ; in fact, the three fpecial charadteriftics of mediaeval demons were horns, hoofs or, at leaft, the feet of beafts, and tails, which fufficiently indicate the fource from which the popular notions of thefe beings were derived. In the cathedral of Treves, there is a mural painting by William of Cologne, a painter of the fifteenth- century, which

reprefents


yo Hi/lory of Caricature and Grotefque

reprefents the entrance to the fhades, the monftrous mouth, with its keepers, in ftill more grotefque forms. Our cut No. 42 gives but a fmall portion of this pidure, in which the porter of the regions of punifh- ment is fitting aftride the fnout of the monftrous mouth, and is founding with a trumpet what may be fuppofed to be the call for thofe who are condemned. Another minftrel of the fame ftamp, fpurred, though not booted, fits aftride the tube of the trumpet, playing on the bagpipes; and the found which iffues from the former inftrument is reprefented by a hoft of fmaller imps who are fcattering themfelves about.

It muft not be fuppofed that, in fubjedts like thefe, the drollery of the fcene was accidental ; but, on the contrary, the mediaeval artifts and



No. 41 . The Guardlam of Hell Mouth.

popular writers gave them this character purpofely. The demons and the executioners the latter of whom were called in Latin for/ores, and in popular old Englifh phrafeology the " tormentours " were the comic characters of the time, and the fcenes in the old myfteries or religious plays in which they were introduced were the comic fcenes, or farce, of

the


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the piece. The love of burlefque and caricature was, indeed, fo deeply planted in the popular mind, that it was found necefiary to introduce them even in pious works, in which fuch fcenes as the flaughter of the innocents, where the " knights " and the women abufed each other in vulgar language, the treatment of Chritt at the time of His trial, fome parts of the fcene of the crucifixion, and the day of judgment, were eflentially comic. The laft of thefe fubjects, efpecially, was a fcene of mirth, becaufe it often confitted throughout of a coarfe fatire on the vices



No 42. The Trumpeter of Evil.


of the age, efpecially on thofe which were moft obnoxious to the populace, fuch as the pride and vanity of the higher ranks, and the extortions and frauds of ufurers, bakers, taverners, and others. In the play of " Juditium," or the day of doom, in the " Towneley Myfteries," one of the earlieft collections of myfteries in the Englifh language, the whole converfation among the demons is exactly of that joking kind which we might expect from their countenances in the pictures. When one of them appears carrying a bag full of different offences, another, his companion, is fo joyful at this circumftance, that he fays it makes him laugh till he is out

of


J2. Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque

of breath, or, in other words, till he is ready to burft ; and, while alking if anger be not among the fins he had colle&ed, propofes to treat him with fomething to drink

Primus daemon. Peafese, I fray tne, be ftllle , I laghe that I kynke. Is oghte ire in thl bille? and then falle thou drynke, Towneley Mysteries, p. 309.

And in the continuation of the converfation, one telling of the events which had preceded the announcement of Doomfday says, rather jeeringly, and fomewhat exultingly, " Souls came fo thick now of late to hell, that our porter at hell gate is ever held fo clofe at work, up early and down late, that he never refts"

Battles cam fo thyk ncno late unto helle t

As ever

Oure porter at helle gate Is halden fo flrate, Up erly and doivne late,

He ryftys never. Ib., p. 314.

With fuch popular notions on the fubjeft, we have no reafon to be furprifed that the artifts of the middle ages frequently chofe the figures of demons as objects on which to exercife their fkill in burlefque and carica- ture, that they often introduced grotefque figures of their heads and bodies in the fculptured ornamentation of building, and that they prefented them in ludicrous fituations and attitudes in their pictures. They are often brought in as fecondary actors in a picture in a very fingular manner, of which an excellent example is furnifhed by the beautifully illuminated manufcript known as " Queen Mary's Pfalter," which is copied in our cut No. 43. Nothing is more certain than that in this inftance the intention of the artift was perfectly ferious. Eve, under the influence of a rather fingularly formed ferpent, having the head of a beautiful woman and the body of a dragon, is plucking the apples and offering them to Adam, who is preparing to eat one, with evident hefitation and reluctance. But three demons, downright hobgoblins, appear as fecondary actors in the fcene, who exercife an influence upon the principals. One is patting Eve on

the


in Literature and Art.


73


the ftioulder, with an air of approval and encouragement, while a fecond, with wings, is urging on Adam, and apparently laughing at his appre- henfions ; and a third, in a very ludicrous manner, is preventing him from drawing back from the trial.

In all the delineations of demons we have yet feen, the ludicrous is the fpirit which chiefly predominates, and in no one inftance have we had a figure which is really demoniacal. The devils are droll but not frightful 5 they provoke laughter, or at leaft excite a fmile, but they



No. 43. The Fall of Man.

create no horror. Indeed, they torment their victims fo good-humouredly, that we hardly feel for them. There is, however, one well-known inftance in which the mediaeval artift has mown himfelf fully fuccefsful in reprefenting the features of the fpirit of evil. On the parapet of the external gallery of the cathedral church of Notre Dame in Paris, there is a figure in ftone, of the ordinary flature of a man, reprefenting the demon, apparently looking with fatisfa&ion upon the inhabitants of the city as they were everywhere indulging in fin and wickednefs. We give a Jketch of this figure in our cut No. 44. The unmixed evil horrible in

i. its


74 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque


its expreffion in this countenance is marvelloufly portrayed. It is an abfolute Mephiftophiles, carrying in his features a ftrange mixture of hateful qualities malice, pride, envy in fat, all the deadly fins combined in one diabolical whole.



No. 44. The Spirit of Evil.


in Literature and Art. 75

CHAPTER V.

EMPLOYMENT OF ANIMALS IN MEDIEVAL SATIKE. POPULARITY OP

FABLES ; ODO DE CIRINGTON. REYNARD THE FOX. BURNELLUS

AND FAUVEL. THE CHARIVARI. LE MONDE BESTORNE. ENCAUSTIC

TILES. SHOEING THE GOOSE, AND FEEDING PIGS WITH ROSES.

SATIRICAL SIGNS J THE MUSTARD MAKER.

THE people of the middle ages appear to have been great admirers of animals, to have obferved clofely their various characters and peculiarities, and to have been fond 01 domefticating them. Thgy-feon- began to employ their_pjculiaritin m mr? 1 ^ y f rcif .irifing and caricaturinfc- Jrnankind ; and among the literature bequeathed to them by the Romans, they received no book more eagerly than the " Fables of JEfop," and the other collections of fables which were publilhed under the empire. We find no traces of fables among the original literature of the German race ; but the tribes who took poffeffion of the Roman provinces no fooner became acquainted with the fables of the ancients, than they began to imitate them, and ftories in which animals afted the part of men were multiplied immenfely, and became a very important branch of mediaeval fiction.

Among the Teutonic peoples efpecially, thefe fables often affumed very grotefque forms, and the fatire they convey is very amufing. One of the earlieft of thefe collections of original fables was compofed by an Englilh ecclefiaftic named Odo de Cirington, who lived in the time of Henry II. and Richard I. In Odo's fables, we find the animals figuring under the fame popular names by which they were afterwards fo well known, fuch as Reynard for the fox, Ifengrin for the wolf, Teburg for the cat, and the like. Thus the fubjeft of one of them is " Ifengrin made Monk " (de Ifengrino monacho). "Once," we are told, " Ifengrin defired to be a monk. By dint of fervent fupplications, he obtained the confent of the

chapter,


Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque


chapter, and received the tonfure, the cowl, and the other infignia of monachifm. At length they put him to fchool, and he was to learn the ' Paternofter,' but he always replied, ' lamb ' (agnus) or 'ram' (dries). The monks taught him that he ought to look upon the crucifix and upon the facrament, but he ever direfted his eyes to the lambs and rams." The fable is droll enough, but the moral, or application is ftill more grotefque. " Such is the conduct of many of the monks, whofe only cry is ' aries,' that is, good wine, and who have their eyes always fixed on fat flefh and their platter ; whence the faying in "Englifh

They thou the vulf hart Thwgh thou the hoary iuolf

hod to prefte t conjecratc to a frieft,

they thou him to fkole fette though thou put him to fchool

falmes to lerne, to learn Pfalmt,

hevere bet hife gerei ever are his ears turned

to the grove grene" to the green grove.

Thefe lines are in the alliterative verfe of the Anglo-Saxons, and (how that fuch fables had already found their place in the popular poetry of the Englifh people. Another of thefe fables is entitled " Of the Beetle (fcralo) and his Wife." " A beetle, flying through the land, palled among moft beautiful blooming trees, through orchards and among rofes and lilies, in the moft lovely places, and at length threw himfelf upon a dunghill among the dung of horfes, and found there his wife, who alked him whence he came. And the beetle faid, ' I have flown all round the earth and through it ; I have feen the flowers of almonds, and lilies, and rofes, but I have feen no place fo pleafant as this,' pointing to the dung- hill." The application is equally droll with the former and equally un- complimentary to the religious part of the community. Odo de Cirington tells us that, " Thus many of the clergy, monks, and laymen liflen to the lives of the fathers, pafs among the lilies of the virgins, among the rofes of the martyrs, and among the violets of the confeflbrs, yet nothing ever appears fo pleafant and agreeable as a ftrumpet, or the tavern, or a finging party, though it is but a flunking dunghill and congregation of finners."

Popular fculpture and painting were but the tranflation of popular literature, and nothing was more common to reprefent, in pictures and

carvings,


in Literature and Art. 77

carvings, than individual men under the forms of the animals who difplayed fimilar characters or fimilar propenfities. Cunning,, treachery, and intrigue were the prevailing vices of the middle ages, and they were thofe alfo of the fox, who hence became a favourite character in fatire. The victory of craft over force always provoked mirth. The fabulifts, or, we fhould perhaps rather fay, the fatirifts, foon began to extend their canvas and enlarge their picture, and, inftead of fingle examples of fraud or injuftice, they introduced a variety of characters, not only foxes, but wolves, and fheep, and bears, with birds alfo, as the eagle, the cock, and the crow, and mixed them up together in long narratives, which thus formed general fatires on the vices of contemporary fociety. In this manner originated the celebrated romance of " Reynard the Fox," which in various forms, from the twelfth century to the eighteenth, has enjoyed a popularity which was granted probably to no other book. The plot of this remarkable fatire turns chiefly on the long ftruggle between the brute force of Ifengrin the Wolf, poflefled only with a fmall amount of intelligence, which is eafily deceived under which character is prefented the powerful feudal baron and the craftinefs of Reynard the Fox, who reprefents the intelligent portion of fociety, which had to hold its ground by its wits, and thefe were continually abufed to evil purpofes. Reynard is fwayed by a conflant impulfe to deceive and vidimife everybody, whether friends or enemies, but efpecially his uncle Ifengrin. It was fomewhat the relationfhip between the ecclefiaflical and baronial ariftocracy. Reynard was educated in the fchools, and intended for the clerical order ; and at different times he is reprefented as a&ing under the difguife of a prieft, of a monk, of a pilgrim, or even of a prelate of the church. Though frequently reduced to the greateft ftraits by the power of Ifengrin, Reynard has generally the better of it in the end : he robs and defrauds Ifengrin continually, outrages his wife, who is half in alliance with him, and draws him into all forts of dangers and fufferings, for which the latter never fucceeds in obtaining juftice. The old fculptors and artifts appear to have preferred exhibiting Reynard in his ecclefiaftical difguifes, and in thefe he appears often in the ornamentation of mediaeval architectural fculpture, in wood-carvings, in

the


Hi/lory of Caricature and Grotefaue


the illuminations of manufcripts, and in other objefts of art. The popular feeling againft the clergy was llrong in the middle ages, and no caricature was received with more favour than thofe which expofed the immorality or difhonefty of a monk or a pried. Our cut No. 45 is taken from a

fculpture in the church of Chriftchurch, in Hampmire, for the drawing of which I am indebted to my friend, Mr. Llewellynn Jewitt. It reprefents Reynard in the pulpit preaching ; behind, or rather perhaps befide him, a diminutive cock ftands upon a ftool in modern times we fhould be inclined to fay he was acting as clerk. Reynard's coftume confifls merely of the ecclefiatlical hood or cowl. Such fubje6ts are frequently found on the carved feats, or mifereres, in the ftalls of the old cathedrals and collegiate churches. The painted glafs of the great window of the north crofs-aifle of St. Martin's church in Leicefter, which was deftroyed in the laft century, reprefented the fox, in the character of an ecclefiaftic, preaching to a congregation of geefe, and addreffing them in the words Teftis eft mihi Deus, quam cupiam vos omnes vifceribus meis (God is witnefs, how I defire you all in my bowels), a parody on the words of the New Teflament.* Our cut No. 46 is taken from one of the mifereres in the church of St. Mary, at Beverley, in Yorkftiire. Two foxes are reprefented in the difguife of ecclefiaftics, each furniihed with a paftoral ftaff, and they appear to be receiving inftructions from a prelate or perfonage of rank perhaps they are undertaking a pilgrimage of penance. But their fmcerity is rendered fomewhat doubtful by the geefe concealed in their

hoods.



No. 45. The Fox in the Fulfil.


  • An engraving of thi<= scene, modernised in character, is given in Nichols's

" Leicestershire," vol. i. plate 43.


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79


hoods. In one of the incidents of the romance of Reynard, the hero enters a monaftery and becomes a monk, in order to efcape the wrath of



No. 46. Ecclefiaftical Sincerity.

King Noble, the lion. For fome time he made an outward Ihow of

fan&ity and felf-privation, but unknown to his brethren he fecretly helped

himfelf freely to the good things of the

monaftery. One day he obferved, with

longing lips, a meflenger who brought

four fat capons as a prefent from a lay

neighbour to the abbot. That night,

when all the monks had retired to reft,

Reynard obtained admifiion to the larder,

regaled himfelf with one of the capons,

and as foon as he had eaten it, trufled

the three others on his back, efcaped

fecretly from the abbey, and, throwing

away his monadic garment, hurried

home with his prey. We might almoft

imagine our cut No. 47, taken from one

of the flails of the church of Nantwich,

in Chelhire, to have been intended to No - 47- R*i*ard turned Mont.

reprefent this incident, or, at leaft, a fimilar one. Our next cut, No. 48,



8o


Htftory of Caricature and Grotefque


is taken from a ftall in the church of Bofton, in Lincolnftiire. A prelate, equally falfe, is feated in his chair, with a mitre on his head, and the paftoral ftaff in his right hand. His flock are reprefented by a cock and hens, the former of which he holds fecurely with his right hand, while he appears to be preaching to them.

Another mediaeval fculpture has furnifhed events for a rather curious hiftory, at the fame time that it is a good illuftration of our fubjeft. Odo de Cirington, the fabulift, tells us how, one day, the wolf died, and the lion called the animals together to celebrate his exequies. The hare carried the holy water, hedgehogs bore the candles, the goats rang the



No 48. The Prelate and his Flock.

bells, the moles dug the grave, the foxes carried the corpfe on the bier. Berengarius, the bear, celebrated mafs, the ox read the gofpel, and the afs the epiflle. When the mafs was concluded, and Ifengrin buried, the animals made a fplendid feaft out of his goods, and wifhed for fuch another funeral. Our fatirical ecclefiaftic makes an application of this ftory which tells little to the credit of the monks of his time. " So it frequently happens," he fays, " that when fome rich man, an extortionifl or a ufurer, dies, the abbot or prior of a convent of beads, i.e. of men living like beafls. caufes them to aflemble. For it commonly happens that in a great convent of black or white monks (Benediftines or

Auguftinians)


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81


Auguftinians) there are none but beafts lions by their pride, foxes by their craftinefs, bears by their voracity, flinking goats by their incontinence, affes by their fluggifhnefs, hedgehogs by their afperity, hares by their timidity, becaufe they were cowardly where there was no fear, and oxen by their laborious cultivation of their land." *

A fcene clofely refembling that here defcribed by Odo, differing only in the distribution of the characters, was tranflated from fome fuch written ftory into the pi&orial language of the ancient fculptured ornamen- tation of Straiburg Cathedral, where it formed, apparently, two fides of the capital or entablature of a column near the chancel. The deceafed in this pi&ure appears to be a fox, which was probably the animal intended to be reprefented in the original, although, in the copy of it preferred, it looks more like a fquirrel. The bier is carried by the goat and the boar,



No. 49. The Funeral of the Fo*.


while a little dog underneath is taking liberties with the tail of the latter. Immediately before the bier, the hare carries the lighted taper, preceded by the wolf, who carries the crofs, and the bear, who holds in one hand the holy-water veflel and in the other the afperfoir. This forms the firft divifion of the fubje6t, and is reprefented in our cut No. 49. In the

next

  • The Latin text of this and some others of the fables of Odo de Cirington

will be found in my " Selection of Latin Stories," pp, 50-52, 55-5 8 > and 80.


82


Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque


next divifion (cut No. 50), the flag is reprefented celebrating mafs, and the afs reads the Gofpel from a book which the cat fupports with its head.

This curious fculpture is faid to have been of the thirteenth century.



No. 50. The Mafs for the Pox.


In the fifteenth century it attracted the attention of the reformers, who looked upon it as an ancient proteft againft the corruptions of the mafs, and one of the more diftinguifhed of them, John Fifchart, had it copied and engraved on wood, and publifhed it about the year 1580, with fome verfes of his own, in which it was interpreted as a fatire upon the papacy. This publication gave fuch dire offence to the ecclefiaftical authorities of Stralburg, that the Lutheran bookfeller who had ventured to publifh it, was compelled to make a public apology in the church, and the wood- engraving and all the impreffions were feized and burnt by the common hangman. A few years later, however, in 1608, another engraving was made, and publifhed in a large folio with Fifchart's verfes ; and it is from the diminifhed copy of this fecond edition given in Flb'gelV'Gefchichte des Komifches Literatur" that our cuts are taken. The original fculpture was ftill more unfortunate. Its publication and explanation by Fifchart was the caufe of no little fcandal among the Catholics, who tried to retort upon their opponents by afferting that the figures in this funeral celebration were intended to reprefent the ignorance of the Proteftant preachers ; and the fculpture in the church continued to be regarded by the ecclefiaflical authorities with diflatisfaclion until the year 1685,

when



in Literature and Art. 8 3

when, to take away all further ground of fcandal, it was entirely defaced.

Reynard's mediaeval celebrity dates certainly from a rather early period. Montflaucon has given an alphabet of ornamental initial letters, formed chiefly of figures of men and animals, from a manufcript which he afcrtbes to the ninth century, among which is the one copied in our cut No. 51, reprefenting a fox walking upon his hind legs, and carrying two frnall cocks, fufpended at the ends of a crofs ftarF. It is hardly neceflary to fay that this group forms the letter T. Long before this, the Frankiih hiftorian Fredegarius, who wrote about the middle of the feventh century, introduces a fable in which the fox figures at the court of the lion. The fame fable is repeated by a monkifh writer of Bavaria, named Fromond, who flourifhed in No. 5 1 - The Fox

Provided.

the tenth century, and by another named Aimomus, who lived about the year 1,000. At length, in the twelfth century, Guibert de Nogent, who died about the year 1124, and who has left us bis autobiography (de Vita Jua), relates an anecdote in that work, in explanation of which he tells us that the wolf was then popularly defignated by the name of Ifengrin j and in the fables of Odo, as we have already feen, this name is commonly given to the wolf, Reynard to the fox, Teburg to the cat, and fo on with the others. This only Ihows that in the fables of the twelfth century the various animals were known by thefe names, but it does not prove that what we know as the romance of Reynard exifted. Jacob Grimm argued from the derivation and forms of thefe names, that the fables themfelves, and the romance, originated with the Teutonic peoples, and were indigenous to them ; but his reafons appear to me to be more fpecious than conclufive, and I certainly lean to the opinion of my friend Paulin Paris, that the romance of Reynard was native of France,* and that it was partly founded upon old Latin legends,

perhaps

  • Sec the dissertation by M- Paulin Paris, published in his nice popular modern

abridgment of the French romance, published in 1861, under the title " Les Aven-


84 Hijiory of Caricature and Grotefque

perhaps poems. Its character is altogether feudal, and it is ftrictly a picture of fociety, in France primarily, and fecondly in England and the other nations of feudalifm, in the twelfth century. The earlieft form in which this romance is known is in the French poem or rather poems, for it coniifts of feveral branches or continuations and is fuppofed to date from about the middle of the twelfth century. It foon became fo popular, that it appeared in different forms in all the languages of Weftern Europe, except in England, where there appears to have exifted no edition of the romance of Reynard the Fox until Caxton printed his profe Englifh verfion of the ftory. From that time it became, if poffible, more popular in England than elfewhere, and that popularity had hardly diminiflied down to the commencement of the prefent century.

The popularity of the ftory of Reynard caufed it to be imitated in a variety of fhapes, and this form of fatire, in which animals acted the part of men, became altogether popular. In the latter part of the twelfth century, an Anglo-Latin poet, named Nigellus Wireker, compofed a very fevere fatire in elegiac verfe, under the title of Speculum Stultorum, the " Mirror of Fools." It is not a wife animal like the fox, but a fimple animal, the afs, who, under the name of Brunellus, pafles among the various ranks and clafles of fociety, and notes their crimes and vices. A profe introduction to this poem informs us that its hero is the reprefenta- tive of the monks in general, who were always longing for fome new acquifition which was inconfiftent with their profeflion. In fact, Brunellus is abforbed with the notion that his tail was too fhort, and his great ambition is to get it lengthened. For this purpofe he confults a phyfician, who, after reprefenting to him in vain the folly of his purfuit, gives him a receipt to make his tail grow longer, and fends him to the celebrated medical fchool of Salerno to obtain the ingredients. After various adventures, in the courfe of which he lofes a part of his tail inftead of its being lengthened, Brunellus proceeds to the Univerfity of Paris to ftudy

and

tures de Maitre Renart et d'Ysengrin son compere." On the debated question of the origin of the Romance, see the learned and able work by Jonckbloet, 8vo., Groningue, 1863.


in Literature and Art. 85


and obtain knowledge ; and we are treated with a moft amufingly fatirical account of the condition and manners of the fcholars of that time. Soon convinced of his incapacity for learning, Brunellus abandons the univerfity in delpair, and he refolves to enter one of the monaftic orders, the character of all which he pafles in review. The greater part of the poem confifts of a very bitter fatire on the corruptions of the fnonkifh orders and of the Church in general. While ftill hefitating which order to choofe, Brunellus falls into the hands of his old matter, from whom he had run away in order to feek his fortune in the world, and he is compelled to pafs the reft of his days in the fame humble and fervile condition in which he had begun them.

A more dire6t imitation of " Reynard the Fox " is found in the early French romance of" Fauvel," the hero of which is neither a fox nor an afs, but a horfe. People of all ranks and clafles repair to the court of Fauvel, the horfe, and furnifh abundant matter for fatire on the moral, political, and religious hypocrify which pervaded the whole frame of fociety. At length the hero refolves to marry, and, in a finely illuminated manufcript of this romance, preferred in the Imperial Library in Paris, this marriage furnifties the fubjecl: of a picture, which gives the only reprefentation I have met with of one of the popular ourlefque ceremonies which were fo common in the middle ages.

Among other fuch ceremonies, it was cuftomary with the populace, on the occalion of a man's or woman's fecond marriage, or an ill-forted match, or on the efpoufals of people who were obnoxious to their neigh bours > to aflemble outfide the houfe, and greet them with difcordant mufic. This cuftom is faid to have been praftifed efpecially in France, and it was called a charivari. There is ftill a laft remnant of it in our country in the mufic of marrow-bones and cleavers, with which the marriages of butchers are popularly celebrated ; but the derivation of the French name appears not to be known. It occurs in old Latin documents, for it gave rife to fuch fcandalous fcenes of riot and licentiousnefs, that the Church did all it could, though in vain, to fupprefs it. The earlieft mention of this cuftom, furnilhed in the Gloffhrium of Ducange, is contained in the fy nodal ftatutes of the church of Avignon, pafled in the

year


86


Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque


year 1337, from which we learn that when fuch marriages occurred, people forced their way into the houfes of the married couple, and carried away their goods, which they were obliged to pay a ranfom for before they were returned, and the money thus raifed was fpent in getting up what is called in the ftatute relating to it a Chalvaricum. It appears from this flatute, that the individuals who performed the charirari accompanied the happy couple to the church, and returned with them to their refidence, with coarfe and indecent geftures and difcordant mufic, and



No. 52. A Medittval Charivari.


uttering fcurrilous and indecent abufe, and that they ended with feafting. In the ftatutes of Meaux, in 1365, and in thofe of Hugh, biftiop of Beziers, in 1368, the fame practice is forbidden, under the name of Charavallium ; and it is mentioned in a document of the year 13/2, alfo quoted by Ducange, under that of Carivarium, as then exifting at Nimes. Again, in 1445, the Council of Tours made a decree, forbidding, under pain of excommunication, " the infolences, clamours, founds, and other tumults pra&ifed at fecond and third nuptials, called by the vulgar a

Charh-anum,


in Literature and Art.


Charivarium, on account of the many and grave evils arifing out of them."* It will be obferved that thefe early allufions to the charivari are found almoft folely in documents coming from the Roman towns in the fouth of France, fo that this practice was probably one of the many popular cuftoms derived directly from the Romans. When Cotgrave's "Dictionary " was publifhed (that is, in 1632) the practice of the charivari appears to have become more general in its exiftence, as well as its application ; for he defcribes it as " a public defamation, or traducing of;



No. 53. Continuation of the Chari-vari.


a foule noife made, blacke fantus rung, to the fhame and difgrace of another^ hence an infamous (or infaming) ballad fung, by an armed troupe, under the window of an old dotard, married the day before unto a yong wanton, in mockerie of them both." And, again, a charivaris de

poelles

  • " Insultationes, clamores, sonos, et alios tumultus, in secundis et tenth's quo-

rundam nuptiis, quos charivarium vulgo appellant, propter multa et gravia incom- moda, prohibemus sub pcena excommunicationis." Ducange, v. Charivarium.


88 Htftory of Caricature and Grotejque

poelles is explained as " the carting of an infamous perfon, graced with the harmonic of tinging kettles and frying-pan muficke."* The word is now generally ufed in the fenfe of a great tumult of difcordant rrmfic, produced often by a number of perfons playing different tunes on different inftruments at the fame time.

As I have ftated above, the manufcript of the romance of "Fauvel " is in the Imperial Library in Paris. A copy of this illumination is engraved in Jaime's " Mufee de la Caricature," from which our cuts Nos. 52 and 53 are taken. It is divided into three compartments, one above another, in the uppermoft of which Fauvel is feen entering the nuptial chamber to his young wife, who is already in bed. The fcene in the compartment below, which is copied in our cut No. 52, reprefents the flreet outfide, and the mock revellers performing the charivari; and this is continued in the third, or loweft, compartment, which is reprefented in our cut No. 53. Down each fide of the original illumination is a frame-work of windows, from which people, who have been difturbed by the noife, are looking out upon the tumult. It will be feen that all the performers wear malks, and that they are drefled in burlefque coftume. In confirmation of the ftatement of the ecclefiaftical fynods as to the licerltioufnefs of thefe exhibitions, we fee one of the performers here difguifed as a woman, who lifts up his drefs to expofe his perfon while dancing. The mufical inftruments are no lefs grotefque than the coftumes, for they confift chiefly of kitchen utenfils, fuch as frying-pans, mortars, faucepans, and the like.

There was another feries of fubjets in which_animals wej^e. introduced as the inftrumrpti of fntirr^ This fatirc coofiifed in reverfing^ the-pofilion n th g animalfLpver wh'^ ^ r-H ^fn accuflomed


_tp ^rgnnifeijQ_jh^Ji_3Kas--fab}^e4-ta-llie^fame treatment from the animals which, in his a6tual pofition, he uies towards them. .This change Qf~reTative pofition was railed ii-| old French anrl Anf;ln Nprmatij L>

jnonde leftorni^ which was equivalent to the Englifh phrafe, " the world

lurngd upfide down." It forms the fubjecl: of rather old verfes, I believe,

__ both

  • Cotgrave's Dictionarie, v. Chari-var'u.


in Literature and Art.


both in French and Englifh, and individual fcenes from it are met with in pi&orial reprefentation at a rather early date. During the year J 862, in the courfe of accidental excavations on the lite of the Friary, at Derby, a number of encauftic tiles, fuch as were ufed for the floors of the interiors of churches and large buildings, were found.* The ornamentation of thefe tiles, efpecially of the earlier ones, is, like ail



No. 54 I'he Tablet Turned.

mediaeval ornamentations, extremely varied, and even thefe tiles Ibnu- times prefent fubje&s of a burlefque and fatirical character, though they are more frequently adorned with the arms and badges of benefactors to the church or convent. The tiles found on the fite of the priory at Derby are believed to be of the thirteenth century, and one pattern, a diminished copy of which is given in our cut No. 54, prefents a fubject

taken

  • Mr Llewellynn Jewitt, in his excellent publication, the Reliquary, [or O< tober,

1861, has given an interesting paper on the encaustic tiles found on this occasion, and on the conventual house to which they belonged.


9


Hijlory of Caricature and Grotefque


taken from the monde be/lorn^. The hare, matter of his old enemy, the dog, has become hunter himfelf, and feated upon the dog's back he rides vigoroufly to the chace, blowing his horn as he goes. The defign is fpiritedly executed, and its fatirical intention is fhown by the monflrous and mirthful face, with the tongue lolling out, figured on the outer corner of the tile. It will be feen that four of thefe tiles are intended to be joined together to make the complete piece. In an illumination in a manufcript of the fourteenth century in the Britifli Mufeum (MS. Reg. 10 E iv.), the hares are taking a ftill more fevere vengeance



No. 55. Juftice in the Hands of the Perfccuted.

on their old enemy. The dog has been caught, brought to trial for his numerous murders, and condemned, and they are reprefented here (cut No. 55) conducting him in the criminal's cart to the gallows. Our cut No. 56, the fubjed of which is furnimed by one of the carved flails in Sherborne Minfter (it is here copied from the engraving in Carter's " Specimens of Ancient Sculpture "), reprefents another execution fcene, fimilar in fpirit to the former. The geefe have feized their old enemy, Reynard, and are hanging him on a gallows, while two monks, who attend the execution, appear to be amufed at the energetic manner in

which


in Literature and Art.


9 l


which the geefe perform their talk. Mr. Jewitt mentions two other fubjeds belonging to this feries, one of them taken from an illuminated manufcript ; they are, the moufe chafing the cat, and the horfe driving



No. 56. Reynard brought to Account at Loft.

the cart the former human carter in this cafe taking the place of the horfe between the lhafts.

"The World turned upfide down; or, the Folly of Man," has continued amongft us to be a popular chap-book and child's book till within a very few years, and I have now a copy before me printed in London about the year 1790. It confifts of a feries of rude woodcuts, with a few doggrel verfes under each. One of thefe, entitled " The Ox turned Farmer," reprelents two men drawing the plough, driven by an ox. In the next, a rabbit is feen turning the fpit on which a man is roalling, while a cock holds a ladle and baftes. In a third, we fee a tournament, in which the horfes are armed and ride upon the men. Another reprelents the ox killing the butcher. In others we have birds netting men and women ; the als, turned miller, employing the man- miller to carry his facks ; the horfe turned groom, and currying the man ; and the fifties angling for men and catching them.

In a cleverly fculptured ornament in Beverley Minfter, represented in our cut No. 57, the goofe herfelf is reprefented in a grotefque fituation,

which


9 2


Hijlory of Caricature and Grotefque


which might almoft give her a place in " The World turned upfide down," although it is a mere burlefque, without any apparent fatirical



No. 57. Shoeing the Goofe.

aim. The goofe has here taken the place of the horl'e at the black fmith's,

who is vigoroufly nailing the fhoe on her webbed foot.

Burlefque fubje&s of this defcription are not uncommon, eipecially

among architectural iculpture and wood-carving, and, at a rather later period, on all ornamental objects. The field for fuch fubje6ts was fo extenfive, that the artift had an almoft unlimited choice, and therefore his fubjeds might be almoft infinitely varied, though we



No, 58. Food for Sivinc.


ufually find them running on par- ticular clafles. The old popular proverbs, for inftance, furnilhed a fruitful fource for drollery, and are at times delineated in an amufingly literal or practical manner. Pidorial

proverbs


in Literature and Art.


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proverbs and popular fayings are fometimes met with on the carved mifereres. For example, in one of thofe at Rouen, in Normandy, reprefented in our cut No. 58, the carver has intended to reprefent the idea of the old faying, in allufion to mifplaced bounty, of throwing pearls to fwine, and has given it a much more pi6turefque and pidtorially intelligible form, by introducing a rather dafliing female feeding her fwine with rofes, or rather offering them rofes for food, for the fwine difplay no eagernefs to feed upon them.

We meet with fuch fubjets as thefe fcattered over all mediaeval works of art, and at a fomewhat later period they were transferred to other objets, liich as the (igns of houfes. The cuftorn of placing figns



No. 59. The Induftriout Sew.

over the doors of (hops and taverns, was well known to the ancients, as is abundantly manifefted by their frequent occurrence in the ruins of Pompeii; but in the middle ages, the ufe of figns and badges was univerfal, and as contrary to the apparent practice in Pompeii, where certain badges were appropriatt d to certain trades and profeffions every individual was free to choofe his own fign, the variety was unlimited. Many ftill had reference, no doubt, to the particular calling of thofe to whom they belonged, while others were of a religious character, and indicated the faint under whofe protection the houfeholder had placed himfelf. Some people took animals for their figns, others monftrous or burlefque figures ; and, in fa6t, there were hardly any of the fubje&s of

caricature


94


Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefaue


caricature or burlefque familiar to the mediaeval fculptor and illuminator which did not from time to time appear on thefe popular figns. A few of the old figns ftill preferved, efpecially in the quaint old towns of France, Germany, and the Netherlands, mow us how frequently they

were made the inftruments of popular fatire. A fign not uncommon in France was La Truie qui Jile (the fow fpinning). Our cut No. 59 reprefents this fubjedt as treated on an old fign, a carving in baf-relief of the fixteenth century, on a houfe in the Rue du March e-aux-Poirees, in Rouen. The fow appears here in the character of the induftrious houfewife, employing herfelf in fpinning at the fame time that me is attending to the wants of her children. There is a fingularly fatirical fign at Beauvais, on a houfe which was formerly occupied by an epicier-moutardier, or grocer who made muftard, in the Rue du Chatel. In front of this fign, which is repre- fented in our cut No. 60, appears a large muftard-mill, on one fide of which ftands

Folly with a ftaff in her hand, with which

No. 6 . Aauiicrathn. fa }s flilT j ng ^ mu ft a rd, while an ape,

with a fort of fardonic grin, throws in a feafoning, which may be conjetured by his pofture.* The trade-mark of the individual who adopted this ftrange device, is carved below.



  • See an interesting little book on this subject by M. Ed. de la Queriere,

entitled " Recherches sur les Enseignes des Maisons Particulieres," 8vo., Rouen, 1852, from which both the above examples are laken.


in Literature and Art. 95


CHAPTER VI.

THE MONKEY IN BURLESftUE AND CARICATURE. TOURNAMENTS ANI>

SINGLE COMBATS. MONSTROUS COMBINATIONS OF ANIMAL FORMS. -

CARICATURES ON COSTUME. THE HAT. THE HELMET. LADIES*

HEAD-DRESSES. THE GOWN, AND ITS LONG SLEEVES.

THE fox^the wolf, and their companions, were introduced as inftruments of fatire, on account of their^ peculiar characters | but there\vere other animals^ whicti were alfo favourites with the fatirift, becaufe they difplayed an innateTnciination to imitate ; they formedTas u were, natural pa


the prindpaljfld_moft^r^||parkahl^^a^f^ r^pnlg^j This animal muft have been known to our Anglo-Saxon forefathers from a remote period, for they had a word for it in their own language apa, our ape. Monkey is a more modern name, and feems to be equivalent with maniken, or a little man. The earlieft Bejliaries, or popular treatifes on natural hiftory, give anecdotes illuftrative of the aptnefe of this animal for imitating the actions of men, and afcribe to it a degree of underftanding which would almoft raife it above the level of the brute creation. Philip de Thaun., an Anglo-Norman poet of the reign of Henry 1., in his Be/iiary, tells us that "the monkey, by imitation, as books fay, counterfeits what it fees, and mocks people :"

Li Jingc par figure, Ji cum nit efcrifture, Ceo que II vait contrefait, de gent efcar halt,*

He

  • See my " Popular Treatises on Science written during the Middle Ages,"

p. 107.



q 6 Hi ft or y of Caricature and Grotefque

He goes on to inform us, as a proof of the extraordinary inftinct of this animal, that it has more affection for fome of its cubs than for others, and that, when running away, it carried thofe which it liked before it, and thofe it difliked behind its back. The fketch from the illuminated manufcript of the Romance of the Comte

!\A j^^ d' Artois, of the fifteenth century, which forms

our cut No. 61, reprefents the monkey, carry- ing, of courfe, its favourite child before it in its flight, and what is more, it is taking that flight mounted on a donkey. A monkey on horfeback appears not to have been a novelty, as we (hall fee in the fequel. No. 61. A Monkey Alexander Neckam, a very celebrated

Mounted. Englifh fcholar of the latter part of the

twelfth century, and one of the moil interesting of the early mediaeval writers on natural hiitory, gives us many anecdotes, which fhow us how much attached our mediaeval forefathers were to domefticated animals, and how common a practice it was to keep them in their houfes. The baronial caftle appears often to have prefented the appearance of a menagerie of animals, among which fome were of that ftrong and ferocious character that rendered it neceflary to keep them in clofe confinement, while others, fuch as monkeys, roamed about the buildings at will. One of Neckam's ftories is very curious in regard to our fubject, for it (hows that the people in thofe days exercifed their tamed animals in practically caricaturing contemporary weaknefles and fafhions. This writer remarks that " the nature of the ape is'fo ready at acting, by ridiculous gefticulations, the reprefentations of things it has feen, and thus gratifying the vain curiofity of worldly men in public exhibitions, that it will even dare to imitate a military conflict. A jougleur (hi/trio) was in the habit of conftantly taking two monkeys to the military exercifes which are commonly called tournaments, that the labour of teaching might be diminished by frequent infpection. He afterwards taught two dogs to carry thefe apes, who fat on their backs, furnifhed with proper arms. Nor did they want fpurs, with which they

flrenuoufly


in Literature and Art.


97


ftrenuoufly urged on the dogs. Having broken their lances, they drew out their fwords, with which they fpent many blows on each other's fhields. Who at this fight could refrain from laughter ?"*

Such contemporary caricatures of the mediaeval tournament, which was in its greateft famion during the period from the twelfth to the fourteenth century, appear to have been extremely popular, and are not unfrequently reprefented in the borders of illuminated manufcripts. The manufcript now fo well known as " Queen Mary's Pfalter " (MS. Reg. 2 B vii.), and written and illuminated very early in the fourteenth century, contains not a few illuftrations of this defcription. One of thefe, which forms our cut No. 62, reprefents a tournament



Ns. 62. A Tournament,

not much unlike that defcribed by Alexander Neckam, except that the monkeys are here riding upon other monkeys, and not upon dogs. In fact, all the individuals here engaged are monkeys, and the parody is completed by the introduction of the trumpeter on one fide, and of minftrelfy, reprefented by a monkey playing on the tabor, on the other ; or, perhaps, the two monkeys are fimply playing on the pipe and tabor, which were looked upon as the loweft defcription of minftrelfy, and are therefore the more aptly introduced into the fcene.

The fame manufcript has furnifhed us with the cut No. 63. Here the

  • Alexander Neckam, De Naturis Rerum, lib. ii. c. 129.

o


Hijlory of Caricature and Grotefque


the combat takes place between a monkey and a flag, the latter having the claws of a griffin. They are mounted, too, on rather nondefcript animals one having the head and body of a lion, with the forefeet of an eagle ; the other having a head fomewhat like that of a lion, on a lion's body, with the hind parts of a bear. This fubje6t may, perhaps, be intended as a burlefque on the mediaeval romances, filled with combats between the Chriflians and the Saracens ; for the ape who, in the moralifations which accompany the Be/liaries, is faid to reprefent the devil



No. 63. A Feat affirms.

is here armed with what are evidently intended for the fabre and Ihield of a Saracen, while the flag carries the fhield and lance of a Chriftian knight.

The love of the mediaeval artifts for monfirous figures of animals, and for mixtures of animals and men, has been alluded to in a former chapter. The combatants in the accompanying cut (No. 64), taken from the fame manufcript, prefent a fort of combination of the rider and the animal, and they again feem to be intended for a Saracen and a Chriftian. The figure to the right, which is compofed of the body of a fatyr, with the feet of a goofe and the wings of a dragon, is armed with a fimilar Saracenic fabre ; while that to the left, which is on the whole lefs monftrous, wields a Norman fword. F"th have human faces below the_

idca in the grotefque of the middle


in Literature and Art.


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agea^ Our mediaeval forefathers appear to have had a decided tafte for monftrofities of every defcription, and efpecially for mixtures of



No. 64. A Terrible Combat.

different kinds of animals, and of animals and men. There is no doubt,

to judge by the anecdotes recorded by fuch writers as Giraldus

Cambrenfis, that a belief in the exiftence of fuch

unnatural creatures was widely entertained. In his

account of Ireland, this writer tells us of animals

which were half__ox and half man, half flag and

half cow, and half dog and half monkey.* It is

certain that there was a general belief in fuch

animals, and nobody could be more credulous than

Giraldus himfelf.

The defign to caricature, which is tolerably evident in the fubjefts juft given, is ftill more apparent in other grotefques that adorn the borders of the mediaeval manufcripts, as well as in fome of the mediaeval carvings and fculpture. Thus, in our cut N 6 5 Fa/bioaaMe Dnf* No. 65, taken from one of the borders in the Romance of the Comte

d'Artois,



  • See Girald. Cambr., Topog. Hibernie, dist. ii. cc. 21, 22 ; and the Itinerary

of Wales, lib. ii. e. n.


I oo Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque

d'Artois, a manufcript of the fifteenth century, we cannot fail to recognife an attempt at turning to ridicule the contemporary fafhions in drefs. The hat is only an exaggerated form of one which appears to have been commonly ufed in France in the latter half of the fifteenth century, and which appears frequently in illuminated manufcripts executed in Burgundy ; and the boot alfo belongs to the fame period. The latter reappeared at different times, until at length it became developed into the modern top-boots. In cut No. 66, from the fame



No. 66. Heads and Hati,

manufcript, where it forms the letter T, we have the fame form of hat, ftill more exaggerated, and combined at the fame time with grotefque faces.

Caricatures on coftume are by no means uncommon among the artiflic remains of the middle ages, and are not confined to illuminated manufcripts. The famionable drefles of thofe days went into far more ridiculous excefies of fhape than anything we fee in our times at leaft, fo far as we can believe the drawings in the manufcripts ; but thefe, however ferioufly intended, were conftantly degenerating into caricature, from circumftances which are eafily explained, and which have, in fad, been explained already in their influence on other parts of our fubjecl. The mediaeval artifts in general were not very good delineators of form, and their outlines are much inferior to their finifh. Confcious of this, though perhaps unknowingly, they fought to remedy the defect in a fpirit which has always been adopted in the early ftages of art-progrefs they aimed at making themfelves underftood by giving a fpecial prominence to

the


in Literature and Art. i o I


the peculiar characteriftics of the objects they wiftied to reprefent. Thefe were the points which naturally attracted people's firft attention, and the refemblance was felt moft by people in general when thefe points were put forward in exceffive prominence in the picture. The dreffes, perhaps, hardly exifled in the exact forms in which we fee them in the illuminations, or at leaft thofe were only exceptions to the generally more moderate forms ; and hence, in ufing thefe pictorial records as materials for the hiftory of coftume, we ought to make a certain allowance for exaggeration we ought, indeed, to treat them almoft as caricatures. In fact, much of what we now call caricature, was then characteriftic of ferious art, and of what was confidered its high development. Many of the attempts which have been made of late years to introduce ancient coftume on the ftage, would probably be regarded by the people who lived in the age which they were intended to reprefent, as a mere defign to turn them into ridicule. Neverthelels, the fafliions in drefs were, efpecially from the twelfth century to the fixteenth, carried to a great degree of extravagance, and were not only the objects of fatire and caricature, but drew forth the indignant declamations of the Church, and furnilhed a continuous theme to the preachers. The contemporary chronicles abound with bitter reflections on the extravagance in coftume, which was confidered as one of the outward figns of the great corruption of particular periods ; and they give us not unfrequent examples of the coarfe manner in which the clergy difcufled them in their fermons. The readers of Chaucer will remember the manner in which this fubject is treated in the " Parfon's Tale." In this refpect the fatirifts of the Church went hand in hand with the pictorial caricaturifts of the illumi- nated manufcripts, and of the fculptures with which we fometimes meet in contemporary architectural ornamentation. In the latter, this clafe of caricature is perhaps lefs frequent, but it is fometimes very expreflive. The very curious mifereres in the church of Ludlow, in Shropfhire, prefent the caricature reproduced in our cut No. 67. It reprefent^. an ugly^ and, to judge by the expreflion of the countenance, an ill-tempered old jwoman, wearing the fafhionable head-dref^f the_ earlier half of the^ .fifteenth, century, wjiich_,feems to have been carried to its preateft

extravagance


IO2 Hiftory of Caricature and Grot efque


extravagance in the beginning of the reign of Henry VI. -Itos-lheJlvle jpf coiffurejcpnwn efpprially as the horned head-drefs, aqd the very nam^ carries with it a fort of relationfhip to an individual jwho was notorioufly



No. 67. A Fafhionable Beauty,

\\]f> fpjrit of evil. This dafhing dame of the olden time appears to have ftruck terror into two unfortunates who have fallen within her

influence, one of whom, as though he took her for a new Gorgon, is attempt- ing to cover himfelf with his buckler, while the other, apprehending danger of another kind, is prepared to defend him- felf with his fword. The details of the head-drefs in this figure are interefling for the hiftory of coftume.

Our next cut, No. 68, is taken from a manufcript in private pofTeflion, which is now rather well known among anti- quaries by the name of the " Luttrell Pfalter," and which belongs to the four- teenth century. It feems to involve a fatire on the ariftocratic order of fociety on the knight who was diftinguifhed

by his helmet, his fhield, and his armour. The individual here repre- fented prefents a type which is anything but ariftocratic. While he holds

a helmet



Ac. 68. A Man of War.


in Literature and Art.


103


a helmet in his hand to fhow the meaning of the fatire, his own helmet, which he wears on his head, is fimply a bellows. He may be a knight of the kitchen, or perhaps a mere quijlron, or kitchen lad.

We have juft feen a caricature of one of the ladies' head-drefles of the earlier half of the fifteenth century, and our cut No. 69, from an illuminated manufcript in the Britifh Mufeum of the latter half of the fame century (MS. Harl., No. 4379), furnifhes us with a caricature of a head-drefs of a different character, which came into fafhion 'Q.jftp rp '5 n "f_p-

Edward TV, The horned head-drefs of the previous

generation had been entirely laid afide, and the ladies adopted in its place a fort of fteeple-fhaped .head-drefs,j3r rather of the form of a fpire, made by rolling a piece" of linen into the tomToT a long cone. Over this lofty cap wasthrown a_ muflinTwhich delcended almoft to the ground, and formed, as it were, two wings. A fhort tranfparent veil was thrown over the face, and reached not quite to the chin, refembling rather clofely the veils in ufe among our ladies of the prefent day (1864). The whole head-drefs, indeed, has been preferved by the Norman peafantry ; for it may be obferved that, during the feudal ages, the fafhions in France and England were always identical. Thefe fteeple head-drefles greatly pro- voked the indignation of the clergy, and zealous preachers attacked them roughly in their fermons. A French monk, named Thomas Conecte, diftinguifhed himfelf efpecially in this crufade, and inveighed againft the head-drefs with fuch effect, that we are aflured that many of the women threw down their head-drefles in the middle of the fermon, and made a bonfire of them at its conclufion. The zeal of the preacher foon extended itfelf to the populace, and, for a while, when ladies appeared in this head-drefs in public, they were expofed to be pelted by the rabble. Under fuch a double perfecution it difappeared for a moment, but when the preacher was no longer prefent, it returned again, and, to ufe the

words



No. 69. A Lady's Head-drejs.


104 Hiflory of Caricature and Grotefque


words of the old writer who has preferred this anecdote, " the women who, like fnails in a fright, had drawn in their horns, fhot them out again as foon as the danger was over." The caricaturift would hardly overlook fo extravagant a fafliion, and accordingly the manufcript in the Britifh Mufeum, juft mentioned, furnifhes us with the fubjeft of our cut No. 69. In thofe times, when the paflions were fubjedted to no reftraint, the fine ladies indulged in fuch luxury and licentioufnefs, that the caricaturift has chofen as their fit reprefentaHve n fmv,\vhn ivr'nn tho rtbjfftionnbl" bp=H-

.jlrefs in full fafhion. The original forms one of the illuftrations of a copy of the hiftorian Froifiart, and was, therefore, executed in France, or, more probably, in Burgundy.

^rhe^fermons and fatires againft extravagance in coftume began at an early period. The Anglo-Norman ladies, in the earlier part of the twelfth century, firft brought in vogue in our ifland this extravagance in

.fafhionj.jwhich quickly fell under the lafh of fatirift and caricaturift. It was firft exhibited in the robes rather than in the head-drefs. Thefe Anglo-Norman ladies are underftood to have firft introduced ftays, in order to give an artificial appearance of flendernefs to their waifts ; but the greateft extravagance appeared in the forms of their fleeves. The robe, or gown, inftead of being loofe, as among the Anglo-Saxons, was laced clofe round the body, and the fleeves, which fitted the arm tightly till they reached the elbows, or fometimes nearly to the wrift, then fuddenly became larger, and hung down to an extravagant length, often trailing on the ground, and fometimes fhortened by means of a knot. The gown, alfo, was itfelf worn very long. The clergy preached againft thefe extravagances in faftiion, and at times, it is faid, with effecl: ; and they fell under the vigorous lafh of the fatirift. In a clafs of fatires which became extremely popular in the twelfth century, and which produced in the thirteenth the immortal poem of Dante the vifions of purgatory and of hell thefe contemporary extravagances in fafhion are held up to public deteftation, and are made the fubjeft of fevere punifhment. They werp Innlr^d yiprm gs among fhp nnjwp 1 *>"-mr nf prirlg It arofe, no doubt, from this tafte from the darker fhade which fpread over men's minds in the twelfth century that demons, inftead of animals, were

introduced


in Literature and Art.


105


introduced to perfonify the evil-doers of the time. Such is the figure (cut No. 70) which we take from a very interefting manufcript in the Britifh Mufeum (MS. Cotton. Nero, C iv.). The demon is here drefled in the fafhionable gown with its long fleeves, of which one appears to have been ufaally much longer than the other. Both the gown and fleeve are ihortened by means of knots, while the former is brought clofe round



No. 70. Sin in Satins.

the waift by tight lacing. It is a picture of the ufe of ftays made at the time of their firft introduction.

This fuperfluity of length in the different parts of the drefs was a fubject of complaint and fatire at various and very diftant periods, and contemporary illuminations of a perfectly ferious character {how that tliefe complaints were not without foundation.


106 Hiflory of Caricature and Grotejque

CHAPTER VII.

PRESERVATION OF THE CHARACTER OF THE M1MUS AFTER THE FALL OF

1 . THE EMPIRE. THE MINSTREL AND JOGELOUR. HISTORY OF POPULAR

STORIES. THE FABLIAUX. ACCOUNT OF THEM. THE CONTES DEVOTS.

I HAVE already remarked that, upon the fall of the Roman empire, the popular inftitutions of the Romans were more generally preferved to the middle ages than thofe of a higher and more refined chara&er. This is underftood without difficulty, when we confider that the lower clafs of the population in the towns, what we might perhaps call the lower and middle clafles continued to exift much the fame as before, while the barbarian conquerors came in and took the place of the ruling clafles. The drama, which had never much hold upon the love of the Roman populace, was loft, and the theatres and the amphitheatres, which had been fupported only by the wealth of the imperial court and of the ruling clafs, were abandoned and fell into ruin ; but the mimus, who furnimed mirth to the people, continued to exift, and probably underwent no immediate change in his character. It will be well to ftate again the chief chara&eriftics of the ancient mimus, before we proceed to defcribe his mediaeval reprefentative.

The grand aim of the mimus was to make people laugh, and he employed generally every means he knew of for effecting this purpofe, by language, by geftures or motions of the body, or by drefs. Thus he carried, (trapped over his loins, a wooden fword, which was called gladius hiftricus and clunaculum, and wore fometimes a garment made of a great number of fmall pieces of cloth of different colours, which was hence called centunculus, or the hundred-patched drefs.* Thefe two

chara&eriftics

  • "Uti me consuesse tragoedi syrmate, histrionis crotalone ad trieterica orgia, aut

mimi centunculo." Apuleius, Apolog.


in Literature and Art. \ 07

character! ftics have been preferred in the modern harlequin. Other peculiarities of coftume may conveniently be left undefcribed j the female mimae fometimes exhibited themfelves unreftri6ted by drefs. They danced and fung ; repeated jokes and told merry ftories ; recited or a&ed farces and fcandalous anecdotes ; performed what we now call mimicry, a word derived from the name of mimus ; and they put themfelves in ftrange poftures, and made frightful faces. They fometimes a6ted the part of a fool or zany (morio), or of a madman. They added to thefe performances that of the conjurer or juggler (prcejligiator), and played tricks of fleight of hand. The mimi performed in the ftreets and public places, or in the theatres, and efpecially at feftivals, and they were often employed at private parties, to entertain the guefts at a fupper.

"We trace the exiilence of this clafs of performers during the earlier period of the middle ages by the expreffions of hoftility towards them ufed from time to time by the ecclefiaftical writers, and the denunciations of fynods and councils, which have been quoted in a former chapter.* Neverthelefs, i is evident from many allufions to them, that they found their way into the monaftic houfes, and were in great favour not only among the monks, but among the nuns alfo; that they were introduced into the religious feftivalsj and that they were tolerated even in the churches. It is probable that they long continued to be known in Italy and the countries near the centre of Roman influence, and where the Latin language was continued, by their old name of mimus. The writers of the mediaeval vocabularies appear all to have been much better acquainted with the meaning of this word than of moft of the Latin words of the fame clafs, and they evidently had a clafs of performers exifting in their own times to whom they confidered that the name applied. The Anglo-Saxon vocabularies interpret the Latin mimus by glig-mon, a gleeman. In Anglo-Saxon, glig or gliu meant mirth and game of every defcription, and as the Anglo-Saxon teachers who compiled the vocabularies give, as fynonyms of mimus, the words fcurra, jocifta, and pantomimus, it is evident that all thefe were included in the character of

  • See before, p. 41 of the present volume.


io8 Hijiory oj Caricature and Grotejque

of the gleeman, and that the latter was quite identical with his Roman type. It was the Roman mimus introduced into Saxon England. We have no traces of the exiftence of fuch a clas of performers among the Teutonic race before they became acquainted with the civilifation of imperial Rome. We know from drawings in contemporary illuminated manufcripts that the performances of the gleeman did include mufic, finging, and dancing, and alfo the tricks of mountebanks and jugglers, fuch as throwing up and catching knives and balls, and performing with tamed bears, &c.*

But even among the peoples who preferred the Latin language, the word mimus was gradually exchanged for others employed to fignify the fame thing. The word jocus had been ufed in the fignification of a jeft, playfulnefs, jocari fignified to jell, and joculator was a word for a jefterj but, in the debafement of the language^'ocMS was taken in the fignification of everything which created mirth. It became, in the courfe of time the French word jeu, and the Italian gioco, or giuoco. People introduced a form of the verb, jocare, which became the French juer, to play or perform. Joculator was then ufed in -the fenfe of mimus. In French the word became jogleor, or jougleor, and in its later form jongleur. I may remark that, in mediaeval manu- fcripts, it is almoft impoffible to diftinguifh between the u and the n, and that modern writers have mifread this laft word as jongleur, and thus introduced into the language a word which never exifted, and which ought to be abandoned. In old Englifh, as we fee in Chaucer, the ufual form was jogelere. The mediaeval joculator, or jougleur, embraced all the attributes of the Roman mimus,^ and perhaps more. In the firft place

  • See examples of these illuminations in my " History of Domestic Manners

and Sentiments," pp. 34, 35, 37, 65.

t People in the middle ages were so fully conscious of the identity of the mediaeval jougleur with the Roman mimus, that the Latin writers often use mimus to signify a jougleur, and the one is interpreted by the others in the vocabularies. Thus, in Latin-English vocabularies of the fifteenth century, we have Hie joculator, Hie mimus,


in Literature and Art. 109


place he was very often a poet himfelf, and compofed the pieces which it was one of his duties to ling or recite. Thefe were chiefly fongs, or (lories, the latter ufually told in verfe, and fo many of them are preferred in manufcripts that they form a very numerous and important clafs of mediaeval literature. The fongs were commonly fatirical and abufive, and they were made ufe of for purpofes of general or perfonal vituperation. Out of them, indeed, grew the political fongs of a later period. There were female jougleurs, and both fexes danced, and, to create mirth among thofe who encouraged them, they pra&ifed a variety ^ of performances, fuch as mimicking people, making wry and ugly faces, ; diftorting their bodies into ftrange poftures, often expofing their perfons in a very unbecoming manner, and performing many vulgar and indecent ads, which it is not neceflary to defcribe more particularly. They carried about with them for exhibition tame bears, monkeys, and other animals, taught to perform the actions of men. As early as the thirteenth century, we find them including among their other accom- plifhments that of dancing upon the tight-rope. Finally, the jougleurs performed tricks of fleight of hand, and were often conjurers and magicians. As, in modern times, the jougleurs of the middle ages gradually palTed away, fleight of hand appears to have become their principal accomplimment, and the name only was left in the modern word juggler. The jougleurs of the middle ages, like the mimi of antiquity, wandered about from place to place, and often from country to country, fometimes fingly and at others in companies, exhibited their performances in the roads and flreets, repaired to all great feftivals, and were employed efpecially in the baronial hall, where, by their fongs, llories, and other performances, they created mirth after dinner.

This clafs of fociety had become known by another name, the origin of which is not fo eafily explained. The primary meaning of the Latin word mini/ler was a fervant, one who minifters to another, either in his wants or in his pleafures and amufements. It was applied particularly to the cup-bearer. In low Latinity, a diminutive of this word was formed, minefiellus, or mini/trellus, a petty fervant, or minifter. When we firfl meet with this word, which is not at a very early date, it is ufed as

perfedly


1 1 o Hiflory of Caricature and Grotefque

perfectly fynonymous w\thjoculator, and, as the word is certainly of Latin derivation, it is clear that it was from it the middle ages derived the French word meneftrel (the modern menetrier), and the Englifh minftrel. The mimi or jougleurs were perhaps considered as the petty minifters to the amufements of their lord, or of him who for the time employed them. Until the clofe of the middle ages, the minftrel and the jougleur were abfolutely identical. Poflibly the former may have been confidered the more courtly of the two names. But in England, as the middle ages difappeared, and loft their influence on fociety fooner than in France, the word minftrel remained attached only to the mufical part of the functions of the old mimus, while, as juft obferved, the juggler took the fleight of hand and the mountebank tricks. In modern French, except where employed technically by the antiquary, the word menetrier means a fiddler.

The jougleurs, or minftrels, formed a very numerous and important, though a low and defpifed, clafs of mediaeval fociety. The duliiefs of every-day life in a feudal caftle or manfion required fomething more than ordinary excitement in the way of amufement, and the old family bard, who continually repeated to the Teutonic chief the praifes of himfelf and his anceftors, was foon felt to be a wearifome companion. The mediaeval knights and their ladies wanted to laugh, and to make them laugh fufHciently it required that the jokes, or tales, or comic performances, mould be broad, coarfe, and racy, with a good fpicing of violence and of the wonderful. Hence the jougleur was always welcome to the feudal manfion, and he feldom went away diflatisfied. But the fubject of the prefent chapter is rather the literature of the jougleur than his perfonal hiftory, and, having traced his origin to the Roman mimus, we will now proceed to one clals of his performances.

It has been ftated that the mimus and the jougleurs told ftories. Of thofe of the former, unfortunately, none are preferved, except, perhaps, in a few anecdotes fcattered in the pages of fuch writers as Apuleius and Lucian, and we are obliged to guefs at their character, but of the ftories of the jougleurs a confiderable number has been preferved. It becomes an interefting queftion how far thefe ftories have been derived from the

mimi,


in Literature and Art. 1 1 1


mimi, handed down traditionally from mimus to jougleur, how far they are native in our race, or how far they were derived at a later date from other fources. And in confidering this queftion, we muft not forget that the mediaeval jougleurs were not the only reprefentatives of the mimi, for among the Arabs of the Eaft alfo there had originated from them, modified under different circumftances, a very important clafs of minftrels and ftory-tellers, and with thefe the jougleurs of the weft were brought into communication at the commencement of the crufades. There can be no doubt that a very large number of the ftories of the jougleurs were borrowed from the Eaft, for the evidence is furnifhed by the ftories themfelves ; and there can be little doubt alfo that the jougleurs improved themfelves, and underwent fome modification, by their inter- courfe with Eaftern performers of the fame clafs.

On the other hand, we have traces of the exiftence of thefe popular ftories before the jougleurs can have had communication with the Eaft. Thus, as already mentioned, we find, compofed in Germany, apparently in the tenth century, in rhythmical Latin, the well-known ftory of the wife of a merchant who bore a child during the long abfence of her hufband, and who excufed herfelf by ftating that her pregnancy had been the refult of fwallowing a flake of fnow in a fnow-ftorm. This, and another of the fame kind, were evidently intended to be fung. Another poem in popular Latin verfe, which Grimm and Schmeller, who edited it,* believe may be of the eleventh century, relates a very amufing ftory of an adventurer named Ujiibos, who, continually caught in his own fnares, finiihes by getting the better of all his enemies, and becoming rich, by mere ingenious cunning and good fortune. This ftory is not met with among thofe of the jougleurs, as far as they are yet known, but. curioufly enough, Lover found it exifting orally among the Irifh peafantry, and inferted the Irifh ftory among his " Legends of Ireland." It is a curious illuftration of the pertinacity with which the popular ftories defcend along with peoples through generations from the

remoteft

  • In a volume entitled "Lateinische Gedichte des x. und xi. Ih." 8vo.

Gottingen, 1838.


112 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque

remoteft ages of antiquity. The lame ftory is found in an oriental form among the tales of the Tartars published in French by Guenlette.

The people of the middle ages, who took their word fable from the Latin fal-ula, which they appear to have underftood as a mere term for any fhort narration, included under it the ftories told by the mimi and jougleurs ; but, in the fondnefs of the middle ages for diminutives, by which they intended to exprefs familiarity and attachment, applied to them more particularly the Latin falella, which in the old French became Jallel, or, more ufua\\y,fo.l-liau. The fabliaux of the jougleurs form a moft important clafs of the comic literature of the middle ages. They muft have been wonderfully numerous, for a very large quantity of them ftill remain, and thefe are only the fmall portion of what once exifted, which have efcaped perifhing like the others by the accident of being written in manufcripts which have had the fortune to furvive; while manufcripts containing others have no doubt perifhed, and it is probable that many were only preferred orally, and never written down at all.* The recital of thefe fabliaux appears to have been the favourite employment of the jougleurs, and they became fo popular that the mediaeval preachers turned them into fhort ftories in Latin profe, and made ufe of them as illuftrations in their fermons. Many collections of thefe fhort Latin ftories are found in manufcripts which had ferved as note-books to the preachers,f and out of them was originally compiled that celebrated mediaeval book called the " Gefta Romanorum."

It is to be regretted that the fubjects and language of a large portion of thefe fabliaux are fuch as to make it impoffible to prefent them before modern readers, for they furnifh fingularly interefting and minute pictures of mediaeval life in all clafles of fociety. Domeftic fcenes are among thofe moft frequent, and they reprefent the interior of the mediaeval

houfehold


  • Many of the Fabliaux have been printed, but the two principal collertions,

and to which I shall chiefly refer in the text, are those of Barhazan, re-edited and much enlarged by M6on, 4 vols. 8vo., 1808, and of Meon, a vols. 8vo., 1823.

t A collection of these short Latin stories was edited by the author of the present work, in a volume printed for the Percy Society in 1842.


in Literature and Art. \ \ 3

houfehold in no favourable point of view. The majority of thefe tell loofe ftories of hufbands deceived by their fair fpoufes, or of tricks played upon unfufpe&ing damfels. In fome inftances the treatment of the hufband is perhaps what may be called of a lefs objectionable character, as in the fabliau of La Vilain Mire (the clown dodtor), printed in Barbazan (iii. i), which was the origin of Moliere's well-known comedy of" Le Medecin malgre lui." A rich peafant married the daughter of a poor knight ; it was of courfe a marriage of ambition on his part, and of intereft on hers one of thofe ill-forted matches which, according to feudal fentiments, could never be happy, and in which the wife was confidered as privileged to treat her hulband with all poflible contempt. In this inflance the lady hit upon an ingenious mode of puniihing her hufband for his want of fubmitfion to her ill-treatment. Meflengers from the king parted that way, feeking a (kilful do6tor to cure the king's daughter of a dangerous malady. The lady fecretly informed thefe mefiengers that her hulband was a phyfician of extraordinary talent, but of an eccentric temper, for he would never acknowledge or exercife his art until firft fubjeded to a fevere beating. The hulband is feized, bound, and carried by force to the king's court, where, of courfe, he denies all knowledge of the healing art, but a fevere beating obliges him to com- pliance, and he is fuccefsful by a combination of impudence and chance. This is only the beginning of the poor man's miferies. Inftead of being allowed to go home, his fame has become fo great that he is retained at court for the public good, and, with a rapid fucceffion of patients, fearful of the refults of his confcious ignorance, he refufes them all, and is fubje6ted in every cafe to the fame ill-treatment to force his compliance. The examples in which the hulband, on the other hand, outwits the wife are few. A fabliau by a poet who gives himfelf the name of Cortebarbe, printed alfo by Barbazan (iii. 398), relates how three blind beggars were deceived by a clerc, or fcholar, of Paris, who met them on the road near Compiegne. The clerk pretended to give the three beggars a bezant, which was then a good fum of money, and they haftened joyfully to the next tavern, where they ordered a plentiful fupper, and feafted to their hearts' content. But, in fad, the clerk had not given them a bezant at

a nil,




i 1 4 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque

all, although, as he faid 'he did fo, and they could only judge by their hearing, they imagined that they had the coin, and each thought that it was in the keeping of one of his companions. Thus, when the time of paying came, and the money was not forthcoming, in the common belief that one of the three had received the bezant and intended to keep it and cheat the others, they quarrelled violently, and from abufe foon came to blows. The landlord, drawn to the fpot by the uproar, and informed of the ftate of the cafe, accufed the three blind men of a confpiracy to cheat him, and demanded payment with great threats. The clerk of Paris, who had followed them to the inn, and taken his lodging there in order to witnefs the refult, delivered the blind men by an equally ingenious trick which he plays upon the landlord and the prieft of the parifh.

Some of thefe ftories have for their fubje6t tricks played among thieves. In one printed by Me"on (i. 124), we have the ftory of a rich but fimple villan, or countryman, named Brifaut, who is robbed at market by a cunning fharper, and feverely corrected by his wife for his carelefihefs. Robbery, both by force and by fleight of hand and craft, prevailed to an extraordinary degree during the middle ages. The plot of the fabliau of Barat and Hairnet, by Jean de Boves (Barbazan, iv. 233), turns upon a trial of {kill among three robbers to determine who (hall commit the clevereft a6t of thievery, and the refult is, at leaft, an extremely amufing ftory. It may be mentioned as an example of the numerous ftories which the jougleurs certainly obtained from the Eaft, that the well-known flory of the Hunchback in the " Arabian Nights " appears among them in two or three different forms.

The focial vices of the middle ages, their general licentioufnels, the prevalence of injuftice and extortion, are very fully expofed to view in thefe competitions, in which no clafs of fbciety is fpared. The villan, or peafant, is always treated very contemptuoufly ; he formed the clafs from which the jougleur received leaft benefit. But the ariftocracy, the great barons, the lords of the foil, come in for their full fhare of fatire, and they no doubt enjoyed the ridiculous piftures of their own order. I will not venture to introduce the reader to female life in the baronial caftle, as it

appears


in Literature and Art. 115

appears in many of thefe ftories, and as it is no doubt truly painted, although, of courfe, in many inftances, much exaggerated. We have already feen how in the flory of Reynard, the character of mediaeval fociety was reprefented by the long ftruggle between brute force reprefented by the wolf, the emblem of the ariftocratic clafs, and the low aftutenefs of the fox, or the unariftocratic clafs. The fuccefs of the craft of the human fox over the force of his lordly antagonift is often told in the fabliaux in ludicrous colours. In that of Trubert, printed by Meon (i. 192), the " duke " of a country, with his wife and family, become repeatedly the dupes of the grofs deceptions of a poor but impudent peafant. Thefe fatires upon the ariftocracy were no doubt greatly enjoyed by the good lourgeoifie, who, in their turn, furnifhed abundance of ftories, of the drolleft defcription, to provoke the mirth of the lords of the foil, between whom and themfelves there was a kind of natural antipathy. Nor are the clergy fpared. The prieft is ufually defcribed as living with a concubine his order forbade marrying and both are confidered as fair game to the community j while the monk figures more frequently as the hero of gallant adventures. Both prieft and monk are ufually diftinguifhed by their felfifhnefs and love of indulgence. In the fabliau Du Bouchier d' Abbeville, in Barbazan (iv. i), a butcher, on his way home from the fair, feeks a night's lodging at the houfe of an inhofpitable prieft, who refufes it. But when the former returns, and offers, in exchange for his hofpitality, one of his fat fheep which he has purchafed at the fair, and not only to kill it for their fupper, but to give all the meat they do not eat to his hoft, he is willingly received into the houfe, and they make an excellent fupper. By the promife of the fkin of the fheep, the gueft fucceeds in feducing both the concubine and the maid- fervant, and it is only after his departure the following morning, in the middle of a domeftic uproar caufed by the conflicting claims of the prieft, the concubine, and the maid, to the pofleflion of the fkin, that it is difcovered that the butcher had ftolen the fheep from the prieft's own flock.

The fabliaux, as remarked before, form the moft important clafs of the extenfive mafs of the popular literature of the middle ages, and the

writers,


1 1 6 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque

writers, confident in their ftrong hold upon public favour, fometimes turn round and burlefque the literature of other clafies, efpecially the long heavy monotony of ftyle of the great romances of chivalry and the extravagant adventures they contained, as though confcious that they were gradually undermining the popularity of the romance writers. One of thele poems, entitled " De Audigier," and printed in Barbazan (iv. 217), is a parody on the romance writers and on their ftyle, not at all wanting in fpirit or wit, but the fatire is coarfe and vulgar. Another printed in Barbazan (iv. 287), under the title "De Berengier," is a fatire upon a fort of knight-errantry which had found its way into mediaeval chivalry. Berengier was a knight of Lombardy, much given to boafting, who had a beautiful lady for his wife. He ufed to leave her alone in his caftle, under pretext of fallying forth in fearch of chivalrous adventures, and, after a while, having well hacked his fword and fhield, he returned to vaunt the defperate exploits he had performed. But the lady was fhrewd as well as handfome, and, having fome fufpicions of his truthfulnefs as well as of his courage, Ihe determined to make trial of both. One morning, when her hufband rode forth as ufual, {he haftily difguifed herfelf in a fuit of armour, mounted a good fteed, and hurrying round by a different way, met the boaftful knight in the middle of a wood, where he no fooner faw that he had to encounter a real aflailant, than he difplayed the moft abjecl: cowardice, and his opponent exa&ed from him an ignominious condition as the price of his efcape. On his return home at night, boafting as ufual of his fuccefs, he found his lady taking her revenge upon him in a ftill lefs refpeclful manner, but he was filenced by her ridicule.

The Irouv&res, or poets, who wrote the fabliaux I need hardly remark that trouvere is the fame word as trolador, but in the northern dialeft of the French language appear to have flourifhed chiefly from the clofe of the twelfth century to the earlier part of the fourteenth. They all compofed in French, which was a language then common to England and France, but fome of their compofitions bear internal evidence of having been compofed in England, and others are found in contemporary manufcripts written in this ifland. The fcene of a fabliau,

printed


in Literature and Art. 117

printed by Meon (i. 113), is laid at Colchefter; and that of La Male Honte, printed in Barbazan (iii. 204), is laid in Kent. The latter, however, was written by a trouvere named Hugues de Cambrai. No obje&ion appears to have been entertained to the recital of thefe licentious fames before the ladies of the caftle or of the domeftic circle, and their general popularity was fo great, that the more pious clergy feem to have thought neceflary to find Something to take their place in the poft-prandial fociety of the monaflery, and efpecially of the nunnery; and religious ftories were written in the fame form and metre as the fabliaux. Some of thefe have been publiflied under the title of" Contes Devots," and, from their general dulnefs, it may be doubted if they anfwered their purpofe of furnilhing amufement fo well as the others.


1 1 8 Hi/lory of Caricature and Grotefque


CHAPTER VIII.

CARICATURES OF DOMESTIC LIFE. STATE OF DOMESTIC LIFE IN THE

MIDDLE AGES. EXAMPLES OF DOMESTIC CARICATURE FROM THE

CARVINGS OF THE MISERERES. KITCHEN SCENES. DOMESTIC

BRAWLS. THE FIGHT FOR THE BREECHES. THE JUDICIAL DUEL

BETWEEN MAN AND WIFE AMONG THE GERMANS. ALLUSIONS TO

WITCHCRAFT. SATIRES ON THE TRADES ; THE BAKER, THE MILLER,

THE WINE-PEDLAR AND TAVERN-KEEPER, THE ALE-WIFE, ETC.

THE influence of the jougleurs over people's minds generally, with their ftories and fatirical pieces, their grimaces, their poftures, and their wonderful performances, was very confiderable, and may be eafily traced in mediaeval manners and fentiments. This influence would naturally be exerted upon inventive art, and when a painter had to adorn the margin of a book, or the fculptor to decorate the ornamental parts of a building, we might expect the ideas which would firfl. prefent themfelves to him to be thofe fuggefted by the jougleur's performance, for the fame tafte had to be indulged in the one as in the other. The fame wit or fatire would pervade them both.

Among the moft popular fubjefts of fatire during the middle ages, were domeftic fcenes. Domeflic life at that period appears to have been in its general character coarfe, turbulent, and, I fhould fay, anything but happy. In all its points of view, it prefented abundant fubje&s for ieft and burlefque. There is little room for doubt that the Romifh Church, as it exifted in the middle ages, was extremely hoftile to domeftic happinefs among the middle and lower clafies, and that the interference of the prieft in the family was only a fource of domeftic trouble. The fatirical writings of the period, the popular tales, the difcourfes of thofe who fought reform, even the pictures in the

manufcripts


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119


manufcripts and the fculptures on the walls invariably reprefent the female portion of the family as entirely under the influence of the priefts, and that influence as exercifed for the worft of purpofes. They encouraged faith leflhels as well as difobedience in wives, and undermined the virtue of daughters, and were confequently regarded with anything but kindly feeling by the male portion of the population. The prieft, the wife, and the hufband, form the ufual leading characters in a mediaeval farce. Subjects of this kind are not very unfrequent in the illuminations of manufcripts, and more efpecially in the fculptures of buildings, and thofe chiefly ecclefiaftical, in which monks or priefts are



No. 71. A Mediaeval Kitchen Sune.


introduced in very equivocal fituations. This part of the fubje6t, however, is one into which we fliall not here venture, as we find the mediaeval caricaturifts drawing plenty of materials from the lefs vicious fhades of contemporary life ; and, in fat, fome of their moft amufing pictures are taken from the droll, rather than from the vicious, fcenes of the interior of the houfehold. Such fcenes are very frequent on the mifereres of the old cathedrals and collegiate churches. Thus, in the ftalls at Worcefler Cathedral, there is a droll figure of a man feated before a fire in a

kitchen


I2O Hlftory of Caricature and Grotefque



No. 72. An Old Lady and her Friends.


kitchen well ftored with flitches of bacon, he himfelf occupied in attending to the boiling pot, while he warms his feet, for which purpofe he has taken off his fhoes. In a fimilar carving in Hereford Cathedral, a man, alfo in the kitchen, is feen attempting to take liberties with the cook maid, who throws a platter at his head. A copy of this curious fubje6t is given in cut No. 71, and the cut No. 72 is taken from a fimilar mife- rere in Minfter Church, in the Ifle of Thanet. It reprefents an old lady feated, occupied induftrioufly in fpinning, and accompanied by her cats.

We might eafily add other examples of fimilar fubje&s from the fame fources, fuch as the fcene in our cut No. 73, taken from one of the ftalls of Winchefter Cathedral, which feems to be intended to reprefent a witch riding away upon her cat, an enormous animal, whofe

jovial look is only outdone by that of its miftrels. The latter has carried her diftaff with her, and is diligently employed in fpinning. A ftall in Sher- borne Minfter, given in our cut No. 74, reprefents a fcene in a fchool, in which an unfortunate fcholar is experiencing punifhment of a rather fevere defcrip- tion, to the great alarm of his com- panions, on whom his difgrace is evi- dently a6ting as a warning. The flog- ging fcene at fchool appears to have been rather a favourite fubje6t among the early caricaturifts, for the fcourge was looked upon in the middle ages as the grand ftimulant to fcholarfhip. In thofe good old times, when a man recalled to memory his fchoolboy days, he did not fay, " When I was at fchool," but, " When I was under the rod."

An



No. 73. The Lady and her Cat.


in Literature and Art.


121


An extenfive field for the ftudy of this interefting part of our fubjed will be found in the architedural gallery in the Kenfington Mufeum, which contains a large number of cafts from flails and other fculptures,



No. 74. Scholaftk Difdpline.

chiefly felefted from the French cathedrals. One of theie, engraved in our cut No. 75, reprefents a couple of females, feated before the kitchen fire. The date of this fculpture is ftated to be 1382. To judge by their




No. 75. A Point in Difpute.

looks and attitude, there is a difagreement between them, and the object in difpute feems to be a piece of meat, which one has taken out of the pot and placed on a dim. This lady wields her ladle as though (he wore

E prepared


122 Hiflory of Caricature and Grotefque

prepared to ufe it as a weapon, while her opponent is armed with tne bellows. The ale-pot was not unfrequently the fubject of pictures of a turbulent character, and among the grotefque and monftrous figures in the margins of the noble manufcript of the fourteenth century, known as the " Luttrell Pfalter," one reprefents two perfonages not only quarrelling over their pots, which they appear to have emptied, but actually fighting



No. 76. Want of Harmony aver the Pot.

with them. One of them has literally broken his pot over his companion's head. The fcene is copied in our cut No. 76.

It muft be ftated, however, that the more common fubjects of thefe homely fcenes are domeftic quarrels, and that the man, or his wife, enjoying their firefide, or limilar bits of domeftic comfort, only make their appearance ar rare intervals. Domeftic quarrels and combats are much more frequent. We have already feen, in the cut No. 75, two dames of the kitchen evidently beginning to quarrel over their cookery. A flail in the church of Stratford-upon-Avon gives us the group reprefented in our cut No. 77. The battle has here become defperate, but whether the male combatant be an opprefled hufband or

an


in Literature and Art.


123


an impertinent intruder, is not clear. The quarrel would feem to have

arifen during the procefs of cooking, as the female, who has feized her

opponent by the beard, has evidently

fnatched up the ladle as the readieft

weapon at hand. The anger appears to

be mainly on her fide, and the rather

tame countenance of her antagonift

contrails flrangely with her inflamed

features. Our next cut, No. 78, is

taken from the fculpture of a column

in Ely Cathedral, here copied from an

engraving in Carter's " Specimens of

Ancient Sculpture." A man and wife,

apparently, are ftruggling for the pof-

feffion of a ftafF, which is perhaps in-

No. 77. Domeftic Strife.

tended to be the emblem of maflery.

As is generally reprefented to be the cafe in thefe fcenes of domeflic



No. 78. A Struggle for the Maflery.

ftrife, the woman mows more energy and more Itrength than her

opponent,


124 Hsftory of Caricature and Grotefque


opponent, and me is evidently overcoming him. The mattery of the wife over the hufband feems to have been a univerfally acknowledged ftate of things. A flail in Sherborne Minfter, in Dorfet, which has



No. 79. The Wife in the AJcendant.

furniftied the fubjeft of our cut No. 79, might almoft be taken as the fequel of the laft cut. The lady has pofleired herfelf of the ttaftj has overthrown her huiband, and is even flriking him on the head with it



No. 80. Violence Refjttd.

when he is down. In our next cut, No. 80, which is taken from one of the cafts of ftalls in the French cathedrals exhibited in the Kenfmgton Mufeum, it is not quite clear which of the two is the offender, but,

perhaps,


in Literature and Art. 125

perhaps, in this cafe, the archer, as his profeflion is indicated by his bow and arrows, has made a gallant aflault, which, although fhe does not look much difpleafed at it, the offended dame certainly refifts with fpirit.

One idea connected with this picture of domeftic antagonifm appears to have been very popular from a rather early period. There is a proverbial phrafe to fignify that the wife is matter in the houfehold, by which it is intimated that "fhe wears the breeches." The phrafe is, it muft be confefled, an odd one, and is only half underftood by modem explanations ; but in mediaeval flory we learn how "fhe" firft put in her claim to wear this particular article of drefs, how it was firft difputed and contefted, how fhe was at times defeated, but how, as a general rule, the claim was enforced. There was a French poet of the thirteenth century, Hugues Piaucelles, two of whofe falliaux, or metrical tales, entitled the " Fabliau d'Eftourmi," and the " Fabliau de Sire Hains et de Dame Anieufe," are preferved in manufcript, and have been printed in the collection of Barbazan. The fecond of thefe relates fome of the adventures of a mediaeval couple, whofe houfehold was not the beft regulated in the world. The name of the heroine of this ftory, Anieufe, is fimply an old form of the French word ennuyeufe, and certainly dame Anieufe was fufficiently "ennuyeufe" to her lord and hufband. " Sire Hains," her hufband, was, it appears, a maker of " cottes " and mantles, and we fhould judge alfo, by the point on which the quarrel turned, that he was partial to a good dinner. Dame Anieufe was of that difagreeable temper, that whenever Sire Hains told her of fome particularly nice thing which he wifhed her to buy for his meal, fhe bought inftead fbme- thing which fhe knew was difagreeable to him. If he ordered boiled meat, fhe invariably roafted it, and further contrived that it fhould be fo covered with cinders and allies that he could not eat it. This would fhow that people in the middle ages (except, perhaps, profeflional cooks) were very unapt at roafting meat. This Hate of things had gone on for fome time, when one day Sire Hains gave orders to his wife to buy him fifh for his dinner. The difobedient wife, inftead of buying fifh, provided nothing for his meal but a difli of fpinage, telling him falfely that all the fifh flank. This leads to a violent quarrel, in which, after fome fierce

wrangling,


126 Hi/lory of Caricature and Grotefque


wrangling, efpecially on the part of the lady, Sire Hains propofes to decide their difference in a novel manner. " Early in the morning," he faid, " I will take off my breeches and lay them down in the middle of the court, and the one who can win them (hall be acknowledged to be matter or miftrefs of the houfe."

Le tnatinet, fans contredlre t Voudrai met traits defcfiaucicr, Et enmt noftre cort couchier ; Et qui conquerre lei porra, Par bone refon miiufterra S^il ertjtre ou dame du noftre.

Barbazan, Fabliaux, tome iii. p. 383.

Dame Anieufe accepted the challenge with eagernefs, and each prepared for the ftruggle. After due preparation, two neighbours, friend Symori and Dame Aupais, having been called in as witnefies, and the obje6t of difpute, the breeches, having been placed on the pavement of the court, the battle began, with fome flight parody on the formalities of the judicial combat. The firft blow was given by the dame, who was fo eager for the fray that fhe ftruck her hulband before he had put himfelf on his guard ; and the war of tongues, in which at leaft Dame Anieufe had the beft of it, went on at the fame time as the other battle. Sire Hains ventured a flight expoftulation on her eagernefs for the fray, in anfwer to which fhe only threw in his teeth a fierce defiance to do his worft. Provoked at this, Sire Hains ftruck at her, and hit her over the eyebrows, fo effectively, that the fkin was difcolou ed ; and, over-confident in the effeft of this firft blow, he began rather too foon to exult over his wife's defeat. But Dame Anieufe was lefs difconcerted than he expe&ed, and recovering quickly from the effect of the blow, (he turned upon him and ftruck him on the fame part of his face with fuch force, that fhe nearly knocked him over the fheepfold. Dame Anieufe, in her turn, now fneered over him, and while he was recovering from his confufion, her eyes fell upon the objeft of contention, and fhe rufhed to it, and laid her hands upon it to carry it away. This movement roufed Sire Hains, who inftandy feized another part of the article of his drefs of which he

was


in Literature and Art. \ 27

was thus in danger of being deprived, and began a ftruggle for poflefiion, in which the faid article underwent confiderable dilapidation, and fragments of it were fcattered over the court. In the mid it of this ftruggle the adtual fight recommenced, by the hufband giving his wife fo heavy a blow on the teeth that her mouth was filled with blood. The effeft was fuch that Sire Hains already reckoned on the victory, and proclaimed himfelf lord of the breeches.

Hains Jiert fa fame enmi les den* Tel cop, que la bouche dedenx Li a toute em f lie dejancx. " Tien ore" dift Sire Hains, " anc, ye cult que je fai Hen atainte, Or t'ai-je de deux colors tainte yaurai let braies toutes -voies"

But the immediate effect on Dame Anieufe was only to render her more defperate. She quitted her bold on the difputed garment, and fell upon her hufband with fuch a fliower of blows that he hardly knew which way to turn. She was thus, however, unconfcioufly exhaufting herfelf, and Sire Hains foon recovered. The battle now became fiercer than ever, and the lady feemed to be gaining the upper hand, when Sire Hains gave her a Ikilful blow in the ribs, which nearly broke one of them, and confider- ably checked her ardour. Friend Symon here interpofed, with the praife- worthy aim of reftoring peace before further harm might be done, but in vain, for the lady was only rendered more obftinate by her mifhap; and he agreed that it was ufelefs to interfere until one had got a more decided advantage over the other. The fight therefore went on, the two com- batants having now feized each other by the hair of the head, a mode of combat in which the advantages were rather on the fide of the male. At this moment, one of the judges, Dame Aupais, fympathifing too much with Dame Anieufe, ventured fome words of encouragement, which drew upon her a fevere rebuke from her colleague, Symon, who intimated that if (he interfered again there might be two pairs of combatants inftead of one. Meanwhile Dame Auieufe was becoming exhaufted. and was evidently getting the worft of the conteft, until at length, daggering

from


128 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque

from a vigorous pufh, Ihe fell back into a large balket which lay behind her. Sire Hains flood over her exultingly, and Symon, as umpire, pronounced him victorious. He thereupon took poffeflion of the difputed article of raiment, and again inverted himfelf with it, while the lady accepted faithfully the conditions impofed upon her, and we are affured by the poet that me was a good and obedient wife during the reft of net life. In this ftory, which affords a curious picture of mediaeval life, we learn the origin of the proverb relating to the pofleffion and wearing of the breeches. Hugues Piaucelles concludes hisfal-liau by recommending every man who has a difobedient wife to treat her in the fame manner j and mediaeval hulbands appear to have followed his advice, without fear of laws againft the ill-treatment of women.

A fubjecl: like this was well fitted for the burlefques on the ftalls, and accordingly we find on one of thofe in the cathedral at Rouen, the group given in our cut No. 81, which feems to reprefent the part of the ftory



No. 8l. The Fight for the Breeches.

in which both combatants feize hold of the difputed garment, and ftruggle for pofieffion of it. The hufband here grafps a knife in his hand, with which he feems to be threatening to cut it to pieces rather than give it up. The fabliau gives the victory to the hufband, but the wife was generally confidered as in a majority of cafes carrying off the prize. In an extremely rare engraving by the Flemifh artift Van Mecken, dated in 1480, of which I give a copy in our cut No. 82, the lady, while

putting


in Literature and Art. 120

putting on the breeches, of which fhe has juft become poflefled, mows an inclination to lord it rather tyrannically over her other half, whom (lie has condemned to perform the domeftic drudgery of the manfion.



No. 82. The Breeches Won.

In Germany, where there was ftill more roughnefs in mediaeval life, what was told in England and France as a good ftory of domeftic doings, was actually carried into practice under the authority of the laws. The judicial duel was there adopted by the legal authorities as a mode of fettling the differences between hulband and wife. Curious particulars on this fubject are given in an interefling paper entitled " Some obfervations on Judicial Duels as practifed in Germany," published in the twenty- ninth volume of the Archaeologia of the Society of Antiquaries (p. 348). Thefe obfervations are chiefly taken from a volume of directions, accom- panied with drawings, for the various modes of attack and defence, compiled by Paulus Kail, a celebrated teacher of defence at the court of Bavaria about the year 1400. Among thefe drawings we have one reprefenting the mode of combat between hufband and wife. The only weapon allowed the female, but that a very formidable one, was, according to thefe directions, a heavy ftone wrapped up in an elongation of her chemife, while her opponent had only a fhort ftaff, and he was placed up to the waift in a pit formed in the ground. The following


130 Hiflory of Caricature and Grotefque

is a literal tranflation of the directions given in the manufcript, and our cut No. 83 is a copy of the drawing which illuftrates it : " The woman muft be fo prepared, that a fleeve of her chemife extend a fmall ell beyond her hand, like a little fack ; there indeed is put a ftone weighing three pounds ; and fhe has nothing elfe but her



No. 83. A Legal Combat.

chemife, and that is bound together between the legs with a lace. Then the man makes himfelf ready in the pit over againft his wife. He is buried therein up to the girdle, and one hand is bound at the elbow to the fide." At this time the practice of fuch combats in Germany feems to have been long known, for it is ftated that in the year 1200 a man and his wife fought under the fan&ion of the civic authorities at Bale, in Switzerland. In a picture of a combat between man and wife, from a manufcript refembling that of Paulus Kail, but executed nearly a century later, the man is placed in a tub inftead of a pit, with his left arm tied to his fide as before, and his right holding a fliort heavy rtaff; while the woman is drefled, and not ftripped to the

chemife,


in Literature and Art. \ 3


chemife, as in the former cafe. The man appears to be holding the flick in fuch a manner that the fling in which the ftone was contained would twift round it, and the woman would thus be at the mercy of her opponent. 'In an ancient manufcript on the fcience of defence in the library at Gotha, the man in the tub is reprefented as the conqueror of his wife, having thus dragged her head-foremoft into the tub, where fhe appears with her legs kicking up in the air.

This was the orthodox mode of combat between man and wife, but it was fometimes prattifed under more fanguinary forms. In one picture given from thefe old books on the fcience of defence by the writer of the paper on the fubjeft in the Archaeologia, the two combatants, naked down to the waift, are reprefented fighting with fharp knives, and inflicting upon each other's bodies frightful gafhes.

A feries of flail carvings at Corbeil, near Paris, of which more will be faid a little farther on in this chapter, has furniflied the curious group reprefented in our cut No. 84, which is one of the rather rare pidoriai



No. 84. The If itch and the Demon.

allcfions to the fubje6t of witchcraft. It reprefents a woman who rnult, by her occupation, be a witch, for fhe has ib far got the mattery of the demon that fhe is fawmg off his head with a very uncomfortable looking

inftrument.


1 3 2 Hi ftory of Caricature and Grotefque


inftrument. Another ftory of witchcraft is told in the fculpture of a ftone panel at the entrance of the cathedral of Lyons, which is repre- fented in our cut No. 85. One power, fuppofed to be poflefled by witches, was that of transforming people to animals at will. William of Malmefbury, in his Chronicle, tells a ftory of two witches in the



No, 85. The Witch and her ViEtlm.

neighbourhood of Rome, who ufed to allure travellers into their cottage, and there transform them into horfes, pigs, or other animals, which they fold, and feafted themfelves with the money. One day a young man, who lived by the profeflion of a jougleur, fought a night's lodging at their cottage, and was received, but they turned him into an afs, and, as he retained his understanding and his power of ating, they gained much money by exhibiting him. At length a rich man of the neighbourhood, who wanted him for his private amufement, offered the two women a large fum for him, which they accepted, but they warned the new pofleifor of the afs that he Ihould carefully reftrain him from going into the water, as that would deprive him of his power of performing. The man who had purchafed the afs afted upon this advice, and carefully kept him from water, but one day, through the negligence of his keeper, the

afs


in Literature and Art. 133

afs efcaped from his ftable, and, rulhing to a pond at no great diftance, threw himfelf into it. Water and running water efpecially was believed to deftroy the power of witchcraft or magic ; and no fooner was the als immerfed in the water, than he recovered his original form of a young man. He told his ftory, which foon reached the ears of the pope, and the two women were feized, and confeffed their crimes. The carving from Lyons Cathedral appears to reprefent fbme fuch fcene of forcery. The naked woman, evidently a witch, is, perhaps, feated on a man whom fhe has transformed into a goat, and me feems to be whirling the cat over him in fuch a manner that it may tear his face with its claws.

There was (till another clafs of fubjefts for fatire and caricature which belongs to this part of our fubjecl: I mean that of the trader and manufacturer. We muft not fuppofe that fraudulent trading, that deceptive and imperfect workmanfhip, that adulteration of everything that could be adulterated, are peculiar to modern times. On the contrary, there was no period in the world's hiftory in which diflioneft dealing was carried on to fuch an extraordinary extent, in which there was fo much deception ufed in manufactures, or in which adulteration was praftifed on lo mamelefs a fcale, as during the middle ages. Thefe vices, or, as we may, perhaps, more properly defcribe them, thefe crimes, are often mentioned in the mediaeval writers, but they were not eafily reprefented pi6torially, and therefore we rarely meet with direct allufions to them, either in fculpture, on ftone or wood, or in the paintings of illuminated manufcripts. Reprefentations of the trades themfelves are not fo rare, and are fometimes droll and almoft burlefque. A curious feries of fuch reprefentations of arts and trades was carved on the mifereres of the church of St. Spire, at Corbeil, near Paris, which only exifl now in Millin's engravings, but they feem to have been works of the fifteenth century. Among them the firft place is given to the various occupations neceffary for the production of bread, that article fo important to the fupport of life. Thus we fee, in thefe carvings at Corbeil, the labours of the reaper, cutting the wheat and forming it into (heaves, the miller carrying it away to be ground into

meal,


1 34 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque


meal, and the baker thrufting it into the oven, and drawing it out in the lhape of loaves. Our cut No. 86, taken from one of thefe fculptures, reprefents the baker either putting in or taking out the bread with his



No. 86. A Baker of the Fifteenth Century.

peel ; by the earneft manner in which he looks at it, we may fuppofe that it is the latter, and that he is afcertaining if it be fufficiently baked. We have an earlier reprefentation of a mediaeval oven in our cut No. 87,

taken from the celebrated illu- minated manufcript of the "Ro- mance of Alexandre," in the Bodleian Library at Oxford, which appears to belong to an early period of the fourteenth century. Here the baker is evi- dently going to take a loaf out of the oven, for his companion

holds a difh for the purpofe of No. 87. A Mediaeval Baker.

receiving it.

In nothing was fraud and adulteration pradifed to fo great an extent



in Literature and Art. 135

as in the important article of bread, and the two occupations efpecially employed in making it were objects of very great diflike and of fcornful fatire. The miller was proverbially a thief. Every reader of Chaucer will remember his charafter fo admirably drawn in that of the miller of Trumpington, who, though he was as proud and gay " as eny pecok," was neverthelefs eminently difhoneft.

A theef he -was for foth of corn and male,

And that ajleigh (sly), and ujyng (practised) for toftele.

Chaucer's Beeves Tale.

This practice included a large college then exifting in Cambridge, but now forgotten, the Soler Hall, which fuffered greatly by his depredations.

And on a day it happed in a ftounde,

Syk lay the mauncyple on a maledye,

Men luenden wijly that he Jchulde dye ,

For "which this meller Jtal hot he mele and corn

A thoufend part more than byforn.

For ther biforn he Jlal but curteyjly ;

But ncnu he is a theef outrageously .

For which the ivardeyn chidde and made fare,

But theroffette the meller not a tare ;

He crakked boojt, andfwor it -was natfo.

Two of the fcholars of this college refolved to go with the corn to the mill, and by their watchfulnefs prevent his depredations. Thofe who are acquainted with the ftory know how the fcholars fucceeded, or rather how they failed ; how the miller ftole half a bumel of their flour and caufed his wife to make a cake of it ; and how the victims had their revenge and recovered the cake.

As already ftated, the baker had in thefe good old times no better character than the miller, if not worfe. There was an old faying, that if three perfons of three obnoxious profeffions were put together in a fack and fhaken up, the firft who came out would certainly be a rogue, and one of thefe was a baker. Moreover, the opinion concerning the baker was fo ftrong that, as in the phrafe taken from the old legends of the witches, who in their feftivals fat thirteen at a table, this number was

popularly


136 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque

popularly called a devil's dozen, and was believed to be unlucky fo, when the devil's name was abandoned, perhaps for the fake of euphony, the name fubftituted for it was that of the baker, and the number thirteen was called " a baker's dozen." The makers of nearly all forts of provifions for fale were, in the middle ages, tainted with the fame vice, and there was nothing from which fociety in general, efpecially in the towns where few made bread for themfelves, fuffered fo much. This evil is alluded to more than once in that curious educational treatife, the " Dictionarius " of John de Garlande, printed in my " Volume of Vocabularies." This writer, who wrote in the earlier half of the thirteenth century, insinuates that the makers of pies (pajiillarii) , an article of food which was greatly in repute during the middle ages, often made ufe of bad eggs. The cooks, he fays further, fold, efpecially in Paris to the fcholars of the univerfity, cooked meats, faufages, and fuch things, which were not fit to eatj while the butchers furnimed the meat of animals which had died of difeafe. Even the fpices and drugs fold by the apothecaries, or epiders, were not, he fays, to be trailed. John de Garlande had evidently an inclination to fatire, and he gives way to it not unfrequently in the little book of which I am fpeaking. He fays that the glovers of Paris cheated the fcholars of the univerfity, by felling them gloves made of bad materials ; that the women who gained their living by winding thread (devacuatrices, in the Latin of the time), not only emptied the fcholars' purfes, but wafted their bodies alfo (it is intended as a pun upon the Latin word) ; and the huckflers fold them unripe fruit for ripe. The drapers, he fays, cheated people not only by felling bad materials, but by meafuring them with falfe meafures ; while the hawkers, who went about from houfe to houfe, robbed as well as cheated.

M. Jubinal has publilhed in his curious volume entitled "Jongleurs et Trouveres," a rather jocular poem on the bakers, written in French of, perhaps, the thirteenth century, in which their art is lauded as much better and more ufeful than that of the goldfmith's. The millers' depredations on the corn fent to be ground at the mill, are laid to the charge of the rats, which attack it by night, and the hens, which find their way to it by day ; and he explains the diminution the bakings

experienced


in Literature and Art. 1 3 7


experienced in the hands of the baker as ariling out of the charity of the latter towards the poor and needy, to whom they gave the meal and pafte before it had even been put into the oven. The celebrated Englifh poet, John Lydgate, in a fhort poem preferved in a manufcript in the Harleian Library in the Britiih Mufeum (MS. Harl. No. 2,255, fol. 157, v), defcribes the pillory, which he calls their Baflile, as the proper heritage of the miller and the baker :

Put out hh hed, lyfl not for to dare,

But lyk a man upon that tour to abyde. For cafl of eggys -wil not oonysfpare,

Tyl he be quallyd body, bak, andfyde.

His heed endooryd, and of-verray pryde Put out hit armys, Jhetvith abroad his face ;

The fenejlrallys be made for hym fo nayde, Claymyth to been a capteyn of that place.

The bajiyle longith of iierray dewe ryght

To fah bakerys, it is trewe herytage Severalle to them, this hnoweth every ivyght t

Be kynde ajjygnedfor ther frtyngftage ;

Wheer they may freely Jkewe out ther >vifage t Whan they tak oonys their pojjejflioun,

Oivthir in youthe or in myddyl age ; Men doon hem ivrong yifthey take hym down.

Let mellerys and bakerys gadre hem a gilde t

dnd alle of ajjent make a fraternite', Undir the pillory a letil chapelle bylde,

The place amorteyfe, and purchaje lybcrte",

For alle thos that of ther noumbre be ; What e-vir it cooft afftir that they loende,

They may claymc, be juft aufiorite, Upon that baflile to make an ende.

The wine-dealer and the publican formed another clals in mediaeval fociety who lived by fraud and dimonefty, and were the objets of fatire. The latter gave both bad wine and bad meafure, and he often alfo adted as a pawnbroker, and when people had drunk more than they could pay for, he would take their clothes as pledges for their money. The tavern, in the middle ages, was the refort of very mifcellaneous company}

T gamblers


138 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque


gamblers and loofe women were always on the watch there to lead more honeft people into ruin, and the tavern-keeper profited largely by their gains ; and the more vulgar minftrel and " jogelour " found employment there ; for the middle clafles of fociety, and even their betters, frequented the tavern much more generally than at the prefent day. In the carved ftalls of the church of Corbeil, the liquor merchant is reprefented by the figure of a man wheeling a hogfhead in a barrow, as fhown in our cut No. 88. The gravenefi and air of importance with which he regards it



No. 88. The Wine Dealer.

would lead us to fuppofe that the barrel contains wine ; and the cup and jug on the ihelf above (how that it was to be fold retail. The wine- fellers called out their wines from their doors, and -boafted of their qualities, in order to tempt people in ; and John de Garlande aflures us that when they entered, they were ferved with wine which was not worth drinking. "The criers of wine," he fays, "proclaim with extended throat the diluted wine they have in their taverns, offering it at four pennies, at fix, at eight, and at twelve, frefli poured out from the gallon calk into the cup, to tempt people." ("Volume of Vocabularies/' p. 126.) The ale-wife was an efpecial fubje6t of jeft

and


in Literature and Art.


and fatire, and is not unfrequently reprefented on the pidorial monuments of our forefathers. Our cut No. 89 is taken from one of the



A**. 89. The Ale-Wife.

mifereres in the church of Wellingborough, in Northamptonfhire ; the ale-wife is pouring her liquor from her jug into a cup to ferve a ruftic, who appears to be waiting for it with impatience.

The figure of the ale-drawer, No. 90, is taken from one of the mifereres in the parifh church of Ludlow, in Shropfhire. The fize of his jug is fomewhat difpropor- tionate to that of the barrel from which he obtains the ale. The fame mifereres of Ludlow Church furnifh the next fcene, cut No. 91, which reprefents the end of the wicked ale-wife. The day of judgment is fuppcfed to have arrived, and me has



No. 90. The Ale-Drawer.


received her fentence. A demon, feated on one fide, is reading a lift of

the


1 40 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque

the crimes (he has committed, which the magnitude of the parchment fhows to be a rather copious one. Another demon (whofe head has been broken off in the original) carries on his back, in a very irreverent manner, the unfortunate lady, in order to throw her into hell- mouth, on the other fide of the picture. She is naked with the exception of the fashionable head-gear, which formed one of her vanities



No. 91 . The Ale-Wfis End.

in the world, and the carries with her the falie meafure with which (he cheated her cuftomers. A demon bagpiper welcomes her on her arrival. The fcene is full of wit and humour.

The ruftic clafles, and inftances of their rufticity, are not unfrequently met with in thefe interesting carvings. The flails of Corbeil prefent leveral agricultural fcenes. Our cut No. 92 is taken from thofe of Gloucefter cathedral, of an earlier date, and reprefents the three fhepherds, aftonimed at the appearance of the ftar which announced the birth of the Saviour of mankind. Like the three kings, the Shepherds to whom this revelation was made were always in the middle ages reprefented as three in number. In our drawing from the miferere in Gloucefter cathedral, the coftume of the fhepherds is remarkably well

depi&ed


in Literature and Art.


14.1


depided, even to the details, with the various implements appertaining to their profelfion, moft of which are fufpended to their girdles. They are drawn with much fpirit, and even the dog is well reprefented as an efpecially active partaker in the fcene.



No. 92. The Shepherd* of the Eafl.

Of the two other examples we feleft from the mifereres of Corbeil, the firft reprefents the carpenter, or, as he was commonly called by our Anglo-Saxon and mediaeval forefathers, the wright, which fignifies fimply the "maker." The application of this higher and more general term for the Almighty himfelf is called, in the Anglo-Saxon poetry, ealra gefcefta wyrhta, the Maker, or Creator, of all things {hows how important an art that of the carpenter was confidered in the middle ages. Everything made of wood came within his province. In the Anglo- Saxon " Colloquy" of archbifliop Alfric, where feme of the more ufeful artifans are introduced difputing about the relative value of their feveral crafts, the "wright " fays, "Who of you can do without my craft, fince I make houfes and all forts of veffels (vafd), and mips for you all?" ("Volume of Vocabularies," p. n.) And John de Garlande, in the thirteenth century, defcribes the carpenter as making, among other things, tubs, and barrels, and wine-cades. The workmanlhip of thofe times was exercifed, before all other materials, on wood and metals, and

the


142 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque


the wright, or worker in the former material, was diftinguifhed by this



No. 93. The Carpenter.

circumftance from the fmith, or worker in metal. The carpenter is ftill called a wright in Scotland. Our laft cut (No. 94), taken alfo from one

\



No. 94, The Shoemaker.

of the mifereres at Corbeil, reprefents the flioemaker, or as he was then

ufually


in Literature and Art. 143


ufually called, the cordwainer, becaufe the leather which he chiefly ufed came from Coidova in Spain, and was thence called cordewan, or cordewaine. Our fhoemaker is engaged in cutting a fkin of leather with an inftrument of a rather fingular form. Shoes, and perhaps forms for making (hoes, are fufpended on pegs againfl. the wall.


144 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque


\


CHAPTER IX.

GROTESftUE FACES AND FIGURES. PREVALENCE OF THE TASTE FOE

UGLY AND GROTESftUE FACES. SOME OF THE POPULAR FORMS

DERIVED FROM ANTIQUITY ; THE TONGUE LOLLING OUT, AND THE

DISTORTED MOUTH. HORRIBLE SUBJECTS : THE MAN AND THE

SERPENTS. ALLEGORICAL FIGURES : GLUTTONY AND LUXURY.

OTHER REPRESENTATIONS OF CLERICAL GLUTTONY AND DRUNKEN- NESS. GROTESaUE FIGURES OF INDIVIDUALS, AND GROTESftUE

GROUPS. ORNAMENTS OF THE BORDERS OF BOOKS. UNINTENTIONAL

CARICATURE ; THE MOTE AND THE BEAM.

THE grimaces and ftrangeppftures of the jougleurs feem to_jiaye had great attracYion3or-thofe wha j witneffed thjno. _Tg unrefined and uneducated minds no object conveys fo perfect a notion of mirth asan ugly and diftorted face. Hence it is that among the common peafantry at a country fair few exhibitions are more fatisfa6tory than that of grinning through a horfe-collar. This fentiment is largely exemplified in the fculpture efpecially of the middle ages, a long period, during which the general character of fociety prefented that want of refinement which we now obferve chiefly in its leaft cultivated claffes. Among the moft common decorations of our ancient churches and other mediaeval buildings, are grotefque and monftrous heads and faces. Antiquity, which lent us the types of many of thefe nionftrofities, faw in her Typhons and Gorgons a fignification beyond the furface of the pidure, and her grotefque mafks had a general meaning, and were in a manner typical of the whole field of comic literature. The maik was lefs an individual grotefque to be laughed at for itfelf, than a perfonification of comedy. In the middle ages, on the contrary, although in ibme cafes certain forms were often regarded as typical of certain ideas, in general the defign extended no farther than the forms which the artift had given to it ; the

grotefbue


in Literature and Art. 145

grotefqne features, like the grinning through the horfe-collar, gave fatisfadion by their mere uglinefs. Even the applications, when fuch figures were intended to have one, were coarfely fatirical, without any intellectuality, and, where they had a meaning beyond the plain text of the fcuipture or drawing, it was not far-fetched, but plain and eafily underftood. When the Anglo-Saxon drew the face of a bloated and disfigured monk, he no doubt intended thereby to proclaim the popular notion of the general character of monaftic life, but this was a defign which nobody could mifunderftand, an interpretation which everybody was prepared to give to it. We have already feen various examples of this defcription of fatire, fcattered here and there among the immcnfe mafs of grotefque fcuipture which has no fuch meaning. A great proportion, indeed, of thefe grotefque fculptures appears to prefent mere variations of a certain number of diftinft types which had been handed down from a remote period, fome of them borrowed, perhaps involuntarily, from antiquity. Hence we naturally look for the earlier and more curious examples of this elate of art to Italy and the fouth of France, where the tranfition from claflical to mediaeval was more gradual, and the continued influence of claflical forms is more eafily traced. The early Chriftian mafons appear to have caricatured under the form of fuch grotefques the perfonages of the heathen mythology, and to this practice we perhaps owe fome of the types of the mediaeval monfters. We have feen in a former chapter a grotefque from the church of Monte Majour, near Nifmes, the original type of which had evidently been fome burlefque figure of Saturn eating one of his children. Theclafljcal malic doubtlefs furnilhed the type for thofe figures, fo common in mediaeval fcuipture, of faces with difproportionately large mouths - } jult as another favourite clafs of grotefque faces, thole with diflended mouths


and tongues lolling out, were taken originally from the Typhous and Gorgons of the ancients. Many other popular types of faces rendered artificially ugly are mere exaggerations of the diftnrtTnns procTticed pn ihe features by different operations, iuch, iui' illfUmce, as mat of blowing a horn.

The pradice of blowing the horn, is, indeed, peculiarly calculated to

u exhibit


1 46 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque


exhibit the features of the face to difadvantage, and was not overlooked by the defigners of the mediaeval decorative fculpture. One of the large collection of cafts of fculptures from French cathedrals exhibited in the mufeum at South Kenfington, has furnifhed the two fubje&s given in our cut No. 93 . The firft is reprefented as blowing a horn, but he is



No. 95. Grotejque Monfters.


producing the greateft poffible diftortion in his features, and especially in his mouth, by drawing the horn forcibly on one fide with his left hand, while he pulls his beard in the other direction with the right hand. The force with which he is fuppofed to be blowing is perhaps reprefented by the form given to his eyes. The face of the lower figure is in at leaft comparative repose. The defign of reprefenting general diftortion in the firft is further fhown by thendiculoufly unnatural pofition of the arms. Such diftortion of the memoers was not unfrequently introduced to heighten the. effeft of the grimace in the face ; and, as in thefe examples, it was not uncommon to introduce as a further element of grotefque, the bodies, or parts of the bodies, of animals, or even of demons.

Another


in Literature and Art.


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Another caft in the Kenfington Muleum is the lubjeft of our rut No. 96, which prefents the fame idea of ftretching the mouth. The lubjecl. is here exhibited by another rather mirthful looking individual, but whether the exhibitor is intended to be a goblin or demon, or



No. 96. Diabolical Mirth.

whether he is merely furnimed with the wings and claws of a bat, feems rather uncertain. The bat was looked upon as an unpropitious if not an unholy animal ; like the owl, it was the companion of the witches, and of the fpirits of darknefs. The group in our cut No. 97 is taken from



No. 97. Making Facet.

one of the carved flails in the church of Stratford-upon-Avon, and reprefents a trio of grimacers. The firft of thefe three grotefque faces is lolling out the tongue to an extravagant length ; the fecond is fimply grinning; while the third has taken a faufage between his teeth to

render


148 Hiflory of Caricature a?id Grotefque

render his grimace ftill more ridiculous. The number and variety of fuch grotefque faces, which we find fcattered over the architectural decoration of our old ecclefiaftical buildings, are fo great that I will not attempt to give any more particular claffification of them. All this church decoration was calculated efpecially to produce its efFed upon the middle and lower clafles, and mediaeval art was, perhaps more than any- thing elfe, fuited to mediaeval fociety, for it belonged to the mafs and not to the individual. The man who could enjoy a match at grinning through horfe-collars, muft have been charmed by the grotefque works of the mediaeval ftone fculptor and wood carver ; and we may add that thefe difplay, though often rather rude, a very high degree of fldll in art, a great power of producing ftriking imagery.

Theie_xnejiJLaeYal_artifts loved alfo to produce horrible objects as well as laughable ones, thougheven in tEeir horrors


r arming into the_grotgigue. Among the arljvmffs. fp th^ fcuTptured figures, we fqmetimes meet with inftruments of pain, and very talented attempts to exhibirtnTTon the features of the victims. The creed of the middle ages gave great fcope for the indulgence of this tafte in the infinitely varied terrors of purgatory and hell; and, not to fpeak of the more crude defcriptions that are fo common in mediaeval popular literature, the account to which thefe defcriptions might be turned by the poet as well as the artift are well known to the reader of Dante. Coils of ferpents and dragons, which were the moft ufual inftruments in the tortures of the infernal regions, were always favourite objects in mediaeval ornamentation, whether fculptured or drawn, in the details of architectural decoration, or in the initial letters and margins of books. They are often combined in forming grotefque tracery with the bodies of animals or of human beings, and their movements are generally hoftile to the latter. We have already feen, in previous chapters, examples of this ufe of ferpents and dragons, dating from the earlieft periods of mediaeval art ; and it is perhaps the moft common ftyle of ornamentation in the buildings and illuminated manufcripts in our ifland from the earlier Saxon times to the thirteenth century. This ornamentation is fometimes ftrikingly bold and effective. In the cathedral of Wells there is a feries

of




in Literature and Art. 1 49

of ornamental bofles, formed by faces writhing under the attacks of numerous dragons, who are feizing upon the lips ; eyes, and cheeks of their victims. One of thele bofles, which are of the thirteenth century, is reprefented in our cut No. 98. A large, coarfely featured face is the



No. 98. Horror.

victim of two dragons, one of which attacks his mouth, while the other has feized him by the eye. The expreffion of the face is ftrikingly horrible.

The higher mind of the middle ages loved to fee inner meanings through outward forms ; or, at leaft, it was a fafhion which manifefted itfelf moft ftrongly in the latter half of the twelfth century, to adapt thefe outward forms to inward meanings by comparifons and moralifa- tions : and under the effeft of this feeling certain figures were at times adopted, with a view to fome other purpofe than mere ornament, though this was probably an innovation upon mediaeval art. The tongue lolling out, taken originally, as we have feen, from the imagery of claffic times, was accepted rather early in the middle ages as the emblem or fymbol of luxury ; and, when we find ft among the fculptured ornaments of the architefture efpecially of fome of the larger and more important churches, it implied probably an allufion to that vice at leaft the face prefented to us was intended to be that of a voluptuary. Among the remarkable

feries


150 Hiflory of Caricature and Grotefque


feries of fculptures which crown the battlements of the cloifters of Magdalen College, Oxford, executed a very few years after the middle of the fifteenth century, amid many figures of a very mifcellaneous character, there are feveral which were thus, no doubt, intended to be reprefen- tatives of vices, if not of virtues. I give two examples of thefe curious fculptures.



No. 99. Gluttony.


No. loo. Luxury.


The firft, No. 99, is generally confidered to reprefent gluttony, and it is a remarkable circumftance that, in a building the character of which was partly ecclefiaftical, and which was erected at the expenfe and under the directions of a great prelate, Bifhop Wainflete, the vice of gluttony, with which the ecclefiaftical order was efpecially reproached, mould be reprefented in ecclefiaftical coftume. It is an additional proof that the detail of the work of the building was left entirely to the builders. The coarie^bloated_ features of the face, and the "_vi}lainnng " Irm/ frrfhead^.

are


in Literature and Art.


are chara6teriftically executed ; and the lolling tongue may perhaps be intended to intimate that, in the lives of the clergy, luxury went hand in with its kindred vice. The fecond of our examples, No. 100, appears by its different characteriftics (fome of which we have been unable to introduce in our woodcut) to be intended to reprefent luxury itfelf. Sometimes qualities of the individual man, or even the clafs of fociety, are reprefented in a manner far lefs difguifed by allegorical clothing, and therefore much more plainly to the underftanding of the vulgar. Thus in an illuminated manufcript of the fourteenth cen- tury, in the Britifh Mufeum (MS. Arundel, No. 91), gluttony is reprefented by a monk



No - IOI


G/utton ^


devouring a pie alone and in fecret, except that a little cloven-footed imp holds up the dim, and feems to enjoy the profped of monaftic indulgence. This picture is copied in our cut No. 101. Another manufcript of the fame date (MS. Sloane, No. 2435) contains a fcene, copied in our cut



No. lol. The Monaftic Cellarer.


No. 103. Drunkenneft.


No. 102, reprefenting drunkennefs under the form of another monk, who has obtained the keys and found his way into the cellar of his monaftery, and is there indulging his love for good ale in fimilar fecrecy. It is to be remarked that here, again, the vices are laid to the charge of the clergy. Our cut No. 103, from a baf-relief in Ely Cathedral, given in Carter's

" Specimens


152 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque


" Specimens of Ancient Sculpture," reprefents a man drinking from a horn, and evidently enjoying his employment, but his coftume is not fufficiently chara&eriftic to betray his quality.

The fubjeft of grotefque faces and heads naturally leads us to that of monftrous and grotefque bodies and groups of bodies, which has already been p? r tly _f r rafr"l in ajjjrmer chapter, where we have noticed the great love fliown in the middle ae^es for monflfdui.


not only monfters of one nature, but, and that efpecially, of figures formed by joining together the parts of different, and entirely diflimilar,



No. 104. A btrange Monfter.

animals, of fimilar mixtures between animals and men. This, as ftated above, was often effeded by joining the body of fome nondeicript animal to a human head and face ; fo that, by the difproportionate fize of the latter, the body, as a fecondary part of the pifture, became only an adjunft to fet off ftill further the grotefque charader of the human face. More importance was fometimes given to the body combined with fantaftic forms, which baffle any attempt at giving an intelligible defcription. The accompanying cut, No. 104, reprefents a winged monfter of this

kind ;


in Literature and Art.


'53


kind ; it is taken from one of the cafts from French churches exhibited in the Kenfington Mufeum.

Snmptin-.PS tfrfi rrWljgv_alartift, without giving any unufual form to his human figures, placed them in itrange poltures. or joined them In


Jingular combinations. Thefe latter are commonly of a playful character. or fometimes they reprefent droll feats of {kill, or puzzles, or other fubjects, all of which have been publiftied pictorially and for the amufe- ment of children down to very recent times. There were a few of thefe groups which ate of rather frequent occurrence, and they were evidently favourite types. One of thefe is given in the annexed cut, No. 105. It



No. 105. Rolling Toffy Tur-vy.

is taken from one of the carved mifereres of the flails in Ely cathedral, as given in Carter, and reprefents two men who appear to be rolling over each other. The upper figure exhibits animal's ears on his cap, which feem to proclaim him a member of the fraternity of fools : the ears of the lower figure are concealed from view. This group is not a rare one, efpecially on fimilar monuments in France, where the architectural antiquaries have a technical name for it ; and this Ihows us how even the particular forms of art in the middle ages were not confined to any par- ticular country, but more or lefs, and with exceptions, they pervaded all

x thofe


154 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque



thofe which acknowledged the ecclefiaftical fupremacy of the church of Rome ; whatever peculiarity of ftyle it took in particular countries, the

fame forms were fpread through all weftern Europe. Our next cut, No. 1 06, gives another of thefe curious groups, confifting, in fad, of two individuals, one of which is evidently an ecclefiaftic. It will be feen that, as we follow this round, we obtain, by means of the two heads, four different figures in fo

No. 106. A Continuous Group. many totally different pofitions. This

group is taken from one of the very curious feats in the cathedral of Rouen in Normandy, which were engraved and publifhed in an interefting volume by the late Monfieur E. H. Langlois.

Among the moft interefting of the mediaeval burlefque drawings are thofe which are found in fuch abundance in the borders of the pages of illuminated manufcripts. During the earlier periods of the mediaeval miniatures, the favourite objects for thefe borders were monftrous animals, efpecially dragons, which could eafily be twined into grotefque combinations. In courfe of time, the fubjecls thus introduced became more numerous, and in the fifteenth century they were very varied. Strange animals ftill continued to be favourites, but they were more light and elegant in their forms, and were more gracefully defigned. Our cut No. 107, taken from the beautifully-illuminated manufcript of the romance of the "Com te d'Artois," of the fifteenth century, which has furnilhed us previoufly with feveral cuts, will illuftrate my The graceful lightnefs of the tracery of the foliage fhown in

this



Nc. 107. Bcrdcr Ornament.


meaning.


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'55


this defign is found in none of the earlier works of art of this clafs. This, of courfe, is chiefly to be afcribed to the great advance which had been made in the art of defign fince the thirteenth century. But, though fo greatly improved in the ftyle of art, the fame clafs of fubjefts con- tinued to be introduced in this border ornamentation long after the art of printing, and that of engraving, which accompanied it, had been introduced. The revolution in the ornamentation of the borders of the pages of books was effefted by the artifts of the lixteenth century, at which time people had become better acquainted with, and had learnt to appreciate, ancient art and Roman antiquities, and they drew their infpiration from a correct knowledge of what the middle ages had copied blindly, but had not underftood. Among the fubje6ts of burlefque which the monuments of Roman art prefented to them, the ftumpy figures of the pigmies appear to have gained fpecial favour, and they are employed in a manner which reminds us of the pictures found in Pompeii. Joft Amman, the well-known artift, who exercifed his profeffion at Nurem- berg in the latter half of the fixteenth century, engraved a fet of



No. 1 08. A Triumphal ProccJJhn.

illuftrations to Ovid's Metamorphofes, which were printed at Lyons in 1574, and each cut and page of which is enclofed in a border of very fanciful and neatly-executed burlefque. The pigmies are introduced in thefe borders very freely, and are grouped with great fpirit. I felecl: as an example, cut No. 108, a fcene which reprefents a triumphal proceflion

fome


156 Hijlory of Caricature and Grotefque

fome pigmy Alexander returning from his conquefts. The hero is feated on a throne carried by an elephant, and before him a bird, perhaps a vanquished crane, proclaims loudly his praife. Before them a pigmy attendant marches proudly, carrying in one hand the olive branch of peace, and leading in the other a ponderous but captive oftrich, as a trophy of his mailer's victories. Before him again a pigmy warrior, heavily armed with battle-axe and falchion, is mounting the fteps of a ftage, on which a nondefcript animal, partaking fomewhat of the character of a fow, but perhaps intended as a burlefque on the ftrange animals which, in mediaeval romance, Alexander was faid to have encountered in Egypt, blows a horn, to celebrate or announce the return of the conqueror. A fnail, alfo advancing flowly up the ftage, implies, perhaps, a fneer at the whole fcene.

Neverthelefs, thefe old German, Flemifh, and Dutch artifts were ftill much influenced by the mediaeval fpirit, which they difplayed in their coarfe and clumfy imagination, in their neglect of everything like congruity in their treatment of the fubject with regard to time and place, and their naive exaggerations and blunders. Extreme examples of thefe characterises are fpoken of, in which the Ifraelites croffing the Red Sea are armed with muikets, and all the other accoutrements of modern foldiers, and in which Abraham is preparing to facrifice his fon Ifaac by mooting him with a matchlock. In delineating fcriptural fubjects, an attempt is generally made to clothe the figures in an imaginary ancient oriental coftume, but the landfcapes are filled with the modem caftles and manfion houfes, churches, and monaileries of weftern Europe. Thefe half-mediaeval artifts, too, like their more ancient predeceflbrs, often fall into unintentional caricature by the exaggeration or fimplicity with which they treat their fubjects. There was one fubject which the artifts of this period of regeneration of art feemed to have agreed to treat in a very unimaginative manner. In the beautiful Sermon on the Mount, our Saviour, in condemning hafty judgments of other people's actions, fays (Matt. vii. 35), "And why beholdeft thou the mote that is in thy brother's eye, but confidereft not the beam that is in thine own eye ? Or how wilt thou fay to thy brother, Let me pull out the

mote


in Literature and Art.


'57


mote out of thine eye, and, behold, a beam is in thine own eye ? Thou hypocrite, firft caft out the beam out of thine own eye, and then (halt thou fee clearly to caft out the mote out of thy brother's eye." What- ever be the exact nature of the beam which the man was expected to overlook in his " own eye," it certainly was not a large beam of timber. Yet fuch was the conception of it by artifts of the fixteenth century. One of them, named Solomon Bernard, defigned a feries of woodcuts illuftrating the New Teftament, which were publifhed at Lyons in 1553 j and the manner in which he treated the fubject will be feen in our cut No. 109, taken from one of the illuftrations to that book. The individual



No. 109. The Mote and the Beam.

feated is the man who has a mote in his eye, which the other, approach- ing him, points out ; and he retorts by pointing to the " beam," which is certainly fuch a maffive objea as could not eafily have been overlooked. About thirteen years before this, an artift of Augfburg, named Daniel Hopfer, had publifhed a large copper-plate engraving of this fame fubjed, a reduced copy of which is given in the cut No. no. The individual who fees the mote in his brother s eye, is evidently treating it m the

character


1 5 8 Htflory of Caricature and Crotefque


charater of a phyfician or furgeon. It is only neceffary to add that the beam in his own eye is of ftill more extraordinary dimenfions than the former, and that, though it feems to efcape the notice both of himfelf



Ac. 1 1 o. The Mote and the Beam Another Treatment.

and his patient, it is evident that the group in the diftance contemplate it with aftonimment. The building accompanying this fcene appears to be a church, with paintings of faints in the windows.


in Literature and Art.


CHAPTER X.

SATIRICAL LITERATURE IN THE MIDDLE AGES. JOHN DE HAUTEVILLB

AND ALAN DE LILLE. GOLIAS AND THE GOLIARDS. THE GOLIAHDIC

POETRY. TASTE FOR PARODY. PARODIES ON RELIGIOUS SUBJECTS.

POLITICAL CARICATURE IN THE MIDDLE AGES. THE JEWS OF

NORWICH. CARICATURE REPRESENTATIONS OF COUNTRIES. LOCAL

SATIRE. POLITICAL SONGS AND POEMS.

IN a previous chapter I have fpoken of a clafe of fatirical literature which was entirely popular in its character. Not that on this account it was original among the peoples who compofed mediaeval fociety, for the intellectual development of the middle ages came almoft all from Rome through one medium or other, although we know fo little of the details of the popular literature of the Romans that we cannot always trace it. The mediaeval literature of weftern Europe was moftly modelled upon that of France, which was received, like its language, from Rome. But when the great univerfity fyftem became eftablifhed, towards the end of the eleventh century, the fcholars of weftern Europe became more directly acquainted with the models of literature which antiquity had left them 5 and during the twelfth century thefe found imitators fo Ikilful that fome of them almoft deceive us into accepting them for claflical writers themfelves. Among the firft of thefe models to attract the attention of mediaeval fcholars, were the Roman fatirifls, and the ftudy of them produced, during the twelfth century, a number of fatirical writers in Latin profe and verfe, who are remarkable not only for their boldnefs and poignancy, but for the elegance of their ftvle. I mav mention among thofe of Englilh birth, John of Salisbury, Walter Mapes, and Giraldus Cambrenfis, who all wrote in profe, and Nigellus Wireker, already mentioned in a former chapter, and John de Hauteville, who wrote in

verfe.


160 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque

verfe. The lirft of thefe, in his " Polycraticus," Walter Mapes, in his book "De Nugis Curialium," and Giraldus. in his " Speculum Ecclefiae," and feveral other of his writings, lay the lalh on the corruptions and vices of their contemporaries with no tender hand. The two moft remarkable Englifh fatirifts of the twelfth century were John de Hauteville and Nigellus Wireker. The former wrote, in the year 1184, a poem in nine books of Latin hexameters, entitled, after the name of its hero, " Archi- trenius," or the Arch-mourner. Architrenius is reprefented as a youth, arrived at years of maturity, who forrows over the fpeftacle of human vices and weaknelfes, until he refolves to go on a pilgrimage to Dame Nature, in order to expoftulate with her for having made him feeble to refift the temptations of the world, and to entreat her afliftance. On his way, he arrives fucceffively at the court of Venus and at the abode of Gluttony, which give him the occafion to dwell at confiderable length on the licenfe and luxury which prevailed among his contemporaries. He next reaches Paris, and vifits the famous mediaeval univerfity, and his fatire on the manners of the ftudents and the fruitlefihefs of their ftudies, forms a remarkable and interefting picture of the age. The pilgrim next arrives at the Mount of Ambition, tempting by its beauty and by the ftately palace with which it was crowned, and here we are prefented with a fatire on the manners and corruptions of the court. Near to this was the Hill of Prefumption, which was inhabited by ecclefiaftics of all claffes, great fcholaftic do6tors and profeflbrs, monks, and the like. It is a fatire on the manners of the clergy. As Architrenius turns from this painful fpeclacle, he encounters a gigantic and hideous monfter named Cupidity, is led into a feries of reflections upon the greedinefs and avarice of the prelates, from which he is roufed by the uproar caufed by a fierce combat between the prodigals and the mifers. He is fubfequently carried to the ifland of far-diilant Thule, which he finds to be the refting- place of the philofophers of ancient Greece, and he liftens to their declamations againft the vices of mankind. After this vifit, Architrenius reaches the end of his pilgrimage. He finds Nature in the form of a beautiful woman, dwelling with a hoft of attendants in the midft of a flowery plain, and meats with a courteous reception, but me begins by

giving


in Literature and Art. \ 6


giving him a long ledure on natural philofophy. After this is concluded, Dame Nature liftens to his complaints, and, to confole him, gives him a handfome woman, named Moderation, for a wife, and difmifles him with a chapter of good counfels on the duties of married life. The general moral intended to be inculcated appears to be that the retirement of domeftic happinefs is to be preferred to the vain and heartlels turmoils of adive life in all its phafes. It will be feen that the kind of allegory which fubfequently produced the " Pilgrim's Progrefs/' had already made its appearance in mediaeval literature.

Another of the celebrated fatirifls of the fcholaftic ages was named Alanus de Infulis, or Alan of Lille, becaufe he is underftood to have been born at Lille in Flanders. He occupied the. chair of theology for many years in the univerfity of Paris with great diftintion, and his learning was fo extenfive that he gained the name of doSlor univerfalis, the univerfal doctor. In one of his books, which is an imitation of that favourite book in the middle ages "Boethius de Confolatione Philofophiae," Dame Nature, in the place of Philofophy not, as in John de Hauteville, as the referee, but as the complainant is introduced bitterly lamenting over the deep depravity of the thirteenth century, efpecially difplayed in the prevalence of vices of a revolting character. This work, which, like Boethius, confifts of alternate chapters in verfe and profe, is entitled " De Planctu Naturae," the lamentation of nature. I will not, however, go on here to give a lift of the graver fatirical writers, but we will proceed to another clafs of fatirifts which fprang up among the mediaeval fcholars, more remarkable and more peculiar in their character I mean peculiar to the middle ages.

The fatires of the time fhow us that the ftudents in the universities in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, who enjoyed a great amount of independence from authority, were generally wild and riotous, and, among the vaft number of youths who then devoted themfelves to a fcholaftic life, we can have no doubt that the habit of diflipation became permanent. Among thefe wild ftudents there exifled, probably, far more wit and fatirical talent than among their fteadier and more laborious brethien, and this wit, and the manner in which it was difplayed, made its pofleflbrs welcome guefts at the luxurious tables of the higher and

Y richer


1 62 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque


richer clergy, at which Latin feems to have been the language in ordinary ufe. In all probability it was from this circumftance (in allufion to the Latin word gula, as intimating their love of the table) that thefe merry fcholars, who difplayed in Latin fome of the accomplishments which the jougleurs profeffed in the vulgar tongue, took or received the name of goliards (in the Latin of that time, goliardi, or goliardenfcs) * The name at leaft appears to have been adopted towards the end of the twelfth century. In the year 1229, during the minority of Louis IX., and while the government of France was in the hands of the queen- mother, troubles arofe in the univerfity of Paris through the intrigues of the papal legate, and the turbulence of the fcholars led to their difperfion and to the temporary clofing of the fchools ; and the contemporary hiftorian, Matthew Paris, tells us how " fome of the fervants of the departing fcholars, or thofe whom we ufed to call goliardenfes," com- pofed an indecent epigram on the rumoured familiarities between the legate and the queen. But this is not the firft mention of the goliards, for a flatute of the council of Treves, in 1227, forbade "all priefts to permit truants, or other wandering fcholars, or goliards, to fing verfes or Sanftus and Angelus Dei in the fervice of the mafs."f This probably refers to parodies on the religious fervice, fuch as thofe of which I fhall foon have to fpeak. From this time the goliards are frequently mentioned. In ecclefiaftical ftatutes publifhed in the year 1289, it is ordered that the clerks or clergy (clerici, that is, men who had their education in the univerfity) fliould not be jougleurs, goliards, or buffoons ;" J and the fame ftatute proclaims a heavy penalty againft thofe clerici " who perfift in the

practice


  • In the mediaeval Latin, the word goliardia was introduced to express the pro-

fession of the goliard, and the verb g oliardizare, to signify the practice of it.

t " Item, praecipimus ut omnes sacerdotes non permittant trutannos et alios vagos scholares, aut goliardos, cantare versus super Sanflus et Angelus Dei in missis," etc- Concil. Trevir., an 1227, ap. Marten, et Durand. Ampliss. Coll., vii. col. 117.

J " Item, praecipimus quod clerici non sint joculatores, goliardi, seu bufones." Stat. Synod. Caduacensis, Ruthenensis, et Tutelensis Eccles. ap. Martene, Thes. Anecd., iv. col. 727.


in Literature and Art. 163


pra&ice of goliardy or flage performance during a year,"* which fliows that they exercifed more of the functions of the jougleur than the mere finging of fongs.

Thefe vagabond clerks made for themfelves an imaginary chieftain, or prefident of their order, to whom they gave the name of Golias, probably as a pun on the name of the giant who combated againft David, and, to fhow further their defiance of the exiiling church government, they made him a bifhop Golias epifcopus. Bimop Golias was the burlefque repre- fentative of the clerical order, the general fatirift, the reformer of eclefiaftical and all other corruptions. If he was not a doctor of divinity, he was a mafter of arts, for he is fpoken of as Magifter Golias. But above all he was the father of the Goliards, the "ribald clerks," as they are called, who all belonged to his houfehold,f and they are fpoken of as his children.

Summa falus omnium, Ji/ius Marite, Pafcat, fotat, -veftiat puerot Golyce ! J

" May the Saviour of all, the Son of Mary, give food, drink, and clothes to the children of Golias!" Still the name was clothed in fo much myftery, that Giraldus Cambrenfis, who flourimed towards the latter end of the twelfth century, believed Golias to be a real perfonage, and his contemporary. It may be added that Golias not only boafts of the dignity of bifhop, but he appears fometimes under the title of archipoeta, the archpoet or poet-in-chief.

Caefarius of Heifterbach, who completed his book of the miracles of his time in the year 1222, tells us a curious anecdote of the character of the wandering clerk. In the year before he wrote, he tells us, " It happened at Bonn, in the diocefe of Cologne, that a certain wandering

clerk,


  • " Cleric! .... si in goliardiavel histrionatu per annum fuerint." Ib. col. 729.

In one of the editions of this statute it is added, " after they have been warned three times."

f "Clerici ribaldi, maxime qui vulgo dicuntur defamila Goliai." Concil. Sen. ap. Concil., torn. ix. p. 578.

J See my " Poems of Walter Mapes," p. 70.


1 64 Hi/lory of Caricature and Grotefque

clerk, named Nicholas, of the clafs they call archpoet, was grievoufly ill, and when he fuppofed that he was dying, he obtained from our abbot, through his own pleading, and the interceflion of the canons of the fame church, admiflion into the order. What more ? He put on the tunic, as it appeared to us, with much contrition, but, when the danger was paft, he took it off immediately, and, throwing it down with derifion, took to flight." We learn beft the character of the goliards from their own poetry, a considerable quantity of which is preferred. They wandered about from manfion to manfion, probably from monaftery to monaflery, juft like the jougleurs, but they feem to have been efpecially welcome at the tables of the prelates of the church, and, like the jougleurs, befides being well feafted, they received gifts of clothing and other articles. In few inftances only were they otherwife than welcome, as defcribed in the rhyming epigram printed in my " Latin Poems attributed to Walter Mapes." " I come uninvited," fays the goliard to the bifhop, "ready for dinner; fuch is my fate, never to dine invited." The bilhop replies, "I care not for vagabonds, who wander among the fields, and cottages, and villages j fuch guefts are not for my table. I do not invite you, for I avoid fuch as you ; yet without my will you may eat the bread you afk. Warn, wipe, fit, dine, drink, wipe, and depart."

Goliardus.

Non in-vitatus -venlo p^andere paratus ; Sic fum fatatusy nunquam pranderc "vocatus.

Episcopus.

Non ego euro "vagos, qul rura, mapalia, pages Pcrluftranty tales nan -vult mea menja Jodalet. Te nan in-vitOy tibi confimilei ego vitc ; Me tamen in-vlto potieris pane fetito. dbluey terge, Jede, prande t bite, terge, recede.

In another fimilar epigram, the goliard complains of the bifliop who had given him as his reward nothing but an old worn-out mantle. Moft of the writers of the goliardic poetry complain of their poverty, and fome of them admit that this poverty arofe from th<? tavern and the love of. gambling. One of them alleges as his claim to the liberality of

his




in Literature and Art. j6c

his hoft, that, as he was a fcholar, he had not learnt to labour, that his parents were knights, but he had no tafle for fighting, and that, in a word, he preferred poetry to any occupation. Another fpeaks ftill more to the point, and complains that he is in danger of being obliged to fell his clothes. " If this garment of vair which I wear," he fays, " be fold for money, it will be a great difgrace to me ; I would rather fuffer a long fart. A bimop, who is the mod generous of all generous men, gave me this cloak, and will have for it heaven, a greater reward than St. Martin has, who only gave half of his cloak. It is needful now that the poet's want be relieved by your liberality [addreffing his hearers] ; let noble men give noble gifts gold, and robes, and the like."

Si -vendatur proffer denarlum

. Indumentum quod for to -varlum,

Grande ml hi fet opprobrium ; Malo diu pati jejunlum. LargiJJlmus largorum omnium Prceful dedit mihl hoc pallium) Majus habens In calls pramlum Quam Martinus, qul dedit medium. Nunc eft opus ut -veflra copla Skblevetur -vatis Inopla ; Dent nobiles dona nobilia, Aurum, -ueftes, et hlijimllla.

There has been fome difference of opinion as to the country to which this poetry more efpecially belongs. Giraldus Cambrenfis, writing at the end of the twelfth or the beginning of the thirteenth century, evidently thought that Golias was an Englifhman ; and at a later date the goliardic poetry was almoft all afcribed to Giraldus's contemporary and friend, the celebrated humourift, Walter Mapes. This was, no doubt, an error. Jacob Grimm feemed inclined to claim them for Germany ; but Grimm, on this occafion, certainly took a narrow view of the queftion. We mall probably be more correct in faying that they belonged in common to all the countries over which univerfity learning extended ; that in whatever country a particular poem of this clafi was compofed, it became the property of the whole body of thefe fcholaftic jougleurs, and that it was

thus


1 66 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotef^ue

thus carried from one land to another, receiving fometimes alterations or additions to adapt it to each. Several of thefe poems are found in manufcripts written in different countries with fuch alterations and additions, as, for inftance, that in the well-known " Confeffion," in the Englifa copies of which we have, near the conclufion, the line

Praful Coventrenjlum, farce confitenti ;

an appeal to the bifhop of Coventry, which is changed, in a copy in a German manufcript, to

Elefle Colonitf, farce penitent!,

' O eleft of Cologne, fpare me penitent." From a comparifon of what remains of this poetry in manufcripts written in different countries, it appears probable that the names Golias and goliard originated in the univerlity of Paris, but were more efpecially popular in England, while the term archipoeta was more commonly <ifed in Germany.

In 1841 I colle&ed all the goliardic poetry which I could then find in Englifti manufcripts, and edited it, under the name of Walter Mapes, as one of the publications of the Camden Society.* At a rather later date I gave a chapter of additional matter of the fame defcription in my " Anecdota Literaria."f All the poems I have printed in thefe two volumes are found in manufcripts written in England, and fome of them are certainly the compofitions of Englilh writers. They are diftinguifhed by remarkable facility and eafe in verfification and rhyme, and by great pungency of fatire. The latter is directed efpecially againft the clerical order, and none are fpared, from the pope at the fummit of the fcale down to the loweft of the clergy. In the " Apocalypfis Goliae," or Golias's Revelations, which appears to have been the moft popular of all thefe

poems,

  • The Latin Poems commonly attributed to Walter Mapes, collected and edited

by Thomas Wright, Esq., 410., London, 1841.

t " Anecdota Literaria ; a Collection of Short Poems in English, Latin, and French, illustrative of the Literature and History of England in the Thirteenth Century." Edited by Thomas Wright, Esq. 8vo., London, 1844.


in Literature and Art. \ 67

poems,* the poet defcribes himfelf as carried up in a vifion to heaven, where the vices and diforders of the various claries of the popifh clergy are fuccefiively revealed to him. The pope is a devouring lion ; in hiseager- nefs for pounds, he pawns books ; at the fight of a mark of money, he treats Mark the Evangelift with disdain ; while he fails aloft, money alone is his anchoring-place. The original lines will ferve as a fpecimen of the ftyle of thefe curious compofitions, and of the love of punning which was fo characteriftic of the liteiature of that age :

Eft leo pontifex Jummus, qm dcvorat, Qui libras foiens, librm imfignorat ; Marcam refficict, Marcum dedccorat } Infummis navigans, in nummis anchor at.

The bifhop is in hafte to intrude himfelf into other people's paftures, and fills himfelf with other people's goods. The ravenous archdeacon is com- pared to an eagle, becaufe he has (harp eyes to fee his prey afar off, and is fwift to leize upon it. The dean is reprefented by an animal with a man's face, full of filent guile, who covers fraud with the form of juitice, and by the Ihow of fimplicity would make others believe him to be pious. In this fpirit the faults of the clergy, of all degrees, are minutely criticifed through between four and five hundred lines ; and it muft not be forgotten that it was the Englilh clergy whofe character was thus expofed.

Tufcribes etiam, forma Jed alia, Septem ecclefiit qua funt in Anglla.

Others of thefe pieces are termed Sermons, and are addrefied, fome to the bifhops and dignitaries of the church, others to the pope, others to the monaflic orders, and others to the clergy in general. The court of Rome, we are told, was infamous for its greedinefs ; there all right and juilice were put up for fale, and no favour could be had without money. In this court money occupies everybody's thoughts ; its crols i. e. the mark

on


  • In my edition I have collated no less than sixteen copies which occur among

the MSS. in the British Museum, and in the libraries at Oxford and Cambridge, and there are, no doubt, many more.


1 6 8 Hi ft or y of Caricature and Grotefque


on the reverie of the coin its roundnefs, and its whiteneis, all pleafe the Romans ; where money fpeaks law is filent.

Nummis in hoc curia non eft qui nan -vacet ; Crux placet, rotunditas, et albedo placet, Et cum totum placeat, et Romanis placet, Ubi numtnui loquitur, et lex omnis facet.

Perhaps one of the moft curious of thefe poems is the " Confeflion of Golias," in which the poet is made to fatirife himfelf, and he thus gives us a curious picture of the goliard's life. He complains that he is made of light material, which is moved by every wind j that he wanders about irregularly, like the fliip on the fea or the bird in the air, feeking worth- lefs companions like himfelf. He is a flave to the charms of the fair fex. He is a martyr to gambling, which often turns him out naked to the cold, but he is warmed inwardly by the infpiration of his mind, and he writes better poetry than ever. Lechery and gambling are two of his vices, and the third is drinking. " The tavern," he fays, " I never defpifed, nor mall I ever defpife it, until I fee the holy angels coming to fing the eternal requiem over my corpfe. It is my defign to die in the tavern ; let wine be placed to my mouth when I am expiring, that when the choirs of angels come, they may fay, ' Be God propitious to this drinker ! ' The lamp of the foul is lighted with cups ; the heart fteeped in netar flies up to heaven ; and the wine in the tavern has for me a better flavour than that which the bifhop's butler mixes with water. .... Nature gives to every one his peculiar gift : I never could write fading ; a boy could beat me in compofition when I am hungry ; I hate thirft and failing as much as death."

Tertio capitulo memoro tabernam : Illam nullo tempore fprevi, neque fpernam, Donee Janflos angelos -venientes cernam, Cantantes pro mortuo requiem aternam.

Meum eji propofitum in taberna mori ; Vmdumjit appojitum morientis ori, Ut dicant cum -venennt angelorum chori, ' Deusjit prophiut huic potatori ! '

Poculit




in Literature and Art. 169


PocuKs accendltur animi lucerna f Cor imbutum nefiare volat ad fuperna : Mlhi fapit dulcius vinum in taberna, Quam quod aqua mifcuit prcejulif pincerna.

Unicuique proprlum dat rtatura munus : Ego nunquam potui fcribere jejunus ; Me jejunum -vincere pojjet puer unus ; Sitim et jejunium odi tanquam Junus.*

Another of the more popular of thefe goliardic poems was the advice of Golias againft marriage, a grofs fatire upon the female fex. Contrary to what we might perhaps expect from their being written in Latin, many of thefe metrical fatires are directed againft the vices of the laity, as well as againft thofe of the clergy.

In 1844 the celebrated German fcholar, Jacob Grimm, publifhed in the " Tranfactions of the Academy of Sciences at Berlin " a felection of goliardic verfes from manufcripts in Germany, which had evidently been written by Germans, and fome of them containing allufions to German affairs in the thirteenth century.f They prefent the fame form of verfe and the fame ftyle of fatire as thofe found in England, but the name of Golias is exchanged for archipoeta, the archpoet. Some of the flanzas of the " Confeffion of Golias " are found in a poem in which the archpoet addrefles a petition to the arch chancellor for afliftance in his diftrefs, and confefles his partiality for wine. A copy of the Confeffion itfelf is alfo found in this German collection, under the citle of the " Poet's Confeffion."

The Royal Library at Munich contains a very important manufcript of this goliardic Latin poetry, written in the thirteenth century. It belonged originally to one of the great Benedictine abbeys in Bavaria, where it appears to have been very carefully preferved, but ftill with an apparent confciouf- nefs that it was not exactly a book for a religious brotherhood, which led the

  • Poems attributed to Walter Mapes, p. 73. The stanzas here quoted, with

some others, were afterwards made up into a drinking song, which was rather popular in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.

f " Gedichte des Mittelalters auf Konig Friedrich I. den Staufar, und aus seiner so wie der nachstfolgenden Zeit," 4to. Separate copies of this work were printed off and distributed among mediaeval scholars


170 Hi/lory of Caricature and Grotefque

the monks to omit it in the catalogue of their library, no doubt as a book the pofleffion of which was not to be proclaimed publicly. When written, it was evidently intended to be a careful felection of the poetry of this clafs then current. One part of it confifts of poetry of a more ferious character, fuch as hymns, moral poems, and efpecially fatirical pieces. In this clafs there are more than one piece which are alfo found in the manufcripts written in England. A very large portion of the collection confifts of love fongs, which, althougn evidently treafured by the Benedictine monks, are fometimes licentious in character. A third clafs confifts of drinking and gambling fongs (potatoria et luforia). The general character of this poetry is more playful, more ingenious and intricate in its metrical ftructure, in fact, more lyric than that of the poetry we have been defcribing ; yet it came, in all probability, from the fame clafs of poets the clerical jougleurs. The touches of fentiment, the defcriptions of female beauty, the admiration of nature, are fometimes exprefled with remarkable grace. Thus, the green wood fweetly enlivened by the joyous voices of its feathered inhabi- tants, the made of its branches, the thorns covered with flowers, which, fays the poet, are emblematical of love, which pricks like a thorn and then foothes like a flower, are taftefully defcribed in the following lines:

Cantu nemui a-viunt

Lafcivla canentium

Suave delinitur t

Fronde redimitur,

Verna.nl fptnce florlbui

Micantibiu,

Venerem Jig n art tit us

S^uia Jplna fungit, Jlot tlanJitur.

And the following fcrap of the defcription of a beautiful damfel (hows no fmall command of language and verfification

Allicit dulcibui ferbii et ofculis, Labellulis

Caftigate tumentibtu, Rojeo nefiareus Odor infufus on ; Pariter eburneui Sedat ordo dentlum Par n'rveo candiri.

The


in Literature and Art. 171

The whole contents of this manufcript were printed in 1847, in an o&avo volume, iflued by the Literary Society at Stuttgard.* I had already printed fome examples of fuch amatory Latin lyric poetry in 1838, in a volume of "Early Myfteries and Latin Poems j"f but this poetry does not belong properly to the fubjeft of the prefent volume, and I pafs on from it.

The goliards did not always write in verfe, for we have fome of their profe compofitions, and thefe appear efpecially in the form of parodies. We trace a great love for parody in the middle ages, which fpared not even things the moft facred, and the examples brought forward in the celebrated trial of William Hone, were mild in comparifon to fome which are found fcattered here and there in mediaeval manufcripts. In my Poems, attributed to Walter Mapes,J I have printed a fatire in profe entitled " Magijier Golyas de quodam ablate' (i.e., Matter Golias's account of a certain abbot), which has fomewhat the character of a parody upon a faint's legend. The voluptuous life of the fuperior of a monaftic houfe is here defcribed in a tone of banter which nothing could excel. Several parodies, more dire6t in their character, are printed in the two volumes of the " Reliquas Antiquae." One of thefe (vol. ii. p. 208) is a complete parody on the fervice of the mafs, which is entitled in the original, " Miffa de Poiatoril-us," the Mafs of the Drunkard. In this extraordinary compofition, even the pater-nofler is parodied. A portion of this, with great variations, is found in the German collection of the Carmina Burana, under the title of Officium Luforum, the Office of the Gamblers.

In


  • " Carmina Burana. Lateinische und Deutsche Lieder und Gedichfe einer

Handschrift des XIII. Jahrhunderts aus Benedictbeurn auf der K. Bibliothek zu Munchen." 8vo. Stuttgart, 1847.

f " Early Mysteries and other Latin Poems of the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries," edited by Thomas Wright, Esq. 8vo. London, 1838.

I Introduction, p. xl.

" Reliquiae Antiquae. Scraps from Ancient Manuscripts, illustrating chiefly Early English Literature and the English Language." Edited by Thomas Wright, Esq., and J. O. Halliwell, Esq. a vols. 8vo. Vol. i., London, 1841; vol. ii., 1843.


172 HI ftory of Caricature and Grotefque

In the " Reliquae Antiquae" (ii. 58) we have a parody on the Gofpel of St. Luke, beginning with the words, Initium fallacis Evangelii fecundum Lupum, this laft word being, of courfe, a fort of pun upon Lucam. Its fubjeft alfo is Bacchus, and the fcene having been laid in a tavern in Oxford, we have no difficulty in afcribing it to fome fcholar of that univerfity in the thirteenth century. Among the Carmina Burana we find a limilar parody on the Gofpel of St. Mark, which has evidently belonged to one of thefe burlefques on the church fervice ; and as it is lefs profane than the others, and at the fame time pidures the mediaeval hatred towards the church of Rome, I will give a translation of it as an example of this fingular clafs of compofitions. It is hardly neceflary to remind the reader that a mark was a coin of the value of thirteen Shillings and fourpence :

" The beginning of the holy gospel according to Marks of silver. At that time the pope said to the Romans : ' When the son of man shall come to the seat of our majesty, first say, Friend, for what hast thou come ? But if he should persevere in knocking without giving you anything, cast him out into utter darkness.' And it came to pass, that a certain poor clerk came to the court of the lord the pope, and cried out, saying, ' Have pity on me at least, you doorkeepers of the pope, for the hand of poverty has touched me. For I am needy and poor, and therefore I seek your assistance in my calamity and misery.' But they hearing this were highly indignant, and said to him : ' Friend, thy poverty be with thee in perdition ; get thee backward, Satan, for thou dost not savour of those things which have the savour of money. Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Thou shalt not enter into the joy of thy lord, until thou shalt have given thy last farthing.*

" Then the poor man went away, and sold his cloak and his gown, and all that he had, and gave it to the cardinals, and to the doorkeepers, and to the chamberlains. But they said, ' And what is this among so many ?' And they cast him out of the gates, and going out he wept bitterly, and was without consolation. After him there came to the court a certain clerk who was rich, and gross, and fat, and large, and who in a tumult had committed manslaughter. He gave first to the doorkeeper, secondly to the chamberlain, third to the cardinals. But they judged among themselves, that they were to receive more. Then the lord the pope, hearing that the cardinals and officials had received many gifts from the clerk, became sick unto death. But the rich man sent him an electuary of gold and silver, and he was immediately made whole. Then the lord the pope called before him the cardinals and officials, and said to them : * Brethren, see that no one deceive you with empty words. For I give you an example, that, as I take, so take ye also.' "

This mediaeval love of parody was not unfrequently difplayed in a

more


in Literature and Art. 173

more popular form, and in the language of the people. In the Reliance Antiques (i. 82) we have a very fingular parody in Englim on the.fermons of the Catholic priefthood, a good part of which is fo written as to prefent no confecutive fenfe, which circumftance itfelf implies a fneer at the preachers. Thus our burlefque preacher, in the middle of his difcourfe, proceeds to narrate as follows (I modernife the Englim) :

" Sirs, what time that God and St. Peter came to Rome, Peter asked Adam a full great doubtful question, and said, " Adam, Adam, why ate thou the apple un- pared ?' ' Forsooth, 1 quod he, ' for I had no wardens (pears) fried.' And Peter saw the fire, and dread him, and stepped into a plum-tree that hanged full of ripe red cherries. And there he saw all the parrots in the sea. There he saw steeds and stockfish pricking ' swose ' (?) in the water. There he saw hens and herrings that hunted after harts in hedges. There he saw eels roasting larks. There he saw haddocks were done on the pillory for wrong roasting of May butter ; and there he saw how bakers baked butter to grease with old monks' boots. There he saw how the fox preached," &c.

The fame volume contains fome rather clever parodies on the old Englim alliterative romances., compofed in a fimilar flyle of confecutive nonfenfe. It is a clafs of parody which we trace to a rather early period, which the French term a coq-a-l'dne, and which became fafhionable in England in the feventeenth century in the form of fongs entitled " Tom-a-Bedlams." M. Jubinal has printed two fuch poems in French, perhaps of the thirteenth century,* and others are found fcattered through the old manufcripts. There is generally fo much coarfenefs in them that it is not eafy to feleft a portion for tranflation, and in fa6t their point confifts in going on through the length of a poem of this kind without imparting a lingle clear idea. Thus, in the fecond of thofe publifhed by Jubinal, we are told how, " The fhadow of an egg carried the new year upon the bottom of a pot ; two old new combs made a ball to run the trot ; when it came to paying the fcot, I, who never move

rnyfelf,

  • " Achille Jubinal, Jongleurs et Trouveres." 8vo,, Paris, 1835, p. 34; and

" Nouveau Recueil de Contes, Dits, Fabliaux," &c. 8vo., Paris, 1842. Vol. ii. p. 208. In the first instance M. Jubinal has given to this little poem the title Ref-veries, in the second, Fatrajiet.


1 74 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque

myfelf, cried out, without faying a word, ' Take the feather of an ox, and clothe a wife fool with it.' "

Li ombres d~"un oef

Portoit Pan reneuf

Sur la fonts tTun pot ;

Deui -vie* pinges neuf

Firent un eftuef

Pour courre le trot }

Qjtant <vlnt au paler fejcot^

ye, qui onques ne me muef t

Kfefcrlai^Ji ne dis mot :

' Prenes la plume d'un buef,

S?en -vejie* unfagefot. Jubinal, Nonv. Eec., ii. 217.

The fpirit of the goliards continued to exift long after the name had been forgotten ; and the mals of bitter fatire which they had left behind them againft the whole papal fyftem, and againft the corruptions of the papal church of the middle ages, were a perfect godfend to the reformers of the fixteenth century, who could point to them triumphantly as irrefiftible evidence in their favour. Such fcholars as Flacius Illyricus, eagerly examined the manufcripts which contained this goliardic poetry, and printed it, chiefly as good and effective weapons in the great religious ftrife which was then convulfing European fociety. To us, befides their intereft as literary compofitions, they have alfo a hiftorical value, for they introduce us to a more intimate acquaintance with the character of the great mental ftruggle for emancipation from mediaeval darknefs which extended efpecially through the thirteenth century, and which was only overcome for a while to begin more ftrongly and more fuccelsfully at a ter period. They difplay to us the grofs ignorance, as well as the corruption of manners, of the great mals of the mediaeval clergy. ^ ^Nothing can be more amufing than the fatire which fome of thefe pieces

3v^ throw on the character of monkifh Latin. I printed in the " Reliquae Antiquae," under the title of "The Abbot of Gloucefter's Feaft," a complaint fuppofed to ifiue from the mouth of one of the common herd of the monks, againft the felfilhnefs of their fuperiors, in which all the rules of Latin grammar are entirely fet at defiance. The abbot and prior of Gloucefter, with their whole convent, are invited to a feaft, and on

their


in Literature and Art. 175


their arrival, " the abbot/' fays the complainant, " goes to fit at the top, and the prior next to him, but I flood always in the back place among the low people."

Abba* ire fede furfum, Et priori s juxta ipjum , Ego femfer _ftai>i dorfum

inter rafcalilia.

The wine was ferved liberally to the prior and the abbot, but " nothing was give to us poor folks everything was for the rich."

Vinum venit fanguinatis Ad prioris et abbatis ; N'Ml nobis paupertatis,

fed ad dives omnia.

When fome diflatisfadion was difplayed by the poor monks, which the great men treated with contempt, "faid the prior to the abbot, 'They have wine enough ; will you give all our drink to the poor ? What does their poverty regard us ? they have little, and that is enough, fince they came uninvited to our feaft.' "

Prior dixit ad abbatis, ' Ipjt habent vinumfatis ; Vultis dare paupertatis

nofter potus omnia ? f}uid not Jpeftat paupertatis ? Pojiquam venit non vocatis

ad nofter convivial

Thus through feveral pages this amufing poem goes on to defcribe the gluttony and drunkennefs of the abbot and prior, and the ill-treatment of their inferiors. This compofition belongs to the clofe of the thirteenth century. A fong very fimilar to it in character, but much fhorter, is found in a manufcript of the middle of the fifteenth century, and printed with the other contents of this manufcript in a little volume iflued by the Percy Society.* The writer complains that the abbot and prior drunk good

  • " Songs and Carols, now first printed from a Manuscript of the Fifteenth

Century. Edited by Thomas Wright, Esq. 8vo., London, 184.7, p. 2.


176 Uljlory of Caricature and Grotejque


good and high-flavoured wine, while nothing but inferior fluff was ufually given to the convent ; "But," he fays, "it is better to go drink good wine at the tavern, where the wines are of the beft quality, and money is the butler."

Bonum -vinum cum fa pore Bibit abbas cum priore ; Sed cotrvcntus de pejore

Jemper folet bibere. Bonum vinum in taberna, Ubi vinajunt -valarna (for Falerna), Ubi nummui eft pincerna )

Ibi prodeft bibere.

Partly out of the earneft, though playful, fatire defcribed in this chapter, arofe political fatire, and at a later period political caricature. I have before remarked that the period we call the middle ages was not that of political or perfonal caricature, becaufe it wanted that means of circulating



No, ill. Caricature upon the Jews at Kor-wich.


quickly and largely which is neceflary for it. Yet, no doubt, men who could draw, did, in the middle ages, fometimes amufe themfelves in (ketching caricatures, which, in general, have periflied, becaufe nobody cared to preferve them ; but the fad of the exiftence of fuch works is

proved


in Literature and Art.


177


proved by a very curious example, which has been preferved, and which is copied in our cut No. in. It is a caricature on the Jews of Norwich, which fome one of the clerks of the king's courts in the thirteenth century has drawn with a pen, on one of the official rolls of the Pell office, where it has been preferved. Norwich, as it is well known, was one of the principal feats of the Jews in England at this early period, and Ifaac of Norwich, the crowned Jew with three faces, who towers over the other figures, was no doubt fome perfonage of great importance among them. Dagon, as a two-headed demon, occupies a tower, which a party of demon knights is attacking. Beneath the figure of Ifaac there is a lady, whofe name appears to be Avezarden, who has fome relation or other with a male figure named Nolle-Mokke, in which another demon, named Colbif, is interfering. As this latter name is written in capital letters, we may perhaps con- clude that he is the rnoft important perfonage in the fcene ; but, without any knowledge of the circumftances to which it relates, it would be in vain to attempt to explain this curious and rather elaborate caricature.

Similar attempts at caricature, though leli direct and elaborate, are found in others of our national records. One of thefe, pointed out to me by an excellent and refpecled friend, the Rev. Lambert B. Larking, is peculiarly in- terefling, as well as amufing. It belongs to the Treafury of the Exchequer, and confifts of two volumes of vellum called Liber A and Liber B, forming a regifter of treaties, marriages, and fimilar documents of the reign of Edward I., which have been very fully ufed by Rymer. The clerk who was employed in writing it, teems to have been, like many of thefe official



No. 1 1 Z. An Irishman.


clerks, fomewhat of a wag, and he has amufed himfclf by drawing in the margin figures of the inhabitants of the provinces of Edwanl's

A A crown


1 78 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque

crown to which the documents referred. Some of thefe are evidently defigned for caricature. Thus, the figure given in our cut No. 112 was intended to reprefent an Irifhman. One trait, at leaft, in this caricature is well known from the defcription given by Giraldus Cambrenfis, who fpeaks with a fort of horror of the formidable axes which the Irifh were accuftomed to carry about with them. In treating of the manner in which Ireland ought to be governed when it had been entirely reduced to fubje&ion, he recommends that, " in the meantime, they ought not to be allowed in time of peace, on any pretence or in any place, to ufe that deteftable inftrument of deflrucYion, which, by an ancient but accurfed cuftom, they conftantly carry in their hands inftead of a ftaff." In a chapter of his "Topography of Ireland," Giraldus treats of this " ancient and wicked cuftom " of always carrying in their hand an axe, inftead of a ftaff, to the danger of all perfons who had any relations with them. Another Irifhman, from a drawing in the fame manufcript, given in our cut No. 113, carries his axe in the fame threatening attitude. The coftume of thefe figures anfwers with fufficient accuracy to the de- fcription given by Giraldus Cambrenfis. The drawings exhibit more exadly than that writer's defcription the "fmall clofe-fitting hoods, hanging a cubit's length (half-a-yard) below the moulders," which, he tells us, they were accuftomed to wear. This fmall hood, with the flat cap attached to it, is mown better perhaps in the fecond figure than in the firft. The " breeches and hofe of one piece, or hofe and breeches joined together," are alfo exhibited here very diftindly, and appear to be tied over the heel, but the feet are clearly naked, and evidently the ufe of the " brogues " was not yet general among the Irifh of the thirteenth century.

If the Welfhman of this period was fomewhat more Icantily clothed than the Irifhman, he had the advantage of him, to judge by this manufcript, in wearing at leaft one fhoe. Our cut No. 114, taken from it, reprefents a Welfhman armed with bow and arrow, whofe clothing

confifts



in Literature and Art.


179


confifts apparently only of a plain tunic and a light mantle. This is quite in accordance with the defcription by Giraldus Cambrenfis, who tells us that in all feafons their drefs was the fame, and that, however fevere the weather, " they defended themfelves from the cold only by a thin cloak and tunic." Giraldus fays nothing of the practice of the Welfh in wearing but one fhoe, yet it is evident that at the time of this record that was their practice, for in another figure of a Welfhman, given



Ac. 114. A Welfo Archer.


A 7 e. 115. A Weljbman with his Spear,


in our cut No. TI j, we fee the fame peculiarity, and in both cafes the fhoe is worn on the left foot. Giraldus merely fays that the Welmmen in general, when engaged in warfare, " either walked bare-footed, or made ufe of high fhoes, roughly made of untanned leather." He defcribes them as armed fometimes with bows and arrows, and fometimes with long fpears j and accordingly our firft example of a Welfhman from this manufcript is ufing the bow, while the fecond carries the fpear, which he apparently refts on the fingle fhoe of his left foot, while he brandifhes a fword in his left hand. Both our Welfhmen prefent a fingularly grotefque appearance.

The


1 80 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque


The Gafcon is reprefented with more peaceful attributes. Gafcony was the country of vineyards, from whence we drew our great fupply of wines, a very important article of confumption in the middle ages.

When the official clerk who wrote this manufcript came to documents relating to Gafcony, his thoughts wandered naturally enough to its rich vineyards and the wine they fupplied fo plentifully, and to which, according to old reports, clerks feldom mowed any diflike, and accordingly, in the fketch, which we copy in our cut No. 1 1 6, we have a Gafcon occupied diligently in pruning his vine-tree. He, at leaft, wears two fhoes, though his clothing is of the lighted defcription. He is perhaps the vinitor of the mediaeval documents on this fubject, a ferf attached to the vineyard. Our fecond Iketch, cut No. 117, prefents a more enlarged fcene, and introduces us to the whole procefs of making wine. Firft we fee a man better clothed, with fhoes (or boots) of much fuperior



No. 1 1 6. A Gafcon at hit Vine.



No. 117. The Wme Manufafiurer.


make, and a hat on his head, carrying away the grapes from the vineyard to the place where another man, with no clothing at all, is treading out the juice in a large vat. This is ttill in fome of the wine countries

the


in Literature and Art. 1 8 1


the common method of extracting the juice from the grape. Further to the left is the large calk in which the juice is put when turned into wine. Satires on the people of particular localities were not uncommon during the middle ages, becaufe local rivalries and confequent local feuds prevailed everywhere. The records of fuch feuds were naturally of a temporary character, and perifhed when the feuds and rivalries themfelves ceafed to exift, but a few curious fatires of this kind have been preferved. A monk of Peterborough, who lived late in the twelfth or early in the thirteenth century, and for fome reafon or other nourifhed an unfriendly feeling to the people of Norfolk, gave vent to his hoftility in a Ihort Latin poem in what we may call goliardic verfe. He begins by abufing the county itfelf, which, he fays, was as bad and unfruitful as its inhabitants were vile ; and he fuggefts that the evil one, when he fled from the anger of the Almighty, had parted through it and left his pollution upon it. Among other anecdotes of the fimplicity and folly of the people of this county, which clofely refemble the ftories of the wife men of Gotham of a later date, he informs us that.one day the peafantry of one diftri6t were fo grieved by the oppreflions of their feudal lord, that they fubfcribed together and bought their freedom, which he fecured to them by formal deed, ratified with a ponderous feal. They adjourned to the tavern, and celebrated their deliverance by feafting and drinking until night came on, and then, for want of a candle, they agreed to burn the wax of the feal. Next day their former lord, informed of what had taken place, brought them before a court, where the deed was judged to be void for want of the feal, and they loft all their money, were reduced to their old pofition of flavery, and treated worfe than ever. Other ftories, ftill more ridiculous, are told of thefe old Norfolkians, but few of them are worth repeating. Another monk, apparently, who calls himfelf John de St. Omer, took up the cudgels for the people of Norfolk, and re- plied to the Peterborough fatirift in fimilar language.* I have printed in

another


  • Both these poems are printed in my " Early Mysteries, and other Latin Poems

of the Twelfth an I Thirteenth Centuries." 8vo., London, 1838.


1 82 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque

another collection,* a fatirical poem againft the people of a place called Stockton (perhaps Stockton-on-Tees in Durham), by the monk of a monaftic houfe, of which they were ferfs. It appeared that they had rifen againft the tyranny of their lord, but had been unfuccefsful in defending their caufe in a court of law, and the ecclefiaftical fatirift exults over their defeat in a very uncharitable tone. There will be found in the " Reliquae Ar.tiquae,"t a very curious fatire in Latin profe directed againtt the inhabitants of Rochefter, although it is in truth aimed againft Englishmen in general, and is entitled in the manufcript, which is of the fourteenth century, " Proprietates Anglicorum " (the Peculiarities of Engliftimen). In the firft place, we are told, that the people of Rochefter had tails, and the queftion is difcufled, very fcholaftically, what fpecies of animals thefe Roceftrians were. We are then told that the caufe of their deformity arofe from the infolent manner in which they treated St. Augulline, when he came to preach the Gofpel to the heathen Englifh. After vifiting many parts of England, the faint came to Rochefter, where the people, inftead of liflening to him, hooted at him through the ftreets, and, in derifion, attached tails of pigs and calves to his veftments, and fo turned him out of the city. The vengeance of Heaven came upon them, and all who inhabited the city and the country round it, and their .defcendants after them, were condemned to bear tails exactly like thofe of pigs. This ftory of the tails was not an invention of the author of the fatire, but was a popular legend connected with the hiftory of St. Auguftine's preaching, though the fcene of the legend was laid in Dorfetftiire. The writer of this fingular compofition goes on to defcribe the people of Rochefter as feducers of other people, as men without gratitude, and as traitors. He proceeds to fhow that Rochefter being fituated in England, its vices had tainted the whole nation, and he illuftrates the bafenefs of the Englifti character by a number of anecdotes of worfe than doubtful authenticity. It is, in fad, a fatire on the Englifti compofed in France, and leads us into the domains of political fatire. Political

  • " Anecdota Literaria," p. 49. t " Reliquae Antiquae," vol. ii. p. 230.


in Literature and Art. 1 8 3

Political fatire in the middle ages appeared chiefly in the form of poetry and fong, and it was efpecially in England that it flourifhed, a fure fign that there was in our country a more advanced feeling of popular independence, and greater freedom of fpeech, than in France or Germany.* M. Leroux de Lincy, who undertook to make a collection of this poetry for France, found fo little during the mediaeval period that came under the character of political, that he was obliged to fubftitute the word "hiftbrical" in the title of his book.f Where feudalifm was fupreme, indeed, the fongs which arofe out of private or public ftrife, which then were almoft infeparable from fociety, contained no political fentiment, but confifted chiefly of perfonal attacks on the opponents of thofe who employed them. Such are the four fliort fongs written in the time of the revolt of the French during the minority of St. Louis, which commenced in 12265 they are all of a political character which M. Leroux de Lincy has been able to collect previous to the year j 2 /o, and they confift merely of perfonal taunts againft the courtiers by the diflatisfied barons who were out of power. We trace a fimilar feeling in fome of the popular records of our baronial wars of the reign of Henry III., efpecially in a fong, in the baronial language (Anglo-Norman), preferred in a fmall roll of vellum, which appears to have belonged to the minftrel who chanted it in the halls of the partifans of Simon de Montfort. The fragment which remains connfts of ftanzas in praife of the leaders of the popular party, and in reproach of their opponents. Thus of Roger de Clifford, one of earl Simon's friends, we are told that " the good Roger de Clifford behaved like a noble baron, and exercifed great

  • I have published from the original manuscripts the mass of the political poetry

composed in England during the middle ages in my three volumes "The Political Songs of England, from the Reign of John to that of Edward II." 410., London, 1839 (issued by the Camden Society) ; and " Political Poems and Songs relating to English History, composed during the Period from the Accession of Edward III. to that of 'Richard III." 8vo., vol i., London, 1859; vol. ii., 1861 (published by the Treasury, under the direction of the Master of the Rolls.)

t " Receuil de Chants Historiques Fran9ais depuis le xii e . jusqu'au xviii*. Siecle, par Leroux de Lincy .... Premiere Serie, xii e ., xiii e ., xiv e ., et xv*., Siecles." 8vo., Paris, 1841.


184 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefi/uc

great juftice ; he fuffered none, either fmall or great, or fecretly or openly, to do any wrong."

Et de Cltjfort ly ton Roger Se contint cum noble ber,

Sifu de grant juftice ; Nefuffri pat petit ne grant, Ne arere ne par deviant.

Fere nul mefpnj'e.

On the other hand, one of Montfort's opponents, the biftiop of Hereford, is treated rather contemptuoufly. We are told that he "learnt well that the earl was ftrong when he took the matter in hand ; before that he (the bifhop) was very fierce, and thought to eat tn all the Englilh; but now be is reduced to ftraits."

Ly evejke de Herefort

Sout bien que ly quern fu fort,

Kant il prili raffere { De-vant ce efteit mult fer t Lei Englais quida tou-z manger.

Met ore nejet que fere.

This bifhop was Peter de Aigueblanche, one of the foreign favourites, who had been intruded into the fee of Hereford, to the exclufion of a better man, and had been an oppreflbr of thofe who were under his rule. The barons feized him, threw him into prifon, and plundered his poffefiions, and at the time this fong was written, he was fuffering under the imprifon- ment which appears to have fliortened his life.

The univerfities and the clerical body in general were deeply involved in thefe political movements of the thirteenth century ; and our earlieft political fongs now known are compofed in Latin, and in that form and ftyle of verfe which feems to have been peculiar to the goliards, and which I venture to call goliardic. Such is a forig againft the three bifhops who fupported king John in his quarrel with the pope about the prefen- tation to the fee of Canterbury, printed in my Political Songs. Such, too, is the fong of the Welfh, and one or two others, in the fame volume. And fuch, above all, is that remarkable Latin poem in which a partifan

of


in Literature and Art. 185


of the barons, immediately after the vi6tory at Lewes, fet forth the political tenets of his party, and gave the principles of Englilh liberty nearly the fame broad ban's on which they fland at the prefent. It is an evidence of the extent to which thefe principles were now acknowledged, that in this great baronial ftruggle our political fongs began to be written in the Englifh language, an acknowledgment that they concerned the whole Englifh public.

We trace little of this clafs of literature during the reign of Edward I.j but, when the popular feelings became turbulent again under the reign of his fon and fucceflbr, political fongs became more abundant, and their fatire was directed more even than formerly againft meafures and principles, and was lefs an inflrument of mere perfonal abufe. One fatirical poem of this period, which I had printed from an imperfect copy in a manu- fcript at Edinburgh, but of which a more complete copy was fubfequently found in a manufcript in the library of St. Peter's College, Cambridge,* is extremely curious as being the earliefl fatire of this kind written in Englifh that we poflefs. It appears to have been written in the year 1320. The writer of this poem begins by telling us that his objeft is to explain the caufe of the war, ruin, and manslaughter which then prevailed throughout the land, and why the poor were fuffering from hunger and want, the cattle perifhed in the field, and the corn was dear. Thefe he afcribes to the increafing wickednefs of all orders of fociety. To begin with the church, Rome was the head of all corruptions, at the papal court falfehood and treachery only reigned, and the door of the pope's palace was fhut againft truth. During the twelfth and following centuries thefe complaints, in terms more or lefs forcible, againft the corruptions of Rome, are continually repeated, and fhow that the evil muft have been one under which everybody felt opprefled. The old charge of Romifh fimony is repeated in this poem in very ftrong terms. " The clerk's voice mall be little heard at the court of Rome, were he ever fo good, unlefs he

  • " A Poem on the Times of Edward III., from a MS. preserved in the Library

of St. Peter's College, Cambridge." Edited by the Rev. C. Hard wick. 8vo. London, 1849. (One of the publications of the Percy Society.)

B B


1 86 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque


he bring filver with him j though he were the holieft man that ever was born, unlefs he bring gold or filver, all his time and anxiety are loft. Alas ! why love they fo much that which is periihable ? "

Voyt of clerk Jball lytyl be heard at the court of Rome, Were he never fo gode a clerk, -without Jilver and he come ; Though he -were the holy ft man that ever yet ivas ibort, But he bryng gold or fylver, al Ays "while is for lore

And his thcfwght. Alias ! vjhi love thei that fo much that fchal turne to novjght f

When, on the contrary, a wicked man prefented himfelf at the pope's court, he had only to carry plenty of money thither, and all went well with him. According to our fatirift, the bifhops were "fools," and the other dignitaries and officials of the church were influenced chiefly by the love of money and felf-indulgence. The parfon began humbly, when he firft obtained his benefice, but no fooner had he gathered money together, than he took " a wenche " to live with him as his wife, and rode a hunting with hawks and hounds like a gentleman. The priefts were men with no learning, who preached by rote what they neither under- ftood nor appreciated. "Truely," he fays, "it fares by our unlearned priefts as by a jay in a cage, who curfes himfelf: he fpeaks good Englim, but he knows not what it means. No more doe4 an unlearned prieft know his gofpel that he reads daily. An unlearned prieft, then, is no better than a jay."

Certes atfo hyt fareth by a preft that is levjed, At by a jay in a cage that hymfelf hath bejhrevjed : Gode Englyfb he fpeketh t but he not never -what. No more -wot a Inved preft hys gofpel ivat he rat

By day. Than is a levjed preft no better than a jay.

Abbots and priors were remarkable chiefly for their pride and luxury, and the monks naturally followed their examples. Thus was religion debafed everywhere. The character of the phyfician is treated with equal feverity, and his various tricks to obtain money are amufingly defcribed. In this manner the fongfter prefents to view the failings of the various orders of lay fociety alfo, the felfimnefs and opprefiive bearing of the knights and

ariftocracy


in Literature and Art. 1 87


ariftocracy, and their extravagance in dreis and living, the negleft of juftice, the ill-management of the wars, the weight of taxation, and all the other evils which then affli6ted the ftate. This poem marks a period in our focial hiftory, and led the way to that larger work of the fame character, which came about thirty years later, the well-known " Vifions of Piers Ploughman,"* one of the moft remarkable fatires, as well as one of the moft remarkable poems, in the Englilh language.

We will do no more than glance at the further progrefs of political fatire which had now taken a permanent footing in Englifh literature. We fee lefs of it during the reign of Edward III., the greater part of which was occupied with foreign wars and triumphs, but there appeared towards the clofe of his reign, a very remarkable fatire, which I have printed in my "Political Poems and Songs." It is written in Latin, and confifts of a pretended prophecy in verfe by an infpired monk named John of Bridlington, with a mock commentary in profe in faft, a parody on the commentaries in which the fcholaftics of that age difplayed their learning, but in this cafe the commentary contains a bold though to us rather obfcure criticifm on the whole policy of Edward's reign. The reign of Richard II. was convulfed by the great ftruggle for religious reform, by the infurreftions of the lower orders, and by the ambition and feuds of the nobles, and produced a vaft quantity of political and religious fatire, both in profe and verfe, but efpecially the latter. We muft not overlook our great poet Chaucer, as one of the powerful fatirifts of this period. Political fong next makes itfelf heard loudly in the wars of the Rofes. It was the laft ftruggle of feudalifm in England, and the character of the fong had fallen back to its earlier characteristics, in which all patriotic feelings were abandoned to make place for perfonal hatred.


  • "The Vision and the Creed of Piers Ploughman ;" with Notes and a Glossary

by Thomas Wright. 2 vols. izmo. London, 1842. Second and revised edition, 2 vols. i2mo. London, 1856.


Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque


CHAPTER XI.

MINSTRELSY A SUBJECT OF BURLESQUE AND CARICATURE. CHARACTER

OF THE MINSTRELS. THEIR JOKES UPON THEMSELVES AND UPON ONE

ANOTHER. VARIOUS MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS REPRESENTED IN THE

SCULPTURES OF THE MEDIAEVAL ARTISTS. SIR MATTHEW GOURNAY

AND THE KING OF PORTUGAL. DISCREDIT OF THE TABOR AND BAG- PIPES. MERMAIDS.

ONE of the principal clafles of the fatirifts of the middle ages, the minftrels, or jougleurs, were far from being unamenable to fatire themfelves. They belonged generally to a low clafs of the population, one that was hardly acknowledged by the law, which merely adminiftered to the pleasures and amufements of others, and, though fometimes liberally rewarded, they were objects rather of contempt than of refpeft. Of courfe there were minftrels belonging to a clafs more refpeftable than the others, but thefe were comparatively few ; and the ordinary minftrel feems to have been limply an unprincipled vagabond, who hardly poflefled any fettled refting-place, who wandered about from place to place, and was not too nice as to the means by which he gained his living perhaps fairly reprefented by the ftreet minftrel, or mountebank, of the prefent day. One of his talents was that of mocking and ridiculing others, and it is not to be wondered at, therefore, if he fometimes became an objedt of mockery and ridicule himfelf. One of the well-known minftrels of the thirteenth century, Rutebeuf, was, like many of his fellows, a poet alfo, and he has left feveral fhort pieces of verfe defcriptive of himfelf and of his own mode of life. In one of thefe he complains of his poverty, and tells us that the world had in his time the reign of St. Louis become fo degenerate, that few people gave anything to the unfortunate minftrel. According to his own account, he was without

food,


in Literature and Art.


food, and in a fair way towards ftarvation, expofed to the cold without fufficient clothing, and with nothing but ftraw for his bed.

Je toux defroit, de fain baaille,

Dont je fuis mart et mauba\Ul%,

Jefuisfanz coutes et fans liss ;

Waji fwre jufqtfa Senlix.

Sire,Ji nefai yue/ fart aille ;

Met cofteiz connoit le pail/its,

Et lix de faille it" eft fas Hz,

Et en man lit n"afors la faille. CEuvrefl de Btrtebenf, vol. i. p. 3.

In another poem, Rutebeuf laments that he has rendered his condition ftill more miferable by marrying, when he had not wherewith to keep a wife and family. In a third, he complains that in the midft of his poverty, his wife has brought him a child to increafe his domeflic expenfes, while his horfe, on which he was accuftomed to travel to places where he might exercife bis profeffion, had broken its leg, and his nurfe was dunning him for money. In addition to all thefe caufes of grief, he had loft the ufe of one of his eyes.

Or a d' enfant geu ma fame } Man cheval a brifie la jame

A une lice ;

Or veut de /' 'argent ma norrice t S^ui m'cn deftraint et me felice,

For r enfant feftre.

Throughout his complaint, although he laments over the decline of liberality among his contemporaries, he nevertheless turns his poverty into a joke. In feveral other pieces of verfe he fpeaks in the fame way, half joking and half lamenting over his condition, and he does not conceal that the love of gambling was one of the caufes of it. " The dice," he fays, " have flripped me entirely of my robe j the dice watch and fpy me ; it is thefe which kill me; they affault and ruin me, to my grief."

Li de que li detier ontfet, RTont de ma robe tout desfet ;

Li de m" orient. Li de m'aguetent et effient ; Li de m'ajjaillent et deffient,

Ce foife moi. Ib., vol. L p. 27.

And


190 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque

And elfewhere he intimates that what rfie minftrels fometimes gained from the lavifh generofity of their hearers, foon paffed away at the tavern in dice and drinking.

One of Rutebeuf s contemporaries in the fame profeflion, Colin Mufet, indulges in fimilar complaints, and fpeaks bitterly of the want of generofity difplayed by the great barons of his time. In addrefling one of them who had treated him ungeneroufly, he fays, "Sir Count, I have riddled before you in your hoftel, and you neither gave me a gift, nor paid me my wages. It is difcreditable behaviour. By the duty I owe to St. Mary, I cannot continue in your fervice at this rate. My purfe is ill furnifhed, and my wallet is empty."

Sire quens, j'ai viele Devant vos en voftre oftel ; Si ne m'avez riens donne y Ne ma gages acquitez y

Ceft -vilanie. Fol que doi fainte Marie, Enfi ne -vot Jieurre-je mie, M'aumofniere eft maj gprnie t Et ma male mat far/it.

He proceeds to ftate that when iie went home to his wife (for Colin Mufet alfo was a married minftrel), he was ill received if his purfe and wallet were empty ; but it was very different when they were full. His wife then fprang forward and threw her arms round his neck ; fhe took his wallet from his horfe with alacrity, while his lad conducted the animal cheerfully to the liable, and his maiden killed a couple of capons, and prepared them with piquant fauce. His daughter brought a comb for his hair. "Then," he exclaims, "I am matter in my own houfe."

Ma fame 'va deftrofer Ma male Jam demurer ; Mon garden -va abu-vrer Man cheval et conreer ; Ma pucele va tuer Deux chapons for deporter

A lajaufe aillie. Ma file m'aforte un figne En fa main par cortoifie. Lorsfui de man oftel Jire.

When


in Literature and Art. 191

When the minftrels could thus joke upon themfelves, we need not be furprifed if they fatirifed one another. In a poem of the thirteenth, century, entitled " Les deux Troveors Ribauz," two minftrels are introduced on the ftage abufing and infulting one another, and while indulging in mutual accufations of ignorance in their art, they difplay their ignorance at the fame time by mifquoting the titles of the poems which they profefs to be able to recite. One of them boafts of the variety of inftruments on which he could perform :

jfe Ju'u jugleres de <viele t Sijai de mufe et defreftele, Et de Aarfes et de chifonie^ De la gigue, de rarmonie, De rjalteire, et en la rote , Sai-ge bien chanter une note.

It appears, however, that among all thefe inftruments, the viol, or fiddle, was the one moft generally in ufe.

The mediaeval monuments of art abound with burlefques and fatires on the minftrels, whofe inftruments of mufic are placed in the hands fbmetimes of monfters, and at others in thofe of animals of a not very refined cha- racter. Our cut No. 118 is taken from a manufcript in the Britifti Mufeum (MS. Cotton, Domitian A. ii.), and reprefents a female minftrel playing on the riddle ; ihe has the upper part of a lady, and the lower parts of a mare, a combination which appears to have been rather familiar to the imagination of the mediaeval artifts. In our cut No. 119, which is taken from a copy made by Carter of one of the mifereres in Ely Cathedral, it is not quite clear whether the No - 1 1 8 -.-f. Charmi "g

J Fiddler.

performer on the fiddle be a monfter or merely a cripple 3 but perhaps the latter was intended. The inftrument, too, aflumes a* rather fingular form. Our cut No 120, alfo taken from Carter, was furnifhed by a fculpture in the church of St. John, at Cirencefter, and reprefents a man performing on an inflrument rather clofely refembling the modern hurdy-gurdy, which is evidently played by

turning



192 Hiflory of Caricature and Grotefque


turning a handle, and the mufic is produced by ftriking wires or firings



No. 119. A Crippled Minftrel.

in fide. The face is evidently intended to be that of a jovial companion.



No. 120. The Hurdy-Gurdy.

Gluttony was an elpecial charaderiftic of that clafs of fociety to which

the


in Literature and Art.


'93


the minftrcl belonged, and perhaps this was the idea intended to be con-



No. 121. A Swirsljh Minftrel.

veyed in the next pifture, No. 121, taken from one of the ftalls in Win-



No. l^^. A Mufical Mother.

chefter Cathedral, in which a pig is performing on the fiddle, and appears

c c to


i 94 Hiflory of Caricature and Grotefque


to be accompanied by a juvenile of the fame fpecies of animal. One of the fame flails, copied in our cut No. 122, reprefents a fow performing on another fort of mufical inftrument, which is not at all uncommon in mediaeval delineations. It is the double pipe or flute, which was evidently borrowed from the ancients. Minftrelfy was the ufual accompaniment of the mediaeval meal, and perhaps this picture is intended to be a burlefque on that circumftance, as the mother is playing to her brood while they are feeding. They all feem to liften quietly, except one, who is evidently much more affected by the mufic than his companions. The fame inftrument is placed in the hands of a rather jolly-looking female in



No. iaj. The Double Flute.

one of the fculptures of St. John's Church in Cirencefter, copied in our cut No. 123.

Although this inftrument is rather frequently reprefented in mediaeval works of art, we have no account of or allufion to it in mediaeval writers ; and perhaps it was not held in very high eftimation, and was ufed only by a low clafs of performers. As in many other things, the employment jf particular mufical inftruments was guided, no doubt, by fafhion, new ones coming in as old ones went out. Such was the cafe with the

inftrument


in Literature and Art. 195

inftrument which is named in one of the above extracts, and in fome other mediaeval writers, a chiffonie, and which has been fuppofed to be the dulcimer, that had fallen into difcredit in the fourteenth century. This inftrument is introduced in a ftory which is found in Cuvelier's metrical hiftory of the celebrated warrior Bertrand du Guefclin. In the courfe of the war for the expulfion of Pedro the Cruel from the throne of Caftile, an Englifh knight, Sir Matthew Gournay, was fent as a fpecial ambaflador to the court of Portugal. The Portuguefe monarch had in his fervice two minftrels whofe performances he vaunted greatly, and on whom he fet great flore, and he infifted on their performing in the prefence of the new ambaflador. It turned out that they played on the inftrument juft mentioned, and Sir Matthew Gournay could not refrain from laughing at the performance. When the king prefled him to give his opinion, he faid, with more regard for truth than politenefs, " In France and Normandy, the inftruments your minftrels play upon are regarded with contempt, and are only in ufe among beggars and blind people, fo that they are popularly called beggar's inftruments." The king, we are told, took great offence at the bluntnefs of his Englilh gueft.

The fiddle itfelf appears at this time to have been gradually finking in credit, and the poets complained that a degraded tafte for more vulgar mufical inftruments was introducing itfelf. Among thefe we may mention efpecially the pipe and tabor. The French antiquary, M. Jubinal, in a very valuable collection of early popular poetry, publifhed under the title of "Jongleurs et Trouveres," has printed a curious poem of the thirteenth or fourteenth century, intended as a proteft againft the ufe of the tabor and the bagpipes, which he chara&erifes as properly the mufical inftru- ments of the peafantry. Yet people then, he fays, were becoming fo befotted on fuch inftruments, that they introduced them in places where better minftrelfy would be more fuitable. The writer thinks that the introduction of fo vulgar an inftrument as the tabor into grand feftivals could be looked upon in no other light than as one of the figns which might be expected to be the precurfors of the coming of Antichrift. " if fuch people are to come to grand feflivals as carry a bufhel [i.e. a tabor made in the form of a bufhel meafure, on the end of which they beat],

and


196 Hi/lory of Caricature and Grotefqne


and make fuch a terrible noife, it would feem that Antichrift muft now be being born ; people ought to break the head of each of them with a ftafF."

Deuffent itlels gen* -venlr a belt fefte $ui f orient un boijfel, qui mainent tel tempefte, II famble que Antecrift dole maintenant neftre ; I? en duroit d'un bafton chajcun brifier la tefle.

This fatirift adds, as a proof of the contempt in which the Virgin Mary held fuch inftruments, that fhe never loved a tabor, or confented to hear one, and that no tabor was introduced among the minftrelfy at her



No. 124. The Tabor, or Drum.


efpoufals. " The gentle mother of God," he fays, " loved the found of the fiddle," and he goes on to prove her partiality for that inftrument by citing fome of her miracles.

Onquet le nitre Dieu, qui eft -virge honoree, Et eft a-voec let angles hautement coronet, N*ama ontjues tafaur, ne point ne It agree, N'onyues labour n"i ot quant el fu ejpoufee. La douce mere Dieu ama fan de wele.

The




in Literature and Art.


197


The artift who carved the curious ftalls in Henry VII. 's Chapel at Weftminfter, feems to have entered fully into the fpirit difplayed by this fatirift, for in one of them, reprefented in our cut No. 124, he has introduced a mafked demon playing on the tabor, with an expreffion apparently of derifion. This tabor prefents much the form of a bufhel meafure, or rather, perhaps, of a modern drum. It may be remarked that the drum is, in fa6t, the fame inftrument as the tabor, or, at leaft, is derived from it, and they were called by the fame names, tabor or tamlour. The Engliih name drum, which has equivalents in the later forms of the Teutonic diale&s, perhaps means limply fomething which makes a noife, and is not, as far as I know, met with before the fixteenth century. Another carving of the fame feries of ftalls at Weftminfter, copied in our cut No. 125, reprefents a tame bear playing on the



No. 1*5. Bruin turned Piper.

bagpipes. This is perhaps intended to be at the fame time a fatire on the inftrument itfelf, and upon the ftrange exhibitions of animals domefticated and taught various fingular performances, which were then fo popular.

In


1 98 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque

In our cut No. 126 we come to the fiddle again, which long fuftained its place in the higheft rank of mufical inftruments. It is taken from one of the fculptures on the porch of the principal entrance to the Cathedral of Lyons in France, and reprefents a mermaid with her child, liftening to the mufic of the fiddle. She wears a crown, and is intended, no doubt,



No. ia6. Royal Minftrelfy.

to be one of the queens of the fea, and the introduction of the fiddle under fuch circumftances can leave no doubt how highly it was eileemed. The mermaid is a creature of .the imagination, which appears to have been at all times a favourite object of poetry and legend. It holds an important place in the mediaeval beftiaries, or popular treatifes on natural hiftory, and it has only been expelled from the domains of fcience at a comparatively recent date. It ftill retains its place in popular legends of our fea-coafts, and more efpecially in the remoter parts of our iflands. The ftories of the merrow, or Iri(b fairy, hold a prominent place among my late friend Crofton Croker's "Fairy Legends of the South of Ireland." The mermaid is alfo introduced not unfrequently in mediaeval

fculpture


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199


fculpture and carving. Our cut No. 127, reprefenting a mermaid and a merman, is copied from one of the flails of Winchefter Cathedral. The ufual attributes of the mermaid are a looking-glafs and comb, by the aid of which fhe is drefiing her hair ; but here (he holds the comb alone.



No. 127. Mermaids.

Her companion, the male, holds a fifh, which he appears to have juft caught, in his hand.

While, after the fifteenth century the profeflion of the minftrel became entirely degraded, and he was looked upon more than ever as a rogue and vagabond, the fiddle accompanied him, and it long remained, as it ftill remains in Ireland, the favourite inftrument of the peafantry. The blind fiddler, even at the prefent day, is not unknown in our rural diftri&s. It has always been in England the favourite inftrument of minftrelfy.


2OO Hi/lory of Caricature and Grotefque


CHAPTER XII.

THE COURT FOOL. THE NORMANS AND THEIR GABS. EARL'S HISTORY

OF COURT FOOLS. THEIR COSTUME. CARVINGS IN THE CORNISH

CHURCHES. THE BURLESdUE SOCIETIES OF THE MIDDLE AGES.

THE .rFEASTS OF ASSES, AND OF FOOLS. THEIR LICENCE. THE

LEADEN MONEY OF THE FOOLSs THE BISHOP'S BLESSING.

FROM the employment of minftrels attached to the family, probably arofe another and well-known character of later times^-the court jbpl, who took the place of fnti rifl *" th f great Hnufehnlds. T do not confider what we underftand by the court fool to be a character of any great antiquity.

It is fomewhat doubtful whether what we call a jeft, was really appreciated in the middle ages. Puns feem to have been confidered as elegant figures of fpeech in literary compofition, and we rarely meet with anything like a quick and clever repartee. In the earlier ages, when a party of warriors would be merry, their mirth appears to have coniilled ufually in ridiculous boafts, or in rude remarks, or in fneers at enemies or opponents. Thefe jefts were termed by the French and Normans gals (gabce, in mediaeval Latin), a word fuppofed to have been derived from the claffical Latin word cavilla, a mock or taunt j and a Ihort poem in Anglo-Norman has been preferved which furnifhes a curious illuftration of the meaning attached to it in the twelfth century. This poem relates how Charlemagne, piqued by the taunts of his emprefs on the fuperiority of Hugh the Great, emperor of Conftantinople, went to Conftantinople, accompanied by his douze pairs and a thoufand knights, to verify the truth of his wife's flory. They proceeded firft to Jerufalem, where, when Charle- magne and his twelve peers entered the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, they looked fo handfome and majeftic, that they were taken at firft for

Chrifl


in Literature and Art. 201


Chrift and his twelve apoftles, but the myftery was foon cleared up, and they were treated by the patriarch with great hofpitality during four months. They then continued their progress till they reached Conftanti- nople, where they were equally well received by the the emperor Hugo. At night the emperor placed his guefts in a chamber furnifhed with thirteen fplendid beds, one in the middle of the room, and the other twelve diftributed around it, and illuminated by a large carbuncle, which gave a light as bright as that of day. When Hugh left them in their quarters for the night, he fent them wine and whatever was neceffary to make them comfortable ; and, when alone, they proceeded to amufe themfelves with gabs, or jokes, each being expefted to fay his joke in his turn. Charlemagne took the lead, and boafled that if the emperor Hugh would place before him his ftrongeft " bachelor," in full armour, and mounted on his good fteed, he would, with one blow of his fword, cut him through from the head downwards, and through the faddle and horfe, and that the fword fhould, after all this, fink into the ground to the handle. Charlemagne then called upon Roland for his gal, who boafted that his breath was fo ftrong, that if the emperor Hugh would lend him his horn, he would take it out into the fields and blow it with fuch force, that the wind and noife of it would {hake down the whole city of Constantinople. Oliver, whofe turn came next, boafted of exploits of another defcription if he were left alone with the beautiful princefs, Hugh's daughter. The reft of the peers indulged in fimilar boafts, and when the gabs had gone round, they went to fleep. Now the emperor of Conftantinople had very cunningly, and rather treacheroufly, made a hole through the wall, by which all that pafled infide could be feen and heard, and he had placed a fpy on the outfide, who gave a full account of the converfation of the diflinguifhed guefts to his imperial matter. Next morning Hugh called his guefts before him, told them what he had heard by his fpy, and declared that each of them fhould perform his boaft, or, if he failed, be put to death. Charlemagne expoftulated, and repre- fented that it was the cuftom in France when people retired for the night to amufe themfelves in that manner. " Such is the cuftom in France," he laid, " at Paris, and at Chartres, when the French are in bed they

D D amufe


202 Hi/lory of Caricature and Grotefque


amufe themfelves and make jokes, and fay things both of wifdom and of folly."

Si eft tel cuftume en France, a Paris e a Cartres, Quand Franceis font culcAiex, yuefe giuunt e gabent, Eji dient ambure e fa-ver e folage.

But Charlemagne expoftulated in vain, and they were only faved from the confequence of their imprudence by the intervention of fo many miracles from above.*

In fuch trials of fkill as this, an individual muft continually have arifen who excelled in fome at leart of the qualities needful for raifing mirth and making him a good companion, by mowing himfelf more brilliant in wit, or more biting in farcafms, or more impudent in his jokes, and he would thus become the favourite mirth-maker of the court, the boon companion of the chieftain and his followers in their hours of relaxation. We rind fuch an individual not unufually introduced in the early romances and in the mythology of nations, and he fometimes unites the character of court orator with the other. Such a perfonage was the Sir Kay of the cycle of the romances of king Arthur. I have remarked in a former chapter that Hunferth, in the Anglo-Saxon poem of Beowulf, is defcribed as holding a fomewhat fimilar pofition at the court of king Hrothgar. To go farther back in the mythology of our forefathers, the Loki of Scandinavian fable appears fometimes to have performed a fimilar character in the affembly of his fellow deities ; and we know that, among the Greeks, Homer on one occafion introduces Vulcan ating the part of joker (ytXwroTTotoc) to the gods of Olympus. But all thefe have no relationlhip whatever to the court-fool of modern times.

The German writer Flogel, in his " Hiftory of Court Fools,"f has

thrown this fubjeft into much confufion by introducing a great mafs of

irrelevant matter ; and thofe who have fince compiled from Flb'gel, have

made the confufion ftill greater. Much of this confufion has arifen from

__ the

  • " Charlemagne, an Anglo-Norman Poem of the Twelfth Century, now first

published, by Francisque Michel," izmo., 8vo., London, 1836.

f " Geschichte der Hofnarren, von Karl Friedrich Flogel," 8vo. Liegnitz -ind Leipzig, 1789.


in Literature and Art. 203

the mifunderftanding and confounding of names and terms. The mimus, the joculator, the miniftrel, or whatever name this clafs of fociety went by, was not in any refpects identical with what we underftand by a court fool, nor does any fuch character as the latter appear in the feudal houfehold before the fourteenth century, as far as we are acquainted with the focial manners and cuftoms of the olden time. The vaft extent of the early French romans de gefte, or Carlovingian romances, which are filled with pictures of courts both of princes and barons, in which the court fool muft have been introduced had he been known at the time they were compofed, that is, in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, contains, I believe, no trace of fuch perfonage ; and the fame may be faid of the numerous other romances, fabliaux, and in fact all the literature of that period, one fo rich in works illuftrative of contemporary manners in their moft minute detail. From thefe facts I conclude that the fingle brief charter publifhed by M. Rigollot from a manufcript in the Imperial Library in Paris, is either mifunderftood or it prefents a very exceptional cafe. By this charter, John, king of England, grants to his follus, William Picol, or Piculph (as he is called at the clofe of the document), an eftate in Normandy named in the document Fons Oflanae (Menil-Ozenne in Mortain), with all its appurtenances, " to have and to hold, to him and to his heirs, by doing there-for to us once a year the fervice of one follus, as long as he lives ; and after his death his heirs fhall hold it of us, by the fervice of one pair of gilt fpurs to be rendered annually to us." * The fervice (fervitium) here enjoined means the annual payment of the obligation of the feudal tenure, and

therefore


  • The words of this charter, as given by Rigollot, are : " Joannes, D. G., etc.

Sciatis nos dedisse et praesenti charta confirmasse Willelmo Picol, folio nostro, Fontem Ossanae, cum omnibus pertinenciis suis, habendum et tenendum sibi et haeredibus suis, faciendo inde nobis annuatim servitium unius folli quoad vixerit ; et post ejus decessum haeredes sui earn tenebunt, et per servifium unius paris calca- rium deauratorum nobis annuatim reddendo. Quare volumus et firmiterpraecipimus quod prxdictus Piculphus et haeredes sui habeant et teneant in perpetuum, bene et in pace, libere et quiete, praedictam terram." Rigollot, Monnaies inconnues des Evdques des Innocens, etc., 8vo., Paris, 1837.


204 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque

therefore if follus is to be taken as fignifying "a fool," it only means that Picol was to perform that character on one occafion in the courfe of the year. In this cafe, he may have been fome fool whom king John had taken into his fpecial favour ; but it certainly is no proof that the practice of keeping court fools then exifted. It is not improbable that this practice was firft introduced in Germany, for Flogel fpeaks, though rather doubtfully, of one who was kept at the court of the emperor Rudolph I. (of Hapfburg), whofe reign lafted from 1273 to 1292. It is more certain, however, that the kings of France poffefied court fools before the middle of the fourteenth century, and from this time anecdotes relating to them begin to be common. One of the earliefl and moft curious of thefe anecdotes, if it be true, relates to the celebrated victory of Sluys gained over the French fleet by our king Edward III. in the year 1340. It is faid that no one dared to announce this difafter to the French king, Philippe VI., until a court fool undertook the tafk. Entering the king's chamber, he continued muttering to himfelf, but loud enough to be heard, " Thofe cowardly Englifh! the chicken-hearted Britons!" "How ib, coufin?" the king inquired. "Why," replied the fool, " becaufe they have not courage enough to jump into the fea, like your French foldiers, who went over headlong from their {hips, leaving thofe to the enemy who fhowed no inclination to follow them." Philippe thus became aware of the full extent of his calamity. The inftitution of the court fool was carried to its greateft. degree of perfection during the fifteenth century ; it only expired in the age of Louis XIV.

It was apparently with the court fool that the coftume was introduced

which has ever fince been confidered as the chara&erillic mark ot lolly. Some parts of this coflume, at leaft, appear to have been borrowed from an earlier dale. The gelotopoei of the Greeks, and the mimi and moriones ofthe Romans, ffiaved their heads ; but the court fools perhaps adopted this fafliion as a fatire upon the clergy and monks. ~^Some~writers pro- fefied to doubt whether the fools borrowed from-the monks, or the monks from the fools ; and Cornelius Agrippa, in his treatife on the Vanity of Sciences, remarks that the monks had their heads "all Ihaven like fools" (rafo toto capite ut fatui). The cowl, alfo, was perhaps adopted

in


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205


in derifion of the monks, but it was diftinguiihed by _thg__adfl i ti oix_ofji pair of afles' ears, or by a cock's head and comb, which formed its termi- nation above, or by both. The court fool was alfo furniihed with a ftaff or club, which became eventually his bauble^ The bells were another neceflary article in the equipment of a court fool, perhaps alfo intended jt^a fatire on the cuftom of wearing fmaUbells jn_t h ^ Hrgfs, whirh JTTP.



No. 127. Court Fools.

vailed largely during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries^-elpecially lunong people who w ?rfl f nnf ^ pf rhilHifh r<jpntation. The fool wore alfo g^party-coloured, or motley, garment, probabjy^with the fame aim that of fatirifing one of the ridiculous fafhions of the fourteenth century.


It IS in the fifteenth


fhnf lira firft


fnnl in full


coftume


206 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque


coftume in the illuminations or manufcripts, and towards the end of the

century this coftume appears continually in engravings. It is alfo met

with at this time among the fculptures of buildings and the carvings of

wood- work. The two very interefting examples given in our cut No. 127

are taken from carvings of the fifteenth century, in the church of

St. Levan, in Cornwall, near the Land's End. They reprefent the court

^fool inrtwo varieties of coftume ; in the firft^ie fool's cowl, or cap, ends

_ iq the cock's bead ; in the other r it is fitted with gflka' Mrs There are


variations alfo in other parts of the drefs ; for the fecond only has bells to his fleeves, and the firft carries a fingularly formed ftarT, which may



No. 11$. A Fool and a Grimace-maker.


perhaps be intended for a flrap or belt, with a buckle at the end; while the other has a ladle in his hand. As one poffefles a beard, and prefects marks of age in his countenance, while the other is beardlefs and youthful, we may confider the pair as an old fool and a young fool.

The Cornilh churches are rather celebrated for their early carved wood-work, chiefly of the fifteenth century, of which two examples are given in our cut, No. 128, taken from bench pannels in the church of St. Mullion, on the Cornim coaft, a little to the north of the

Lizard


in Literature and Art. 207

Lizard Point. The firft has bells hanging to the ileeves, and is no doubt intended to reprefent folly in fome form ; the other appears to be intended for the head of a woman making grimaces.*

T-bft fool had long been a character among the people before he became a court fool, for Folly or, as Ihe was then called, "Mother Folly " was one of the favourite objects of popular worfhip in the middle ages, and, where that worihip fprang up fpontaneoufly among the people, it grew with more energy, and prefented more hearty joyoufnefs and bolder fatire than under the patronage of the great. Our forefathers in thofe times were accuftomed to form themfelves into aflbciations or focieties of a mirthful character, pamHipg nf thofo of a mntv ^ r in\is defcriptian. efpecially eccle- .fiaftiral, and plpftpH as thmr nfflrpra mno^ popes, cardinals, archbifhops and ~bJJhops r kings, &c. They held periodical feftivals, riotous and licentious carnivals, which were admitted into the churches, and even taken under the efpecial patronage of the clergy, under fuch titles as " the feaft of fools," " the feaft of the afs," " the feaft of the innocents," and the like. There was hardly a Continental town of any account which had not its " company of fools," with its mock ordinances and mock ceremonies. .In our own ifland we "had our abbots of mifrule and of unreaibrr. Aftheir public feftivals fatirical fongs were fung and fatirical mafks and drefles were worn ; and in many of them, efpecially at a later date, brief fatirical dramas were acted. Thefe fatires afiumed much of the functions of modern caricature ; the caricature of the pictorial representations, which were moftly permanent monuments and deftined for future generations, was naturally general in its character, but in the reprefentations of which I am fpeaking, which were temporary, and defigned to excite the mirth of the moment, it became perfonal, and, often, even political, and it was conftantly directed againft the ecclefiaftical order. The fcandal of the day furnifhed it with abundant materials. A fragment of one of their

fongs

  • For the drawings of these interesting carvings from the Cornish churches, I

am indebted to the kindness of Mr. J. T. Blight, the author of an extremely pleasing and useful guide to the beauties of a well-known district of Cornwall, entitled " A Week at the Land's End."


208 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque


fongs of an early date, fung at one of thefe "feafts " at Rouen, has been preferved, and contains the following lines, written in Latin and French :

De afino bono nofiro, Meliori et optima,

Debemus faire fete. En revenant de Gra-vinaria, Un gros chardon referit in -via, H lui coupa la tete.

Vtr mmachus in menfe Julio Egrejfus eft e monafterio,

C'est dom de la Bucaille ; EgreJJus eftjine licentia, . Pour aller voir dona Venissia,

Et faire la ripaille.

TRANSLATION.

For our good aft,

The better and the beft,

IVe ought to rejoice. In returning from Gra-uiniere,

  • A great thiftle he found in the toay t

He cut off its head.

A monk in the month of July Went out of 'his monaftery,

It is dom de la Bucaille ; He ivent out without Hcenfe, To fay a -vifit to the dame de Veniffe,

jind make jovial cheer.

It appears that De la Bucaille was the prior of the abbey of St. Taurin, at Rouen, and that the dame de Venifle was priorefs of St. Saviour, and thefe lines, no doubt, commemorate fome great fcandal of the day relating to the private relations between thefe two individuals.

Thefe mock religious ceremonies are fuppofed to have been derived from the Roman Saturnalia; they were evidently of great antiquity in the mediaeval church, and were moil prevalent in France and Italy. Under the name of "the feaft of the fub-deacons" they are forbidden by the acts of the council of Toledo, in 633 ; at a later period, the French punned on the word fous-diacres, and called them Saouls-diacres (Drunken Deacons), words which had nearly the fame found. The " fealt of the

afs "


in Literature and Art. 209


afs " is faid to be traced back in France as far as the ninth century. It was celebrated in moft of the great towns in that country, fuch as Rouen, Sens, Douai, &c., and the fervice for the occafion is actually preferred in fome of the old church books. From this it appears that the afs was led in procellion to a place in the middle of the church, which had been decked out to receive it, and that the proceflion was led by two clerks, who fung a Latin fong in praife of the animal. This fong commences by telling us how "' the afs came from the eaft, handfome and very ftrong, and moft fit for carrying burthens":

Orientis partibus Advcnta-vlt afinus, Pule her et fortijfimur, Sarcinis aptljfimus.

The refrain or burthen of the fong is in French, and exhorts the animal to join in the uproar "Eh ! sir afs, chant now, fair mouth, bray, you (hall have hay enough, and oats in abundance :"

HeZjjlre afrtes, car chant f* t Belle bouche, rechtgnez, fous aurez dufoin ajjez, Et de favoine a plantez.

In this tone the chant continues through nine fimilar ftanzas, defcribing the mode of life and food of the afs. When the proceffion reached the altar, the prieft began a fervice in profe. Beleth, one of the celebrated doctors of the univerfity of Paris, who flourifhed in 1182, fpeaks of the " feaft of fools " as in exiflence in his time 3 and the ats of the council of Paris, held in 1212, forbid the prefence of archbifhops and bifhops, and more efpecially of monks and nuns, at the feafts of fools, "in which a flaff was carried."* We know the proceedings of this latter feftival rather minutely from the accounts given in the ecclefiaftical cenfures.

It


  • " A festis follorum ubi baculus accipitur omnino abstineatur. .... Idem fortius

monachis et monialibus prohibemus."

E E


2 1 o Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque

It was in the cathedral churches that they elected the archbifhop or bifhop of fools, whofe election was confirmed, and he was confecrated, with a multitude of buffooneries. He then entered upon his pontifical duties, wearing the mitre and carrying the crofier before the people, on whom he beftowed his folemn benediction. In the exempt churches, or thofe which depended immediately upon the Holy See, they elected a pope of fools (unum papam fatuorum), who wore fimilarly the enfigns of the papacy. Thefe dignitaries were aflifled by an equally burlefque and licentious clergy, who uttered and performed a mixture of follies and im- pieties during the church fervice of the day, which they attended in difguifes and mafquerade drefles. Some wore malks, or had their faces painted, and others were drefled in women's clothing, or in ridiculous coflumes. On entering the choir, they danced and fang licentious fongs. The deacons and fub-deacons ate black puddings and faufages on the altar while the prieft was celebrating ; others played at cards or dice under his eyes; and others threw bits of old leather into the. cenfer,in order to raife a difagreeable fmell. After the mafs was ended, the people broke out into all forts of riotous behaviour in the church, leaping, dancing, and exhibiting themfelves in indecent poftures, and fome went as far as to flrip themfelves naked, and in this condition they were drawn through the ftreets with tubs full of ordure and filth, which they threw about at the mob. Every now and then they halted, when they exhibited immodeft poftures and actions, accompanied with fongs and fpeeches of the fame character. Many of the laity took part in the proceflion, drefled as monks and nuns. Thefe diforders feem to have been carried to their greateft degree of extravagance during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.*

Towards

  • On the subject of all these burlesques and popular feasts and ceremonies, the

reader may consult Flogel's " Geschichte des Grotesk-Komischen,'" of which a new and enlarged edition has recently been given by Dr. Friedrich W. Ebeling, 8vo., Leipzig, 1862 Much interesting information on the subject was collected by Du Tilliot, in his " Memoires pour servir a THistoire de la Fete des Fous," 8vo., Lausanne, 1751. See also Rigollot, in the work quoted above, and a popular article on the same subject will be found in my " Archaeological Album."


in Literature and Art.


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21 I


Towards the fifteenth century, lay focieties, having apparently no conneftion with the clergy or the church, but of juft the fame burlefque character, arofe in France. One of the earlieft of thefe was formed by the clerks of the Bazoche, or lawyers' clerks of the Palais de Juflice in Paris, whofe president was a fort of king of mifrule. The other principal fociety of this kind in Paris took the rather mirthful name of Enfans fans Souci (Carelefs Boys) ; it confifted of young men of education, who gave to their prefident'or chieftain the title of Prince des Sots (the Prince of Fools). Both thefe focieties compofed and performed farces, and other fmall dramatic pieces. Thefe farces were fatires on contemporary fociety, and appear to have been often very perfonal.

Almoft the only monuments of the older of thefe focieties confift of coins, or tokens, flruck in lead, and fometimes commemorating the names of their mock dignitaries. A confiderable number of thefe have been found in France, and an account of them, with engravings, was publifhed by Dr. Rigollot fome years ago.* Our cut No. 129 will ferve as an



No. 129. Money of the Archbijhop of the Innocents.

example. It represents a leaden token of the Archbifhop of the Innocents of the parifh of St. Firmin, at Amiens, and is curious as bearing a date. On one fide the archbifhop of the Innocents is reprefented in the a6t of giving his blefling to his flock, furrounded by the infcription, MONETA ARCHIEPI scTi FiRMiNi. On the other fide we have the


"Monnaies inconnues dcs Evdques des Innocens, des Fous," Sec., Paris, 1837.


2 1 2 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque

name of the individual who that year held the office of archbifhop, NICOLAVS GAVDRAM ARCHiEPVs p 1520, furrounding a group confiding of two men, one of whom is drafted as a fool, holding between them a bird, which has fomewhat the appearance of a magpie. Our cut No. 130 is ftill more curious j it is a token of the pope of fools. On one



Money of the Pope of fools .


fide appears the pope with his tiara and double crofe, and a fool in full coftume, who approaches his bauble to the pontifical crofs. It is certainly a bitter caricature on the papacy, whether that were the intention or not. Two perfons behind, drefled apparently in fcholaftic coftume, feem to be merely fpetators. The infcription is, MONETA NOVA * ADRIANI STVLTORV [M] PAPE (the laft E being in the field of the piece), "new money of Adrian, the pope of fools." The infcription on the other fide of the token is one frequently repeated on thefe leaden medals, STVLTORV [M] INFINITVS EST ' NVMERVS, " the number of fools is infinite." In the field we fee Mother Folly holding up her bauble, and before her a grotefque figure in a cardinal's hat, apparently kneeling to her. It is rather furprifing that we find fo few allufions to thefe burlefque focieties in the various clafies of piftorial records from which the fubje6t of thefe chapters has been illuflrated ; but we have evidence that they were not altogether overlooked. Until the latter end of the laft century, the mifereres of the church of St. Spire, at Corbeil, near Paris, were remarkable for the fingular carvings with which they were decorated, and which have fince been deftroyed, but fortunately they were engraved by

Millin.


m Literature and Art.


213


Millin. One of them, copied in our cut No. 131, evidently reprefents the bifliop of fools conferring his blefiing ; the fool's bauble occupies the place of the paftoral ftaff.



No. 131. The Bijbop of t'oolt.


214 Hiflory of Caricature and Grotefque


CHAPTER XIII.

THE DANCE OF DEATH. THE PAINTINGS IN THE CHURCH OF LA

CHAISE DIEU. THE REIGN OF FOLLY. SEBASTIAN BRANDT ; THE

"SHIP OF FOOLS." DISTURBERS OF CHURCH SERVICE. TROUBLE- SOME BEGGARS. GEILER'S SERMONS. BADIUS, AND HIS SHIP OF

FOOLISH WOMEN. THE PLEASURES OF SMELL. ERASMUS J THE

"PRAISE OF FOLLY."

THERE is ftill one cycle of fatire which almoft belongs to the middle ages, though it only became developed at their clofe, and became moft popular after they were paft. There exifted, at lead as early as the beginning of the thirteenth century, a legendary ftory of an interview between three living and three dead men, which is ufually told in French verfe, and appears under the title of "Des trois vifs et des trois morts." According to fome verfions of the legend, it was St. Macarius, the Egyptian reclufe, who thus introduced the living to the dead. The verfes are fometimes accompanied with figures, and thefe have been found both fculptured and painted on ecclefiaftical buildings. At a later period, apparently early in the fifteenth century, fome one extended this idea to all ranks of fociety, and pictured a Ikeleton, the emblem of death, or even more than one, in communication with an individual of each dais; and this extended fcene, from the manner of the grouping in which the dead appeared to be wildly dancing off with the living - became known as the " Dance of Death." As the earlier legend of the three dead and the three living was, however, ftill often introduced at the beginning of it, the whole group was moft generally known efpecially during the fifteenth century as the " Danfe Macabre," or

Dance


in Literature and Art. 215


Dance of Macabre, this name being confidered as a mere corruption of Macarius. The temper of the age in which death in every form was constantly before the eyes of all, and in which people fought to regard life as a mere tranfitory moment of enjoyment gave to this grim idea of the fellowfhip of death and life great popularity, and it was not only painted on the walls of churches, but it was fufpended in tapeflry around people's chambers. Sometimes they even attempted to reprefent it in mafquerade, and we are told that in the month of October, 1424, the " Danfe Macabre " was publicly danced by living people in the cemetery of the Innocents, in Paris a fit place for fo lugubrious a performance , in the prefence of the Duke of Bedford and the Duke of Burgundy, who] came to Paris after the battle of Verneuil. During the reft of the century we find not unfrequently allufions to the "Danfe Macabre.' 1 The Englifh poet Lydgate wrote a feries of ftanzas to accompany the figures, and it was the fubjeft of fbme of the earlieft engravings on wood. In the pofture and accompaniments of the figures reprefenting the different clafles of fociety, and in the greater or lefs reluctance with which the living accept their not very attractive partners, fatire is ufually implied, and it is in fome cafes accompanied with drollery. The figure reprefent- ing death has almoft always a grimly mirthful countenance, and appears to be dancing with good will. The moft remarkable early reprefentation of the " Danfe Macabre " now preferred, is that painted on the wall of the church of La Chaife Dieu, in Auvergne, a beautiful fac-fimile of which was publilhed a few years ago by the well-known antiquary M. Jubinal. This remarkable pi6ture begins with the figures of Adam and Eve, who are introducing death into the world in the form of a ferpent with a death's head. The dance is opened by an ecclefiaftic preaching from a pulpit, towards whom death is leading firft in the dance the pope, for each individual takes his precedence ftri6tly according to his clafs alternately an ecclefiaftic and a layman. Thus next after the pope comes the emperor, and the cardinal is followed by the king. The baron is followed by the biftiop, and the grim partner of the latter appears to pay more attention to the layman than to his own prieft, fo that two dead men appear to have the former in charge. The group thus repre-

fented


216 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque

fented by the nobleman and the two deaths, is copied in our cut No. 132, and will ferve as an example of the ftyle and grouping of this remarkable painting. After a few other figures, perhaps lefs ftriking, we come to the merchant, who receives the advances of his partner with a thoughtful air 3 while immediately after him another death is trying to make him- felf more acceptable to the bafhful nun by throwing a cloak over his nakednels. In another place two deaths armed with bows and arrows are



No. 1 32. The Knight in the Dance of Death.

fcattering their (hafts rather dangeroufly. Soon follow fome of the more gay and youthful members of fociety. Our cut No. 133 reprefents the mufician, who appears allb to attraft the attentions of two of the perfe- cutors. In his difmay he is treading under foot his own viol. The dance clofes with the lower orders of fociety, and is concluded by a group which is not fo eafily underftood. Before the end of the fifteenth century, there had appeared in Paris feveral editions of a feries of bold engravings




in Literature and Art.


217


on wood, in a fmall folio fize, reprefenting the fame dance, though fome- what differently treated. France, indeed, appears to have been the native country of the " Danfe Macabre." But in the century following the beautiful fet of drawings by the great artiftHans Holbein, firfl publiftied at Lyons in 1538, gave to the Dance of Death a ftill greater and wider



No. 133. The Mufician in Death's Hands.


celebrity. From this time the fubjects of this dance were commonly introduced in initial letters, and in the engraved borders of pages, efpecially in books of a religious character.

Death may truly be faid to have mared with Folly that melancholy period the fifteenth century. As fociety then prefented itfelf to the eye, people might eafily fuppofe that the world was running mad, and folly, in one lhape or other, feemed to be the principle which ruled moft men's actions. The jocular focieties, defcribed in my laft chapter, which multiplied in France during the fifteenth century, initiated a fort of mock worfhip of Folly. That fort of inauguration of death which was

F F performed


2 1 8 Hiflory of Caricature and Grotefque

performed in the "Danfe Macabre," was of French growth, but the grand crufade againft folly appears to have originated in Germany. Sebaftian_Brandt was a native of Strafburg, born in 1458. He ftudied in that city and in Bale, became a celebrated profeflbr in both thofe places, and died at the former in 1520. The " Ship of Fools," which has immortalifed the name of Sebaftian Brandt, is believed to have been firft published in the year 1494. The original German text went through numerous editions within a few years ; a Latin tranflation was equally popular, and it was afterwards edited and enlarged by Jodocus Badius Afcenfius. A French text was no lefs fuccefsful ; an Englifh tranflation was printed by Richard Pynfon in 1509 ; a Dutch verfion appeared in 1519. During the fixteenth century, Brandt's "Ship of Fools" was the moft popular of books. Tt coniifts of a feries of bold woodcuts, which form its characleriftic feature, and of metrical explanations, written by Brandt, and annexed to each cut. Taking his text from the words of the preacher, " Stultorum numerus eft infinitus," Brandt expofes to the eye, in all its fhades and forms, the folly of his contemporaries, and bares to view its roots and caufes. The cuts are efpecially interefting as ftriking pictures of contemporary manners. The " Ship of .Fools -". js the . greajbip_ofj ! he world, into which the various defcriptions of fatuity are pouring from all quarters in boat-loads. The firft folly is that of men who collected great quantities of books, not for their utility, but for their rarity, or beauty of execution, or rich bindings, fo that we fee that bibliomania had already taken its place among human vanities. The fecond clafs of fools were interefted and partial judges, who fold juftice for money, and are reprefented under the emblem of two fools throwing a boar into a caldron, according to the old Latin proverb, Agere aprum in lebetem. Then come the various follies of mifers, fops, dotards, men who are foolifhly indulgent to their children, mifchief-makers, and defpifers of good advice; of nobles and men in power; of the profane and the improvident; of foolilh lovers; of extravagant eaters and drinkers, &c., &c. Foolifh talking, hypocrify, frivolous purfuits, ecclefiaftical corruptions, impudicity, and a great number of other vices as well as follies, are duly pafled in review, and are reprefented in various forms of fatirical caricature, and fometimes in

fimple


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firapler unadorned pictures. Thus the foolim valuers of things are repre- fented by a fool holding a balance, one fcale of which contains the fun, moon, and ftars, to reprefent heaven and heavenly things, and the other a caftle and fields, to reprefent earthly things, the latter fcale overweighing the other j and the procr,aftinator is pictured by another fool, with a parrot perched on his head, and a magpie on each hand, all repeating eras, eras, eras (to-morrow). Our cut No. 134 reprefents a group of difturbers of



No. 1 34. Difturbers of Church Service

church fervice. It was a common practice in former days to take to church hawks (which were conftantly carried about as the outward enfign of the gentleman) and dogs. The fool has here thrown back his fool's-cap to exhibit more fully the fafhionable " gent " of the day ; he carries his hawk on his hand, and wears not only a fafliionable pair of ftioes, but very fafhionable clogs allb. Thefe gentlemen d. la mode, turgentes genere et natalibus altis, we are told, were the perlbns who difturbed the church

fervice


22O Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque


fervice by the creaking of their fhoes and clogs, the noife made by their birds, the barking and quarrelling of their dogs, by their own whifperings, and efpecially with immodeft women, whom they met in church as in a convenient place of affignation. All thefe forms of the offence are exprefled in the picture. Our fecond example cut No. 135, which forms



No. 135. Mendicants on their Travels.

the fifty-ninth title or fubjed in the " Ship of Fools," reprefents a party of the beggars with which, either lay or ecclefiaftical, the country was then overrun. In the explanation, thefe wicked beggars are defcribed as indulging in idlenefs, in eating, drinking, rioting, and fleep, while they levy contributions on the charitable feelings of the honeft and induftrious, and, under cover of begging, commit robbery wherever they find the opportunity. The beggar, who appears to be only a deceptive cripple, leads his donkey laden with children, whom he is bringing up in the fame profeffion, while his wife lingers behind to indulge in her bibulous pro-

penfities.


in Literature and Art. 221


penfities. Thefe cuts will give a tolerable notion of the general character of the whole, which amount in number to a hundred and twelve, and therefore prefent a great variety of fubjecTs relative to almoft every clafs and profeifion of life.

We may remark, however, that after Folly had thus run through all the ftages of fociety, until it had reached the lowed of all, the ranks of mendicity, the gods themfelves became alarmed, the more fo as this great movement was directed efpecially agaiuft Minerva, the goddefs of wifdom, and they held a conclave to provide againft it. The refult is not told, but the courfe of Folly goes on as vigorously as ever. Ignorant fools who fet up for phyficians, fools who cannot underftand jokes, unwife mathematicians, aftrologers, of the latter of which the moralifer fays, in his Latin verfe

Siqua -voles forth presncfcere damna futurte,

Et -vltare malum, fol tibifigna dabit. Sed tlbi, fiulte t tul cur non dedit ille furoris

Signa ? aut,Ji dederit, cur tanta malafubis ? Nondum grammaticae callis prlmordia ) et audes

Vim ccel'i radio fuppofuiffe tuo.

The next cut is a very curious one, and appears to reprefent a difle6ting- houfe of this early period. Among other chapters which afford interefting pidures of that time, and indeed of all times, we may inftance thofe of litigious fools, who are always going to law, and who confound blind juftice, or rather try to unbind her eyes ; of filthy-tongued fools, who glorify the race of fwine 5 of ignorant fcholars ; of gamblers 5 of bad and thievifh cooks ; of low men who feek to be high, and of high who are defpifers of poverty ; of men who forget that they will die ; of irreligious men and blafphemers ; of the ridiculous indulgence of parents to children, and the ungrateful return which was made to them foi it ; and of women's pride. Another title defcribes the ruin of Chriftianity : the pope, emperor, king, cardinals, &c., are receiving willingly from a fuppliant fool the cap of Folly, while two other fools are looking derifively upon them from an adjoining wall. It need hardly be faid that this was publifhed on the eve of the Reformation.

In the midft of the popularity which greeted the appearance of the

work


222 Hijlory of Caricature and Grotefque


work of Sebaftian Brandt, it attra&ed the fpecial attention of a celebrated preacher of the time named Johann Geiler. Geiler was born at Schaff- haufen, in Switzerland, in 1445, but having loft his father when only three years of age, he was educated by his grandfather, who lived at Keyferfberg, in Alface, and hence he was commonly called Geiler of Keyferfberg. He ftudied in Freiburg and Bale, obtained a great repu- tation for learning, was efteemed a profound theologian, and was finally fettled in Strafburg, where he continued to fhine as a preacher until his death in 1510. He was a bold man, too, in the caufe of truth, and de- claimed with earneft zeal againft the corruptions of the church, and efpe- cially againft the monkifh orders, for he compared the black monks to the devil, the white monks to his dam, and the others he faid were their chickens. On another occafion he faid that the qualities of a good monk were an almighty belly, an afs's back, and a raven's mouth. He told his congregation from the pulpit that a great reformation was at hand, that he did not expect to live to fee ': himfelf, but that many of thofe who heard him would live to fee it. As may be fuppofed, the monks hated him, and fpoke of him with contempt. They faid, that in his fermous he took his texts, not from the Scriptures, but from the " Ship of Fools " of Sebaftian Brandt; and, in fa6t, during the year 1498, Geiler preached at Strafburg a feries of fermons on the follies of his time, which were evidently founded upon Brandt's book, for the various follies were taken in the fame order. They were originally compiled in German, but one of Geiler's fcholars, Jacob Other, tranflated them into Latin, and publiftied them, in ijjoi, under the title of " Navicula five Speculum Fatuorum praeftantiflimi facrarum literarum dottoris Johannis Geiler." Within a few years this work went through feveral editions both in Latin and in German, fome of them illuftrated by woodcuts. The ftyle of preaching is quaint and curious, full of fatirical wit, which is often coarfe, according to the manner of the time, fometimes very indelicate. Each fermon is headed by the motto, " Stultorum infinitus eft numerus." Geiler takes for his theme in each fermon one of the titles of Brandt's " Ship of Fools," and he feparates them into fubdivifions, or branches, which he calls the bells (nolas) from the fool's-cap.

The


in Literature and Art. 223

The other fcholar who did moft to fpread the knowledge of Brandt's work, was Jodocus Badius, vho afiumed the additional name of Afcenfius becaufe he was born at AfTen, near Bruflels, in 1462. He was a very diftin- guifhed fcholar, but is beft known for having eftablifhed a celebrated printing eftablifhment in Paris, where he died in 1535. I have already ftated that Badius edited the Latin tranflation of the " Ship of Fools " of Sebaftian Brandt, with additional explanations of his own, but he was one of the firft of Brandt's imitators. He feems to have thought that Brandt's book was not complete that the weaker fex had not received its fair {hare of importance ; and apparently in 1498, while Geiler was turning the " Stultifera Navis " into fermons, Badius compiled a fort of fupplement to it (additamentum) , to which he gave the title of " Stultiferae naviculae, feu Scaphae, Fatuarum Mulierum," the Boats of Foolifh Women. As far as can be traced, the firft edition appears to have been printed in 1^02. The firft cut reprefents the (hip carrying Eve alone of the female race, whofe folly involved the whole world. The book is divided into five chapters, according to the number of the five fenfes, each fenfe reprefented by a boat carrying its particular clafs of foolifti women to the great fhip of foolifh women, which lies off at anchor. The text confifts of a difiertation on the ufe and abufe of the particular fenfe which forms the fubftance of the chapter, and it ends with Latin verfes, which are given as the boat- man's celeufma, or boat fong. The firft of thefe boats is \hefcaphajlultce vifionis ad Jlultiferam navem perveniens the boat of foolilh feeing proceed- ing to the fhip of fools. A party of gay ladies are taking poflefllon of the boat, carrying with them their combs, looking-glafles, and all other implements neceflary for making them fair to be looked upon. The fecond boat is thefcapha auditionis fatuce, the boat of foolifh hearing, in which the ladies are playing upon mufical inftruments. The third is the fcapha olfaSiionis Jlultce, the boat of foolifh fmell, and the pictorial illuftra- tion to it is partly copied in our cut No. 136. In the original fome of the ladies are gathering fweet-fmelling flowers before they enter the boat, while on board a pedlar is vending his perfume. Onefollejemme, with her fool's cap on her head, is buying a pomander, or, as we fhould perhaps now fay, a fcent-ball, from the itinerant dealer. Figures of pomanders

are


224 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque


are extremely rare, and this is an interefting example ; in fa6t, it is only recently that our Shakfpearian critics really underftood the meaning of the word. A pomander was a fmall globular vefiel, perforated with holes, and filled with ftrong perfumes, as it is reprefented in our woodcut. The



No. 1 36. The Boat of Plea/ant Odours.

fourth of thefe boats is that of fooliih tailing, fcapha guftaiionisfatuce, and the ladies have their well-furniflied table on board the boat, and are largely indulging in eating and drinking. In the laft of thefe boats, the fcapha contaSlionis fatute, or boat of foolifh feeling, the women have men on board, and are proceeding to great liberties with them ; one of the gentle damfels, too, is picking the pocket of her male companion in a very unlady-like manner.

Two ideas combined in this peculiar field of fatiric literature, that of the fhip and that of the fools, now became popular, and gave rife to a hoft of imitators. There appeared mips of health, Ihips of penitence, ihips of all forts of things, on the one hand ; and on the other, folly was a favourite theme of fatire from many quarters. One of the moft remarkable of the perfonages involved in this latter warfare, was the great fcholar Defiderius Erafmus, of Rotterdam, who was born in that city in 1467. Like moft of thefe fatififts, Erafmus was ftrongly imbued with the fpirit of the

Reformation


in Literature and Art. 225

Reformation, and 'he was the acquaintance and friend of thofe to whom the Reformation owed a great part of its fuccefs. In 1497, when the " Ship of Fools" of Sebaftlan Brandt was in the firft full flufh of its popularity, Erafmus came to England, and was ib well received, that from that time forward his literary life feemed more identified with our illand than with any other country. His name is ftill a fort of houfehold word in our univerfities, efpecially in that of Cambridge. He made here the friendly acquaintance of the great Sir Thomas More, himfelf a lover of mirth, and one of thofe whofe names are celebrated for having kept a court fool. In the earlier years of the fixteenth century, Erafmus vifited Italy, and pafled two or three years there. He returned thence to Eng- land, as appears, early in the year 1508. It is not eafy to decide whether his experience of fociety in Italy had convinced him more than ever that folly was the prefiding genius of mankind, or what other feeling influenced him, but one of the firfl refults of his voyage was the Mwpmc 'Eyioti/ziop (Morice Encomium), or " Praife of Folly." Erafmus dedicated this little jocular treatife to Sir Thomas More as a fort of pun upon his name, although he protefls that there was a great contraft between the two characters. Erafmus takes much the fame view of folly as Brandt, Geiler, Badius, and the others, and under this name he writes a bold fatire on the whole frame of contemporary fociety. The fatire is placed in the mouth of Folly herfelf (the Mere Folie of the jocular clubs), who delivers from her pulpit a declamation in which fhe fets forth her qualities and praifes. She boafts of the greatnefs of her origin, claims as her kindred the fophifts, rhetoricians, and many of the pretentious fcholars and wife men, and defcribes her birth and education. She claims divine affinity, and boafls of her influence ovei the world, and of the beneficent manner in which it was exercifed. All the world, (he pretends, was ruled under her aufpices, and it was only in her prefence that mankind was really happy. Hence the happieft ages of man are infancy, before wifdom has come to interfere, and old age, when it has parTed away. Therefore, (he fays, if men would remain faithful to her, and avoid wifdom altogether, they would pafs a life of perpetual youth. In this long difcourfe of the influence of folly, written by a man of the known

G G fentiments


226 Hi/lory of Caricature and Grotefque


fentiments of Erafmus, it would be ftrange if the Romifli church, with its monks and ignorant prieflhood, its faints, and relics, and miracles, did not find a place. Erafmus intimates that the fuperftitious follies had become permanent, becaufe they were profitable. There are fome, he tells us, who cherifhed the foolim yet pleafant perfuafion, that if they fixed their eyes devoutly on a figure of St. Chriftopher, carved in wood




No. 137. Superftition.

or painted on the wall, they would be fafe from death on that day j with many other examples of equal credulity. Then there are your pardons, your meafures of purgatory, which may be bought off at fo much the hour, or the day, or the month, and a multitude of other abfurdities. Ecclefiaftics, fcholars, mathematicians, philofophers, all come in for their {hare of the refined fatire of this book, which, like the " Ship of Fools," has gone through innumerable editions, and has been tranflated into many languages.

In an early French tranflation, the text of this work of Erafmus is embellimed with fome of the woodcuts belonging to Brandt's " Ship of

Fools."


in Literature and Art.


227


Fools," which, it need hardly be remarked, are altogether inappropriate, but the "Praife of Folly" was deftined to receive illuftrations from a more diflinguiihed pencil. A copy of the book came into the hands of Hans Holbein it may poffibly have been prefented to him by the author and Holbein took fo much intereft in it, that he amufed himfelf with drawing illuftrative Sketches with a pen in the margins. This book after- wards patTed into the library of the Univerfity of Bale, where it was found in the latter part of the feventeenth century, and thefe drawings have fince been engraved and added to moft of the fubfequent editions. Many of thefe iketches are very flight, and fome have not a very clofe con- nection with the text of Erafmus, but they are all chara6teriftic, and fliow the Ipirit the ipirit of the age in which Holbein read his author. I give two examples of them, taken almoft haphazard, for it would require a longer analyfis of the book than can be given here to make many of them underftood. The firft of thefe, our cut No. 137, reprefents the foolifti warrior, who has a fword long enough to truft to it for defence,



No. 138. Preacher Folly ending her Sermon.

bowing with trembling fuperftition before a painting of St. Chriftopher croffing the water with the infant Chrift on his moulder, as a more cer- tain fecurity for his fafety during that day. The other, our cut No. 138, reprefents the preacher, Lady Folly, defcending from her pulpit, after fhe has concluded her fermon.


228 Hi/lory of Caricature and Grotefque


CHAPTER XIV.

POPULAR LITERATURE AND ITS HEROES ; BROTHER RUSH, TYLL EULEN-

SPIEGEL, THE WISE MEN OF GOTHAM. STORIES AND JEST-BOOKS.

SKELTON, SCOGIN, TARLTON, PEELE.

THE people in the middle ages, as well as its fuperiors, had its comic literature and legend. Legend was the literature efpecially of the peafant, and in it the fpirit of burlefque and fatire manifefted itfelf in many ways. Simplicity, combined with vulgar cunningj and the circumftances arifing out of the exercife of thefe qualities, prefented the greateft ftimulants to popular mirth. They produced their popular heroes, who, at firft, were much more than half legendary, fuch as the familiar fpirit, Robin Goodfellow, whofe pranks were a fource of con- tinual amufement rather than of terror to the iimple minds which liftened to thofe who told them. Thefe ftories excited with flill greater intereft as their fpiritual heroes became incarnate, and the auditors were perfuaded that the perpetrators of fb many artful acls of cunning and of fo many mifchievous practical jokes, were but ordinary men like them- felves. It was but a fign or fymbol of the change from the mythic age to that of practical life. One of the earlieft of thefe flories of mythic comedy transformed into, or at leaft prefented under the guife of, humanity, is that of Brother Rum. Although the earlieft verfion of this ftory with which we are acquainted dates only from the beginning of the fixteenth century,* there is no reafon for doubt that the ftory itfelf was in exiftence at a much more remote period. Ruth

  • This earliest known version is in German verse, and was printed in 1515.

An English version, in prose, was printed in 1620, and is reprinted in Thoms's " Collection of Early Prose Romances."


in Literature and Art. 229

Rufh was, in truth, a fpirit of darknefs, whofe miffion it was to wander on the earth tempting and impelling people to do evil. Perceiv- ing that the internal condition of a certain abbey was well fuited to his purpofe, he prefented himfelf at its gates in the difguife of a youth who wanted employment, and was received as an afiiftant in the kitchen, but he pleafed the monks beft by the fkill with which he furnifbed them all with fair companions. At length he quarrelled with the cook, and threw him into the boiling caldron, and the monks, afluming that his death was accidental, appointed Rum to be cook in his place. After a fervice of feven years in the kitchen which appears to have been confidered a fair apprenticefhip for the new honour which was to be conferred upon him the abbot and convent rewarded him by making him a monk. He now followed ftill more earneftly his defign for the ruin of his brethren, both foul and body, and began by raifing a quarrel about a woman, which led, through his contrivance, to a fight, in which the monks all fuffered grievous bodily injuries, and in which Brother Rufh was efpecially aclive. He went on in this way until at laft his true character was accidentally difcovered. A neighbouring farmer, overtaken by night, took flicker in a hollow tree. It happened to be the night appointed by Lucifer to meet his agents on earth, and hear from them the report of their feveral proceedings, and he had fele&ed this very oak as the place of rendezvous. There Brother Ruih appeared, and the farmer, in his hiding-place, heard his confeflion from his own lips, and told it to the abbot, who, being as it would appear a magician, conjured him into the form of a hcrfe, and banifhed him. Rufli hurried away to England, where he laid afide his equine form, and entered the body of the king's daughter, who fuffered great torments from his poffeflion. At length fome of the great doctors from Paris came and obliged the fpirit to confefs that nobody but the abbot of the diftant monaftery had any power over him. The abbot came, called him out of the maiden, and conjured him more forcibly than ever into the form of a horfe.

Such is, in mere outline, the ftory of Brother Rufh, which was gradually enlarged by the addition of new incidents. But the people wanted a hero who prefented more of the character of reality, who, in

fad,


230 Hijlory of Caricature and Grotefque


fa6t, might be recognifed as one of themfelves ; and fuch heroes appear to have exifted at all times. They ufually reprefented a clafs in fociety, and efpecially that clafs which confifted of idle fharpers, who lived by their wits, and which was more numerous and more familiarly known in the middle ages than at the prefent day. Folly and cunning combined prefented a never-failing fubjeft of mirth. This clafs of adventurers firft came into print in Germany, and it is there that we find its firft popular hero, to whom they gave the name of Eulenfpiegel, which means literally " the owl's mirror," and has been fince ufed in German in the fenfe of a merry fool. Tyll Eulenfpiegel, and his ftory, are fuppofed to have be- longed to the fourteenth century, though we firft know them in the printed book of the commencement of the fixteenth, which is believed to have come from the pen of the well-known popular writer, Thomas Murner, of whom I mail have to fpeak more at length in another chapter. The popularity of this work was very great, and it was quickly tranflated into French, Englifh, Latin, and almoft every other language of Weftern Europe. In the Englifh verfion the name alfo was tranflated, and appears under the form of Owleglafs, or, as it often occurs with the fuperfluous afpirate, Howleglafs.* According to the ftory, Tyll Eulen- fpiegel was the fon of a peafant, and was born at a village called Kneit- lingen, in the land of Brunfwick. The ftory of his birth may be given in the words of the early Englifh verfion, as a fpecimen of its quaint and antiquated language :

" Yn the lande of Sassen, in the vyllage of Ruelnige, there dwelleth a man that was named Nicholas Howleglas, that had a wife named Wypeke, that lay a childbed in the same wyllage, and that chylde was borne to christening and named Tyell Howleglass. And than the chyld was brought into a taverne, where the father was wyth his gosseppes and made good chere. Whan the mydwife had wel

dronke,

  • The title of this English translation is, " Here beginneht a merye Jest of a

man that was called Howleglas, and of many marveylous thinges and jestes that he dyd in his lyfe, in Eastlande, and in many other places." It was printed by Coplande, supposed about 1520. An edition of Eulenspiegel in English, by Mr. Kenneth Mackenzie, has recently been published by Messrs. Triibner & Co., of Paternoster Row.


in Literature and Art. 231


dronke, she toke the childe to here it home, and in the wai was a litle bridg over a muddy water. And as the mydwife would have gone over the lytle brydge, she fel into the mudde with the chylde, for she had a lytel dronk to much wyne, for had not helpe come quickly, the had both be drowned in the mudde. And whan the came home with the childe, the made a kettle of warm water to be made redi, and therin they washed the child clen of the mudde. And thus was Howleglas thre tymes in one dai cristened, once at the churche, once in the mudde, and once in the warm water."

It will be feen that the Englifti tranflator was not very corre6t in his geography or in his names. The child, having thus efcaped deftrn&ion, grew rapidly, and difplayed an extraordinary love of mifchief, with various other evil propenfities, as well as a cunning beyond his age, in efcaping the rilks to which thefe expofed him. At a very early age, he difplayed a remarkable talent for fetting the other children by the ears, and this was his favourite amufement during life. His mother, who was now a widow, contemplating the extraordinary cunning of her child, which, as (he thought, muft neceflarily enfure his advancement in the world, reiblved that he fhould no longer remain idle, and put him apprentice to a baker ; but his wicked and reftlefs difpofition defeated all the good intentions of his parent, and Eulenfpiegel was obliged to leave his matter in confequence of his mal-practices. One day his mother took him to a church-dedica- tion, and the child drank fo much at the feaft on that occafion, that he crept into an empty beehive and fell afleep, while his mother, thinking he had gone home, returned without him. In the night-time two thieves came into the garden to fteal the bees, and they agreed to take firft the hive which was heavieft. This, as may be fuppofed, proved to be the hive in which Eulenfpiegel was hidden, and they fixed it on a pole which they carried on their fhoulders, one before and one behind, the hive hanging between them. Eulenfpiegel, awakened by the movement, foon difcovered the pofition in which he was placed, and hit upon a plan for efcaping. Gently lifting the lid of the hive, he put out his arm and plucked the hair of the man before, who turned about and accufed his companion of infulting him. The other aflerted that he had not touched him, and the firft, only half fatisfied, continued to bear his {hare of the burthen, but he had not advanced many fteps when a ftill (harper pull at his hair excited

his


232 Hi/lory of Caricature and Grotefque

his great anger, and from wrathful words the two thieves proceeded to blows. While they were fighting, Eulenfpiegel crept out of the hive and ran away.

After leaving the baker, Eulenfpiegel became a wanderer in the world, gaining his living by his trickery and deception, and engaging himfelf in all forts of flrange and ludicrous adventures. He ended every- where by creating difcord and ftrife. He became at different times a blackfmith, a fhoemaker, a tailor, a cook, a drawer of teeth, and aflumed a variety of other characters, but remained in each fituation only long enough to make it too hot for him, and to be obliged to fecure his retreat. He intruded himfelf into all clafles of fociety, and invariably came to fimilar refults. Many of his adventures, indeed, are fo droll that we can eafily underfland the great popularity they once enjoyed. But they are not merely amufing they prefent a continuous fatire upon contemporary fociety, upon a focial condition in which every pretender, every recklefs impoftor, every private plunderer or public depredator, faw the world expofed to him in its folly and credulity as an eafy prey.

The middle ages polTeffed another clals of thefe popular fatirical hiftories, which were attached to places rather than to perfons. There were few countries which did not poffefs a town or a diftri6t, the inhabitants of which were celebrated for ftupidity, or for roguery, or for fome other ridiculous or contemptible quality. We have feen, in a former chapter, the people of Norfolk enjoying this peculiarity, and, at a later period, the inhabitants of Pevenfey in SufTex, and more efpecially thofe of Gotham in Nottingham {hire, were fimilarly diftinguiftied. The inhabitants of many places in Germany bore this character, but their grand reprefentatives among the Germans were the Schildburgers, a name which appears to belong entirely to the domain of fable. Schildburg, we are told, was a town " in Mifnopotamia, beyond Utopia, in the kingdom of Calecut." The Schildburgers were, originally fo renowned for their wifdom, that they were continually invited into foreign countries to give their advice, until at length not a man was left at home, and their wives were obliged to aflame the charge of the duties of their hufbands. This became at length fo onerous, that the wives held a council, and refolved on defpatching a

fijlemn


in Literature and Art. 233


folenm meflage in writing to call the men home. This had the defired effect; all the Schildburgers returned to their own town, and were fo joyfully received by their wives that they refolved upon leaving it no more. They accordingly held a council, and it was decided that, having experienced the great inconvenience of a reputation of wifdom, they would avoid it in future by affuming the character of fools. One of the firil evil refults of their long negle6t of home affairs was the want of a council-hall, and this want they now refolved to fupply without delay. They accordingly went to the hills and woods, cut down the timber, dragged it with great labour to the town, and in due time completed the erection of a handfome and fubftantial building. But, when they entered their new council-hall, what was their confirmation to find themfelves in perfect darknefs ! In fact, they had forgotten to make any windows. Another council was held, and one who had been among the wifeft in the days of their wifdom, gave his opinion very oracularly ; the refult of which was that they mould experiment on every poffible expedient for introducing light into the hall, and that they mould firft try that which feemed mofl likely to fucceed. .They had obferved that the light of day was caufed by funfhine, and the plan propofed was to meet at mid-day when the fun was brighteft, and fill facks, hampers, jugs, and veflels of all kinds, with funihine and daylight, which they propofed afterwards to empty into the unfortunate council-hall. Next day, as the clock firuck one, you might fee a crowd of Schildburgers before the council-houfe door, bufily employed, fome holding the facks open, and others throwing the light into them with {hovels and any other appropriate implements which came to hand. While they were thus labouring, a ftranger came into the town of Schildburg, and, hearing what they were about, told them they were labouring to no purpofe, and offered to fhow them how to get the daylight into the hall. It is unneceffary to fay more than that this new plan was to make an opening in the roof, and that the Schild- burgers witnefled the effect with aftonifhment, and were loud in their gratitude to their new comer.

The Schildburgers met with further difficulties before they completed their council-hall. They fowed a field with fait, and when the falt-plarit

H H grew


234 Hi jl or y of Caricature and Grot efyue


grew up next year, after a meeting of the council, at which it was ftiffly difputed whether it ought to be reaped, or mowed, or gathered in in fome other manner, it was finally difcovered that the crop confifted of nothing but nettles. After many accidents of this kind, the Schildburgers are noticed by the emperor, and obtain a charter of incorporation and freedom, but they profit little by it. In trying fome experiments to catch mice, they fet fire to their houfes, and the whole town is burnt to the ground, upon which, in their forrow, they abandon it altogether, and become, like the Jews of old, fcattered over the world, carrying their own folly into every country they vifit.

The earlieft "known edition of the hiftory of the Schildburgers was printed in 1597,* but the ftory itfelf is no doubt older. It will be feen at once that it involves a fatire upon the municipal towns of the middle ages. A fimilar feries of adventures, only a little more clerical, bore the title of " Der Pfarrherrn vom Kalenberg," or the Parfon of Kalenberg, and was firft, as far as we know, publifhed in the latter half of the fixteenth century. The firft known edition, printed in 1582, is in profe. Von der Hagen, who reprinted a fubfequent edition in verfe, in a volume already quoted, feems to think that in its firft form the ftory belongs to the fourteenth century.

The Schildburgers of Germany were reprefented in England by the wife men of Gotham. Gotham is a village and pariih about feven miles to the fouth-weft of Nottingham, and, curioufly enough, a ftory is told accord- ing to which the folly of the men of Gotham, like that of the Schild- burgers, was at firft aflumed. It is pretended that one day king John, on his way to Nottingham, intended to pafs through the village of Gotham, and that the Gothamites, under the influence of fome vague notion that his prefence would be injurious to them, raifed difficulties in his way which prevented his vifit. The men of Gotham were now apprehenfive of the king's vengeance, and they refolved to try and evade it byafiuming the character of fimpletons. When the king's officers came to Gotham to

  • It was reprinted by Von der Hagen, in a little volume entitled "Narrenbuch

herausgegeben durch Friedrich Heinrich von der Hagen." izmo., Halle, 1811.


in Literature and Art. 235

to inquire into the conduct of the inhabitants, they found them engaged in the moft extraordinary purfuits, fome of them feeking to drown an eel in a pond of water, others making a hedge round a tree to confine a cuckoo which had fettled in it, and others employing themfelves in fimilar futile purfuits. The commifiioners reported the people of Gotham to be no better than fools, and by this ftratagem they efcaped any further perfecution, but the character they affumed remained attached to them.

This explanation is, of courfe, very late and very apocryphal ; but there can be little doubt that the character of the wife men of Gotham is one of confiderable antiquity. The ftory is believed to have been drawn up in its prefent form by Andrew Borde, an Englifh writer of the reign of Henry VIII. It was reprinted a great number of times under the form of thofe popular books called chap-books, becaufe they were hawked about the country by itinerant bookfellers or chap-men. The acts of the Gothamites difplayed a greater degree of fimplicity even than thofe of the Schildburgers, but they are lefs connected. Here is one anecdote told in the unadorned language of the chap-books, in explana- tion of which it is only necefiary to flate that the men of Gotham admired greatly the note of the cuckoo. " On a time the men of Gotham fain would have pinn'd in the cuckow, that fhe might ling all the year j and, in the midft of the town, they had a hedge made round in compafs, and got a cuckow and put her into it, and faid, ' Sing here, and you (hall lack neither meat nor drink all the year.' The cuckow, when fhe perceived herfelf encompaffed with the hedge, flew away. 'A vengeance on her,' faid thefe wife men, f we did not make our hedge high enough.'" On another occafion, having caught a large eel which offended them by its voracity, they aflembled in council to deliberate on an appropriate punifh- ment, which ended in a refolution that it fhould be drowned, and the criminal was ceremonioufly thrown into a great pond. One day twelve men of Gotham went a-fifhing, and on their way home they fuddenly difcovered that they had loft one of their number, and each counted in his turn, and could find only eleven. In fact, each forgot to count himfelf. In the midft of their diftrefs for they believed their companion to be drowned a ftranger approached, and learnt the caufe of their forrow.

Finding


236 Hi/lory of Caricature and Grotefque

Finding they were not to be convinced of their miftake by mere argument, he offered, on certain conditions, to find the lofl Gothamite, and he proceeded as follows. He took one by one each of the twelve Gothamites, ftruck him a hard blow on the fhoulder, which made him fcream, and at each cry counted one, two, three, &c. When it came to twelve, they were all fatisfied that the loft Gothamite had returned, and paid the man for the fervice he had rendered them.

As a chap-book, this hiftory of the men of Gotham became fo popular, that it gave rife to a hoft of other books of iimilar character, which were compiled at a later period under fuch titles formerly well known to children as, "The Merry Frolicks, or the Comical Cheats of Swalpo j" "The Witty and Entertaining Exploits of George Buchanan, commonly called the King's Fool;" "Simple Simon's Misfortunes;" and the like. Nor muft it be forgotten that the hiftory of Eulenfpiegel was the proto- type of a clafs of popular hiftories of larger dimenfions, reprefented in our own literature by " The Englifh Rogue," the work of Richard Head and Francis Kirkman, in the reign of Charles II., and various other " rogues " belonging to different countries, which appeared about that time, or not long afterwards. The earlieft of thefe books was " The Spanifh Rogue, or Life of Guzman de Alfarache," written in Spanifh by Mateo Aleman in the latter part of the fixteenth century. Curioufly enough, fome Englishman, not knowing apparently that the hiftory of Eulenfpiegel had appeared in Englifh under the name of Owlglafs, took it into his head to introduce him among the family of rogues which had thus come into fafhion, and, in 1720, publifhed as "Made Englifh from the High Dutch," what he called "The German Rogue, or the Life and Merry Adventures, Cheats, Stratagems, and Contrivances of Tiel Eulefpiegle."

The fifteenth century was the period during which mediaeval forms generally were changing into forms adapted to another ftate of fociety, and in which much of the popular literature which has been in vogue during modern times took its rife. In the fourteenth century, the fabliaux of the jougleurs were already taking what we may perhaps term a more literary form, and were reduced into profe narratives. This took place efpecially in Italy, where thefe profe tales were called novelle, implying

fbme


in Literature and Art.


2 37


fome novelty in their character, a word which was transferred into the French language under the form of nouvelles, and was the origin of our modern Englifh novel, applied to a work of fiction. The Italian novelifts adopted the Eaftern plan of ftringing thefe ftories together on the flight framework of one general plot, in which are introduced caufes for telling them and perfons who tell them. Thus the Decameron of Boccaccio holds towards the fabliaux exactly the fame pofition as that of the "Arabian Nights" to the older Arabian tales. The Italian novelifts became numerous and celebrated throughout Europe, from the time of Boccaccio to that of Straparola, at the commencement of the fixteenth century, and later. The tafte for this clafs of literature appears to have been introduced into France at the court of Burgundy, where, under duke Philippe le Bon, a well-known courtier and man of letters named Antoine de La Sale, who had, during a fojourn in Italy, become acquainted with one of the moft celebrated of the earlier Italian collections, the " Cento Novello," or the Hundred Novels, compiled a collection in French in imitation of them, under the title of "Les Cent Nouvelles Nouvelles," or the Hundred new Novels, one of the pureft examples o'f the French language in the fifteenth century.* The later French ftory-books, fuch as the Heptameron of the queen of Navarre, and others, belong chiefly to the fixteenth century. Thefe collections of ftories can hardly be faid to have ever taken root in this ifland as a part of Englifh literature.

But there arofe partly out of thefe ftories a clafs of books which became greatly multiplied, and were, during a long period, extremely popular. With the houfehold fool, or jefter, inftead of the old jougleur, the ftories had been fhorn of their detail, and fank into the fhape of mere witty anecdotes, and at the fame time a tafte arofe for what we now clafs under the general term of jefts, clever fayings, what the French call Ions mots, and what the Englifh of the fixteenth century termed " quick

anfwers."

  • I am obliged to pass over this part of the subject very rapidly. For the

history of that remarkable book, the " Cent Nouvelles Nouvelles," I would refer the reader to the preface to my own edition, " Les Cent Nouvelles Nouvelles, publi6es d'apres le seul manuscrit connu, avec Introduction et Notes, par M. Thomas Wright." z vols. izmo., Paris, 1858.


238 Hiftory of Caricature and Grot efque

anfwers." The \vordjeft itfelf arofe from the circumftance that the things defignated by it arofe out of the older ftories, for it is a mere corruption of geftes, the Latin gejla, in the fenfe of narratives of a6ls or deeds, or tales. The Latin writers, who firft began to collect, them into books, included them under the general name of facetiae. The earlier of thefe collections of facetiae were written in Latin, and of the origin of the firft with which we are acquainted, that by the celebrated fcholar Poggio of Florence, a curious anecdote is told. Some wits of the court of pope Martin V., elected to the papacy in 141 7, among whom were the pope's two fecretaries, Poggio and Antonio Lufco, Cincio of Rome, and Ruzello of Bologna, appropriated to themfelves a private corner in the Vatican, where they affembled to cftat freely among themfelves. They called it their luggiale, a word which fignifies in Italian, a place of recreation, where they tell ftories, make jefts, and amufe themfelves with difcufling fatirically the doings and characters of everybody. This was the way in which Poggio and his friends entertained themfelves in their buggiale, and we are afiured that in their talk they neither fpared the church nor the pope himfelf or his government. The facetiae of Poggio, in fa6t, which are faid to be a feletion of the good things faid in thefe meetings, mow neither reverence for the church of Rome nor refpeft for decency, but they are moftly ftories which had been told over and over again, long before Poggio came into the world. It was perhaps this fatire upon the church and upon the ecclefiaftics which gave much of their popularity to thefe facetiae at a time when a univerfal agitation of men's minds on religious affairs prevailed, which was the great harbinger of the Reformation ; and the next Latin books of facetiae came from men fuch as Henry Bebelius, who were zealous reformers themfelves.

Many of the jefts in thefe Latin collections are put into the mouths of jefters, or domeftic fools, fatui, or moriones, as they are called in the Latin ; and in England, where thefe jeft-books in the vernacular tongue became more popular perhaps than in any other country, many of them were publiftied under the names of celebrated jefters, as the " Merie Tales of Skelton," "The Jefts of Scogin," " Tarlton's Jefts," and " The Jefts of George Peele."

John


in Literature and Art. 239

John Skelton, poet-laureat of his time, appears to have been known in the courts of Henry VII. and Henry VIII. quite as much in the character of a jefter as in that of a poet. Poet-laureat was then a title or degree given in the univerfity of Oxford. His " Merye Tales " are all perfonal of himfelf, and we fhould be inclined to fay that his jefts and his poetry are equally bad. The former picture him as holding a place fomewhere between Eulenfpiegel and the ordinary court-fool. We may give as a fample of the beft of them the tale No. I.

" How Skelton came home late to Oxford from Ablngton.

" Skelton was an Englysheman borne as Skogyn was, and hee was educated and broughte up in Oxfoorde, and there was he made a poete lauriat. And on a tyme he had ben at Abbington to make mery, wher that he had eate salte meates, and hee did com late home to Oxforde, and he did lye in an ine named the Tabere, whyche is now the Angell, and hee dyd drynke, and went to bed. About mid- night he was so thyrstie or drye that he was constrained to call to the tapster for drynke, and the tapster harde him not. Then hee cryed to hys oste and hys ostes, and to the ostler, for drinke, and no man would here hym. Alacke, sayd Skelton, I shall peryshe for lacke of drynke ! What reamedye ? At the last he dyd crie out and sayd, Fyer, fyer, fyer ! When Skelton hard every man bustle hymselfe upward, and some of them were naked, and some were halfe asleepe and amased, and Skelton dyd crye, Fier, fier ! styll, that everye man knewe not whether to resorte. Skelton did go to bed, and the oste and ostis, and the tapster, with the ostler, dyd runne to Skeltons chamber with candles lyghted in theyr handes, saying, Where, where, where is the fyer ? Here, here, here, said Skelton, and poynted hys fynger to hys mouth, saying, Fetch me some drynke to quenche the fyer and the heate and the drinesse in my mouthe. And so they dyd."

Another of thefe " Merye Tales " of Skelton contains a fatire upon the practice which prevailed in the fixteenth and early part of the feventeenth centuries of obtaining letters-patent of monopoly from the crown, and alfo on the bibulous propenfities of Wellhmen

" How the Welshman dyd desyre Skelton to ayde hym in hys sute to the kynge for a patent

tn tell drynke.

<c Skelton, when he was in London, went to the kynges courte, where there did come to hym a Welshman, saying, Syr, it is so, that manye dooth come upp of my country to the kynges court, and some doth get of the kyng by patent a castell, and some a parke, and some a forest, and some one fee and some another, and they dooe lyve lyke honest men ; and I shoulde lyve as honestly as the best, if I myght have a patyne for good dryncke, wherefore I dooe praye yow to write a fewe woords tor mee in a lytle byll to geve the same to the kvnges handes, and I wil geve you well

for


240 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque


for your laboure. I am contented, sayde Skelton. Syt downe then, sayde the Welsh- man, and write. What shall I wryte ? sayde Skelton. The Welshman sayde wryte dryncke. Nowe, sayde the Welshman, write more dryncke. What now? sayde Skelton. Wryte nowe, a great deale of dryncke. Nowe, sayd the Welshman, putte to all thys dryncke a littell crome of breade, and a great deale of drynke to it, and reade once agayne. Skelton dyd reade, Dryncke, more dryncke, and a great deale of dryncke, and a lytle crome of breade, and a great deale of dryncke to it. Than the Welshman sayde, Put oute the litle crome of breade, and sette in, all dryncke and no breade. And if I myght have thys sygned of the kynge, sayde the Welshman, I care for no more, as longe as I dooe lyve. Well then, sayde Skelton, when you have thys signed of the kyng, then wyll I labour for a patent to have bread, that you wyth your drynke and I with the bread may fare well, and seeke our livinge with bagge and staffe."

Thefe two tales are rather favourable fpecimens of the collection publiflied under the name of Skelton, which, as far as we know, was firft printed about the middle of the fixteenth century. The collection of the jefts of Scogan, or, as he was popularly called, Scogin, which is faid to have been compiled by Andrew Borde, was probably given to the world a few years before, but no copies of the earlier editions are now known to exift. Scogan, the hero of thefe jefts, is defcribed as occupying at the court of Henry VII. a petition not much different from that of an ordinary court-fool. Good old Holinfhed the chronicler fays of him, perhaps a little too gently, that he was "a learned gentleman and fludent for a time in Oxford, of a pleafant wit, and bent to merrie devices, in refpedt whereof he was called into the court, where, giving himfelfe to his na- turall inclination of mirth and pleafant paftime, he plaied manie fporting parts, although not in fuch uncivil manner as hath beene of him reported." This allufion refers moft probably to the jefts, which reprefent him as lead- ing a life of low and coarfe buffoonery, in the courfe of which he difplayed a considerable fhare of the difhoneft and mifchievous qualities of the lefs real Eulenfpiegel. He is even reprefented as perfonally infulting the king and queen, and as being confequently bammed over the Channel, to fhow no more refpecl: to the majefty of the king of France. Scogin's jefts, like Skelton's, confift in a great meafure of thofe practical jokes which appear in all former ages to have been the delight of the Teutonic race. Many of them are directed agr.'nft the ignorance and worldlinefs of the clergy. Scogin is defcribed as being at one time himfelf a teacher in the univerfity,

and


in Literature and Art. 241

and on one occafion, we are told, a hufbandman fent his fon to fchool to him that he might be made a prieft. The whole ftory, which runs through feveral chapters, is an excellent caricature on the way in which men vulgarly ignorant were intruded into the priefthood before the Refor- mation. At length, after much blundering, the fcholar came to be ordained, and his examination is reported as follows :


"How the tcholler said Tom Miller of Oseney was Jacobus father.

"After this, the said scholler did come to the next orders, and brought a pre- sent to the ordinary from Scogin, but the scholler's father paid for all. Then said the ordinary to the scholler, I must needes oppose you, and for master Scogin's sake, I will oppose you in a light matter. Isaac had two sons, Esau and Jacob. Who was Jacob's father ? The scholler stood still, and could not tell. Well, said the ordinary, I cannot admit you to be priest untill the next orders, and then bring me an answer. The scholler went home with a heavy heart, bearing a letter to master Scogin, how his scholler could not answer to this question : I^aac had two sons, Esau and Jacob ; who was Jacob's father ? Scogin said to his scholler, Thou foole and asse-head ! Dost thou not know Tom Miller of Oseney ? Yes, said the scholler ! Then, said Scogin, thou knowest he had two sonnes, Tom and Jacke ; who is Jacke's father ? The scholler said, Tom Miller. Why, said Scogin, thou mightest have said that Isaac was Jacob's father. Then said Scogin, Thou shall arise betime in the morning, and carry a letter to the ordinary, and I trust he will admit thee before the orders shall be given. The scholler rose up betime in the morning, and carried the letter to the ordinary. The ordinary said, For Master Scogin's sake I will oppose you no farther than I did yesterday. Isaac had two sons, Esau and Jacob ; who was Jacob's father ? Marry, said the scholler, I can tell you now that was Tom Miller of Oseney. Goe, foole, goe, said the ordinary, and let thy master send thee no more to me for orders, for it is impossible to make a foole a wise man."


Scogin's fcholar was, however, made a prieft, and fome of the ftories which follow defcribe the ludicrous manner in which he exercifed the priefthood. Two other ftories illuftrate Scogin's fuppofed polition at court :

" How Scogin tola 1 those that mocked him that he had a wall-eye.

" Scogin went up and down in the king's hall, and his hosen hung downe, and his coat stood awry, and his hat stood a boonjour, so every man did mocke Scogin. Some said he was a proper man, and did wear his rayment cleanly ; some said the foole could not put on his owne rayment ; some said one thing, and some said another. At last Scogin said, Masters, you have praised me wel, but you did not

I I espy


242 Hlftory of Caricature and Grotefque


espy one thing in me. What is that, Tom ? said the men. Marry, said Scogin, I have a wail eye. What meanest thou by that ? said the men. Marry, said Scogin, I have spyed a sort of knaves that doe mocke me, and are worse fooles themselves."

" How Scogin drew hit tonne up and dcrwne the court,

11 After this Scogin went from the court, and put off his fbole's garments, and came to the court like an honest man, and brought his son to the court with him, and within the court he drew his sonne up and downe by the heeles. The boy cried out, and Scogin drew the boy in every corner. At last ever} body had pity on the boy, and said, Sir, what doe you meane, to draw the boy about the court ? Masters, said Scogin, he is my sonne, and I <loe it for this cause. Every man doth say, that man or child which is drawne up in the court shall be the better as long as hee lives ; and therefore I will every day once draw him up and downe the court, after that hee may come to preferment in the end."

The appreciation of a good joke cannot at this time have been very great or very general, for Scogin's jefts were wonderfully popular during at leail a century, from the firil half of the fixteenth century. They palled through many editions, and are frequently alluded to by the writers of the Elizabethan age. The next individual whofe name appears at the head of a collection of his jefts, was the well-known wit, Richard Tarlton, who may be fairly confidered as court fool to Queen Elizabeth. His jefts belong to the fame clafs as thofe of Skelton and Scogin, and if poffible, they prefent a ftill greater amount of dulnefs. Tarlton's jefts were foon followed by the "merrie conceited jefts " of George Peele, the dramatift, who is defcribed in the title as " gentleman, fometimes ftudent in Oxford j" and it is added that in thefe jefts " is (hewed the courfe of his life, how he lived 5 a man very well knowne in the city of London and elfewhere." In fa6t, Peele's jefts are chiefly curious for the firiking picture they give us of the wilder (hades of town life under the reigns of Elizabeth and James I.

During the period which witnefled the publication in England of thefe books, many other jeft-books appeared, for they had already become an important clals of Englilh popular literature. Moft of them were publifhed anonymoufly, and indeed they are mere com- pilations from the older collections in Latin and French. All that was at all good, even in the jefts of Skelton, Scogin, Tarlton, and Peele, had been repeated over and over again by the ftory-tellers and

jefters


in Literature and Art. 243

jefters of former ages. Two of the earlier Engliih colle6tions have^ gained a greater celebrity than the reft, chiefly through adventitious circumftances. One of thefe, entitled "A Hundred Merry Tales," has gained diftin6lion among Shakespearian critics as the one efpecially alluded to by the great poet in " Much Ado about Nothing," (Act ii., Sc. i), where Beatrice complains that fomebody had faid "that I had my good wit out of the Hundred Merry Tales." The other collection alluded to was entitled "Mery Tales, Wittie Queftions, and Quicke Anfweres, very pleafant to be readde," and was printed in 1567. Its modern fame appears to have arifen chiefly from the circumftance that, until the accidental difcovery of the unique and imperfect copy of the " Hundred Merry Tales," it was fuppofed to be the book alluded to by Shakefpeare. Both thefe collections are mere compilations from the " Cent Nouvelles Nouvelles," Poggio," " Straparola," and other foreign works.* The words put into the mouth of Beatrice are correlly defcrip- tive of the ufe made of thefe jeft-books. It had become fafhionable to learn out of them jefts and ftories, in order to introduce them into polite converfation, and efpecially at table ; and this practice continued to prevail until a very recent period. The number of fuch jeft-books pub- limed during the fixteenth, feventeeth, and eighteenth centuries, was quite extraordinary. Many of thefe were given anonymoufly; but many alfo were put forth under names which pofiefied temporary celebrity, fuch as Hobfon the carrier, Killigrew the jefter, the friend of Charles II., Ben Jonfon, Garrick, and a multitude of others. It is, perhaps, unneceflary to remind the reader that the great modern reprefentative of this clafs of literature is the illuftrious Joe Miller.


  • A neat and useful edition of these two jest-books, with the other most curious

books of the same class, published during the Elizabethan period, has recently been published in two volumes, by Mr. W. C. Hazlitt.


244 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotejque


CHAPTER XV.

THE AGE OF THB REFORMATION. THOMAS MURNER ; HIS GENERAL

SATIRES. FRUITFULNESS OF FOLLY. HANS SACHS. THE TRAP FOR

FOOLS. ATTACKS ON LUTHER. THE POPE AS ANTICHRIST. THE

POPE-ASS AND THE MONK-CALF. OTHER CARICATURES AGAINST THE

POPE. THE GOOD AND BAD SHEPHERDS.

THE reign of Folly did not pafs away with the fifteenth century on the whole the fixteenth century can hardly be faid to have been more fane than its predeceflbr, but it was agitated by a long and fierce ftruggle to difengage European fociety from the trammels of the middle ages. We have entered upon what is technically termed the renaijfance, and are approaching the great religious reformation. The period during which the art of printing began firft to fpread generally over Weftern Europe, was peculiarly favourable to the production of fatirical books and pamphlets, and a confiderable number of clever and fpirited fatirifts and comic writers appeared towards the end of the fifteenth century, elpecially in Germany, where circumftances of a political character had at an early period given to the intellectual agitation a more permanent ftrength than it could eafiiy or quickly gain in the great monarchies. Among the more remarkable of thefe fatirifts was Thomas Murner, who was born at Stralburg, in. 1475. The circumftances even of his childhood are fingular, for he was born a cripple, or became one in his earlier! infancy, though he was fubfequently healed, and it was fo univerfally believed that this malady was the efteft of witchcraft, that he himfelf wrote after- wards a treatife upon this fubje6t under the title of " De Phitonico Contrafhi." The Ichool in which he was taught may at lealt have encouraged his fatirical fpirit, for his matter was Jacob Locher, the fame who tranflated into Latin verfe the " Ship of Fools " of Sebaftian Brandt.

At


in Literature ana Art. 245


A.t the end of the century Murner had become a matter of arts in the Univerfity of Paris, and had entered the Francifcan order. His reputa- tion as a German popular poet was fo great, that the emperor Maxi- milian I., who died in 1519, conferred upon him the crown of poetry, or, in other words, made him poet-laureat. He took the degree of do6tor in theology in 1509. Still Murner was known beft as the popular writer, and he publilhed feveral fatirical poems, which were remarkable for the bold woodcuts that illuftrated them, for engraving on wood flourished at this period. He expoled the corruptions of all claffes of fociety, and, before the Reformation broke out, he did not even Ipare the corruptions of the ecclefiallical Hate, but foon declared himfelf a fierce opponent of the Reformers. When the Lutheran revolt againft the Papacy became ftrong, our king, Henry VIII., who took a decided part againft Luther, invited Murner to England, and on his return to his own country, the fatiric Francifcan became more bitter againft the Reformation than ever. He advocated the caufe of the Engliih monarch in a pamphlet, now very rare, in which he difcufied the queftion whether Henry VIII. or Luther was the liar " Antwort dem Murner uff feine frag, ob der kiinig von Engllant ein Liigner fey oder Martinus Luther." Murner appears to have divided the people of his age into rogues and fools, or perhaps he confidered the two titles as identical. His " Narrenbeichwerung," or Confpiracy of Fools, in which. Brandt's idea was followed up, is fuppoi'ed to have been publilhed as early as 1506, but the firft printed edition with a date, appeared in 1512. It became fo popular, that it went through feveral editions during fubfequent years ; and that which I have before me was printed at Stralburg in 1518. It is, like Brandt's " Ship of Fools," a general fatire againft fociety, in which the clergy are not ipared, for the writer had not yet come in face of Luther's Reformation . The cuts are fuperior to thofe of Brandt's book, and fome of them are remarkable for their delign and execution. In one of the earlieft of them, copied in the cut No. 139, Folly is introduced in the garb of a huiband- man, fcattering his feed over the earth, the refult of which is a very quick and flourithing crop, the fool's heads rifing above ground, almolt mftantaneoufly, like fo many turnips. In a fubfequent engraving, repre-

iented


246 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque

fented in our cut No. 140, Folly holds out, as an obje& of emulation, the fool's cap, and people of all clafles, the pope himfelf, and the emperor, and all the great dignitaries of this world, prels forward eagerly to feize upon it.

The lame year (1512) witnefled the appearance of another poetical, or at leaft metrical, fatire by Murner, entitled " Schelmenzunft," or the Confraternity of Rogues, fimilarly illuftrated with very fpirited engravings



No. 139. Sowing a Fruitful Crop.

on wood. It is another demonstration of the prevailing dominion of folly under its worft forms, and the fatire is equally general with the preceding. Murner's fatire appears to have been felt not only generally, but perfonally; and we are told that he was often threatened with afiaffi- nation, and he raifed up a number of literary opponents, who treated him with no little rudenefs j in fad, he had got on the wrong fide of politics, or at all events on the unpopular fide, and men who had more talents and greater weight appeared as his opponents men like Ulrich von Utten, and Luther himfelf.

Among the fatirifts who efpoufed the caufe to which Murner was oppoled, we mufl not overlook a man who reprefented in its flrongeft

features,




in Literature and Art.


247


features, though in a rather debafed form, the old fpontaneous poetry of the middle ages. His name was Hans Sachs, at leaft that was the name under which he was known, for his real name is faid to have been Loutrdorffer. His fpirit was entirely that of the old wandering minftrel, and it was fo powerful in him, that, having been apprenticed to the craft of a weaver, he was no fooner freed from his indentures, than he took to a vagabond life, and wandered from town to town, gaining his living by



No. 140. Jin Acceptable Offering.


finging the verfes he compofed upon every occafion which prefented itfelf. In 1519, he married and fettled in Nuremberg, and his competitions were then given to the public through the prefs. The number of thefe was quite extraordinary fongs, ballads, fatires, and dramatic pieces, rude in ftyle, in accordance with the tafte of the time, but full of clevernefs. Many of them, were printed on broadfides, and illuftrated with large engravings on wood. Hans Sachs joined in the crufade againll the empire of Folly, and one of his broadfides is illuftrated with a graceful defign, the greater part of which is copied in our cut No. 141. A parry of ladies have fet a bird-trap to catch the fools of the age, who are

waiting


248 Hi/lory of Caricature and Grotefque


waiting to be caught. Qnefbol is taken in the trap, while another is .already fernrpd qnH pini"""^ |nr l Others 1"? rnfhjng into the^ fnare. A number of people of the world, high in their dignities and ftations, are looking on at this remarkable fcene.



The evil influence of the


No. 141. Bird-Trafs.

malp fry uas at this time proverbial, and, in fa&, it was an age of ovtr Qr "^ li^nfirmCnpfg Another poet-laureat of the time, Henricus Bebelius, born in the latter half of the fifteenth century, and rather well known in the literature of his time, publifhed, in 1515, a fatirical poem in Latin, under the title of "Triumphus Veneris," which was a fort of expofition of the generally licentious character of the age in which he lived. It is diftributed into fix books, in the third of which the poet attacks the whole ecclefiaftical ftate, not fparing the pope himfelf, and we are thereby perfectly well initiated into the weaknelfes of the clergy. Bebelius had been preceded by another writer on this part of the fubjecT:, and we might fay by many, for the incontinence of monks

and


in Literature and Art.


249


and nuns, and indeed of all the clergy, had long been a fubjed of fatire. But the writer to whom I efpecially allude was named Paulus Olearius, his name in German being Oelfchlagel. He publifhed, about the year ijjoo, a fatirical tract, under the title of "De Fide Concubinarum in Sacerdotes." It was a bitter attack on the licentioufnefs of the clergy, and was rendered more effective by the engravings which accompanied it. We give one of thefe as a curious picture of contemporary manners ; the



No. 141. Courtjbif.

individual who comes within the range of the lady's attractions, though he may be a fcholar, has none of the chara&eriftics of a prieft. She prefents a nofegay, which we may fuppofe to reprefen^the influence of pgrfiune nppn the fenfes ; but the love of the ladies for pet animals is efpecially typified in the monkey, attached by a chain. A donkey appears to {how by his heels his contempt for the lover.

From an early period, the Roman church had been accuftomed to treat contemptuoufly, as well as cruelly, all who diflented from its dodrines, or objected to its government, and this feeling was continued down to the age of the Reformation, in fpite of the tone of liberalifm which was beginning


K K


to


250 Hiftory of Caricature and Grot efque


to mine forth in the writings of fome of its greateft ornaments. Some refearch among the dufty, becaufe little ufed, records of national archives and libraries would no doubt bring to light more than one fingular cari- cature upon the " heretics " of the middle ages, and my attention has

been called to one which is pofiefled of peculiar intereft. There is, among the imperial archives of France, in Paris, among records relating to the country of the Albigeois in the thir- teenth century, a copy of the bull of pope Innocent IV. giving directions for the proceedings againft diflenters from Romanifm, on the back of which the fcribe, as a mark of his contempt for thele arch-heretics of the fouth, has drawn a caricature of a woman bound to a flake over the fire which is to burn her as an open opponent of the church of Rome. The choice of a woman for the victim was perhaps intended to mow that the profe- lytifm of herefy was efpecially fuccefsful among the weaker fex, or that it was confidered as having fome relation to witchcraft. It is, by a long period, the earlieft known pictorial reprefentatton of the punifhment of burning inflicted on a heretic.

The (hafts of fatire were early employed againfl Luther and his new principles, and men like Murner, already mentioned, Emfer, Cochlaeus, and others, fignalifed themfelves by their zeal in the papal caufe. As already ftated, Murner diftinguimed himfelf as the literary ally of our king Henry VIII. The tafte for fatirical writings had then become fo general, that Murner complains in one of his satires that the printers would print nothing but abufive or fatirical works, and neglected his more ferious writings.

Dajindt die trucker fchuld daran,

Die trucken als die GaucAcreien,

Und lajjen mein ernftliche backer leihen,

Some



No. 143. Burning a Heretic.


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251



No. 144. Folly in Mono/tie Habit.


Some of Murner's writings againft Luther, moft of which are now very rare, are extremely violent, and they are generally illuftrated with fatirical woodcuts. One of thefe books, printed without name of place or date, is entitled, " Of the great Lutheran Fool, how Do6tor Murner has exorcifed him" (Von dem groffcn Lutheriffchen Narren, wie in Dofflor Murner lefchworen hat). In the woodcuts to this book Murner himfelf is introduced, as is ufually the cafe in thefe fatirical engravings, under the character of a Francifcan friar, with the head of a cat, while Luther appears as a fat and jolly monk, wear- ing a fool's cap, and figuring in various ridiculous circumftances. In one of the firft woodcuts, the cat Francifcan is drawing a rope so tight round the great Lutheran fool's neck, that he compels him to difgorge a multitude of fmaller fools. In another the great Lutheran fool has his purfe, or pouch, full of little fools fufpended at his girdle. This latter figure is copied in the cut No. 144, as an example of the form under which the great reformer appears in thefe fatirical reprefentations.

In a few other caricatures of this period which have been preferred, the apoftle of the Reformation is attacked ftill more favagely. The. one here given (Fig. 145), taken from a contemporary engraving on wood, prefents a rather fantaftic figure of the demon playing on the bagpipes. The inftrument is formed of Luther's head, the pipe through which the devil blows entering his ear, and that through which the mufic is produced forming an elongation of the reformer's nofe. It was a broad intimation that Luther was a mere tool of the evil one, created for the purpofe of bringing mifchief into the world.

The reformers, however, were more than a match for their opponents in this fort of warfare. Luther himfelf was full of comic and fatiric

humour,


252 Hijiory of Caricature and Grotefque


humour, and a mafe of the talent of that age was ranged on his fide, both literary and artiftic. After the reformer's marriage, the papal party quoted the old legend, that Antichrifl was to be born of the union of a monk and a nun, and it was intimated that if Luther himfelf could not be directly identified with Antichrift, he bad, at leaft, a fair chance of becoming his parent. But the reformers had refolved, on what appeared to be much more conclufive evidence, that Antichrift was



No. 145. The Mufic of the Demon.

only emblematical of the papacy, that under this form he had been long dominant on earth, and that the end of his reign was then approaching. A remarkable pamphlet, defigned to place this idea pidtorially before the public, was produced from the pencil of Lather's friend, the celebrated painter, Lucas Cranach, and appeared in the year 1521 under the title of " The Paffionale of Chrift and Antichrift " (Paffional Chrifti und Anti- chrifti). It is a finall quarto, each page of which is nearly filled by a woodcut, having a few lines of explanation in German below. The cut

to


in Literature and Art.


2 53


to the left reprefents fome incident in the life of Chrift, while that facing it to the right gives a contrafting fat in the hiftory of papal tyranny. Thus the firft cut on the left reprefents Jefus in His humility, refuting earthly dignities and power, while on the adjoining page we fee the pope, with his cardinals and bifhops, fupported by his hofts of warriors, his cannon, and his fortifications, in his temporal dominion over fecular



No. 146. The Defcent of the Pope.

princes. When we open again we fee on one fide Chrift crowned with thorns by the infulting foldiery, and on the other the pope, enthroned in all his worldly glory, exacting the worfhip of his courtiers. On another we have Chrift warning the feet of His difciples, and in contrail the pope compelling the emperor to kifs his toe. And fo on, through a number oi curious illuflrations, until at laft we come to Chriit's afcenfion into heaven,

in


254 Hijiory of Caricature and Grot efque


in contraft with which a troop of demons, of the moft varied and fingular forms, have feized upon the papal Antichrift, and are calling him down into the flames of hell, where fome of his own monks wait to receive him. This laft picture is drawn with fo much fpirit, that I have copied it in the cut No. 146.

The monftrous figures of animals which had amufed the fculptors and miniaturifts of an earlier period came in time to be looked upon as

realities, and were not only regarded with wonder as phyfical deformities, but were objects of fuperftition, for they were believed to be fent into the world as warnings, of great revolutions and calamities. During the age preceding the Reformation, the reports of the births or difcoveries of fuch monfters were very common, and engravings of them were no doubt profitable articles of merchandife among the early book-hawkers, Two of thefe were very celebrated in the time of the Reformation, the Pope-afs and the Monk-calf, and were publilhed and re- publifhed with an explanation under the names of Luther and Melan6thon, which made them emblematical of the Papacy and of the abufes of the Romifh church, and, of courfe, prognoftications of their approaching expolure and fall. It was pretended that



No. 147. The Pope-afs.


the Pope-afs was found dead in the river Tiber, at Rome, in the year 1496. It is reprefented in our cut No. 147, taken from an engraving pre- ferved in a very curious volume of broadfide Lutheran caricatures, in the library of the Britifh Mufeum, all belonging to the year 1545, though this defign had been publifhed many years before. The head of an afs, we are told, reprefented the pope himfelf, with his falfe and carnal do&rines. The right hand refembled the foot of an elephant, fignifying the fpiritual power of the pope, which was heavy, and (lamped down and cruftied

people's


in Literature and Art.


2 55


people's confciences. The left hand was that of a man, fignifying the worldly power of the pope, which grafped at univerfal empire over kings and princes. The right foot was that of an ox, fignifying the fpiritual minifters of the papacy, the doctors of the church, the preachers, con- feffors, and fcholaftic theologians, and efpecially the monks and nuns, thofe who aided and fupported the pope in opprefling people's bodies and fouls. The left foot was that of a griffin, an animal which, when it once feizes its prey, never lets it efcape, and fignified the canonifts, the monfters of the pope's temporal power, who grafped people's temporal goods, and never returned them. The breaft and belly of this monfter were thofe of a woman, and fignified the papal body, the cardinals, bif- hops, priefts, monks, &c., who fpent their lives in eating, drinking, and incontinence ; and this part of the body was naked, becaufe the popim clergy were not afhamed to ex- pofe their vices to the public. The legs, arms, and neck, on the contrary, were clothed with fifties' fcales ; thefe fignified the tem- poral princes and lords, who were moftly in alliance with the papacy. The old man's head behind the monfter, meant that the papacy had become old, and was approaching its end ; and the head of a dragon, vomiting flames, which ferved for a tail, was fignificative of the great threats, the venomous horrible bulls and blafphemous writings, which the pontiff and his minifters, enraged at feeing their end approach, were launching into the world againft all who oppofed them. Thefe explanations were fupported by apt quotations from the Scriptures, and were fo efte&ive, and became fo popular, that the picture was publifhed in various fhapes, and was feen adorning the walls of the humbleii cottages. I believe it is ftill to be met with in a fimilar pofition in fome parts of Germany. It was confidered at the time to be a mafterly piece of fatire. The picture of the Monk-calf, which is reprefented in our cut No. 148,

wa e



No. 148. The Monk-Calf.


256 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque


was publifhed at the fame time, and ufually accompanies it. This monfter is faid to have been born at Freyburg, in Mifnia, and is fimply a rather coarfe emblem of the monachal character.

The volume of caricatures juft mentioned contains feveral fatires on the pope, which are all very fevere, and many of them clever. One has a movable leaf, which covers the upper part of the pifture ; when it is down, we have a reprefentation of the pope in his ceremonial robes, and



7/0.149. The Head of the Papacy.

over it the infcription ALEX . VI . PONT . MAX. Pope Alexander VI. was the infamous Roderic Borgia, a man ftained with all the crimes and vices which flrike moft horror into men's minds. When the leaf is raifed, another figure joins itfelf with the lower part of the former, and reprefents a papal demon, crowned, the crofs being transformed into an inftrument of infernal punifhment. This figure is reprefented in our cut No. 149.

Above


in Literature and Art.


257


Above it are infcribed the words EGO . SVM . PAPA, " I am the Pope." Attached to it is a page of explanation in German, in which the legend of that pope's death is given, a legend that his wicked life appeared fufficient to fan6tion. It was faid that, diftrufting the fuccefs of his intrigues to fecure the papacy for himfelf, he applied himfelf to the ftudy of the black art. and fold himfelf to the Evil One. He then alked the tempter if it were his deftiny to be pope, and received an anfwer in the affirmative. He next inquired how long he Ihould hold the papacy, but Satan returned an equivocal and deceptive anfwer, for Borgia underftood that he was to be pope fifteen years, whereas he died at the end of eleven. It is well known that Pope Alexander VI. died fuddenly and unexpectedly through accidentally drinking the poifoned wine he had prepared with his own hand for the murder of another man.

An Italian theatine wrote a poem againft the Reformation, in which he made Luther the offspring of Megaera, one of the furies, who is reprefented as having been fent from hell into Germany to be delivered of him. This farcafm was thrown back upon the pope with much greater effeft by the Lutheran caricaturifts. One of the plates in the above-mentioned volume reprefents the " birth and origin of the pope " (ortus et origo papce), making the pope identical with Antichrift. In different groups, in this rather elaborate defign, the child is reprefented as at- tended by the three furies, Megaera ac\- ing as his wet-nurfe, Alefto as nurfery-maid, and Trfiphone in another capacity, &c. The name of Martin Luther is added to this caricature

Hie luird geborn der TViderchrift. Megera fein Seugamme ijl ; Ale&ofein Keindermeidlin, Tifipkone die gengelt in. M. Lulh., D. 1545.

One of the groups in this plate, reprefeiiting the fury, Megaera, a

L L becomii g



No I 50 The Pope's Nurfe.


2 $ 8 Hiflory of Caricature and Grotefque


becoming fofter-mother, fuckling the pope-infant, is given in our cut,

No. 150.

In another of thefe caricatures the pope is reprefented trampling on the emperor, to fhow the manner in which he ufurped and tyrannifed over the temporal power. Another illuftrates " the kingdom of Satan and the Pope " (regnum Satance et Papce), and the latter is reprefented as pre- fiding over hell-mouth in all his ftate. One, given in our cut No. ijji, repre- fents the pope under the form of an afs playing on the bagpipes, and is entitled Papa doftor theologies et ma- gi/ter jidei. Four lines of German verfe beneath the engraving ftate how " the pope can alone expound Scrip- ture and purge error, juft as the afs



No. 151. The Pope giving the Tune.

alone can pipe and touch the notes correcUy."


Der Bapjf kan allein aujlegen ,

Die ScAriffi, und irthum ausfegen ;

Wit der efel allein pfeiffen

Kan, und die noten recht greiffen. 1545.

This was the laft year of Luther's active labours. At the commence- ment of the year following he died at Eiffleben, whither he had gone to attend the council of princes. Thefe caricatures may perhaps be con- fidered as fo many proclamations of fatisfaftion and exultation in the final triumph of the great reformer.

Books, pamphlets, and prints of this kind were multiplied to an extra- ordinary degree during the age of the Reformation, but the majority of them were in the intereft of the new movement. Luther's opponent, Eckius, complained of the infinite number of people who gained their

living




in Literature and Art. 259

living by wandering over all parts of Germany, and felling Lutheran books.* Among thofe who adminiftered largely to this circulation of polemic books was the poet of farces, comedies, and ballads, Hans Sachs, already mentioned. Hans Sachs had in one poem, publifhed in 1535, celebrated Luther under the title of " the Wittemberg Nightingale :"

Die WittembergifcK* Nachtigall, Die manj'tM horet uberall ;

and defcribed the effects of his fong over all the other animals ; and he publifhed, alfo in verfe, what he called a Monument, or Lament, on his death (" Ein Denkmal oder Klagred' ob der Leiche Doktors Martin Luther"). Among the numerous broadfides publifhed by Hans Sachs, one contains the very clever carcature of which we give a copy in our cut No. 152. It is entitled " Dcr gut Hirt und bofs Hirt," the good fhepherd and bad Ihepherd, and has for its text the opening verfes of the tenth chapter of the gofpel of St. John. The good and bad {hepherds are, as may be fuppofed, Chrift and the pope. The church is here pictured as a not very (lately building ; the entrance, efpecially, is a plain ftructure of timber. Jems laid to the Phanfees, " He that entereth not by the door into the fheepfold, but climbeth up fome other way, the fame is a thief and a robber. But he that entereth in by the door is the ihepherd of the flock." In the engraving, the pope, as the hireling fhepherd, fits on the roof of the flatelieft part of the building, pointing out to the Chriftian flock the wrong way, and bleffing the climbers. Under him two men of worldly diftinction are making their way into the church through a window ; and on a roof below a friar is pointing to the people the way up. At another window a monk holds out his arms to invite people up ; and one in fpeftacles, no doubt emblematical of the doctors of the church, is looking out from an opening over the entrance door to watch the proceedings of the Good Shepherd. To the

right

  • " Infinitus jam erat numerus qui vlctum ex Lutheranis libris quaeritantes, in

speciem bibliopolarum longe latequc per Germanise provincial vagabantur." Eck., p. 58.


260 Hijiory of Caricature and Grotefque


right, on the papal fide of the church, the lords and great men are bringing the people under their influence, till they are flopped by the



cardinals and biihops, who prevent them from going forward to the door and point out very energetically the way up the roof At the door ftands,

the


in Literature and Art.


261


the Saviour, as the good Ihepherd, who has knocked, and the porter has opened it with his key. Chrift's true teachers, the evangelifts, Ihow the way to the folitary man of worth who comes by this road, and who liftens with calm attention to the gofpel teachers, while he opens his purfe to beftow his charity on the poor man by the road fide. In the original engraving, in the diftance on the left, the Good Shepherd is feen followed by his flock, who are obedient to his voice ; on the right, the bad {hep- herd, who has oftentatioufly drawn up his fheep round the image of the crofs, is abandoning them, and taking to flight on the approach of the wolf. " He that entereth in by the door is the fhepherd of the fheep. To him the porter openeth ; and the (heep hear his voice, and he calleth his own Iheep by name, and leadeth them out. And when he putteth forth his own fheep he goeth before them, and the fheep follow him, for they know his voice. . . . But he that is an hireling, and not the fhepherd, whofe own the fheep are not, feeth the wolf coming, and leaveth the fheep, and fleeth ; and the wolf catcheth them, and fcattereth the fheep." (John x. 2 4, 12.)

The triumph of Luther is the fubject of a rather large and elaborate caricature, which is an engraving of great rarity, but a copy of it is given in Jaime's " Mu'-'e de Caricature." Leo X. is reprefented feated on his throne upon the edge of the abyfs, into which his cardinals are trying to prevent his falling; but their efforts are rendered vain by the appearance of Luther on the other fide fupported by his principal adherents, and wielding the Bible as his weapon, and the pope is overthrown, in fpite of the fupport he receives from a vaft hoft of popifh clergy, dodors, &c.

The popifh writers againft Luther charged him with vices for which there was probably no foundation, and invented the moft fcandalous flories againft him. They accufed him, among other things, of drunkennefs and

licentiotifnels;



153. Mumer and Lut


262 Hiflory of Caricature and Grotefque


licentioufnefs ; and there may, perhaps, be fome allufion to the latter charge in our cut No. 153, which is taken from one of the comic illuftra- tions to Murner's book, "Von dem groflen Lutherifchen Narren," which was publifhed in 1522 ; but, at all events, it will ferve as a fpecimen of thefe illuftrations, and of Murner's fancy of reprefenting himfelf with the head of a cat. In 1525, Luther married a nun who had turned Proteftant and quitted her convent, named Catherine de Bora, and this became the fignal to his opponents for indulging in abufive fongs, and fatires, and caricatures, moft of them too coarfe and indelicate to be defcribed in thefe pages. In many of the caricatures made on this occafion, which are ufually woodcut illuftrations to books written againft the reformer, Luther is reprefented dancing with Catherine de Bora, or fitting at table with a glafs in his hand. An engraving of this kind, which forms one of the illuftrations to a work by Dr. Konrad Wimpina, one of the reformer's violent opponents, reprefents Luther's marriage. It is divided into three compartments ; to the left, Luther, whom the Catholics always repre- fented in the character of a monk, gives the marriage ring to Catherine de Bora, and above them, in a sort of aureole, is infcribed the word Vvvete ; on the right appears the nuptial bed, with the curtains drawn, and the infcription Reddite ; and in the middle the monk and nun are dancing joyoufly together, and over their heads we read the words

Dlfcedat ab arts Cui tulit hefterna gaudia no fie Fen us.

While Luther was heroically fighting the great fight of reform in Germany, the foundation of religious reform was laid in France by John Calvin, a man equally fincere and zealous in the caufe, but of a totally different temper, and he efpoufed doftrines and forms of church govern- ment which a Lutheran would not admit. Literary fatire was ufed with great effect by the French Calvinifts againft their popifh opponents, but they have left us few caricatures or burleique engravings of any kind ; at leaft, very few belonging to the earlier period of their hiftory. Jaime, in his " Mufee de Caricature," has given a copy of a very rare plate, repre- fenting the pope ftruggling with Luther and Calvin, as his two aflailants.

Both


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263


Both are tearing the pope's hair, but it is Calvin who is here armed with the Bible, with which he is ftriking at Luther, who is pulling him by the beard The pope has his hands upon their heads. This fcene takes



No. 1 54. Luther and Calvin.

place in the choir of a church, but I give here (cut No. 154) only the group of the three combatants, intended to reprefent how the two great opponents to papal corruptions were hoftile at the fame time to each other.


264 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque


CHAPTER XVI.

ORIGIN OF MEDIAEVAL FARCE AND MODERN COMEDY. HROTSVITHA.

MEDIJEVAL NOTIONS OF TERENCE. THE EARLY RELIGIOUS PLAYS.

MYSTERIES AND MIRACLE PLAYS. THE FARCES. THE DRAMA IN

THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY.

THERE is ftill another branch of literature which, however it may have been modified, has defcended to us from the middle ages. It has been remarked more than on^e in the courfe of this book, that the theatre of the Romans perifhed in the tranfition from the empire to the middle ages ; but fomething in the ihape of theatrical performances appears to be infeparable from fociety even in its moft barbarous ftate, and we foon trace among the peoples who had fettled upon the ruins of the empire of Rome an approach towards a drama. It is worthy of remark, too, that the mediaeval drama originated exactly in the fame way as that of ancient Greece, that is, from religious ceremonies.

Such was the ignorance of the ancient ftage in the middle ages, that the meaning of the word comcedia was not underftood. The Anglo-Saxon gloffaries interpret the word by racu, a narrative, efpecially an epic recital, and this was the fenle in which it was generally taken until late in the fourteenth or the fifteenth century. It is the fenfe in which it is ufed in the title of Dante's great poem, the " Divina Commedia." When the mediaeval fcholars became acquainted in manufcripts with the comedies of Terence, they confidered them only as fine examples of a particular fort of literary compofition, as metrical narratives in dialogue, and in this feeling they began to imitate them. One of the firft of thefe

mediaeval


in Literature and Art. 265

mediaeval imitators was a lady. There lived in the tenth century a maiden of Saxony, named Hrotfvitha a rather unfortunate name for one of her fex, for it means limply " a loud noife of voices," or, as fhe explains it herfelf, in her Latin, clamor validus. Hrotfvitha, as was common enough among the ladies of thofe days, had received a very learned education, and her Latin is very refpe&able. About the middle of the tenth century, me became a nun in the very ariitocratic Benedictine abbey of Gandef- heim, in Saxony, the abbefies of which were all princefies, and which had been founded only a century before. She wrote in Latin verfe a fhort hiftory of that religious houfe, but Ihe is beft known by feven pieces, which are called comedies (comcediai) , and which confift fimply of legends of faints, told dialogue-wife, fome in verfe and fome in profe. As may be fuppofed, there is not much of real comedy in thefe compositions, although one of them, the Dulcitius, is treated in a ftyle which approaches that of farce. It is the ftory of the martyrdom of the three virgin faints Agape, Chione, and Irene who excite the luft of the per- fecutor Dulcitius ; and it may be remarked, that in this " comedy," and in that of Callimachus and one or two of the others, the lady Hrotfvitha difplays a knowledge of love-making and of the language of love, which was hardly to be expected from a holy nun.*

Hrotfvitha, in her preface, complains that, in fpite of the general love for the reading of the Scriptures, and contempt for everything derived from ancient paganifm, people ftill too often read the "fictions of Terence, and thus, feduced by the beauties of his ftyle, foiled their minds with the knowledge of the criminal acts which are defcribed in his writings. A rather early manufcript has preferred a very curious fragment illuftrative of

  • Several editions of the writings of Hrotsvitha, texts and translations, have

been published of late years both in Germany and in France, of which I may point out the following as most useful and complete "Theatre de Hrotsvitha, Religieuse Allemande du x e siecle. . . . par Charles Magnin," Svo., Paris, 1845 ; " Hrotsvithae Gandeshemensis, virginis et monialis Germanics, gente Saxonica ortae, Comce- dias sex, ail fidem codicis Emmeranensis typis expressas edidit. . . . J. Benedixen," i6mo.. Luberae, 1857 ; "Die Werke der Hrotsvitha : Herausgegeben von Dr. K. A. Barack," 8vo., Nurnberg, 1858.

M M


266 Hijiory of Caricature and Grotejque


of the manner in which the comedies of the Romans were regarded by one clafs of people in the middle ages, and it has alfo a further meaning. Its form is that of a dialogue in Latin verfe between Terence and a per- fonage called in the original delufor, which was no doubt intended to exprefs a performer of fome kind, and may be probably confidered as fynonymous with jongleur. It is a contention between the new jouglerie of the middle ages and the old jouglerie of the fchools, fomewhat in the fame ftyle as the fabliau of " Les deux Troveors Ribauz," defcribed in a former chapter.* We are to fuppofe that the name of Terence has been in fome way or other brought forward in laudatory terms, upon which the jougleur Heps forward from among the fpeftators and expreffes himfelf towards the Roman writer very contemptuoufly. Terence then makes his appearance to fpeak in his own defence, and the two go on abufing one another in no very rneafured language. Terence alks his afiailant who he is ? to which the other replies, " If you alk who I am, I reply, I am better than thee. Thou art old and broken with years ; I am a tyro, full of vigour, and in the force of youth. You are but a barren trunk, while I am a good and fertile tree. If you hold your tongue, old fellow, it will be much better for you."

Si rogitas quisfum, refpondeo : te meliorfum. Tu -vetus atquefenex ; ego tyro, valens, adulejcens. Tu fterllli truncus ; egofertilii arbor , opimus. Si taceas, o vetule, lucrum tib'i quarit enormc.

Terence replies : " What fenfe have you left ? Are you, think you, better than me ? Let me fee you, young as you are, compofe what I, however old and broken, will compofe. If you be a good tree, mow us fome proofs of your fertility. Although I may be a barren trunk, I produce abundance of better fruit than thine."

$uis tibi fenfus ineft ? numquid melior me es ? Nunc -Vitus atquefenex qua fecero fac adolescent. Si bonus arbor ades, qua fertllitate redundas ? Cum Jim truncus inert, fruffu meliore redundo.

And


  • See p. 191 of the present volume.


in Literature and Art. 267

And fo the difpute continues, but unfortunately the latter part has been loft with a leaf or two of the manufcript. I will only add that I think the age of this curious piece has been overrated.*

Hrotfvitha is the earlieft example we have of mediaeval writer? in this particular clafs of literature. We find no other until the twelfth century, when two writers flourimed named Vital of Blois (Vitalis Blefenfis) and Matthew of Vend6me (Matthceus Vindocinenfis) , the authors of feveral of the mediaeval poems diftinguifbed by the title of comcedice, which give us a clearer and more diftin6t idea of what was meant by the word. They are written in Latin Elegiac verfe, a form of compofition which was very popular among the mediaeval fcholars. and confift of ftories told in dialogue. Hence ProfeiTor Ofann, of Gieflen, who edited two of thofe of Vital of Blois, gives them the title of eclogues (eclogcB). The name comedy is, however, given to them in manufcripts, and it may perhaps admit of the following expla- nation. Thefe pieces feem to have been firft mere abridgments of the plots of the Roman comedies, efpecially thofe of Plautus, and the authors appear to have taken the Latin title of the original as applied to the plot, in the fenfe of a narrative, and not to its dramatic form. Of the two " comedies " by Vital of Blois, one is entitled "Geta," and is taken from the "Amphytrio" of Plautus, and the other, which in the manu- fcripts bears the title of " Querulus," reprefents the " Aulularia " of the fame writer. Independent of the form of compofition, the fcholaftic writer has given a flrangely mediaeval turn to the incidents of the claflic ftory of Jupiter and Alcmena. Another fimilar " comedy," that of Babio, which I firft printed from the manufcripts, is ftill more mediaeval in character. Its plot, perhaps taken from a fabliau, for the mediaeval writers rarely invented ftories, is as follows, although it muft be confefled that it comes out rather obfcurely in the dialogue itfelf. Babio, the hero of the piece, is a prieft, who, as was ftill common at that time (the twelfth

  • This singular composition was published with notes by M. de Montaiglon, in a

Parisian journal entitled, "I/ Amateur de LivreV in 1849, under the title ot " Fragment d'un Dialogue Latin du ix e sie-de entre Terence et.un Bouffon." A few separate copies were printed, of which I possess one.


268 Hi ft ory of Caricature and Grot efque

twelfth century), has a wife, or, as the ftri6t religionifts would then fay, a concubine, named Pecula. She has a daughter named Viola, with whom Babio is in love, and he purfues his defign upon her, of courfe unknown to his wife. Babio has alfo a man-fervant named Fodius, who is engaged in a fecret intrigue with his miftrefs, Pecula, and alfo feeks to feduce her daughter, Viola. To crown the whole, the lord of the manor, a knight named Croceus, is alfo in love with Viola, though with more honourable defigns. Here is furely intrigue enough and a fufficient abfence of morality to fatisfy a modern French novelift of the firii water. At the opening of the piece, amid fome by-play between the four individuals who form the houfehold of Babio, it is fuddenly announced that Croceus is on his way to vifit him, and a feaft is haftily prepared for his reception. It ends in the knight carrying away Viola by force. Babio, after a little vain blufter, confoles himfelf for the lofs of the damfel with reflections on the virtue of his wife, Pecula, and the faithfulnefs of his man, Fodius, when, at this moment, Fame carries to his ear reports which excite his fufpicions againft them. He adopts a ftratagem very frequently introduced in the mediaeval ftories, furprifes the two lovers under circumfiances which leave no room for doubting their guilt, and then forgives them, enters a monaf- tery, and leaves them to themfelves. In form, thefe " comedies " are little more than fcholaftic exercifes j but, at a later period, we fhall fee the fame ftories adopted as the fubjefts of farces.*

Already, however, by the fide of thefe dramatic poems, a real drama the drama of the middle ages was gradually developing itfelf. As ftated before, it arofe, like the drama of the Greeks, out of the religious ceremonies. We know nothing of the exiftence of anything approaching to dramatic forms which may have exifted among the religious rites of the

  • To judge by the number of copies found in manuscripts, especially of the

" Geta," these dramatic poems must have enjoyed considerable popularity. The "Geta " and the " Querulus" were published in a volume entitled, " Vitalis Ble- sensis Amphitryon et Aulularia Eclogae. Edidit Fridericus Osannus, Professor Gisensis," 8vo., Darmstadt, 1836. The " Geta " and the " Babio " are included in my " Early Mysteries, and other Latin Poems of the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries."


in Literature and Art. 269

the peoples of the Teutonic race before their convention to Chriftianity, but the Chriftian clergy felt the neceffity of keeping up feftive religious ceremonies in fome form or other, and alfo of imprefling upon people's imagination and memory by means of rude fcenical reprefentations fome of the broader fa6ts of fcriptural and ecclefiaftical hiftory. Thefe per- formances at firft confifted probably in mere dumb fhow, or at the moft the performers may have chanted the fcriptural account of the tranfa&ion they were reprefenting. In this manner the choral boys, or the younger clergy, would, on fome fpecial faint's day, perform fome ftriking a6t in the life of the faint commemorated, or, on particular feftivals of the church, thofe incidents of gofpel hiftory to which the feftival efpecially related. By degrees, a rather more impofing character was given to thefe performances by the addition of a continuous dialogue, which, however, was written in Latin verfe, and was no doubt chanted. This incipient drama in Latin, as far as we know it, belongs to the twelfth century, and is reprefented by a tolerably large number of examples ftill preferved in mediaeval manufcripts. Some of the earliefl of thefe have for their author a pupil of the celebrated Abelard, named Hilarius, who lived in the firil half of the twelfth century, and is underftood to have been by birth an Englilhman. Hilarius appears before us as a playful Latin poet, and among a number of ftiort pieces, which may be almoft called lyric, he has left us three of thefe religious plays. The fubjecl: of the firft of thefe is the railing of Lazarus from the dead, the chief peculiarity of which confifts of the fongs of lamentation placed in the mouths of the two lifters of Lazarus, Mary and Martha. The fecond reprefents one of the miracles attributed to St. Nicholas} and the third, the hiftory of Daniel. The latter is longer and more elaborate than the others, and at its conclufion, the ftage direction tells us that, if it were performed at matins, Darius, king of the Medes and Perlians, was to chant 7> Deum Laudamus, but if it were at vefpers, the great king was to chant Magnificat anima mea Dominum.* That

  • " Hilarii Versus et Ludi," 8vo., Paris, 1835. Edited by M, Champollion

Figeac.


270 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque

That this mediaeval drama was not derived from that of the Roman is evident from the circumflance that entirely new terms were applied to it. The weftern people in the middle ages had no words exa&ly equi- valent with the Latin comcedia, tragcedia, theatrum, &c. ; and even the Latinifts, to defignate the dramatic pieces performed at the church feftivals, employed the word Indus, a play. The French called them by a word having exactly the fame meaning, jew (from jocus). Similarly in Englifh they were termed play s. The Anglo-Saxon gloflaries prefent.as the reprefentative of the Latin theatrum, the compounded words plege- stow, or pleg-stow, a play-place, and pleg-hus, a play-houfe. It is curious that we Engliftimen have preferred to the prefent time the Anglo-Saxon words in play, player, and play-houje. Another Anglo-Saxon word with exadly the fame fignification, lac, or gelac, play, appears to have been more in ufe in the dialed of the Northumbrians, and a Yorkfhireman ftill calls a play a lake, and a player a laker. So alfo the Germans called a dramatic performance afpil, i.e. a play, the modern fpiel, and a theatre, afpil-hus. One of the pieces of Hilarius is thus entitled " Ludus fuper iconia fanfti Nicolai," and the French jeu and the Englifh play are conftantly ufed in the fame fenfe. But befides this general term, words gradually came into ufe to charafterife different forts of plays. The church plays confifted of two defcriptions of fubjets, they either reprefented the miraculous a6ts of certain faints, which had a plain meaning, or fome incident taken from the Holy Scriptures, which was fuppofed to have a hidden myfterious fignification as well as an apparent one, and hence the one clafs of fubjedt was ufually fpoken of fimply as miraculum, a miracle, and the other as myjierium, a myftery. Myjteries and miracle- plays are ftill the names ufually given to the old religious plays by writers on the hiftory of the ftage.

We have a proof that the Latin religious plays, and the feftivities in which they were employed, had become greatly developed in the twelfth century, in the notice taken of them in the ecclefiaftical councils of that period, for they were difapproved by the ftrider church difciplinarians. So early as the papacy of Gregory VIII., the pope urged the clergy to " extirpate " from their churches theatrical plays, and other feftive

practices




in Literature and Art.


271


practices which were not quite in harmony with the facred character of thefe buildings.* Such performances are forbidden by a council held at Treves in 1227. f We learn from the annals of the abbey of Corbei, publifiied by Leibnitz, that the younger monks at Herefburg performed on one occafion a "facred comedy" (sacram comcediam) of the felling into captivity and the exaltation of Jofeph, which was difapproved by the other heads of the order. J Such performances are included in a proclamation of the bilhop of Worms, in 1316, againft the various abufes which had crept into the feftivities obferved in his diocefe at Eafter and St. John's tide. Similar prohibitions of the acting of fuch plays in churches are met with at fubfequent periods.

While thefe performances were thus falling under the cenfure of the church authorities, they were taken up by the laity, and under their management both the plays and the machinery for acting them under- went confiderable extenfion. The municipal guilds contained in their conftitution a confiderable amount of religious Ipirit. They were great benefactors of the churches in cities and municipal towns, and had ufually fome parts of the facred edifice appropriated to them, and they may, perhaps, have taken a part in thefe performances, while they were ftill confined to the church. Thefe guilds, and fubfequently the municipal corporations, took them entirely into their own hands. Certain annual religious feflivals, and efpecially the feaft of Corpus Chrifti, were ftill the occafions on which the plays were acted, but they were taken entirely from the churches, and the performances took place in the open ftreets. Each guild had its particular play, and they acted on movable ftages, which were dragged along the ftreets in the proceflion of the guild. Thefe ftages appear to have been rather complicated. They

were

  • " Interdum ludi fiunt in ecclesiis theatrales,"&c. Decret.Gregorii,}ib iii. tit. i.

f " Item non permittant sacerdotes ludos theatrales fieri in ecrlesia et alios ludos inhonestos."

J " Juniores fratres in Heresburg sacram habuere comcediam de Josepho vendito et exaltato, qtiod vero reliqui ordinis nostri prxlati male interpretati sunt." Leitn., Script. Brunrv.y tom. ii. p. 311.

The acts of this synod of Worms are printed in Harzheim, tom.iv.p. 258.


272 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotejque

were divided into three floors, that in the middle, which was the principal ftage, reprefentiug this world, while the upper divifion reprefented heaven, and that at the bottom hell. The mediaeval writers in Latin called this machinery a pegma, from the Greek word ir^y/xa, a fcaflfoldj and they alfo applied to it, for a reafon which is hot fo eafily feen, unlefs the one word arofe out of a corruption of the other, that of pagina, and from a further corruption of thefe came into the French and Englifh languages the word pageant, which originally fignified one of thefe movable ftages, though it has fince received fecondary meanings which have a touch wider appli- cation. Each guild in a town had its pageant and its own aftors, who performed in malks and coftumes, and each had one of a feries of plays, which were performed at places where they halted in the proceffion. The fubjets of thefe plays were taken from Scripture, and they ufually formed a regular feries of the principal hiftories of the Old and New Teftaments. For this reafon they were generally termed myfteries, a title already explained ; and among the few feries of thefe plays ftill preferred, we have the " Coventry Myfteries," which were performed by the guilds of that town, the " Chefter Myfteries," belonging to the guilds in the city of Chefter, and the " Towneley Myfleries," fo called from the name of the pofleflbr of the manufcript, but which probably belonged to the guilds of Wakefield in Yorkfhire.

During thefe changes in the method of performance, the plays them- felves had alfo been confiderably modified. The fimple Latin phrafes, even when in rhyme, which formed the dialogue of the earlier ludi as in the four miracles of St. Nicholas, and the fix Latin myfteries taken from the New Teftament, printed in my volume of " Early Myfteries and other Latin Poems " muft have been very uninterefting to the mafs of the fpectators, and an attempt was made to % enliven them by intro- ducing among the Latin phrafes popular proverbs, or even fometimes a fong in the vulgar tongue. Thus in the play of " Lazarus " by Hilarius, the Latin of the lamentations of his two fifters is intermixed with French verfes. Such is the cafe alfo with the play of " St. Nicholas " by the fame writer, as well as with the curious myftery of the Foolifh Virgins, printed in my " Early Mylteries " juft alluded to, in which latter the Latin is

intermingled


in Literature and Art. 273

intermingled with ProvenQal verfe. A much greater advance was made when thefe performances were transferred to the guilds. The Latin was then difcarded altogether, and the whole play was written in French, or Englifti, or German, as the cafe might be, the plot was made more elaborate, and the dialogue greatly extended. But now that the whole inftitution had become fecularifed, the want of fomething to amufe people to make them laugh, as people liked to laugh in the middle ages was felt more than ever, and this want was fupplied by the intro- duction of droll and ludicrous fcenes, which are often very flightly, if at all, connected with the fubject of the play. In one of the earlieft of the French plays, that of " St. Nicholas," by Jean Bodel, the characters who form the burlefque fcene are a party of gamblers in a tavern. In others, robbers, or peafants, or beggars form the comic fcene, or vulgar women, or any perfonages who could be introduced afting vulgarly and ufing coarfe language, for thefe were great incitements to mirth among the populace. In the Englirti plays now remaining, thefe fcenes are, on the whole, lefs frequent, and they are ufually more clofely connected with the general fubjeft. The earlieft Englifli collection that has been publifhed is that known as the " Towneley Myfteries," the manufcript of which belongs to the fifteenth century, and the plays themfelves may have been compofed in the latter part of the fourteenth. It contains thirty-two plays, begin- ning with the Creation, and ending with the Afcenfion and the Day of Judgment, with two fupplementary plays, the " Railing of Lazarus " and the " Hanging of Judas." The play of " Cain and Abel " is throughout a vulgar drollery, in which Cain, who exhibits the character of a bluftering ruffian, is accompanied by a garcio, or lad, who is the very type of a vulgar and infolent horfe-boy, and the converfation of thefe two worthies reminds us a little of that between the clown and his matter in the open- air performances of the old wandering mountebanks. Even the death of Abel by the hand of his brother is performed in a manner calculated to provoke great laughter. In the old mirthful fpirit, to hear two perfons load each other with vulgar abufe, was as good as feeing them grin through a horfe-collar, if not better. Hence the droll fcene in the play of " Noah " is a domeftic quarrel between Noah and his wife, who was proverbially

N N a (hrew,


274 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque

a fhrew, and here gives a tolerable example of abufive language, as it might then come from a woman's tongue. The quarrel arifes out of her obftinate refufal to go into the ark. In the New Teftament feries the play of " The Shepherds" was one of thofe moft fufceptible of this fort of em- bellifhrnent. There are two plays of the Shepherds in the " Towneley Myfteries," the firft of which is amufing enough, as it reprefents, in clever burlefque, the a6ls and converfation of a party of mediaeval fhepherds guarding their flocks at night ; but the fecond play of the Shepherds is a much more remarkable example of a comic drama. The fhepherds are introduced at the opening of the piece converfing very fatirically on the corruptions of the time, and complaining how the people were impoverimed by over-taxation, to fupport the pride and vanity of the ariftocracy. After a good deal of very amufing talk, the fhepherds, who, as ufual, are three in number, agree to fing a fong, and it is this fong, it appears, which brings to them a fourth, named Mak, who proves to be a fheep-ftealer ; and, in facl, no fooner have the fhepherds refigned them- felves to fleep for the night, than Mak choofes one of the beft fheep in their flocks, and carries it home to his hut. Knowing that he will be fufpeded of the theft, and that he will foon be purfued, he is anxious to conceal the plunder, and is only helped out of his difficulty by his wife, who fuggefts that the carcafe fhall be laid at the bottom of her cradle, and that fhe fhall lie upon it and groan, pretending to be in labour. Meanwhile the fhepherds awake, difcover the lofs of a fheep, and perceiv- ing that Mak has difappeared alfo, they naturally fufpeft him to be the depredator, and purfue him. They find everything very cunningly pre- pared in the cottage to deceive them, but, after a large amount of round- about inquiry and refearch, and much drollery, they difcover that the boy of which Mak's wife pretends to have been juft delivered, is nothing elfe but the fheep which had been ftolen from their flocks. The wife ftill aflerts that it U her child, and Mak fets up as his defence that the baby had been "forfpoken," or enchanted, by an elf at midnight, and that it had thus been changed into the appearance of a fheep ; but the fhepherds refufe to be fatisfied with this explanation. The whole of this little comedy is carried out with great fkill, and with infinite drollery. The

fhepherds,


in Literature and Art. 275

fhepherds, while flill wrangling with Mak and his wife, are feized with drowrinefs, and lie down to fleep ; but they are aroufed by the voice of the angel, who proclaims the birth of the Saviour. The next play in which the drollery is introduced, is that of " Herod and the Slaughter of the Innocents." Herod's blufter and bombaft, and the vulgar abufe which pafles between the Hebrew mothers and the foldiers who are murdering their children, are wonderfully laughable. The plays which represented the arreft, trial, and execution of Jefus, are all full of drollery, for the grotefque character which had been given to the demons in the earlier middle ages, appears to have been transferred to the executioners or, as they were called, the " tormentors," and the language and manner in which they executed their duties, muft have kept the audience in a continual roar of laughter. In the play of " Doomfday," the fiends retained their old character, and the manner in which they joke over the diftrefs of the finful fouls, and the details they give of their finfulnefs, are equally mirth-provoking. The "Coventry Myfteries " are alfo printed from a manufcript of the middle of the fifteenth century, and are, perhaps, as old as the "Towneley Myfteries." They confift of forty-two plays, but they contain, on the whole, fewer droll fcenes than thofe of the Towneley collection. But a very remarkable example is furnimed in the play of the "Trial of Jofeph and Mary," which is a very grotefque pi6ture of the proceedings in a mediaeval confiftory court. The fompnour, a character fo well known by Chaucer's picture of him, opens the piece by reading from his book a long lift of offenders againft chaftity. At its conclufion, two "detractors " make their appearance, who repeat various fcandalous llories againft the Virgin Mary and her hufband Jofeph, which are overheard by fome of the high officers of the court, and Mary and Jofeph are formally accufed and placed upon their trial. The trial itfelf is a fcene of low ribaldry, which can only have afforded amufement to a very vulgar audience. There is a certain amount of the fame kind of indelicate drollery in the play of " The Woman taken in Adultery," in this collection. The " Chefter Myfteries " are ftill more fparing of fuch fcenes, but they are printed from manufcripts written after the Reforma- tion, which had, perhaps, gone through the procefs of expurgation, in

which


276 Htflory of Caricature and Grotefque

which fuch excrefcences had been lopped off. However, in the play of " Noah's Flood," we have the old quarrel between Noah and his wife, which is carried fo far that the latter actually beats her hufband in the prefence of the audience. There is a little drollery in the play of " The Shepherds," a conliderable amount of what may be called "Billingfgate " language in the play of the " Slaughter of the Innocents," but lefs than the ufual amount of infolence in the tormentors and demons.* It is probable, however, that thefe droll fcenes were not always confidered an integral part of the play in which they were introduced, but that they were kept as feparate fubjects, to be introduced at will, and nor always in the fame play, and therefore that they were not copied with the play in the manufcripts. In the Coventry play of " Noah's Flood," when Noah has received the directions from an angel for the building of the ark, he leaves the ftage to proceed to this important work. On his departure, Lamech comes forward, blind and led by a youth, who directs his hand to (hoot at a beaft concealed in a bufh. Lamech {hoots, and kills Cain, upon which, in his anger, he beats the youth to death, and laments the misfortune into which the latter has led him. This was the legendary explanation of the

paflage in the fourth chapter of Genefis: "And Lamech faid

I have flain a man to my wounding, and a young man to my hurt .: if Cain fhall be avenged feven-fold, truly Lamech feventy and feven-fold." It is evident that this is a piece of fcriptural ftory which has nothing to do with Noah's flood, and accordingly, in the Coventry play, we are told in the ftage directions, that it was introduced in the place of the " inter- lude," f as if there were a place in the machinery of the pageant where the

  • The editions of the three principal collections of English mysteries are

1. " TheTowneley Mysteries," 8vo., London, i836,published bytheSurtees Society.

2. " Ludus Coventrise : a Collection of Mysteries, formerly represented at Coventry on the Feast of Corpus Christi," edited by James Orchard Halliwell, Esq., 8vo., London, 1841, published by the Shakespeare Society ; 3. "The Chester Plays: a Collection of Mysteries founded upon Scriptural Subjects, and formerly represented by the Trades of Chester at Whitsuntide," edited by Thomas Wright, Esq., vols. 8vo., London, 1843 and 1847, published by the Shakespeare Society.

t "Hie transit Noe cum hiniilia sua pro navi,quo exeunte, locum interlude ; ubintret statim Lameth, conductus ab adolescente, et dicens," &c-


in Literature and Art. 277


the epifode, which was not an integral part of the fubjet, was performed, and that this part of the performance was called an interlude, or play introduced in the interval of the aftion of the main fubjed. The word interlude remained long in our language as applied to fuch fhort and fimple dramatic pieces as we may fuppofe to have formed the drolleries of the myfteries. But they had another name in France which has had a greater and more lafting celebrity. In one of the early French miracle- plays, that of " St. Fiacre," an interlude of this kind is introduced, con- taining five perfonages a brigand or robber, a peafant, a fergeant, and the wives of the two latter. The brigand, meeting the peafant on the highway, afks the way to St. Omer, and receives a clownifh anfwer, which is followed by one equally rude on a fecond queftion. The brigand, in revenge, Heals the peafant's capon, but the fergeant comes up at this moment and, attempting to arreft the thief, receives a blow from the latter which is fuppofed to break his right arm. The brigand thus efcapes, and the peafant and the fergeant quit the fcene, which is immediately occupied by their wives. The fergeant's wife is informed by the other of the injury fuftained by her hufband, and me exults over it becaufe it will deprive him of the power of beating her. They then proceed to a tavern, call for wine, and make merry, the converfation turning upon the faults of their refpecYive hulbands, who are not fpared. In the midft of their enjoy- ments, the two hulbands return, and mow, by beating their wives, that they are not very greatly difabled. In the manufcript of the miracle-play of" St. Fiacre," in which this amufing epifode is introduced, a marginal ftage direction is expreffed in the following words, " cy eft interpofe une farjje" (here a farce is introduced). This is one of the earlieft inftancesof the application of the term farce to thefe fliort dramatic facetiae. Different opinions have been exprefled as to the origin of the word, but it feems moft probable that it is derived from an old French verb,farcer, to jeft, to make merry, whence the modern word farceur for a joker, and that it thus means merely a drollery or merriment.

I have juft fuggefted as a reafon for the abfence of thefe interludes, or farces, in the myfteries as they are found in the manufcripts, that they were probably not looked upon as parts of the myfteries themfelves, but

as


278 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotejque

as feparate pieces which might be ufed at pleafure. When we reach a certain period in their hiftory, we find that not only was this the cafe, but that thefe farces were performed feparately and altogether independently of the religious plays. It is in France that we find information which enables us to trace the gradual revolution in the mediaeval drama. A fociety was formed towards the clofe of the fourteenth century under the title of Confreres de la Pajfion, who, in 1398, eftablifhed a regular theatre at St. Maur-des-Fofies, and fubfequently obtained from Charles VI. a privilege to tranfport their theatre into Paris, and to perform in it myfteries and miracle-plays. They now rented of the monks of Hermieres a hall in the hofpital of the Trinity, outfide of the Porte St. Denis, per- forming there regularly on Sundays and faints' days, and probably rrlaking a good thing of it, for, during a long period, they enjoyed great popu- larity. Gradually, however, this popularity was fo much diminifhed, that the confreres were obliged to have recourfe to expedients for reviving it. Meanwhile other fimilar focieties had arifen into importance. The clerks of the Bazoche, or lawyers' clerks of the Palais de Juftice, had thus aflbciated together, it is faid, as early as the beginning of the fourteenth century, and they diftinguifhed themfelves by compofing and performing farces, for which they appear to have obtained a privilege. Towards the clofe of the fourteenth century, there arofe in Paris another fociety, which took the name of Enfans fans fouci, or Carelefs Boys, who elected a prefident or chief with the title of Prince des Sots, or King of the Fools, and who compofed a fort of dramatic fatires which they called Sotties. Jealoufies foon arofe between thefe two focieties, either becaufe the fotties were made fometimes to referable too clofely the farces, or becaufe each tref- pafled too often on the territories of the other. Their differences were finally arranged by a compromife, whereby the Bazochians yielded to their rivals the privilege of performing farces, and received in return the per- miffion to perform fotties. The Bazochians, too, had invented a new clafs of dramatic pieces which they called Moralities, and in which allegorical perfbnages were introduced. Thus three dramatic focieties continued to exift in France through the fifteenth century, and until the middle of the fixteenth.

Thefe


in Literature and Art. 279


Thefe various pieces, under the titles of farces, fotties, moralities, or whatever other names might be given to them, had become exceedingly popular at the beginning of the fixteenth century, and a very confiderable number of them were printed, and many of them are flill preferred, but they are books of great rarity, and often unique.* Of thefe the farces form the moft numerous clafs. They confift fimply of the tales of the older jougleurs or ftory-tellers reprefented in a dramatic form, but they often difplay great fkill in conducting the plot, and a confiderable amount of wit. The flory of the (heep-ftealer in the Towneley play of "The Shep- herds," is a veritable farce. As in the fabliaux, the moft common fubje&s of thefe farces are love intrigues, carried on in a manner which fpeaks little for the morality of the age in which they were written. Family quarrels frequently form the fubje6t of a farce, and the weaknefles and vices of women. The priefts, as ufual, are not fpared, but are introduced as the feducers of wives and daughters, [n one the wives have found a means of re-modelling their hufbands and making them young again, which they put in practice with various ludicrous circumftances. Tricks of fervants are alfo common fubje6ts for thefe farces. One is the ftory of a boy who does not know his own father, and fome of the fubje&s are of a ftill more trivial character, as that of the boy who fteals a tart from the paftrycook's mop. Two hungry boys, prowling about the ftreets, come to the fhop door juft as the paflrycook is giving directions for fending an eel- pie after him. By an ingenious deception the boys gain pofleflion of the pie and eat it, and they are both caught and feverely chaftifed. This is the whole plot of the farce. A dull fchoolboy examined by his mailer in the prefence of his parents, and the mirth produced by his blunders and

their


  • The most remarkable collection of these early farces, softies, and moralities

yet known, was found accidentally in 1845, and is now in the British Museum. These were all edited in Paris as the first three volumes of a work in ten, entitled " Ancien Theatre Fran9ois, on Collection des Ouvrages dramatiques les plus remarquable depuis les Mysteres jusqu'a Corneille, public. . . . par M. Viollet le Due," izmo., Paris, 1854. I* ls r '8 nt to state that these three volumes were editnl^ not by M. Viollet le Due, but by a scholar better known for his learning in the older French literature, M. Anatole de Montaiglon.


280 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque


their ignorance, formed alfo a favourite fubject among thefe farces. One or two examples are preferred, and, from a comparifon of them, we might be led to fufpect that Shakefpeare took the idea of the opening fcene in the fourth aft of the " Merry Wives of Windfor " from one of thefe old farces.

The fotties and moralities were more imaginative and extravagant than the farces, and were filled with allegorical perfonages. The characters introduced in the former have generally fome relation to the kingdom of folly. Thus, in one of the fotties, the king of fools (le roy des fotz) is reprefented as holding his court, and confulting with his courtiers, whofe names are Triboulet, Mitouflet, Sottinet, Coquibus, and Guippelin. Their converfation, as may be fuppofed, is of a fatirical character. Another is entitled "The Sottie of the Deceivers," or cheats. Sottie another name for mother Folly opens the piece with a proclamation or addrefs to fools of all defcriptions, fummoning them to her prefence. Two, named Tefte-Verte and Fine-Mine, obey the call, and they are queftioned as to their own condition, and their proceedings, but their con- verfation is interrupted by the fudden intrufion of another perfonage named Everyone (Chafcun), who, on examination, is found to be as perfect a fool as any of them. They accordingly fraternife, and join in a fong. Finally, another character, The Time (le Temps}, joins them, and they agree to fubmit to his directions. Accordingly he inftructs them in the arts of flattery and deceiving, and the other fimilar means by which men of that time fought to thrive. Another is the Sottie of Foolifh (Mentation (de foils balance). This lady fimilarly opens the fcene with an addrefs to all the fools who hold allegiance to her, and three of thefe make their appearance. The firft fool is the gentleman, the fecond the merchant, the fourth the peafant, and their converfation is a fatire on contemporary fociety. The perfonification of abftract principles is far bolder. The three characters who compofe one of thefe moralities are Everything (tout), Nothing (rien), and Everyone (chafcun). How the perfonification of Nothing was to be reprefented, we are not told. The title of another of thefe moralities will be enough to give the reader a notion of their general title j it is, " A New Morality of the Children of

Now-a-days "


in Literature and Art. 2 8 1


Now-a-Days (Maintenani), who are the Scholars of Once-good (Ja/rien), who Ihows them how .to play at Cards and at Dice, and to entertain Luxury, whereby one comes to Shame (Honte), and from Shame to Defpair (Defefpoir), and from Defpair to the gibbet of Perdition, and then turns himfelf to Good-doing." The characters in this play are Now-a- Days, Once-good, Luxury, Shame, Defpair, Perdition, and Good-doing.

The three dramatic focieties which produced all thefe farces, fotties, and moralities, continued to flouriih in France until the middle of the fixteenth century, at which period a great revolution in dramatic litera- ture took place in that country. The performance of the Myfteries had been forbidden by authority, and the Bazochians themfelves were fup- prefled. The petty drama reprefented by the farces and fotties went rapidly out of fafhion, in the great change through which the mind of fociety was at this time pafling, and in which the tafte for claflical literature overcame all others. The old drama in France had difap- peared, and a new one, formed entirely upon an imitation of the claflical drama, was beginning to take its place. This incipient drama was repre- fented in the fixteenth century by Etienne Jodel, by Jacques Grevin, by Remy Belleau, and eipeciaily by Pierre de Larivey, the moft prolific, and perhaps the moft talented, of the earlier French regular dramatic authors.

Thefe French dramatic eflays, the farces, the fotties, and the morali- ties, were imitated, and fometimes translated, in Englifb, and many of them were printed ; for the further our refearches are carried into the early hiftory of printing, the more we are aftonifhed at the extreme activity of the prefs, even in its infancy, in multiplying literature of a popular character. In England, as in France, the farces had been, at a rather early period, detached from the myfteries and miracle -plays, but the word interludes had been adopted here as the general title for them, and continued in ufe even after the eftablifhment of the regular drama. Perhaps this name owed its popularity to the circumftance that it feemed more appropriate to its object, when it became fo fafhionable in England to aft thefe plays at intervals in the great feflivals and entertainments given at court, or in the houfeholds of the great nobles. At all events,

o o there


282 Hijlory of Caricature and Grotefque


there can be no doubt that this faflnon had a great influence on the fate of the Englifh ftage. The cuftom of performing plays in the univerfities. great fchools, and inns of court, had alfb the effeft of producing a number of very clever dramatic writers ; for when this literature was fo warmly patronifed by princes and nobles, people of the liigheft qualifications fought to excel in it. Hence we find from books of houfehold expenfes and fimilar records of the period, that there was, during the fixteenth century, an immenfe number of fuch plays compiled in England which were never printed, and of which, therefore, very few are preferred.

The earlieft known plays of this defcription in the Englifh language belong to the clafs which were called in France moralities. They are three in number, and are preferved in a manufcript in the poflefiion of Mr. Hudfon Gurney, which I have not feen, but which is faid to be of the reign of our king Henry VI. Several words and allufions in them feem to me to fhow that they were tranflated, or adapted, from the French. They contain exactly the fame kind of allegorical perfonages. The allegory itfelf is a limple one, and eafily underftood. In the firfl, which is entitled the " Caftle of Perfeverance," the hero is Humanum Genus (Mankynd), for the names of the parts are all given in Latin. On the birth of this perfonage, a good and a bad angel offer themfelves as his proteftors and guides, and he choofes the latter, who introduces him to Mundus (the World), and to his friends, Stultitia (Folly), and Vbluptas (Pleafure). Thefe and fome other perfonages bring him under the influence of the feven deadly fins, and Humanum Genus takes for his bedfellow a lady named Luxur'ia. At length Confeffio and Pcenitentia fucceed in reclaiming Humanum Genus, and they conduct him for fecurity to the Caftle of Perfeverance, where the feven cardinal virtues attend upon him. He is befieged in this caftle by the feven deadly fins, who are led to the attack by Belial, but are defeated. Humanum Genus has now become aged, and is expofed to the attacks of another aflailant. This is Avaritia, who enters the Cafile flealthily by undermining the wall, and artfully perfuades Humanum Genus to leave it. He thus comes again under the influence of Mundus, until Mors (Death) arrives, and the bad angel carries off the vi&im to the domains of Satan. This, however,


in Literature and Art. 283

is not the end of the piece. God appears, feated on His throne, and Mercy, Peace, Juftice, and Truth appear before Him, the two former pleading for, and the latter againft, Humanum Genus, who, after fome difcuflion, is faved. This allegorical picture of human life was, in one form or other, a favourite fubject of the moralifers. I may quote as examples the interludes of " Lufty Juventus," reprinted in Hawkins's "Origin of the Englifli Drama," and the "Difobedient Child," and " Trial of Treafure,' 1 reprinted by the Percy Society.

The fecond of the moralities afcribed to the reign of Henry VI., has for its principal characters Mind, Will, and Underftanding. Thefe are afiailed by Lucifer, who fucceeds in alluring them to vice, and they change their modefl raiment for the drefs of gay gallants. Various other characters are introduced in a ftmilar ftrain of allegory, until they are reclaimed by Wifdom. Mankind is again the principal perfonage of the third of thefe moralities, and fome of the other characters in the play, fuch as Nought, New-guife, and Now-a-days, remind us of the fimilar allegorical perfonages in the French moralities defcribed above.

Thefe interludes bring us into acquaintance with a new comic character. The great part which folly acted in the focial deftinies of mankind, had become an acknowledged fact; and as the court and almoft every great houfehold had its profefled fool, fo it feems to have been confidered that a play alfo was incomplete without a fool. But, as the character of the fool was ufually given to one of the moft objectionable characters in it, fo, for this reafon apparently, the fool in a play was called the Vice. Thus, in " Lufty Juventus," the character of Hypocrify is called the Vice ; in the play of "All for Money," it is Sin; in that of "Tom Tyler and his Wife," it is Defire; in the "Trial of Treafure" it is Inclination ; and in fome inftances the Vice appears to be the demon himfelf. The Vice feems always to have been drefled in the ufual coftume of a court fool, and he perhaps had other duties befides his mere part in the plot, fuch as making jefts of his own, and ufing other means for provoking the mirth of the audience in the intervals of the action.

A few of our early Englifh interludes were, in the ftrict fenfe of the word, farces. Such is the "mery play" of "John the Hufband, Tyb the

Wife,


284 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque


Wife, and Sir John the Prieft," written by John Heywood, the plot of which prefents the fame fimplicity as thofe of the farces which were fo popular in France. John has a fhrew for his wife, and has good caufes for fufpe&ing an undue intimacy between her and the prieft ; but they find means to blind his eyes, which is the more eafily done, becaufe he is a great coward, except when he is alone. Tyb, the wife, makes a pie, and propofes that the prieft mall be invited to affift in eating it. The hufband is obliged, very unwillingly, to be the bearer of the invitation, and is not a little furprifed when the prieft refufes it. He gives as his reafon, that he was unwilling to intrude himfelf into company where he knew he was difliked, and perfuaded John that he had fallen under the wife's difpleafure, becaufe, in private interviews with her, he had laboured to induce her to bridle her temper, and treat her hufband with more gentle- nefs. John, delighted at the difcovery of the prieft's honefty, infifts on his going home with him to feaft upon the pie. There the guilty couple contrive to put the hufband to a difagreeable penance, while they eat the pie, and treat him otherwife very ignominioufly, in confequence of which the married couple fight. The prieft interferes, and the fight thus becomes general, and is only ended by the departure of Tyb and the prieft, leaving the hufband alone.

The popularity of the moralities in England is, perhaps, to be explained by peculiarities in the condition of fociety, and the greater pre-occupation of men's minds in our country at that time with the religious and focial revolution which was then in progrefs. The Reformers foon faw the ufe which might be made of the ftage, and compiled and caufed to be a6led interludes in which the old doftrines and ceremonies were turned to ridicule, and the new ones were held up in a favourable light. We have excellent examples of the fuccefs with which this plan was carried out in the plays of the celebrated John Bale. His play of " Kyng Johan," an edition of which was publifhed by the Camden Society, is not only a remarkable work of a very remarkable man, but it may be confidered as the firft rude model of the Englim hiftorical drama. The ftage became now a political inftrument in England, almoft as it had been in ancient Greece, and it thus became frequently the object of particular as well as

general


in Literature and Art. 285

general perfecution. In 1543, the vicar of Yoxford, in Suffolk, drew upon himfelf the violent hoftility of the other clergy in that county by competing and caufing to be performed plays againft the pope's counsellors. Six years afterwards, in 1549, a royal proclamation prohibited for a time the performance of interludes throughout the kingdom, on the ground that they contained " matter tendyng to fedicion and contempnyng of fundery good orders and lawes, whereupon are growen daily, and are likely to growe, muche difquiet, divifion, tumultes, and uproares in this realme." From this time forward we begin to meet with laws for the regulation of ftage performances, and proceedings in cafes of fuppofed infractions of them, and it became cuftomary to obtain the approval of a play by the privy council before it was allowed to be a6ted. Thus gradually arofe the office of a dramatic cenfor.

With Bale and with John Heywood, the Englifli plays began to approach the form of a regular drama, and the two now rather celebrated pieces, " Ralph Roifter Doilier," and " Gammer GurtOn's Needle," which belong to the middle of the fixteenth century, may be considered as comedies rather than as interludes. Tht ormer, written by a well- known fcholar of that time, Nicholas Udall, mafler of Eton, is a fatirical picture of fome phafes of London life, and relates the ridiculous adventures of a weak-headed and vain-glorious gallant, who believes that all the women mufl be in love with him, and who is led by a needv and defigning parafite named Matthew Merygreeke. Rude as it is as a dramatic competition, it difplays no lack of talent, and it is full of genuine humour. The humour in " Gammer Gurton's Needle " is none the lefs rich becaufe it is of coarfer and rather broader caft. The good dame of the piece, Gammer Gurton, during an interruption in the procefs of mending the breeches of her hulband, Hodge, has loft her needle, and much lamentation follows a misfortune fo great at a time when needles appear to have been rare and valuable articles in the rural houfehold. In the midft of their trouble appears Diccon, who is defcribed in the dramatis perfonas as " Diccon the Bedlam," meaning that he was an idiot, and who appears to hold the petition of Vice in the play. Diccon, however, though weak-minded, is a cunning fellow, and efpecially given

to


286 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque


to making mifchief, and he accufes a neighbour, Dame Chat, of Healing the needle. At the fame time, the fame mifchievous individual tells Dame Chat that Gammer Gurton's cock had been ftolen in the night from the henrooft, and that (he, Dame Chat, was accufed of being the thief. Amid the general mifunderftanding which refults from Diccon's fuccefsful endeavours, they fend for the parfon of the parim, Dr. Rat, who appears to unite in himfelf the three parts of preacher, phyfician, and conjurer, in order to have advantage of his experience in finding the needle. Diccon now contrives a new piece of mifchief. He perfuades Dame Chat that Hodge intends to hide himfelf in a certain hole in the premifes, in order, that night, to creep out and kill all her hens ; and at the fame time he informs Dr. Rat, that if he will hide in the fame hole, he will give him ocular demonftration of Dame Chat's guilt of ftealing the needle. The confequence is that Dame Chat attacks by furprife, and fomewhat violently, the fuppofed depredator in the hole, and that Dr. Rat gets a broken head. Dame Chat is brought before "Mafler Bayly" for the afiault, and the proceedings in the trial bring to light the deceptions which have been played upon them all, and Diccon ftands convicted as the wicked perpetrator. In fad, the " bedlam " confefles it all, and it is finally decided by " Matter Bayly ' ' that there mail be a general recon- ciliation, and that Diccon fhall take a folemn oath on Hodge's breech, that he will do his beft to find the loft needle. Diccon has Ml the fpirit of mifchief in him, and inftead of laying his hand quietly on Hodge's breech, he gives him a fharp blow, which is refponded to by an unexpected fcream. The needle, indeed, which has never quitted the breeches, is driven rather deep into the flefhy part of Hodge's body, and the general joy at having found it again overruling all other conliderations, they all agree to be friends over a jug of " drink."

We cannot but feel aftonifhed at the fhort period which it required to develop rude attempts at dramatic compofition like this into the wonderful creations of a Shakefpeare ; and it can only be explained by the fact that it was an age remarkable for producing men of extraordinary genius in every branch of intellectual development. Hitherto, the litera- ture of the ftage had reprefented the intelligence of the mafs ; it became

individualifed


in Literature and Art. 287

individualifed in Shakefpeare, and this fa6t marks an entirely new era in the hiftory of the drama. In the writings of our great bard, nearly all the peculiarities of the older national drama are preferved, even fome which may be perhaps confidered as its defe6ts, but carried to a degree of perfection which they had never attained before. The drollery, which, as we have feen, could not be difpenfed with even in the religious myfteries and miracle-plays, had become fo neceflary, that it could not be difpenfed with in tragedy. Its omiflion belonged to a later period, when the foreign dramatifts became objects of imitation in England. But in the earlier drama, thefe fcenes of drollery feem frequently to have no connexion whatever with the general plot, while Shakefpeare always interweaves them fkilfully with it, and they feem to form an integral and neceflary part of it.


288 Hi/lory of Caricature and Grotefque


CHAPTER XVII.

DIABLERIE IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY. EARLY TYPES OF THE

DIABOLICAL FORMS. ST. ANTHONY. ST. GUTHLAC. REVIVAL OF THE

TASTE FOR SUCH SUBJECTS IN THE BEGINNING OF THE SIXTEENTH

CENTURY. THE FLEMISH SCHOOL OF BREUGHEL. THE FRENCH AND

ITALIAN SCHOOLS, CALLOT, SALVATOR ROSA.

WE have feen how the popular demonology furnithed materials for the earlieft exercife of comic art in the middle ages, and how the tafte for this particular clafs of grotefque lafted until the clofe of the mediaeval period. After the " renaiffance " of art and literature, this tafte took a ftill more remarkable form, and the fchool of grotefque diablerie which flourifhed during the lixteenth century, and the firft half of the feventeenth, juftly claims a chapter to itfelf.

The birthplace of this demonology, as far as it belongs to Chriftianity, muft probably be fought in the deferts of Egypt. It fpread thence over the eaft and the weft, and when it reached our part of the world, it grafted itfelf, as I have remarked in a former chapter, on the exifting popular fuperftitions of Teutonic paganifm. The playfully burlefque, which held fo great a place in thefe fuperftitions, no doubt gave a more comic cha- racter to this Chriftian demonology than it had poflefled before the mix- ture. Its primitive reprefentative was the Egyptian monk, St. Anthony, who is faid to have been born at a village called Coma, in Upper Egypt, in the year 251. His hiftory was written in Greek by St. Athanafius, and was tranflated into Latin by the ecclefiaftical hiftorian Evagrius. Anthony was evidently a fanatical vifionary, fubjeA to mental illufions, which were foftered by his education. To efcape from the temptations of the world, he fold all his property, which was considerable, gave it to the poor, and then retired into the defert of the Thebaid, to live a life of

the


in Literature and Art. 289

the ftrir?ft afceticifm. The evil one perfecuted him in his folitude, and fought to drive him back into the corruptions of worldly life. He firfl tried to fill his mind with regretful reminifcences of his former wealth, pofition in fociety, and enjoyments ; when this failed, he diflurbed his mind with voluptuous images and defires, which the faint refitted with equal fuccefs. The perfecutor now changed his tadics, and prefenting himfelf to Anthony in the form of a black and ugly youth, confefied to him, with apparent candour, that he was the fpirit of uncleannefs, and acknow- leged that he had been vanquifhed by the extraordinary merits of Anthony's fanftity. The faint, however, faw that this was only a ftratagem to ftir up in him the fpirit of pride and felf-confidence, and he met it by fubje6ting himfelf to greater mortifications than ever, which of courfe made him ftill more liable to thefe delufions. Now he fought greater folitude by taking up his refidence in a ruined Egyptian fepulchre, but the farther he withdrew from the world, the more he became the obje6t of diabolical perfecution. Satan broke in upon his privacy with a hoft of attendants, and during the night beat him to fuch a degree, that one morning the attendant who brought him food found him lying fenfelefs in his cell, and had him carried to the town, where his friends were on the point of burying him, believing him to be dead, when he fuddenly revived, and infifted on being taken back to his folitary dwelling. The legend tells us that the demons appeared to him in the forms of the moft ferocious animals, fuch as lions, bulls, wolves, afps, ferpents, fcorpions, panthers, and bears, each attacking him in the manner peculiar to its fpecies, and with its peculiar voice, thus making together a horrible din. Anthony left his tomb to retire farther into the defert, where he made a ruined caftle his refidence ; and here he was again frightfully perfecuted by the demons, and the noife they made was fo great and horrible that it was often heard at a vaft diftance. According to the narrative, Anthony reproached the demons in very abufive language, called them hard names, and even fpat in their faces ; but his moft effective weapon was always the crofs. Thus the faint became bolder, and fought a ftill more lonely abode, and finally eftablifhed himfelf on the top of a high mountain in the upper Thebaid. The demons ftill continued to perfecute him, under

p p a great


290 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque

a great variety of forms ; on one occafion their chief appeared to him under the form of a man, with the lower members of an afe.

The demons which tormented St. Anthony became the general type for fubfequent creations, in which thefe firft pictures were gradually, and in the fequel, greatly improved upon. St. Anthony's perfecutors ufually afiumed the fhapes of bond Jide animals, but thofe of later ftories took monftrous and grotefque forms, flrange mixtures of the parts of different animals, and of others which never exifted. Such were feen by St. Guthlac, the St. Anthony of the Anglo-Saxons, among the wild morafles of Croyland. One night, which he was paffing at his devotions in his cell, they poured in upon him in great numbers ; " and they filled all the houfe with their coming, and they poured in on every fide, from above and from beneath, and everywhere. They were in countenance horrible, and they had great heads, and a long neck, and lean vifage ; they were filthy arid fqualid in their beards, and they had rough ears, and diftorted face, and fierce eyes, and foul mouths ; and their teeth were like horfes' tufks, and their throats were filled with flame, and they were grating in their voice ; they had crooked {hanks, and knees big and great behind, and diftorted toes, and (hrieked hoarfely with their voices ; and they came with fuch immoderate noifes and immenfe horror, that it feemed to him that all between heaven and earth refounded with their dreadful cries." On another fimilar occafion, " it happened one night, when the holy man Guthlac fell to his prayers, he heard the howling of cattle and various wild beafts. Not long after he faw the appearance of animals and wild beafts and creeping things coming in to him. Firft he faw the vifage of a lion that threatened him with his bloody tulks, alfo the likenefs of a bull, and the vifage of a bear, as when they are enraged. Alfo he perceived the appearance of vipers, and a hog's grunting, and the howling of wolves, and croaking of ravens, and the various whiftlings of birds, that they might, with their fantaftic appear- ance, divert the mind of the holy man."

Such were the fuggeftions on which the mediaeval fculptors and illumi- nators worked with fo much efFet, as we have feen repeatedly in the courfe of our preceding chapters. After the revival of art in weftern Europe in the fifteenth century, this clafs of legends became great favourites with painters and engravers, and foon gave rife to the peculiar fchool of diablerie mentioned above. At that time the ftory of the Temptation of St. Anthony attracted particular attention, and it is the fubje<5l of many remarkable prints belonging to the earlier ages of the art of engraving. It employed the pencils of fuch artifls as Martin Schongauer, Ifrael van Mechen, and Lucas Cranach. Of the latter we have two different engravings on the fame fubjeft =St. Anthony carried into the air by the demons, who are reprefented in a great variety of grotefque and monftrous forms. The mofl remarkable of the two bears the date of 1506, and was, therefore, one of Cranach's earlier works. But the great reprefentative of this earlier fchool of diablerie was Peter Breughel, a Flemifh painter who flourifhed in the middle of the fixteenth century. He was born at Breughel, near Breda, and lived fome time at Antwerp, but afterwards eftablifhed himfelf at Bruffels. So celebrated was he for the love of the grotefque difplayed in his pictures, that he was known by the name of Peter the Droll. Breughel's "Temptation of St. Anthony," like one or two others of his fubjecls of the fame clafs, was engraved in a reduced form by J. T. de Bry. Breughel's demons are figures of the moft fantaftic defcription creations of a wildly grotefque imagination ; they prefent incongruous and laughable mixtures of parts of living things which have no relation whatever to one another. Our cut No. 155 reprefents a group of thefe grotefque demons, from a plate by Breughel, engraved in 1565, and entitled Divus Jacobus diabolicis praestigiis ante magum sistitur (St. James is arrefled before the magician by diabolical delufions). The engraving is full of fimilarly grotefque figures. On the right is a fpacious chimney, and up it witches, riding on brooms, are making their efcape, while in the air are feen other witches riding away upon dragons and a goat. A kettle is boiling over the fire, around which a group of monkeys are feen fitting and warming themfelves. Behind thefe a cat and a toad are holding a very intimate converfation. In the background ftands and boils the great witches' caldron. On the right of the picture the magus, or magician, is feated, reading his grimoire, with a frame before him fupporting the pot containing his magical ingredients. The faint occupies the middle of the picture, furrounded by the demons reprefented in our cut and by many others ; and as he approaches the magician, he is feen raifing his right hand in the attitude of pronouncing a benediction, the apparent confequence of which is a frightful explofion of the magician's pot, which ftrikes the demons with evident confternation. Nothing can be more bizarre than the horfe's head upon human legs in armour, the parody upon a crawling fpider behind it, the fkull (apparently of a horfe)

No. 155. St. Jama and hh Perfection.

fupported upon naked human legs, the ftrangely excited animal behind the latter, and the figure furnimed with pilgrim's hood and flaff, which appears to be mocking the faint. Another print a companion to the foregoing reprefents the ftill more complete difcomfhure of the magus. The faint here occupies the r'ght-hand fide of the picture, and is raifing his hand higher, with apparently a greater fhow of authority. The demons have all turned againft their mafter the magician, whom they are beating and hurling headlong from his chair. They feem to be pro- claiming their joy at his fall by all forts of playful attitudes. It is a fort of demon fair. Some of them, to the left of the picture, are dancing and llanding upon their heads on a tight-rope. Near them another is playing fbme game like that which we now call the thimble-rig. The monkeys are dancing to the tune of a great drum. A variety of their mountebank tricks are going on in different parts of the fcene. Three of thefe playful actors are reprefented in our cut No. 156.

Breughel alfo executed a feries of fimilarly grotefque engravings, reprefenting in this fame fantaftic manner the virtues and vices, fuch as Pride (fuperlia), Courage (fortitude), Sloth (defidia), &c. Thefe bear the

No. 156. Strange Demont.

date of 1558. They are crowded with figures equally grotefque with thofe juft mentioned, but a great part of which it would be almoft impofiible to defcribe. I give two examples from the engraving of " Sloth," in the accompanying cut (No. 157).

From making up figures from parts of animals, this early fchool of grotefque proceeded to create animated figures out of inanimate things, fuch as machines, implements of various kinds, houfehold utenfils, and other fuch articles. A German artift, of about the fame time as Breughel,

has


294 Htftory of Caricature and Grotefque


has left us a fingular fenes of etchings of this defcription, which are intended as an allegorical fatire on the follies of mankind. The allegory


No. 157. Imps of Sloth.

is here of fuch a fingular character, that we can only guefs at the meaning of thefe ftrange groups through four lines of German verfe which are



No. 158. The Folly of Hunting.

attached to each of them. In this manner we learn that the group reprefented in our cut, No. 158, which is the fecond in this feries, is

intended


in Literature and Art. 295

intended as a fatire upon thofe who wafte their time in hunting, which, the verfes tell us, they will in the fequel lament bitterly ; and they are exhorted to cry loud and continually to God, and to let that ferve them in the place of hound and hawk.

Die zeit die du -verhurfl mil jagen,

Die ivirftu xivar noch fchmertelich klagen ; Ruff" laut zu Gott gar oft und i>il t

Das fey dein hund und federfpil.

The next picture in the feries, which is equally difficult to defcribe, is aimed againft thofe who fail in attaining virtue or honour through fluggtflbnefs. Others follow, but I will only give one more example. It forms our cut No. 159, and appears, from the verfes accompanying it, to


No. 159. The Waftefulnefs of Youth.

be aimed againft thofe who practice waftefulnefs in their youth, and thus become obje6ts of pity and fcorn in old age. Whatever may be the point of the allegory contained in the engraving, it is certainly far-fetched, and not very apparent.

This German-Flemifh fchool of grotefque does not appear to have outlived the fixteenth century, or at leaft it had ceafed to flourifh in the century following. But the tafte for the diablerie of the Temptation

fcenes


296 Hijlory of Caricature and Grotefque

fcenes pafled into France and Italy, in which countries it aflumed a much more refined character, though at the fame time one equally grotefque and imaginative. Thefe artifts, too, returned to the original legend, and gave it forms of their own conception. Daniel Rabel, a French artift, who lived at the end of the fixteenth century, publiflied a rather remark- able engraving of the "Temptation of St. Anthony," in which the faint appears on the right of the picture, kneeling before a mound on which three demons are dancing. On the right hand of the faint ftands a naked woman, flickering herfelf with a parafol, and tempting the faint with her charms. The reft of the piece is filled with demons in a great variety of forms and poftures. Another French artift, Nicholas Cochin, has left us two "Temptations of St. Anthony," in rather fpirited etching, of the earlier part of the feventeenth century. In the firft, the faint is repre- fented kneeling before a crucifix, furrounded by demons. The youthful and charming temptrefs is here dreifed in the richeft garments, and the higheft ftyle of fafhion, and displays all her powers of feduction. The body of the picture is, as ufual, occupied by multitudes of diabolical figures, in grotefque forms. In Cochin's other picture of the Temp- tation of St. Anthony, the faint is reprefented as a hermit engaged in his prayers ; the female figure of voluptuoufnefs (voluptas) occupies the middle of the picture, and behind the faint is feen a witch with her befom.

But the artift who excelled in this fubject at the period at which we now arrive, was the celebrated Jacques Callot, who was born at Nancy, in Brittany, in 1^93, and died at Florence on the 24th of March, 1635, which, according to the old ftyle of calculating, may mean March, 1636. Of Callot we fhall have to fpeak in another chapter. He treated the fubject of the Temptation of St. Anthony in two different plates, which are confidered as ranking among the moft remarkable of his works, and to which, in fact, he appears to have given much thought and attention. He is known, indeed, to have worked diligently at it. They refemble thofe of the older artifts in the number of diabolical figures introduced into the picture, but they difplay an extraordinary vivid imagination in the forms, poftures, phyfiognomies, and even the equipments, of the

chimerical


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chimerical figures, all equally droll and btirlefque, but which prefent an entire contrail to the more coarfe and vulgar conceptions of the German- Flemifh fchool. This difference will be understood befl by an example.



No. 1 60. The Demon Titter (Callot).


One of Callot s demons is reprefented in our cut No. 160. Many of them aie mounted on nondefcript animals, of the moft extraordinary demoniacal chara6ler, and fuch is the cafe of the demon in our cut, who is running a



No. 161. Uneafy Ridng (Caliot~).


tilt at the faint with his tilting fpear in his hand, and, to make more fure, his eyes well furnilhed with a pair of fpe&acles. In our next cut, No. 161, we give a fecond example of the figures in Callot's peculiar

a a aiallerie.


298 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque


diablerie. The demon in this cafe is riding very uneafily, and, in fa6l, feems in danger of being thrown. The fteeds of both are of an anomalous character; the firft is a fort of dragon-horfe ; the fecond a mixture of a lobfter, a fpider, and a craw-fifh. Mariette, the art-collector and art- writer of the reign of Louis XV. as well as artift, confiders this grotefque, or, as he calls it, " fantaitic and comic character," as almoft neceflary to the pictures of the Temptation of St. Anthony, which he treats as one of Callot's efpeciallyyenow.? fubjedts. " It was allowable," he fays, " to Callot, to give a flight to his imagination. The more his fictions were of the nature of dreams, the more they were fitted to what he had to exprefs. For the demon intending to torment St. Anthony, it is to be fuppofed that he muft have thought of all the forms moft hideous, and moft likely to ftrike terror."

Callot's firft and larger print of the Temptation of St Anthony is rare. It is filled with a vaft number of figures. Above is a fantaftic being who vomits thoufands of demons. The faint is feen at the entrance of a cavern, tormented by fome of thefe. Others are fcattered about in different occupations. On one fide, a demoniacal party are drinking together, and pledging each other in their glafies ; here, a devil is playing on the guitar ; there, others are occupied in a dance ; all fuch grotefque figures as our two examples would lead the reader to expect. In the fecond of Callot's "Temptations," which is dated in 1635, and muft therefore have been one of his lateft works, the fame figure vomiting the demons occupies the upper part of the plate, and the field is covered with a prodigious number of imps, more hideous in their forms, and more varied in their extraordinary attitudes, than in the fame artift's firft defign. Below, a hoft of demons are dragging the faint to a place where new torments are prepared for him. Callot's prints of the Temptation of St. Anthony gained fo great a reputation, that imitations of them were fubfequently publiihed, fome of which fo far approached his ftyle, that they were long fuppofed to be genuine.

Callot, though a Frenchman, ftudied and flourifhed in Italy, and his ftyle is founded upon Italian art. The laft great artift whofe treatment of the Temptation I (hall quote, is Salvator Rofa, an Italian by birth,

who


in Literature and Art.


299


who flourifhed in the middle of the feventeenth century. His ftyle, according to fome opinions, is refined from that of Callot j at all events, it is bolder in defign. Our cut No. 162 reprefents St. Anthony protect-



No. l6z. St. Anthony and his Persecutor.

ing himfelf with the crofs againft the afiaults of the demon, as reprefented by Salvator Rofa. With this artift the fchool of diablerie of the fixteenth century may be confidered to have come to its end.


300 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque

CHAPTER XVIII.

CALLOT AND HIS SCHOOL. CALLOT's ROMANTIC HISTORY. HIS

"CAPRJCI," AND OTHER BURLESftUE WORKS. THE " BALLI " AND

. THE BEGGARS. IMITATORS OF CALLOT ; DELLA BELLA. EXAMPLES

OF DELLA BELLA. ROMAIN DE HOOGHE.

THE art of engraving on copper, although it had made rapid advances during the fixteenth century, was ftill very far from perfe&ion ; but the clofe of that century witneffed the birth of a man who was deftined not only to give a new character to this art, but alfo to bring in a new ftyle of caricature and burlefque. This was the celebrated Jacques Callot, a native of Lorraine, and defcended from a noble Burgundian family. His father, Jean Callot, held the office of herald of Lorraine. Jacques was born in the year 1^92,* at Nancy, and appears to have been deflined for the church, with a view to which his early education was regulated. But the early life of Jacques Callot prefents a romantic epifode in the hiftory of art afpirations. While yet hardly more than an infant, he feized every opportunity of neglecting more ferious ftudies to pradife drawing, and he difplayed efpecially a very precocious tafte for fatire, for his artiftic talent was fhown principally in caricaturing all the people he knew. His father, and apparently all his relatives, difapproved of his love for drawing, and did what they could to difcourage it ; but in vain, for he ftill found means of indulging it. Claude Henriet, the painter to the court of Lorraine, gave him leflbns, and his fon, Ifrael Henriet, formed for him a boy's friendfhip. He alfo learnt the elements of

  • This is the date fixed by Meaume, in his excellent work on Callot, entitled

" Recherches sur la Vie et les Otivrages de Jacques Callot," 2 torn. 8vo., 1860.


in Literature and Art. 301


of the art of engraving of Demange Crocq, the engraver to the duke of Lorraine.

About this time, the painter Bellange, who had been a pupil of Claude Henriet, returned from Italy, and gave young Callot an exciting account of the wonders of art to be feen in that country ; and foon after- wards Claude Henriet dying, his fon Ifrael went to Rome, and his letters from thence had no lefs effect on the mind of the young artiit at Nancy, than the converfation of Bellange. Indeed the paflion of the boy for art was fo ftrong, that, finding his parents obftinately oppofed to all his longings in this direction, he left his father's houfe fecretly, and, in the fpring of 1604, when he had only juft entered his thirteenth year, he frt out for Italy on foot, without introductions and almoft without money. He was even unacquainted with the road, but after proceeding a Ihort diftance, he fell in with a band of gipfies, and, as they were going to Florence, he joined their company. His life among the gipfies, which lafted feven or eight weeks, appears to have furnifhed food to his love of burlefque and caricature, and he has handed down to us his impreflions, in a feries of four engravings of fcenes in gipfy life, admirably executed at a rather later period of his life, which are full of comic humour. When they arrived at Florence, Jacques Callot parted company with the gipfies, and was fortunate enough to meet with an officer of the grand duke's houfehold, who liftened to his ftory, and took fo much intereft in him, that he obtained him admiflion to the ftudio of Remigio Canta Gallina. This artiit gave him inftruclions in drawing and engraving, and fought to correft him of his tafle for the grotefque by keeping him employed upon ferious fubjecls.

After ftudying for fome months under Canta Gallina, Jacques Callot left Florence, and proceeded to Rome, to feek his old friend Ifrael Henriet ; but he had hardly arrived, when he was recognifed in the ftreets by fome merchants from Nancy, who took him, and in fpite of his tears and refiftance, carried him home to his parents. He was now kept to his ftudies more ftri6tly than ever, but nothing could overcome his paffion for art, and, having contrived to lay by fome money, after a fhort interval he again ran away from home. This time he took the road

to


302 Hifto^y of Caricature and Grotefque


to Lyons, and crofled Mont Cenis, and he had reached Turin when he met in the ftreet of that city his elder brother Jean, who again carried him home to Nancy. Nothing could now reprefs young Callot's ardour, and foon after this fecond efcapade, he engraved a copy of a portrait of Charles III., duke of Lorraine, to which he put his name and the date 1607, and which, though it difplays little (kill in engraving, excited confiderable intereft at the time. His parents were now perfuaded that it was ufelefs to thwart any longer his natural inclinations, and they not only allowed him to follow them, but they yielded to his wifh to return to Italy. The circumftances of the moment were efpecially favourable. Charles III., duke of Lorraine, was dead, and his fuccefibr, Henry II., was preparing to fend an embafiy to Rome to announce his acceffion. Jean Callot, by his pofition of herald, had fufficient intereft to obtain for his fon an appointment in the ambaflador's retinue, and Jacques Callot ftarted for Rome on the ift of December, 1608, under more favourable aufpices than thofe which had attended his former vifits to Italy.

Callot reached Rome at the beginning of the year 1609, and now at length he joined the friend of his childhood, Ifrael Henriet, and began to throw all his energy into his art-labours. It is more than probable that he fludied under Tempefta, with Henriet, who was a pupil of that painter, and another Lorrainer, Claude Dervet. After a time, Callot began to feel the want of money, and obtained employment of a French engraver, then refiding in Rome, named Philippe Thomaflin, with whom he worked nearly three years, and became perfect in handling the graver. Towards the end of the year 1611, Callot went to Florence, to place himfelf under Julio Parigi, who then flourished there as a painter and engraver. Tufcany was at this time ruled by its duke Cofmo de' Medicis, a great lover of the arts, who took Callot under his patronage, giving him the means to advance himfelf. Hitherto his occupation had been prin- cipally copying the works of others, but under Parigi he began to pradife more in original defign, and his tafte for the grotefque came upon him ftronger than ever. Although Parigi blamed it, he could not help admiring the talent it betrayed. In 1615, the grand duke gave a great entertainment to the prince of Urbino, and Callot was employed to make

engravings


in Literature and Art. 303

engravings of the feftivities ; it was his firft commencement in a clafe of defigns by which he afterwards attained great celebrity. In the year following, his engagement with Parigi ended, and he became his own matter. He now came out unfettered in his own originality. The firft fruits were feen in a new kind of defigns, to which he gave the name of " Caprices," a feries of which appeared about the year 1617, under the title of" Caprici di varie Figure." Callot re-engraved them at Nancy in later years, and in the new title they were ftated to have been originally engraved in 1616. In a mort preface, he fpeaks of thefe as the firft of his works on which he fet any value. They now ftrike us as fingular



No. 163. A Cripple.


examples of the fanciful creations of a moft grotefque imagination, but they no doubt preferve many traits of the feftivals, ceremonies, and manners of that land of mafquerade, which muft have been then familial to the Florentines ; and thefe engravings would, doubtlefs, be received by them with abfolute delight. One is copied in our cut No. 163 j it reprefents a cripple fupporting himfelf on a mort crutch, with his right arm in a fling. Our cut No. 164 is another example from the fame fet, and reprefents a malked clown, with his left hand on the hilt of his dagger, or perhaps of a wooden fword. From this time, although he was very induftrious and produced much, Callot engraved only his own defigns.

While


304 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque

While employed for others, Callot had worked chiefly with the graver, but now that he was his own mailer, he laid afide that implement, and devoted himfelf almoft entirely to etching, in which he attained the higheft proficiency. His work is remarkable for the cleannefs and eafe of his lines, and for the life and fpirit he gave to his figures. His talent lay



No. 164. A Grotefauc Majktr.

efpecially in the extraordinary ikill with which he grouped together great numbers of diminutive figures, each of which preferved its proper and full a&ion and effect. The great annual fair of the Impruneta was held with extraordinary feftivities, and attended by an immenfe concourfe of people of all clafles. on St. Luke's Day, the i8th of O6tober, in the oudkirts of Florence. Callot engraved a large piture of this fair, which is abfolutely wonderful. The picture embraces an extenfive fpace of ground, which is covered with hundreds of figures, all occupied, fingly or in groups, in different manners, converfing, mafquerading, buying and felling, playing games, and performing in various ways ; each group or

figure




in Literature and Art. 305


figure is a picture in itielf. This engraving produced quite a fenfation, and it was followed by other pictures of fairs, and, after his final return to Nancy, Callot engraved it anew. It was this talent for grouping large mafles of perfons which caufed the artift to be fo often employed in drawing great public ceremonies, fieges, and other warlike operations.

By the duke of Florence, Cofmo II., Callot was liberally patronifed and loaded with benefits, but on his death the government had to be placed in the hands of a regency, and art and literature no longer met with the fame encouragement. In this ftate of things, Callot was found by Charles of Lorraine, afterwards duke Charles IV., and perfuaded to return to his native country. He arrived at Nancy in 1622, and began to work there with greater activity even than he had difplayed before. It was not long after this that he produced his fets of grotefques, the Balli (or dancers), the Gobbi (or hunchbacks), and the Beggars. The firft of thefe fets, called in the title Balli, or Cucurucu* confifts of twenty-four fmall plates, each of them containing two comic characters in grotefque attitudes, with groups of fmalier figures in the diftance. Beneath the two prominent figures are their names, now unintelligible, but at that time no doubt well known on the comic flage at Florence. Thus, in the couple given in our cut No. 165, which is taken from the fourth plate of the feries, the perfonage to the left is named Smaraolo Cornuto, which means fimply Smaraolo the cuckold; and the one on the right is called Ratfa di Boio. In the original the background is occupied by a ftreet, full of fpectators, looking on at a dance of pantaloons, round one who is mounted on ftilts and playing on the tabour. The couple in our cut

No. 1 66,


  • Meaumc appears to be doubtful of the meaning of this word ; a friend has

pointed out to me the correction. It was the title of a song, so called because the burden was an imitation of the crowing of a cock, the singer mimicking also the action of the bird. When Bacchus, in Redi's " Bacco in Toscana," is beginning to feel the exhilarating effects of his critical investigation of the Tuscan wines, he calls upon Ariadne to sing to him " sulla mandola la CucurucV "on the man- dola the Cucurucu." A note fully explains the word as we have stated it " Can- zone cosi detta, perche in esse si replica molte volte la voce del gallo ; e cantandola si fanno atti e moti simili a quegli di esso gallo."

R R


306 Hi ft or y of Caricature and Grotejque


No. 1 66, reprefents another of Callot's " Caprices," from a fet differing from the firft " Caprices," or the Balli. The Gobbi, or hunchbacks, form



No. 165. Smaraolo Cornuto. Ratja di Boio.

a fet of twenty-one engravings ; and the fet of the Gipfies, already alluded to, which was alfo executed at Nancy, was included in four plates, the



No. 1 66. A Caprice.

fubje&s of which were feverally i, the gipfies travelling ; 2, the avant- guard ; 3, the halt ; and 4, the preparations for the feafl. Nothing could

be


in Literature and Art.


37


be more truthful, and at the fame time more comic, than this laft fet of fubjects. We give, as an example of the fet of the Baroni, or beggars, Callot's figure of one of that particular clafs for beggars and rogues of all kinds were claffified in thofe days whofe part it was to appeal to charity by wounds and fores artificially reprefented. In the Englilh flang



No. 167. The Falfc Cripple.

of the feventeenth century, thefe artificial fores were called clymcs, and a curious account of the manner in which they were made will be found in that fingular picture of the vicious clafles of fociety in this country at that period, the "Englim Rogue," by Head and Kirkman. The falfe cripple in our cut is holding up his leg to make a difplay of his pretended infirmity.

Callot remained at Nancy, with merely temporary abfences, during the remainder of his life. In 1628, he was employed at Bruflels in drawing and engraving the " Siege of Breda," .one of the moft finifhed ol his works, and he there made the perfonal acquaintance of Vandyck. Early


in


308 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque

in 1629, he was called to Paris to execute engravings of the fiege of La Rochelle, and of the defence of the Ifle of Rhe, but he returned to Nancy in 1630. Three years afterwards his native country was invaded by the armies of Louis XIII. , and Nancy furrendered to the French on the 2^th of September, 1633. Callot was required to make engravings to celebrate the fall ot his native town ; but, although he is faid to have been threatened with violence, he refufed ; and afterwards he com- memorated the evils brought upon his country by the French invafion in thofe two immortal fets of prints, the lefler and greater " Miseres de la Guerre." About two years after this, Callot died, in the prime of life, on the 24th of March, 1635.

The fame of Callot was great among his contemporaries, and his name is juftly refpected as one of the moft illuftrious in the hiftory of French art. He had, as might be expected, many imitators, and the Caprices, the Balli, and the Gobbi, became very favourite fubjects. Among thefe imitators, the moft fnccefsful and the moft diftinguimed was Stephano Delia Bella ; and, indeed, the only one deferring of particular notice. Delia Bella was born at Florence, on the i8th of May, 1610 ;* his father, dying two years afterwards, left him an orphan, and his mother in great poverty. As he grew up, he fhowed, like Callot himfelf, precocious talents in art, and of the fame kind. He eagerly attended all public feftivals, games, &c., and on his return from them made them the fubjecl of grotefque Sketches. It was remarked of him, efpecially, that he had a curious habit of always beginning to draw a human figure from the feet, and proceeding upwards to the head. He was ftruck at a very early period of his purfuit of art by the ftyle of Callot, of which, at firft, he was a fervile imitator, but he afterwards abandoned fome of its pecu- liarities, and adopted a ftyle which was more his own, though ftill founded upon that of Callot. He almoft rivalled Callot in his fuccefs in grouping multitudes of figures together, and hence he alfo was much employed in _____ producing

  • The materials for the history of Delia Bella and his works, will be found in

a carefully compiled volume, by C. A. Jomberr, entitled, " Essai d'un Catalogue de 1'Oeuvre d'Etienne de la Bella." 8vo., Paris, 1772.


in Literature and Art. 309

producing engravings of fieges, feftive entertainments, and fuch elaborate fubjedts. As Callot's afpi rations had been directed towards Italy, thofe of Delia Bella were turned towards France, and when in the latter days of the miniftry of Cardinal Richelieu, the grand duke of Florence fent Alexandra del Nero as his refident ambaflador in Paris, Delia Bella was permitted to accompany him. Richelieu was occupied in the liege of Arras, and the engraving of that event was the foundation of Delia Bella's fame in France, where he remained about ten years, frequently employed on fimilar fubje&s. He fubfequently vifited Flanders and Holland, and at Amfterdam made the acquaintance of Rembrandt. He returned to Florence in 1650, and died there on the 2jrd of July, 1664.

While ftill in Florence, Delia Bella executed four prints of dwarfs quite in the grotefque ftyle of Callot. In 1637, on the occafion of the marriage of the grand duke Ferdinand II., Delia Bella publilhed engravings of the different fcenes reprefented, or performed, on that occafion. Thefe were effected by very elaborate machinery, and were reprefented in fix engravings, the fifth of which (fcena quinta) reprefents hell (d' Inferno), and is filled with furies, demons, and witches, which might have found a place in Callot's "Temptation of St. Anthony."

A fpecimen of thefe is given in our cut No. 1 68 a naked witch feated upon a fkeleton of an animal that might have been borrowed from fome far diltant geological period. In

/Vo. 168. A Witch Mounted.

1642, Delia Bella executed a set of

fmall " Caprices," confifling of thirteen plates, from the eighth of which we take our cut No. 169. It reprefents a beggar-woman, carrying one child on her back, while another is ftretched on the ground. In this ciafs of fubje&s Delia Bella imitated Callot, but the copyifl never fuc- ceeded in equalling the original. His beft ftyle, as an original artift of burlefque and caricature, is Ihown in a let of five plates of Death carrying

away



3 1 o Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque


away people of different ages, which he executed in 1648. The fourth of this fet is copied in our cut No. 170, and reprefents Death carrying off, on his fhoulder, a young woman, in fpite of her ftruggles to efcape

from him.

With the clofe of the feventeenth century thefe "Caprices" and



No. 169. Beggary.

mafquecade fcenes began to be no longer in vogue, and caricature and burlefque afliimed new forms ; but Callot and Delia Bella had many followers, and their examples had a lafling influence upon art.

We muft not forget that a celebrated artift, in another country, at the end of the fame century, the well-known Remain de Hooghe, was pro- duced from the fchool of Callot, in which he had learnt, not the arts of burlefque and caricature, but that of skilfully grouping multitudes of figures, efpecially in fubje&s reprefenting epifodes of war, tumults, maflacres, and public proceflions.

Of Remain de Hooghe we mail have to fpeak again in a fubfequent chapter. In his time the art of engraving had made great advance on the Continent, and efpecially in France, where it met with more encourage- ment than elfewhere. In England this art had, on the whole, made much lefs progrefs, and was in rather a low condition, one branch only excepted, that of portraits. Of the two diftinguifhed engravers in England during the feventeenth century, Hollar was a Bohemian, and Faithorne, though


in Literature and Art.


3 11


an Englifhman, learnt his art in France. We only began to have an Englifh fchool when Dutch and French engravers came in with King William to lay the groundwork.



No. 1 TO. Death carrying off hit Prey.


3 1 2 Hiflory of Caricature and Grotejque


CHAPTER XIX.

THE SATIRICAL LITERATURE OF THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY. PAS&UIL.

MACARONIC POETRY. THE EPISTOLJE OBSURORUM VIRORUM.

RABELAIS. COURT OF THE ftUEEN OF NAVARRE, AND ITS LITERARY

CIRCLE ; BONAVENTURE DBS PERIERS. HENRI ETIENNE. THE LIGUE,

AND ITS SATIRE: THE " SATYRE MENIPPEE."

THE fixteenth century, efpecially on the Continent, was a period of that fort of violent agitation which is moft favourable to the growth of fatire. Society was breaking up, and going through a courfe of decom- pofition, and it prefented to the view on every fide fpeftacles which pro- voked the mockery, perhaps more than the indignation, of lookers-on. Even the clergy had learnt to laugh at themfelves, and almoft at their own religion ; and people who thought 01 reflected were gradually feparating into two claffes thofe who caft all religion from them, and rulhed into a jeering fcepticifm, and thofe who entejod ferioufly and with refolution into the work of reformation. The latter found moft encouragement among the Teutonic nations, while the fceptical element appears to have had its birth in Italy, and even in Rome itfelf, where, among popes and cardinals, religion had degenerated into empty forms.

At fome period towards the clofe of the fifteenth century, a mutilated ancient ftatue was accidentally dug up in Rome, and it was erefted on a pedeftal in a place not far from the Urfini Palace. Oppofite it flood the {hop of a ftioemaker, named Pafquillo, or Pafquino, the latter being the form moft commonly adopted at a later period. This Pafquillo was notorious as a facetious fellow, and his fti p was ufually crowded by people who went there to tell tales and hear news ; and, as no other name had been

invented


in Literature and Art. 313

invented for the ftatue, people agreed to give it the name of the ftioemaker, and they called it Pafquillo. It became a cuftom, at certain feafons, to write on pieces of paper fatirical epigrams, fonnets, and other ftiort com- pofitions in Latin or Italian, moftly of a perfonal character, in which the writer declared whatever he had feen or heard to the difcredit of fomebody, and thefe were publiftied by depofiting them with the ftatue, whence they were taken and read. One of the Latin epigrams which pleads againft committing thefe ihort perfonal fatires to print, calls the time at which it was ufual to compofe them Pafquil's feftival :

Jam redit ilia dies in qua Romana juwntut

Pafquilli fcftum concelcbrablt ovans. Sed verfus imprejfbi obfecro ut edere omittas,

Ne noceant iterum qute nocuere femel.

The feftival was evidently a favourite one, and well celebrated. " The foldiers of Xerxes," fays another epigram, placed in Pafquil's mouth, " were not fo plentiful as the paper beftowed upon me j I fhall foon become a bookfeller "

Armigerum Xerx'i nan cofia tanta papyri Quanta mihi : fiam bibliopola ftatim.

The name of Pafquil was foon given to the papers which were depofited with the ftatue, and eventually a pafjuil, or pafquin, was only another name for a lampoon or libel. Not far from this ftatue flood another, which was found in the forum of Mars (Mortis forum), and was thence popularly called Marforio. Some of thefe fatirical writings were compofed in the form of dialogues between Pafquil and Marforio, or of meflages from one to the other.

A collection of thefe pafquils was publiftied in 1544 in two fmall volumes.* Many of them are extremely clever, and theyare fliarply pointed. The popes are frequent objects of bittereft fatire. Thus we are reminded in two lines upon pope Alexander VI. (fextus}, the infamous Borgia, that Tarquin had been a Sextus, and Nero alfo, and now another Sextus was at

  • " Pasquillorum Torn! duo." Eleutheropoli, MrvT.'iii.

b 9


314 Hi/lory of Caricature and Grotefque


at the head of the Romans, and told that Rome was always ruined under a Sextus

De Alexandra VI. Pont

Sextus Tarquinius, Sextus Nero, Sextus et tfte : Semper fub Sextis perdita Romafuit.

The following is given for an epitaph on Lucretia Borgia, pope Alexander's profligate daughter :

Hoc tumulo dormlt Lucretia nomine, fed re Thais, Alexandri filia, fponfa, nurus.

In another of a rather later date, Rome, addreffing herfelf to Pafquil, is made to complain of two fuccefiive popes, Clement VII. (Julio de Medicis, 1523-1534) and Paul III. (Alexandra Farnefe, 1534-1549), and alfo of Leo X. (1513-1521). "I am," Rome fays, " fick enough with the phyfician (Medicos, as a pun on the Medicis), I was alfo the prey of the lion (Leo), now, Paul, you tear mv vitals like a wolf. You, Paul, are not a god to me, as I thought in my folly, but you are a wolf, fince you tear the food from my mouth "

Sum Medico fatis cegra,fui quoque prceda Leonis,

Nunc mea dilaceras vifctra, Paule, lupus. Nan es, Paule, mihi numen, ceu ftulta putabam,

Sed lupus es, quoniam Jubtrahis ore cibum.

Another epigram, addrefled to Rome herfelf, involves a pun in Greek (in the words Paulos, Paul, and Phaulos, wicked). " Once, Rome," it fays, " lords of lords were thy fubje&s, now thou in thy wretchednefs art fubjed to the ferfs of ferfs ; once you liftened to the oracles of St. Paul, but now you perform the abominable commands of the wicked "

Quondam, Roma, tibi fuberant domini dominorum,

Ser-vorum fer-vis nunc miferanda Jubes } Audljli quondam di-vini oracula IIavXov>

At nunc TUV <f>a.v\uv jujja nefanda facii.

The idea, of courfe, is the contrail of Rome in her Pagan glory, with Rome in her Chriftian debafement, very much the fame as that which

ftruck


in Literature and Art. 3 1 5

ftruck Gibbon, and gave birth to his great hfftory of Rome's " decline and fall."*

The pafquils formed a body of fatire which ftruck indifcriminately at everybody within its range, but fatirifts were now rifing who took for their fubjecls fpecial cafes of the general diforder. Rotten at the heart, fociety prefented an external gloffinefs, a mixture of pedantry and affe&a- tion, which offered fubjecls enough for ridicule in whatever point of view it was taken. The ecclefiaftical body was in a ftate of fermentation, out of which new feelings and new doctrines were about to rife. The old learning and literature of the middle ages remained in form after their fpirit had paffed away, and they were now contending clumfily and unfuccefsfully againfl. new learning and literature of a more refined and healthier character. Feudalifm itfelf had fallen, or it was ftruggling vainly againft new political principles, yet the ariflocracy clung to feudal forms and feudal affumptions, with an exaggeration which was meant for an appearance of flrength. Among the literary affectations of this falfe feudalifm, was the fafhion for reading the long, dry, old romances of chivalry j while the churchmen and fchoolmen were cor- rupting the language in which mediaeval learning had been expreffed, into a form the moft barbarous, or introducing words compounded from the later into the vernacular tongue. Thefe peculiarities were among the firft to provoke literary fatire. Italy, where this clafs of fatire originated, gave it its name alfo, though it appears flill to be a matter of doubt why it was called macaronic, or in its Italian form maccharonea. Some have confidered this name to have been taken from the article of food called macaroni, to which the Italians were, and ftill are, fo much attached j while others pretend that it was derived from an old Italian word macarone, which meant a lubberly fellow. Be this, however, as it may, what is called macaronic compofition, which confifts in giving a Ladn

  • Pasquil and Pasquin became, during the latter part of the sixteenth and the

whole of the seventeenth centuries, a well-known name in French and English literature. In English popular literature he was turned into a jester, and a hook was published in 1604 under the title "Pasquil's Jests ; with the Merriments of Mother Bunch. Wittie, pleasant, and delightfull."


3 1 6 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque

Latin form to words taken from the vulgar tongue, and mixing them with words which are purely Latin, was introduced in Italy at the clofe of the fifteenth century.

Four Italian writers in macaronic verfe are known to have lived before the year 1500.* The firfl of thefe was named Fofla, and he tells us that he compofed his poem entitled " Vigonce," on the fecond day of May, 1494. It was printed in 1502. Baffano, a native of Mantua, and the author of a macaronic which bears no title, was dead in 1499 5 an ^ another, a Paduan named Fifi degli Odaffi, was born about the year 1450. Giovan Georgio Allione, of Afli, who is believed alfo to have written during the laft ten years of the fifteenth century, is a name better known through the edition of his French works, publifhed by Monfieur J. C. Brunei in 1836. All thefe prefent the fame coarfenefs and vulgarity of fentiment, and the fame licence in language and defcription, which appear to have been taken as neceflary chara6teriilics of macaronic compofition. Odaffi appears to give fupport to the derivation of the name from macaroni, by making the principal character of his poem a fabricator of that article in Padua

Eft units in Padua natus fpectale cufinus,

In maccharonea frinceps bonus atquc magijler.

But the great matter of macaronic poetry was Teofilo Folengo, of whofe life we know juft fufficient to give us a notion of the perfonal character of thefe old literary caricaturifts. Folengo was defcended from a noble family, which had its feat at the village of Cipada, near Mantua, where he was born on the 8th of November, 1491, and baptifed by the name of Girolamo. He purfued his ftudies, firft in the univerfity of Ferrara, under the profeflbr Vifago Cocaio, and afterwards in that of Bologna, under Pietro Pomponiazzo ; or rather, he ought to have purfued them

  • The great authority on the history of Macaronic literature is my excellent

friend Monsieur Octave Delepierre, and I will simply refer the reader to his two valuable publications, " Macaroneana, ou Melanges de Litterature Macaronique des differents Peuples de 1'Europe," 8vo., Paris, 1852; and " Macaroneana," 4to-, 1863 ; the latter printed for the Philobiblon Club.


in Literature and Art. 3 1 7

them, for his love of poetry, and his gaiety of chara&er, led him to negle6t them, and at length his irregularities became fo great, that he was obliged to make a hafty flight from Bologna. He was ill received at home, and he left it alfo, and appears to have fubfequently led a wild life, during part of which he adopted the profeflion of a foldier, until at length he took refuge in a Benedi6tine convent near Brefcia, in 1507, and became a monk. The difcipline of this houfe had become entirely relaxed, and the monks appear to have lived very licentiouflyj and Folengo, who, on his admiflion to the order, had exchanged his former baptifmal name for Teofilo, readily conformed to their example. Even- tually he abandoned the convent and the habit, ran away with a lady named Girolama Dedia, and for fome years he led a wandering, and, it would feem, very irregular life. Finally, in 1,527, he returned to his old profeflion of a monk, and remained in it until his death, in the December of 1544. He is faid to have been extremely vain of his poetical talents, and a ftory is told of him which, even if it were invented, illuf- trates well the character which was popularly given to him. It is faid that when young, he afpired to excel in Latin poetry, and that he wrote an epic which he himfelf believed to befuperior to the ./Eneid. When, however, he had communicated the work to his friend the bifhop of Mantua, and that prelate, intending to compliment him, told him that he had equalled Virgil, he was fo mortified, that he threw the manufcript on the fire, and from that time devoted his talents entirely to the compofition of macaronic verfe.

Such was the man who has juftly earned the reputation of being the firft of macaronic poets. When he adopted this branch of literature, while he was in the univerfity of Bologna, he aflumed in writing it the name of Merlinus Cocaius, or Coccaius, probably from the name of his profeflbr at Ferrara. Folengo's printed poems confift of i. The Zani- tonella, a paftoral in feven eclogues, defcribing the love of Tonellus for Zanina ; a, the macaronic romance of Baldus, Folengo's principal and moft remarkable work ; 3, the Mofchaea, or dreadful battle between the flies and the ants ; and 4, a book of Epiftles and Epigrams.

The firft edition of the Baldus appeared in 1.517. It is a fort of

parody


3 1 8 Hiflory of Caricature and Grotefque

parody on the romances of chivalry, and combines a jovial latire upon everything, which, as has been remarked, fpares neither religion nor politics, fcience nor literature, popes, kings, clergy, nobility, or people. It confifts of twenty-five cantos, or, as they are termed in the original, phantqfice, fantafies. In the firft we are told of the origin of Baldus. There was at the court of France a famous knight named Guy, defcended from that memorable paladin Renaud of Montauban. The king, who mowed a particular efteem for Guy, had alfo a daughter of furpaffing beauty, named Balduine, who had fallen in love with Guy, and he was equally amorous of the princeis. In the fequel of a grand tournament, at which Guy has diftinguilhed himfelf greatly, he carries off Balduine, and the two lovers fly on foot, in the difguife of beggars, reach the Alps in fafety, and crofs them into Italy. At Cipada, in the territory of Brefcia, they are hofpitably entertained by a generous peafant named Berte Panade, with whom the princefs Balduine, who approaches her time of confinement, is left j while her lover goes forth to conquer at leaft a marquifate for her. After his departure (he gives birth to a fine boy, which is named Baldus. Such, as told in the fecorid canto, is the origin of Folengo's hero, who is deftined to perform marvellous ads of chivalry. The peafant Berte Panade has alfo a fon named Zambellus, by a mother who had died in childbirth of him. Baldus pafles for the fon of Berte alfo, fo that the two are fuppofed to be brothers. Baldus is fucceflively led through a feries of extraordinary adventures, fbme low and vulgar, others more chivalrous, and fome of them exhibiting a wild fertility of imagination, which are too long to enable me to take my readers through them, until at length he is left by the poet in the country of Falfehood and Charlatanifm, which is inhabited by aftrologers, necromancers, and poets. Thus is the hero Baldus dragged through a great number of marvellous accidents, fome of them vulgar, many of them ridiculous, and fome, again, wildly poetical, but all of them prefenting, in one form or other, an opportunity for fatire upon fome of the follies, or vices, or corruptions of his age. The hybrid language in which the whole is written, gives it a fingularly grotefque appearance; yet from time to time we have paflages which mow that the author was capable of writing true poetry,

although


in Literature and Art. 3 1 9

although it is mixed with a great amount of coarfe and licentious ideas, exprefled no leis coarfely and licentioufly. What we may term the filth, indeed, forms a large proportion of the Italian macaronic poetry. The paftoral of Zanitonella prefents, as might be expected, more poetic beauty than the romance of Balbus. As an example of the language of the latter, and indeed of that of the Italian macaronics in general, I give a few lines of a defcription of a ftorm at fea, from the twelfth canto, with a literal tranflation :


Jam grldor aterias hom'mum concujfit abyjjos, Sentiturque ingens cordarum Jlridor, et ipfe Pontus habet pavidos -vultus, mortijque colores. Nunc Sirochus habet palmam t nunc Borra Juperchiat ; Irrugit pelagus, tangit quoque jluftibus aftra, Fulgure Jlammlgero creber lampezat Olympus ; J^elaforata micant crebris lacerata balottis ; Horrendam mortem nautit ea cuntJa minazzant. Nuncjbalzata ratis celfum tangebat Olympum, Nunc fulfil infernam undajbadacchiantepaludem.

TBANSLATION

Now the clamour of the men Jbook the ethereal abyjjes, dnd the mighty crajbing of the ropet is felt ', and the -very Sea has pale looks, and the hue of death. Now the Sirocco has the palm, now Eurus exults over it ; Thejea roars, and touches thejtars ivith its "waves, Olympus continually bla-zet out ivith flaming thunder, The pierced fails glitter torn with frequent thunderbolts ; All thefe threaten frightful death to the Jailors. Now the [hip toffed up touched the top of Olympus, Now, the wave yawning, it Jinks into the infernal lake.


Teofilo Folengo was followed by a number of imitators, of whom it will be fufficient to ftate that he ftands in talent as far above his followers as above thofe who preceded him. One of thefe minor Italian macaronic writers, named Bartolommeo Bolla, of Bergamo, who flourifhed in the latter half of the fixteenth century, had the vanity to call himfelf, in the title of one of his books, " the Apollo of poets, and the Cocaius of this age 5" but a modern critic has remarked of him that he is as far removed

from


320 Hill or y of Caricature and Grotefque

from his model Folengo, as his native town Bergamo is diftant from Siberia. An earlier poet, named Guarino Capella, a native of the town of Sarfina, in the country of Forli, on the borders of Tufcany, approached far nearer in excellence to the prince of macaronic writers. His. work alfo is a mock romance, the hiftory of " Cabrinus, king of Gagamagoga," in fix books or cantos, which was printed at Arimini in 1526, and is now a book of exceflive rarity.

The tafte for macaronics paffed rather early, like all other faihions in that age, from Italy into France, where it firfl brought into literary repu- tation a man who, if he had not the great talent of Folengo, pofleffed a very confiderable amount of wit and gaiety. Antoine de la Sable, who Latinifed his name into Antonius de Arena, was born of a highly refpeft- able family at Soliers, in the diocefe of Toulon, about the year 1500, and, being deftined from his youth to follow the profeffion of the law, ftudied under the celebrated jurifconfult Alciatus. He had only arrived at the fimple dignity of juge, at St. Remy, in the diocefe of Aries, when he died in the year 1544. In faft, he appears to have been no very diligent ftudent, and we gather from his own confeflions that his youth had been rather wild. The volume containing his macaronics, the fecond edition of which (as far as the editions are known) was printed in 1529, bears a title which will give fome notion of the character of its contents, "Provencalis de Iragardiffima villa de Solents, ad SILOS compagnones quifunt de perfona friantes, bajffas danfas et Iranlas praSlicantes novellas, de guerra Romana, Neapolitana, et Genuenfi mandat ; una cum epi/lola adfalotiffimam fuam garfam, Janam Rofaam, pro paffando tempora " (i.e. a ProvenQal of the moft fwaggering town of Soliers, fends this to his companions, who are dainty of their perfons, praftifing bafle dances and new brawls, concern- ing the war of Rome, Naples, and Genoa ; with an epiftle to his moft merry wench. Jeanne Rofee, for paftime). In the firft of thefe poems Arena traces in his burlefque verfe, which is an imitation of Folengo, his own adventures and fufferings in the war in Italy which led to the fack of Rome, in 1527, and in the fubfequent expeditions to Naples and Genoa. From the picture of the horrors of war, he paffes very willingly to defcribe the joyous manners of the fludents in Proven9al univerfities, of whom he

tells


in Literature and Art. 321

tells us, that they are all fine gallants, and always in love with the prettj girls.

Gentigr.lantes funt omnes inftudiantcs,

Et bellas garfas Jenifer amare folcr.t .

He goes on to defcribe the fcholars as great quarrellers, as well as lovers of the other fex, and after dwelling on their gaiety and love of the dance, he proceeds to treat in the fame burlefque ftyle on the fubjecl of dancing; but I pafs over this to fpeak of Arena's principal piece, the fatirical defcription of the invafion of Provence by the emperor Charles V. in 1536. This curious poem, which is entitled " Meygra Enterprifa Cato- loqui imperatoris," and which extends to upwards of two thoufand lines, opens with a laudatory addrefs to the king of France, Franqois I., and with a fneer at the pride of the emperor, who, believing himfelf to be the matter of the whole world, had foolifhly thought to take away France and the cities of Provence from their rightful monarch. It was Antonio de Leyva, the boafter, who had put this project into the emperor's head, and they had already pillaged and ravaged a good part of Provence, and were dividing the plunder, when, harafled continually by the peafantry, the invaders were brought to a Hand by the difficulty of fubfifting in a devastated country, and by the difeafes to which this difficulty gave rife. Neverthelefs, the Spaniards and their allies committed terrible devafta- tion, which is defcribed by Arena in ftrong language. He commemorates the valiant refiftance of his native town of Soliers, which, however, was taken and facked, and he loft in it his houfe and property. Aries held the imperialifts at bay, while the French, under the conilable Montmo- rency, eftablifhed themfelves firmly at Avignon. At length difeafe gained pofleflion of Antonio de Leyva himfelf, and the emperor, who had been making an unfuccefsful demonftration againft Marfeilles, came to him in his ficknefs. The firft lines of the defcription of this interview, will ferve as a fpecimen of the language of the French macaronics :

Sed de Marjella braggantl quando retornat,

Fort male contentufy quando npoljat turn, Antonium Levant trobavit forte maladum,

Cui mors terribilis trifle cubile firat.

T T Etkita


322 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque


Ethica torquct turn per coftas, et dolor mgens :

Cum male ret vadit, vivere fachat earn. Dixcrunt medici, fperanja eft niilla falutis ;

Ethicui in tefta inhere pauca potcft. Ante juam mortem imluit par tare per horam

Imperelatori, conjiimmque dare. Scis, Ccefar, ftri&e noftri groppantur amorei,

Namque dual animal corpus utrumque tenet, Heu ! fuge Provenfam fortem, fuge iittus amarum,

Pac tibl nan noceat gloria tanta modo.


TRAXSLATION.


But when he returns from boafting Marseilles,

Very ill content, that /he had repuljed him, He found dntonio de Leyva very ill,

For whom terrible death is preparing aforrowful bed. Heflic fever tortures him in the ribs, and great pain ;

Since things are going ill, he is -weary of life. Before his death he voijhtd to f peak an hour

To the emperor, and to give him counfel. " You know, Ctefar, our affeffions are clojely bound together,

For either body holds the two fouls, Alat ! fy Provence the ftrong, jly the bitter Jbore,

Take care that your great glory prove not an injury to you.'"

Thus Leyva goes on to perfuade the emperor to abandon his enterprife, and then dies. Arena exults over his death, and over the emperor's grief for his lofs, and then proceeds to defcribe the difaftrous retreat of the imperial army, and the glory of France in her king.

Antonius de Arena wrote with vigour and humour, but his verfes are tame in comparifon with his model, Folengo. The tafte for macaronic verfe never took ftrong root in France, and the few obfcure writers who attempted to mine in that kind of compofition are now forgotten, except by the laborious bibliographer. One named Jean Germain, wrote a macaronic hiftory of the invafion of Provence by the imperialifts in rivalry of Arenas. I will not follow the tafte for this clafs of burlefque compofi- tion into Spain or Germany, but merely add that it was not adopted in England until the beginning of the feventeenth century, when feveral authors employed it at about the fame time. The moft perfect example of thefe early Englifh macaronics is the " Polemo-Middiana," i.e. battle of

the


in Literature and Art.


323


the dunghill, by the talented and elegant-minded Drummond of Haw- thornden. We may take a fingle example of the Englifli macaronic from this poem, which will not need an Englim tranflation. One of the female characters in the dunghill war, calls, among others, to her aid

HUHC qul dirtlferai ter/tt cum dijbckuty dijbras, Hunc qui gruelias fc'rvlt bene lickere plettas, Et faltpannlfumos, et widebricatosjijherof, Hellaofque etiam falteros duxit ab antris, Coalheughc/t nlgri girnantet more divelli j Lifeguardamque Jibi f&vas -vocat improba lajfas t Maggyam mag'u do flam milkare covceas, Et doliam fuepare jjouras t et Jlernere beddas, QjKtque novit fpinnare, et longas ducere threddas ; Nanfyam, claves bene qua keepa-verat omnes y

lanam cardare Jolet greajy-jingria Betty.


Perhaps before this was written, the eccentric Thomas Coryat had publifhed in the volume of his Crudities, printed in 1611, a fhort piece of verfe, which is perfect in its macaronic ftyle, but in which Italian and other foreign words are introduced, as well as Englifli. The celebrated comedy of " Ignoramus," compofed by George Ruggle in 1615, may alfo be mentioned as containing many excellent examples of Englim macaronics. While Italy was giving birth to macaronic verfe, the fatire upon the ignorance and bigotry of the clergy was taking another form in Germany, which arofe from fome occurrences which it will be neceflary to relate. In the midft of the violent religious agitation at the beginning of the fixteenth century in Germany, there lived a German Jew named Pfeffer- corn, who embraced Chriftianity, and to mow his zeal for bis new faith, he obtained from the emperor an edict ordering the Talmud and all the Jewifh writings which were contrary to the Chriflian faith to be burnt. There lived at the fame time a fcholar of distinction, and of more liberal views than moft of the fcholattics of his time, named John Reuchlin. He was a relative of Melancthon, and was fecretary to the palfgrave, who was tolerant like himfelf. The Jews, as might be expected, were unwilling to give up their books to be burnt, and Reuchlin wrote in their defence, under the affumed name of Capnion, which is a

Hebrew


3 24 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque


Hebrew tranflation of his own name of Reuchlin, meaning fmoke, and urged that it was better to refute the books in queftion than to burn them. The converted Pfeffercorn replied in a book entitled " Speculum Manuale," in anfwer to which Reuchlin wrote his " Speculum Oculare." The controverfy had already provoked much bigoted ill-feeling againft Reuchlin. The learned doftors of the univerfity of Cologne efpoufed the caufe of Pfeffercorn, and the principal of the univerfity, named in Latin Ortuinus Gratius, fupported by the Sorbonne in Paris, lent himfelf to be the violent organ of the intolerant party. Hard prefTed by his bigoted opponents, Reuchlin found good allies, but one of the beft of thefe was a brave baron named Ulric von Hutten, of an old and noble family, born in 1488 in the caftle of Staeckelberg, in Franconia. He had ftudied in the fchools at Fulda, Cologne, and Frankfort on the Oder, and diftinguifhed himfelf fo much as a fcholar, that he obtained the degree of Mafter of Arts before the ufual age. But Ulric poflefled an adventurous and chivalrous fpirit, which led him to embrace the profeflion of a foldier, and he ferved in the wars in Italy, where he was diftinguifhed by his bravery. He was at Rome in iji6, and defended Reuchlin againft the Dominicans. The fame year appeared the firft edition of that marvellous book, the "Epistolæ Obscurorum Virorum," one of the moft remarkable fatires that the world has yet feen. It is believed that this book came entirely from the pen of Ulric von Hutten ; and the notion that Reuchlin himfelf, or any others of his friends, had a ihare in it appears to be without foundation. Ulric was in the following year made poet-laureat. Neverthelefs, this book greatly incenfed the monks againft him, and he was often threatened with aflaflination. Yet he boldly advocated the caufe and embraced the opinions of Luther, and was one of the ftaunch fup- porters of Lutheranifm. After a very turbulent life, Ulric von Hutten died in the Auguft of the year 1523.

The " Epiftolae Obfcurorum Virorum," or letters of obfcure men, are fuppoled to be addreffed to Ortuinus Gratins, mentioned above, by various individuals, fome his fcholars, others his friends, but all belonging to the bigoted party oppofed to Reuchlin, and they were defigned to throw ridicule on the ignorance, bigotry, and immorality of the clergy of the

Romifh


in Literature and Art. 325


Romifh church. The old fcholaftic learning had become debafed into a heavy and barbarous fyftem of theology, literary compofition confided in writing a no lefs barbarous Latin, and even the few claffical writers who were admitted into the fchools, were explained and commented upon in a ftrange half-theological fafhion. Thefe old fcholailics were bitterly oppofed to the new learning, which had taken root in Italy, and was fpreading abroad, and they fpoke contemptuoufly of it as " fecular." The letters of the obfcure individuals relate chiefly to the difpute between Reuchlin and PfefFercorn, to the rivalry between the old fcholarfhip and the new, and to the low licentious lives of the theologifts ; and they are written in a ftyle of Latin which is intended for a parody on that of the latter, and which clofely refembles that which we call "dog- Latin."* They are full of wit and humour of the moft exquifite defcription, but they too often defcend into details, treated in terms which can only be excufed by the coarfe and licentious character of the age. The literary and fcientific queftions difcuffed in thefe letters are often very droll. The firit in order of the correfpondents of Ortuinus Gratius, who boafls of the rather formidable name, Thomas Langfchneiderius, and addrefles mafter Ortuinus as "poet, orator, philofopher, and theologift, and more if he would," propounds to him a difficult queftion :'

" There was here one day an Aristotelian dinner, and doctors, licentiates, and masters too, were very jovial, and I was there too, and we drank at the first course three draughts of Malmsey, . . and then we had six dishes of flesh and chickens and capons, and one of fish, and as we passed from one dish to another, we continually drunk wine of Kotzburg and the Rhine, and ale of Embeck, and Thurgen, and Neuburg. And the masters were well satisfied, and said that the new masters had acquitted themselves well and with great honour. Then the masters in their hilarity began to talk learnedly on great questions, and one asked whether it were

correct

  • This style differs entirely from the macaronic. It consists merely in using

the words of the Latin language with the forms and construction of the vulgar tongue, as illustrated by the directions of the professor who, lecturing in the schools, was interrupted by the entrance of a clog, and shouted out to the doorkeeper, Verte canem ex, meaning thereby that he should " turn the dog out." It was perhaps from this, or some similar occurrence, that this barbarous Latin gained the name of dog-Latin. The French call it Latin de cuifme.


326 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque


correct to say magifter noftrandut, or nofter magiftrandm t for a person fit to be made doctor in theology. . . . And immediately Master Warmsemmel, who is a subtle Scotist, and has been master eighteen years, and was in his time twice rejected and thrice delayed for the degree of master, and he went on offering himself, until he was pro- moted for the honour of the university, . . . spoke, and held that we should say nofter magiftrandus. . . . Then Master Andreas Delitsch, who is very subtle, and half poet, half artist (I.e. one who professed in the faculty of arts), physician, and jurist; and now he reads ordinarily ' Ovid on the Metamorphoses,' and expounds all the fables allegorically and literally, and I was his hearer, because he expounds very fundamentally, and he also reads at home Quintillian and Juvencus, and he held the opposite to Master Warmsemmel, and said that we ought to say magifter noftrandus. For as there is a difference between magifter nofter and nofter magijier, so also there is a difference between magifter noftrandus and nofter magiftrandus; for a doctor in theology is called magifter nofttr, and it is one word, but nofter magifter are two words, and it is taken for any master ; and he quoted Horace in support of this. Then the masters much admired his subtlety, and one drank to-him a cup of Neu- burg ale. And he said, ' I will wait, but spare me,* and touched his hat, and laughed heartily, and drank to Master Warmsemmel, and said, ' There, master, don't think I am an enemy,' and he drank it off at one draught, and Master Warm- semmel replied to him with a strong draught. And the masters were all merry till the bell rang for Vespers."

Matter Ortuin is prefled for his judgment on this weighty queftion. A fimilar fcene defcribed in another letter ends lefs peacefully. The cor- refpondent on this occafion is Magifter Bornharddus Plumilegus, who addrefles Ortuinus Gratius as follows :

" Wretched is the mouse which has only one hole for a refuge ! So also I may say of myself, most venerable sir, for I should be poor if I had only one friend, and when that one should fail me, then I should not have another to treat me with kind- ness. As is the case now with a certain poet here, who is called George Sibutus, and he is one of the secular poets, and reads publicly in poetry, and is in other respects a good fellow (bonus focius") . But as you know these poets, when they are not theologists like you, will always reprehend others, and despise the theologists. And once in a drinking party in his house, when we were drinking Thurgen ale, and sat until the hour of tierce, and I was moderately drunk, because that ale rose into my head, then there was one who was not before friendly with me, and I drank to him half a cup, and he accepted it. But afterwards he would not return the compliment. And thrice I cautioned him, and he would not reply, but sat in silence and said nothing. Then I thought to myself, Behold this man treats thee with contempt, and is proud, and always wants to confound you. And I was stirred in my anger, and took the cup, and threw it at his head. Then that poet was angry at me, and said that I had caused a disturbance in his house, and said I should go out of his house in the devil's name. Then I replied, 'What matter is it if you are my

enemy ?


in Literature and Art. 327


enemy ? 1 have had as bad enemies as you, and yet I have stood in spite of them. What matters it if you are a poet? I have other poets who are my friends, and they are quite as good as you, ego bent merdarem in -veftram poetriam ! Do you think I am a fool, or that I was born under a tree like apples ?' Then he called me an ass, and said that I never saw a poet. And I said, ' You are an ass in your skin, I have seen many more poets than you.' And I spoke of you. . . . Wherefore I ask you very earnestly to write me one piece of verse, and then I will show it to this poet and others, and I will boast that you are my friend, and you are a much better poet than he."

The war againft the fecular poets, or advocates of the new learning, is kept up with fpirit through this ludicrous correfpondence. One corre- fpondent preffes Ortuinus Gratius to " write to me whether it be neceffary for eternal falvation that fcholars learn grammar from the fecular poets, fuch as Virgil, Tullius, Pliny, and others; for," he adds, "it feems to me that this is not a good method of fludying." "As I have often written to you," fays another, " I am grieved that this ribaldry (i/ia ribaldria) , namely, the faculty of poetry, becomes common, and is fpread through all provinces and regions. In my time there was only one poet, who was called Samuel; and now, in this city alone, there are at leaft twenty, and they vex us all who hold with the ancients. Lately I thoroughly defeated one, who faid thatfcholaris does not fignify a perfon who goes to the fchool for the purpofe of learning ; and I faid, ' Afs ! will you correct the holy doctor who expounded this word ? " The new learning was, of courfe, identified with the fupporters of Reuchlin. " It is faid here," continues the fame correfpondent, " that all the poets will fide with doctor Reuchlin againft the theologians. I wifh all the poets were in the place where pepper grows, that they might let us go in peace !"

Matter William Lamp, "matter of arts," fends to Matter Ortuinus Gratius, a narrative of his adventures in a journey from Cologne to Rome. Firft he went to Mayence, where his indignation was moved by the open manner in which people fpoke in favour of Reuchlin, and when he hazarded a contrary opinion, he was only laughed at, but he held his tongue, becaufe his opponents all carried arms and looked fierce. " One of them is a count, and is a long man, and has white hair; and they fay that he takes a man in armour in his hand, and throws him to the ground,

and


328 Hijlory of Caricature and Grotefque

and he has a fword as long as a giant ; when I faw him, then I held my tongue." At Worms, he found things no better, for the " do&ors " fpoke bitterly againft the theologians, and when he attempted to expoftulate, he got foul words as well as threats, a learned doctor in medicine affirming " quod merdaret fuper nos omnes." On leaving Worms, Lamp and his companion, another theologift, fell in with plunderers who made them pay two florins to drink, " and I faid occulte, Drink what may the devil blefs to you!" Subfequently they fell into low amours at country inns, which are defcribed coarfely, and then they reached Infprucken, where they found the emperor, and his court and army, with whofe manners and proceedings Magifter Lamp became forely difgufted. I pafs over other adventures till they reach Mantua, the birthplace of Virgil, and of a late mediaeval Latin poet, named from it Baptifta Mantuanus. Lamp, in his hoftile fpirit towards the " fecular poets," proceeds, " And my companion faid, ' Here Virgil was born.' I replied, ' What do I care for that pagan ? We will go to the Carmelites, and fee Baptifta Mantuanus, who is twice as good as Virgil, as I have heard full ten times from Ortuinus j ' and I told him how you once reprehended Donatus, when he fays, 'Virgil was the moft learned of poets, and the beft ;' and you faid, ' If Donatus were here, I would tell him to his face that he lies, for Baptifta Mantuanus is above Virgil.' And when we came to the monaftery of the Carmelites, we were told that Baptifta Mantuanus was dead ; then I faid, ' May he reft in peace !'" They continued their journey by Bologna, where they found the inquifitor Jacob de Hochftraten, and Florence, to Siena. "After this there are fmall towns, and one is called Monte-flafcon, where we drunk excellent wine, fuch as I never drank in my life. And I alked the hoft what that wine is called, and he replied that it is lachryma Chrifti. Then faid my companion, '1 wilh Chrift would cry in our country!' And fo we drank a good bout, and two days after we entered Rome."

In the courfe of thefe letters the theologifts, the poets efpecially, the charader of the clergy, and particularly Reuchlin and Pfeffercorn, afford continual fubje&s for difpute arid pleafantry. The laft mentioned indivi- dual, in the opinion ot fome, had merited hanging for theft, and it was pretended that the Jews had expelled him from their fociety for his

wicked


Literature and in Art. 329

wicked courfes. One argued that all Jews (link, and as it was well known that Pfeffercorn continued to flink like a Jew, it was quite evident that he could not be a good Chriftian. Some of Ortuinus's correfpon dents confult him on difficult theological queftions. Here is an example in a letter from one Henricus Schaffmulius, another of his fcholars who had made the journey to Rome :

" Since, before I journeyed to the Court, you said to me that I am to write often to you, and that sometimes I am to send you any theological questions, which you will solve for me better than the courtiers of Rome, therefore now I ask your mastership what you hold as to the case when any one on a Friday, or any other fast day, eats an eg?, and there is a chicken inside. Because the other day we sat in a tavern in the Campo-flore, and made a collation, and eat eggs, and I, opening an egg, saw that there was a young chicken in it, which I showed to my companion, and then he said, ' Eat it quickly before the host sees it, for if he sees it, then you will be obliged to give a carlino or a julio for a hen, because it is the custom here that, when the host places anything on the table, you must pay for it, for they will not take it back. And when he sees there is a young hen in the egg, he will say, Pay me for the hen, because he reckons a small one the same as a large one.' And I immediately sucked up the egg, and with it the chicken, and afterwards I bethought me that it was Friday, and I said to my companion. ' You have caused me to com- mit a mortal sin, in eating flesh on Friday.' And he said that it is not a mortal sin, nor even a venial sin, because that embryo of a chicken is not reckoned other than an egg till it is born ; and he told me that it is as in cheeses, in which there are sometimes worms, and in cherries, and fresh peas and beans, yet they are eaten on Fridays, and also in the vigils of the apostles. But the hosts are such rogues, that they say that they are flesh, that they may have more money. Then I went away, and thought about it. And, per Deum ! Magister Ortuinus, I am much troubled, and I know not how I ought to rule myself. If I went to ask advice of a courtier [of the papal court], I know that they have not good consciences. It seems to me that these young hens in the eggs are flesh, because the matter is already formed and figured in members and bodies of an animal, and it has life ; it is other- wise with worms in cheeses and other things, because worms are reputed for fishes, as I have heard from a physician, who is a very good naturalist. Therefore I ask you very earnestly, that you will give me your reply on this question. Because it you hold that it is a mortal sin, then I will purchase an absolution here, before I return to Germany. Also you must know that our master Jacobus de Hochstraten has obtained a thousand florins from the bank, and I think that with these he will gain his cause, and the devil confound that John Reuchlin, and the other poets and jurists, because they will be against the church of God, that is, against the theologists, in whom is founded the church, as Christ said : Thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church. And so I commend you to the Lord God. Fare- well. Given from the city of Rome."

While in Italy macaronic literature was reaching itsgreateft perfection,

u u there


330 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque


there arofe in the very centre of France a man of great original genius, who was foon to aftonifti the world by a new form of fatire, more grotefque and more comprehensive than anything that had been feen before. Teofilo Folengo may fairly be confidered as the precurfor of Rabelais, who appears to have taken the Italian fatirift as his model. What we know of the life of Franpois Rabelais is rather obfcure at beft, and is in fome parts no doubt fabulous. He was born at Chinon in Touraine, either in 1483 or in 1487, for this feems to be a difputed point, and fome doubt has been thrown on the trade or profeflion of his father, but the moft generally received opinion is that he was an apothecary. He is faid to have fhown from his youth a difpofition more inclined to gaiety than to ferious purfuits, yet at an early age he had made great proficiency in learning, and is faid to have acquired a very fufficient knowledge of Latin, Greek, and Hebrew, two of which, at leaft, were not popular among the popifh clergy, and not only of the modern lan- guages and literature of Italy, Germany, and Spain, but even of Arabic. Probably this eftimate of his acquirements in learning is rather exaggerated. It is not quite clear where the young Rabelais gained all this knowledge, for he is faid to have been educated in convents and among monks, and to have become at a rather early age a Francifcan friar in the convent of Fontenai-le-Compte, in Lower Poitou, where he became an obje6t of jealoufy and ill-feeling to the other friars by his fuperior acquirements. It was a tradition, at leaft, that the condu6t of Rabelais was not very ftri&ly conventual, and that he had fo far fhown his contempt for monaftic rule, and for the bigotry of the Romifh church, that he was condemned to the prifon of his monaftery, upon a diet of bread and water, which, according to common" report, was very uncongenial .with the taftes of this jovial friar. Out of this difficulty he is faid to have been helped by his friend the bifhop of Maillezais, who obtained for him the pope's licence to change the order of St. Francis for the much more eafy and liberal order of St. Benedict, and he became a member of the bifhop's own chapter in the abbey of Maillezais. His unfteady temper, however, was not long fatisficd with this retreat, which he left, and, laying afide the regular habit, afliimed that of a fecular prieft. In this charader he wandered for

fome


in Literature and Art. 3 3 1

fome time, and then fettled at Montpellier, where he took a degree as dodor in medicine, and praclifed for fome time with credit. There he published in 1532 a tranflation of fome works of Hippocrates and Galen, which he dedicated to his friend the biftiop of Maillezais. Thfe circum- ftances under which he left Montpellier are not known, but he is fup- pofed to have gone to Paris upon fome bufinefs of the univerfity, and to have remained there. He found there a ftaunch friend in Jean de Bellay, bifhop of Paris, who foon afterwards was raifed to the rank of cardinal. When the cardinal de Bellay went as ambaflador to Rome from the court of France, Rabelais accompanied him, it is laid in the character of his private medical advifer, but during his flay in the metropolis of Chriftendom, as Chriftendom was underftood in thofe days by the Romifh church, Rabelais obtained, on the I7th of January, 1536, the papal abfolution for all his tranfgreffions, and licence to return to Maillezais, and pra&ife medicine there and elfewhere as an at of charity. Thus he became again a Benedictine monk. He, however, changed again, and became a fecular canon, and finally fettled down as the cure of Meudon, near Paris, with which he alfo held a fair number of ecclefi- aftical benefices. Rabelais died in i553> according to fome in a very religious manner, but others have given ftrange accounts of his lafl moments, reprefenting that, even when dying, he converfed in the fame fpirit of mockery, not only of Romim forms and ceremonies, but of all religions whatever, which was afcribed to him during his life, and which are but too openly manifefted in the extraordinary fatirical romance \vhich has given fo much celebrity to his name.

During the greater part of his life, Rabelais was expofed to troubles and perfecutions. He was faved from the intrigues of the monks by the friendly influence of popes and cardinals ; and the favour of two fucceflive kings, Francois I. and Henri II., protected him againft the ftill more dangerous hoftility of the Sorbonne and the parliament of Paris. This high protection has been advanced as a reafon for rejecting the anecdotes and accounts which have been commonly received relating to the per- fonal character of Rabelais, and his irregularities may poffibly have been exaggerated by the hatred which he had drawn upon himfelf by his

writings.


332 Hijlory of Caricature and Grotefque

writings. But nobody, I think, who knows the character of fociety at that time, who compares what we know of the lives of the other fatirifts, and who has read the hiftory of Gargantua and Pantagruel, will confider fuch an argument of much weight againft the deliberate ftatements of thofe who were his contemporaries, or be inclined to doubt that the writer of this hiftory was a man of jovial character, who loved a good buttle and a broad joke, and perhaps other things that were equally objectionable. His books prefent a fort of wild riotous orgy, without much order or plan, except the mere outline of the ftory, in which is dif- played an extraordinary extent of reading in all clailes of literature, from the moft learned to the moil popular, with a wonderful command of lan- guage, great imagination, and fome poetry, intermixed with a per- haps larger amount of downright obfcene ribaldry, than can be found in the macaronics of Folengo, in the "Epiftolae Obfcurorum Virorum," or in the works of any of the other fatirifts who had preceded him, or were his contemporaries. It is a broad caricature, poor enough in its ftory, but enriched with details, which are brilliant with imagery, though generally coarfe, and which are made the occafions for turning to ridicule everything that exifted. The five books of this romance were publiilied feparately and at different periods, apparently without any fixed intention of con- tinuing them. The earlier editions of the firft part were publifhed without date, but the earlieit editions with dates belong to the year 1535, when it was feveral times reprinted. It appeared as the life of Gar- gantua. This hero is fuppofed to have flouriflied in the firft half of the fifteenth century, and to have been the fon of Grandgoufier, king of Utopia, a country which lay fomewhere in the direction of Chinon, a prince of an ancient dynafty, but a jovial fellow, who loved good eating and drinking better than anything elfe. Grandgoufier married Garga- melle, daughter of the king of the Parpaillos, who became the mother of Gargantua. The firft chapters relate rather minutely how the child was born, and came out at its mother's ear, why it was called Gargantua, how it was drelfed and treated in infancy, what were its amufements and difpofition, and how Gargantua was put to learning under the fophifts, and made no progrefs. Thereupon Grandgoufier fent his fon to Paris, to

feek


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333


feek inftru6tion there, and he proceeds thither mounted on an immenfe mare, which had been fent as a prefent by the king of Numidia it muft be borne in mind that the royal race of Utopia were all giants. At Paris the populace affembled tumultuoufly to gratify their curiofity in looking at this new fcholar; but Gargantua, befides treating them in a very contemptuous manner, carried off the great bells of Notre Dame to fufpend at the neck of his mare. Great was the indignation caufed by this theft. " All the city was rifen up in fedition, they being, as you know, upon any flight occafions, fo ready to uproars and infurreclions, that foreign nations wonder at the patience of the kings of France, who do not by good juftice reftrain them from fuch tumultuous courfes." The citizens take counfel, and refolve on fending one of the great orators of the univerfity, Mafter Janotus de Bragmardo, to expoftulate with Gargantua, and obtain the reiteration of the bells. The fpeech which this worthy addreffes to Gargantua, in fulfilment of his miflion, is an amufing parody on the pedantic ftyle of Parifian oratory. The bells, however, are re- covered, and Gargantua, under Ikilful inftruftors, purfues his ftudies with credit, until he is fuddenly called home by a letter from his father. In fa6t, Grandgoufier was fuddenly involved in a war with his neighbour Picrocole, king of Lejne, caufed by a quarrel about cakes between fome cake-makers of Lerne and Grandgoufier's fhepherds, in confequence of which Picrocole had invaded the dominions of Grandgoufier, and was plundering and ravaging them. His warlike humour is ftirred up by the counfels of his three lieutenants, who perfuade him that he is going to become a great conqueror, and that they will make him mailer of the whole world. It is not difficult to fee, in the circumftances of the time, the general aim of the fatire contained in the hiftory of this war. It ends in the entire defeat and difappearance of king Picrocole. A fenfual and jovial monk named brother Jean des Entommeurs, who has firfl diftin- guifhed himfelf by his prowefs and ftrength in defending his own abbey againft the invaders, contributes largely to the victory gained by Gargantua againft his father's enemies, and Gargantua rewards him by founding for him that pleafant abbey of Theleme, a grand eftablifhment, flored with everything which could contribute to terreftrial happinefs, from which

all


334 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotejque

all hypocrites and bigots were to be excluded, and the rule of which was comprifed in the four fimple words, " Do as you like."

Such is the hiftory of Gargantua, which was afterwards formed by Rabelais into the firft book of his great comic romance. It was pub- lifhed anonymoufly, the author merely defcribing himfelf as " I'abftra&eur de quinte efTence j " but he afterwards adopted the pfeudonyme of Alcofribas Nader, which is merely an anagram of his own name, Francois Rabelais. A very improbable ftory has been handed down to us relating to this book. It is pretended that, having publifhed a book of medical fcience which had no fale, and the publither complaining- that he had loft money by it, Rabelais promifed to make amends for bis lofs, and immediately wrote the hiftory of Gargantua, by which the fame book- feller made his fortune. There can be no doubt that this remarkable fatire had a deeper origin than any cafual accident like this; but it was exactly fuited to the tafte and temper of the age. It was quite original in its form and ftyle, and it met with immediate and great fuccefs. Numerous editions followed each other rapidly, and its author, encouraged by its popularity, very foon afterwards produced a fecond romance, in continuation, to which he gave the title of Pantagruel. The caricature in this fecond romance is bolder even than in the firft, the humour broader, and the fatire more pungent. Grandgoufier has difappeared from the fcene, and his fon, Gargantua, is king, and has a fon named Pantagruel, whofe kingdom is that of the Dipfodes. The firft part of this new romance is occupied chiefly with Pantagruel's youth and education, and is a fatire on the univerfity and on the lawyers, in which the parodies on their ftyle of pleading as then pra6tifed is admirable. In the latter part, Pantagruel, like his father Gargantua, is engaged in great wars. It was perhaps the continued fuccefs of this new production of his pen which led Rabelais to go on with it, and form the defign of making thele two books part only of a more extenfive romance. During his ftudies in Paris, Pantagruel has made the acquaintance of a fingular individual named Panurge, who becomes his attached friend and conftant companion, holding fomewhat the pofition of brother Jean in the firft book, but far more crafty and verfatile. The whole fubjeft of the third

book


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book arifes out of Pantagreul's defire to marry, and its various amuling epifodes defcribe the different expedients which, at the fuggeftion of Panurge, he adopts to arrive at a folution of the queftion whether his marriage would be fortunate or not.

In publifhing his fourth book, Rabelais complains that his writings had raifed him enemies, and that he was accufed of having at lead written herefy. In fact, he had bitterly provoked both the monks and the univerfity and parliament ; and, as the increafing reaction of Romanifm in France gave more power of perfecution to the two latter, he was not writing without fome degree of danger, yet the fatire of each fucceffive book became bolder and more direct. The fifth, which was left unfinifhed at his death, and which was publifhed pofthumoufly, was the moft fevere of them all. The character of Gargantua, indeed, was almoft forgotten in that of Pan- tagruel, and Pantagruelifm became an accepted name for the fort of gay, recklefs fatire of which he was looked upon as the model. He defcribed it himfelf as a ccrtaine gaiete cTefprit confite en mepris des chofes fortuites, in fact, neither Romanifm nor ProtsUrintifm, but fimply a jovial kind of Epicurianifm. All the gay wits of *pe time afpired to be Plantagruelifts, and the remainder of the fixteenth century abounded in wretched imita- tions of the ftyle of Rabelais, which are now configned as mere rarities to the fhelves of the bibliophilift.

Among the dangers which began to threaten them in France in the earlier part of the fixteenth century, liberal opinions found an afylum at the court of a princefs who was equally diftinguifhed by her beauty, by her talents and noble fentiments, and by her accomplifhments. Mar- guerite d' Angouleme, queen of Navarre, was the only fifler of Franois I., who was her junior by two years, and was affectionately attached to her. She was born on the nth of April, 1492. She had married, firfl, that unfortunate duke d'Alenpon, whofe mifconduct at Pavia was the caufe of the difaftrous defeat of the French, and the captivity of their king. The duke died, it was faid of grief at his misfortune, in 1525 ; and two years afterwards, on the 24th of January, 1527, the married Henri d'Albret, king of Navarre. Their daughter, Jeanne d'Albret, carried this petty royalty to the houfe of Bourbon, and was the mother of Henri IV.

Marguerite


336 Hi/lory of Caricature and GrotcJ'que

Marguerite held her court in true princely manner in the caftle of Pau or at Nerac, and (he loved to furround herfelf with a circle of men remarkable for their character and talents, and ladies diftinguimed by beauty and accomplifhments, which made it rival in brilliance even that of her brother Francois. She placed neareft to her perfon, under the character of her valets-de-chambre, the principal poets and leaux-ejprits of her time, fuch as Clement Marot, Bonaventure des Periers, Claude Gruget, Antoine du Moulin, and Jean de la Haye, and admitted them to fuch a tender familiarity of intercourfe, as to excite the jealoufy of the king her hufband, from whofe ill-treatment ftie was only protected by her brother's interference. The poets called her chamber a "veritable Parnaflus." Hers was certainly a great mind, greedy of knowledge, diflatisfied with what was, and eager for novelties, and therefore ihe encouraged all who fought for them. It was in this fpirit, combined with her earneft love for letters, that fhe threw her protection over both the fceptics and the religious reformers. At the beginning of the perfections, as early as 1523, fhe openly declared herfelf the advocate of the Proteftants. When Clement Marot was arrefted by order of the Sorbonne and the Inquifitor on the charge of having eaten bacon in Lent, Marguerite caufed him to be liberated from prifon, in defiance of his perfecutors. Some of the pureft and ableft of the early French reformers, fuch as Roufiel and Le Fevre d'Etaples, and Calvin himfelf, found a fafe afylum from danger in her dominions. As might be fuppofed, the bigoted party were bitterly incenfed againft the queen of Navarre, and were not backward in taking advantage of an opportunity for mowing it. A moral treatife, entitled " Le Miroir de 1'Ame Pecherefle," of which Marguerite was the author, was condemned by the Sorbonne in 1533, but the king compelled the univerfity, in the perfon of its reftor, Nicolas Cop, to difavow publicly the cenfure. This was followed by a flill greater a<5t of infolence, for, at the inftigation of fome of the more bigoted papifts, the fcholars of the college of Navarre, in concert with their regents, performed a farce in which Marguerite was transformed into a fury of hell. Franpois I., greatly indignant, fent his archers to arreft the offenders, who further provoked his anger by

refiftance


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refiftance, and only obtained their pardon through the generous inter- ceffion of the princefs whom they had fo groflly infulted.

Marguerite was herfelf a poetefs, and me loved above all things thofe gay, and feldom very delicate, ftories, the telling of which was at that time one of the favourite amufements of the evening, and one in which fhe was known to excel. Her poetical writings were collected and printed, under her own authority, in i^47> by her then valet-de-chamlre, Jean de la Haye, who dedicated the volume to her daughter. They are all graceful, and fome of them worthy of the beft poets of her time. The title of this colle&ion was, punning upon her name, which means a pearl, " Marguerites de la Marguerite des princefies, tres illuftre reyne de Navarre." Marguerite's ftories (nouvelles) were more celebrated than her verfes, and are faid to have been committed to writing under her own dictation. All the ladies of her court poffefled copies of them in writing. It is underftood to have been her intention to form them into ten days' tales, of ten in each day, fo as to referable the "Decameron " of Boccaccio, but only eight days were finimed at the time of her death, and the imperfeft work was publilhed pofthumoufly by her valet-de- chamlre, Claude Gruget, under the title of " L'Heptameron, ou Hiftoire des Amants Fortunes." It is by far the beft collection of ftories of the fixteenth century. They are told charmingly, in language which is a perfect model of French compofition of that age, but they are all tales of gallantry fuch as could only be repeated in polite fociety in an age which was eflentially licentious. Queen Marguerite died on the aift of December, 1549, and was buried in the cathedral of Pau. Her death was a fubjecl: of regret to all that was good and all that was poetic, not only in France, but in Europe, which had been accuftomed to look upon her as the tenth Mufe and the fourth Grace :

Mujarum deciaia et Charitum yuarta, inclyta regum Et furor et conjux, Marguarii ilia jacet.

Before Marguerite's death, he: literary circle had been broken up by the hatred of religious perfecutors. Already, in 1536, the imprudent boldnefs of Marot had rendered it impofiible to protect him any longer,

x x and


338 Hijiory of Caricature and Grotefque

and he had been obliged to retire to a place of concealment, from whence he fometimes paid a ftealthy vifit to her court. His place of valet-de-chamlre was given to a man of talents, even more remarkable, and who fhared equally the perfonal elteem of the queen of Navarre, Bonaventure des Periers. Marot's fucceflbr paid a graceful compliment to him in a fhort poem entitled " L'Apologie de Marot abfent," publifhed in 1537. The earlier part of the year following witnefled the publication of the moft remarkable work of Bonaventure des Periers, the " Cymbalum Mundi," concerning the real character of which writers are ftill divided in opinion. In it Des Periers introduced a new form of fatire, imitated from the dialogues of Lucian. The book confifts of four dialogues, written in language which forms a model of French compe- tition, the perfonages introduced in them intended evidently to reprefent living characters, whofe names are concealed in anagrams and other devices, among whom was Clement Marot. It was the boldeft declara- tion of fcepticifm which had yet iflued from the Epicurean fchool repre- fented by Rabelais. The author fneers at the Romim church as an impofture, ridicules the Proteftants as feekers after the philofopher's ftone, and fbows difrefpect to Chriftianity itfelf. Such a book could hardly be publifhed in Paris with impunity, yet it was printed there, fecretly, it is faid, by a well-known bookfeller, Jean Morin, in the Rue St. Jacques, and therefore in the immediate vicinity of the perfecuting Sorbonne. Private information had been given of the character of this work, poffibly by the printer himfelf or by one of his men, and on the 6th of March, I 53&> when it was on the eve of publication, the whole impreffion was feized at the printer's, and Morin himfelf was arrefted and thrown into prifon. He was treated rigoroufly, and is underftood to have efcaped only by difavowing all knowledge of the character of the book, and giving up the name of the author. The firft edition of the " Cymbalum Mundi " was burnt, and Bonaventure des Periers, alarmed by the perfonal dangers in which he was thus involved, retired from the court of the queen of Navarre, and took refuge in the city of Lyons, where liberal opinions at that time found a greater degree of tolerance than elfewhere. There he printed a fecond edition of the " Cymbalum Mundi," which

alfo


in Literature and Art. 339


alfo was burnt, and copies of either edition are now exceffively rare.* Bonaventure des Periers felt fo much the weight of the perfecution in which he had now involved himfelf, that, in the year i539> as ^ ar as can be afcertained, he put an end to his own exiftence. This event caft a gloom over the court of the queen of Navarre, from which it feems never to have entirety recovered. The fchool of fcepticifm to which Des Periers belonged had now fallen into equal difcredit with Catholics and Proteftants, and the latter looked upon Marguerite herfelf, who had latterly conformed outwardly with Romanifm, as an apoftate from their caufe. Henri Eftienne, in his " Apologie pour Herodote," fpeaks of the " Cymbalum Mundi " as an infamous book.

Bonaventure des Periers left behind him another work more amufing to us at the prefent day, and more characteriftic of the literary taftes of the court of Marguerite of Navarre. This is a collection of facetious ftories, which was publifhed feveral years after the death of its author, under the title of " Les Contes, ou Les Nouvelles Recreations et Joyeux Devis de Bonaventure des Periers." They have fome refemblance in ftyle to the ftories of the Heptameron, but are ihorter, and rather more facetious, and are characterifed by their bitter fpirit of fatire againft the monks and popifh clergy. Some of thefe ftories remind us, in their peculiar character and tone, of the " Epiftolae Obfcurorum Virorum," as, for an example, the following, which is given as an anecdote of the cure de Brou :

" This cur6 had a way of his own to chant the different offices of the church, and above all he disliked the way of saying the Passion in the manner it was ordi- narily said in churches, and he chanted it quite differently. For when our Lord said anything to the Jews, or to Pilate, he made him talk high and loud, so that everybody could hear him, and when it was the Jews or somebody else who spoke, he spoke so low that he could hardly be heard at all. It happened that a lady of rank and importance, on her way to Chateaudun, to keep there the festival of Easter, passed through Brou on Good Friday, about ten o'clock in the morning, and,

  • A cheap and convenient edition of the "Cymbalum Mundi," edited by the

Bibliophile Jacob (Paul Lacroix), was published in Paris in 1841. I may here state that similar editions of the principal French satirists of the sixteenth century have been printed during the last twenty- five years.


340 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque


and, wishing to hear service, she went to the church where the cur6 was officiating. When it came to the Passion, he said it in his own manner, and made the whole church ring again when he said S^uem qtugritis ? But when it came to the reply, Jcfum Naxartnum, he spoke as low as he possibly could. And in this manner he continued the Passion. The lady, who was very devout, and, for a woman, well informed in the holy scriptures, and attentive to the ecclesiastical ceremonies, felt scandalised at this mode of chanting, and wished she had never entered the church. She had a mind to speak to the cure, and tell him what she thought of it ; and for this purpose sent for him to come to her after the service. When he came, she said to him,' Monsieur le Cure, I don't know where you learnt to officiate on a day like this, when the people ought to be all humility ; but to hear you perform the service, is enough to drive away anybody's devotion.' ' How so, madame?' said the cure. ' How so?* said she, * you have said a Passion contrary to all rules of decency. When our Lord speaks, you cry as if you were in the town-hall ; and when it is a Caiaphas, or Pilate, or the Jews, you speak softly like a young bride. Is this becoming in one like you ? are you fit to be a cure" ? If" you had what you deserve, you would be turned out of your benefice, and then you would be made to know your fault !' When the cure had very attentively listened to her, he said, ' Is this what you had to say to me, madame ? By my soul ! it is very true, what they say; and the truth is, that there are many people who talk of things which they do not understand. Madame, I believe that I know my office as well as another, and I beg all the world to know that God is as well served in this parish, according to its condition, as in any place within a hundred leagues of it. I know very well that the other cures chant the Passion quite differently; I could easily chant it like them if I would ; but they do not understand their business at all. I should like to know if it becomes those rogues of Jews to speak as loud as our Lord ! No, no, madame ; rest assured that in my parish it is my will that God be the master, and He shall be as long as I live ; and let the others do in their parishes according to their understanding.' "

Another ftory, equally worthy of Ulric von Hutten, is fatirical enough on prieflly pedantry :

" There was a priest of a village who was as proud as might be, because he had seen a little more than his Cato ; for he had read De Syntaxl, and his Faufte precor gelida [the first eclogue of Baptista Mantuanus]. And this made him set up his feathers, and talk very grand, using words that filled his mouth, in order to make people think him a great doctor. Even at confession, he made use of terms which astonished the poor people. One day he was confessing a poor working man, of whom he asked, 'Here, now, my friend, tell me, art thou ambitious?' The poor man said ' No,' thinking this was a word which belonged to great lords, and almost icpented of having come to confess to this priest ; for he had already heard that he was such a great clerk, and that he spoke so grandly, that nobody understood him, which he now knew by this word ambitious ; for although he might have heard it somewhere, yet he did not know at all what it was. The priest went on to ask, ' Art thou not a fornicator ? ' ' No,' said the labourer, who understood as little as

before.


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before. ' Art thou not a gourmand ? ' said the priest. ' No.' ' Art thou not superbe [/>rW]?' 'No.' 'Art thou not iracund?' 'No.' The priest seeing the man answer always 'No,' was somewhat surprised. ' Art thou not concupiscent?' ' No.' ' And what art thou, then ?' said the priest. ' I am,' said he, ' a mason ; here is my trowel ! ' "

At this time " Panragruelifra " had mixed itfelf more or lefs largely in all the fatirical literature of France. It is very apparent in the writings of Bonaventure des Periers, and in a confiderable number of fatirical pub- lications which now iflued, many of them anonymoufly, or under the then fafhionable form of anagrams, from the prefs in France. Among thefe writers were a few who, though far inferior to Rabelais, may be confidered as not unequal to Des Periers himfelf. One of the moft remarkable of thefe was a gentleman of Britany, Noel du Fail, lord of La Herifiaye, who was, like fo many of thefe fatirifts, a lawyer, and who died, apparently at an advanced age, at the end of 1585, or beginning of 1586. In his publications, according to the fafhion of that age, he concealed his name under an anagram, and called himfelf Leon Ladulfil (doubling the / in the name Fail). Noel du Fail has been called the ape of Rabelais, though the mere imitation is not very apparent. He publimed (as far as has been afcertained), in 1548, his "Difcours d'aucuns propos ruftiques facetieux, et de linguliere recreation." This was followed immediately by a work entitled " Baliverneries, ou Contes Nouveaux d'Eutrapel ;" but his laft, and moft celebrated book, the " Contes et Difcours d'Eutrapel," was not printed until 1586, after the death of its author. The writings of Noel du Fail are full of charming pictures of rural life in the fix- teenth century, and, though fufficiently free, they prefent lefs than moft fimilar books of that period of the coarfenefs of Rabelais. I cannot fay the fame of a book which is much more celebrated than either of thefe, and the hiftory of which is ftill enveloped in obfcurity. I mean the "Moyen de Parvenir." This book, which is full of wit and humour, but the licentioufnels of which is carried to a degree which renders it unreadable at the prefent day, is now afcribed by bibliographers, in its prefent form, to Beroalde de Verville, a gentleman of a Proteftant family who had embraced Catholicifm, and obtained advancements in the church, and it was not printed until 1610, but it is fuppofed that in its prefent

form


342 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque

form it is only a revifion of an earlier competition, perhaps even an unacknowledged work of RJbelais himfelf, which had been preferved in manufcript in Beroald's family.

Pantagruelifm, or, if you like, Rabelaifm, did not, during thefixteenth century, make much progrefs beyond the limits of France. In the Teutonic countries of Europe, and in England, the fceptical fentiment was fmall in comparifon with the religious feeling, and the only fatirical work at all refembling. thofe we have been defcribing, was the " Utopia " of Sir Thomas More, a work comparatively fpiritlels, and which produced a very flight fenfation. In Spain, the ftate of focial feeling was ftill lels favourable to the writings of Rabelais, yet he had there a worthy and true reprefentative in the author of Don Quixote. It was only in the feven- teenth century that the works of Rabelais were tranflated into Englifh ; but we muft not forget that our latirifts of the laft century, fuch as Swift and Sterne, derived their infpiration chiefly from Rabelais, and from the Pantagrueliftic writers of the latter half of the fixteenth century. Thefe latter were moft of them poor imitators of their original, and, like all poor imitators, purfued to exaggeration his leaft worthy characteriftics. There is ftill fome humour in the writings of Tabourot, the fieur des Accords, efpecially in his " Bigarrures," but the later productions, which appeared under fuch names as Brufcambille and Tabarin, fink into mere dull ribaldry.

There had arifen, however, by the fide of this fatire which fmelt fomewhat too much of the tavern, another fatire, more ferious, which ftill contained a little of the ftyle of Rabelais. The French Proteftants at firft looked upon Rabelais as one of their towers of flrength, and embraced with gratitude the powerful protection they received from the graceful queen of Navarre ; but their gratitude failed them, when Marguerite, though (he never ceafed to give them her protection, conformed out- wardly, from attachment to her brother, to the forms of the Catholic faith, and they rejeded the fchool of Rabelais as a mere fchool of Atheifts. Among them arofe another fchool of fatire, a fort of branch from the other, which was reprefented in its infancy by the celebrated fcholar and printer, Henri Eftienne, better known among us as Henry Stephens.

The


in Literature and Art. 343

The remarkable book called an "Apologie pour Herodote," arofe out of an attack upon its writer by the Romanifts. Henri Eftienne, who was known as a ftaunch Proteftant, publiftied, at great expenfe, an edition ot Herodotus in Greek and Latin, and the zealous Catholics, out of fpite to the editor, decried his author, and fpoke of Herodotus as a mere collector of monftrous and incredible tales. Eftienne, in revenge, publifhed what, under the form of an apology for Herodotus, was really a violent attack on the Romilh church. His argument is that all hiftorians muft relate tranf- a6lions which appear to many incredible, and that the events of modern times were much more incredible, if they were not known to be true, than anything which is recorded by the hiftorian of antiquity. After an intro- ductory diifertation on the light in which we ought to regard the fable of the Golden Age, and on the moral character of the ancient peoples, he goes on to mow that their depravity was much lefs than that of the middle ages and of his own time, indeed of all periods during which people were governed by the Church of Rome. Not only did this diflblutenefs of morals pervade lay fociety, but the clergy were more vicious even than the people, to whom they ought to ferve as an example. A large part of the book is filled with anecdotes of the immoral lives of the popifh clergy of the fixteenth century, and of their ignorance and bigotry j and he defcribes in detail the methods employed by the Romilh church to keep the mafs of the people in ignorance, and to reprefs all attempts at inquiry. Out of all this, he fays, had rifen a fchool of atheifls and fcofFers, reprefented by Rabelais and Bonaventure des Periers, both of whom he mentions by name.

As we approach the end of the fixteenth century, the ftruggle of parties became more political than religious, but not lefs bitter than before. The literature of the age of that celebrated " Ligue," which feemed at one time deftined to overthrow the ancient royalty of France, confided chiefly of libellous and abufive pamphlets, but in the midfl of them there appeared a work far fuperior to any purely political fatire which had yet been feen, and the fame of which has never pafled away. Its object was to turn to ridicule the meeting of the Eftates of France, convoked by the duke of Mayenne, as leader of the Ligue, and held at

Paris


344 Htftory of Caricature and Grotefque

Paris on the loth of February, 1503. The grand object of this meeting was to exclude Henri TV. from the throne ; and the Spanilh party pro- pofed to abolifti the Salic law, and proclaim the infanta of Spain queen of France. The French ligueurs propofed plans hardly lefs unpatriotic, and the duke of Mayenne, indignant at the fmall account made of his own perfonal pretenfions, prorogued the meeting, and perfuaded the two parties to hold what proved a fruitlefs conference at Surefne. It was the meeting of the Eftates in Paris which gave rife ^at celebrated Satyre Minippee, of which it was faid, that it ferved the cauie of Henri IV. as much as the battle of Ivry itfelf.

This fatire originated among a party of friends, of men diftinguifhed by learning, wit, and talent, though moft of their names are obfcure, who ufed to meet in an evening in the hofpitable houfe of one of them, Jacques Gillot, on the Quai des Orfevres in Paris, and there talk fatirically over the violence and infolence of the ligueurs. They all belonged either to the bar or to the univerfity, or to the church. Gillot himfelf, a Burgundian, born about the year 1560, had been a dean in the church of Langres, and afterwards canon of the Sainte Chapelle in Paris, and was at this time confeiller-clerc to the parliament of Paris. In 1589 he was committed to the Baftille, but was foon afterwards liberated. Nicolas Rapin, one of his friends', was born in 1535, and was faid to have been the fon of a prieft, and therefore illegitimate. He was a lawyer, a- poet, and a foldier, for he fought bravely in the ranks of Henri IV. at Ivry, and his devotion to that prince was fo well known, that he was banifhed from Paris by the ligueurs, but had returned thither before the meeting of the Eftates in 1593. Jean Paflerat, born in 1534, was alfo a poet, and a profeffor in the College Royal. Florent Chrftien, born at Orleans in 1540, had been the tutor of Henri IV., and was well known as a man of found learning. The moft learned of the party was Pierre Pithou, born at Troyes in 1539, who had abjured Calvinifm to return to Romanifm, and who held a diftinguiftied pofition at the French bar. The laft of this little party of men of letters was a canon of Rouen named Pierre le Roy, a patriotic ecclefiaftic, who held the office of almoner to the cardinal de Bourbon. It was Le Roy who drew up the firft Iketch of the

" Satvre


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" Satyre Menippee," each of the others executed his part in the competi- tion, and Pithou finally revifed it. For feveral years this remarkable fatire circulated only fecretly, and in manufcript, and it was not printed until Henri IV. was eflabliihcd on the throne.

The fatire opens with an account of the virtues of the " Catholicon," or noftrum for curing all political difeafes, or the higuiero d'infierno, which had been fo effective in the hands of the Spaniards, who invented it. Some of thefe are extraordinary enough. If, we are told, the lieutenant of Don Philip " have fome of this Catholicon on his flags, he will enter without a blow into an enemy's country, and they will meet him with crolles and banners, legates and primates ; and though he ruin, ravage, ulurp, mallacre, and fack everything, and carry away, ravifh, burn, and reduce everything to a defert, the people of the country will fay, ' Thefe are our friends, they are good Catholics ; they do it for our peace, and for our mother holy church.' " " If an indolent "king amufe himfelf with refining this drug in his efcurial, let him write a word into Flanders to Father Ignatius, fealed with the Catholicon, he will find him a man who (falva con- fcientia) will aflaflinate his enemy whom he has not been able to conquer by arms in twenty years." This, of courfe, is an allufion to the murder of the prince of Orange. " If this king propofes to aflure his eftates to his children after his death, and to invade another's kingdom at little expenfe, let him write a word to Mendoza, his ambaflador, or to Father Commelet (one of the moft feditious orators of the Ligue), and if he write with the higuiero del infierno, at the bottom of his letter, the words Yo el Rey, they will furnifh him with an apoftate monk, who will go under a fair femblance, like a Judas, and afTaflinate in cold blood a great king of France, his brother-in-law, in the middle of his camp, without fear of God or men ; they will do more, they will canonife the murderer, and place this Judas above St. Peter, and baptife this prodigious and horrible crime with the name of a providential event, of which the god- fathers will be cardinals, legates, and primates." The allufion here is to the affaflination of Henri III. by Jacques Clement. Thefe are but a few of the marvellous properties of the political drug, after the enumera- tion of which the report of the meeting of the Eftates is introduced by a

Y Y burlefque


346 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque


burlefque defcription of the grand proceflion which preceded it. Then we are introduced to the hall of affembly, and different fubjects pictured on the tapeflries which cover its walls, all having reference to the politics of the Ligue, are defcribed fully. Then we come to the report of the meeting, and to the fpeeches of the different fpeakers, each of which is a model of fatire. It is not known which of the little club of fatirifts wrote the open fpeech of the duke of Mayenne, but that of the Roman legate is known to be the work of Gillot, and that of the cardinal de Pelve, a mafterpiece of Latin in the ftyle of the "Epiftolae Obfcurorum Virorum," was written by Florent Chreflien. Nicolas Rapin compofed the "harangue" placed in the mouth of the archbifhop of Lyons, as well as that of Rcfe, the rector of the univerfhy} and the long fpeech of Claude d'Aubray was by Pithou. Paflerat compofed moft of the verfes which are fcattered through the book, and it is underftood that Pithon finally revifed the whole. This mock report of the meeting of the Eftates clofes with a defcription of a feries of political pictures which are arranged on the wall of the ftaircafe of the hall.

Thefe pictures, as well as thofe on the tapeftries of the hall of meeting, are fimply fo many caricatures, and the fame may be faid of another fet of pictures, of which a defcription is given in one of the fatirical pieces which followed the " Satyre Menippee," on the fame fide, entitled, " Hiftoire des Singeries de la Ligue." It was amid the political turmoil of the fixteenth century in France that modern political caricature took its rife.


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CHAPTER XX.

POLITICAL CARICATURE IN ITS INFANCY. THE REVERS DU JEU DBS

SUYSSES. CARICATURE IN FRANCE. THE THREE ORDERS. PERIOD

OF THE LEAGUE ; CARICATURES AGAINST HENRI III. CARICATURES

AGAINST THE LEAGUE. CARICATURE IN FRANCE IN THE SEVENTEENTH

CENTURY. GENERAL GALAS. THE SUARREL OF AMBASSADORS. CARI- CATURE AGAINST LOUIS XIV. j WILLIAM OF FURSTEMBERG.

IT has been already remarked that political caricature, in the modern fenfe of the word, or even perfonal caricature, was inconfiftent with the ftate of things in the middle ages, until the arts of engraving and printing became fufficiently developed, becaufe it requires the facility of quick and extenfive circulation. The political or fatirical fong was carried everywhere by the minftrel, but the fatirical pi6ture, reprefented only in fome folitary fculpture or illumination, could hardly be finifhed before it had become ufelefs even in the fmall fphere of its influence, and then remained for ages a flrange figure, with no meaning that could be under flood. No fooner, however, was the art of printing introduced, than the importance of political caricature was underftood and turned to account. We have feen what a powerful agent it became in the Reformation, which in fpirit was no lefs political than religious ; but even before the great religious movement had begun, this agent had been brought into activity. One of the earlieft engravings which can be called a caricature perhaps the oldeft of our modern caricatures known is reprefented in our cut No. 171, is no doubt French, and belongs to the year 1499. It is fufficiently explained by the hiftory of the time.

At the date juft mentioned, Louis XII. of France, who had been king lefs than twelve months, was newly married to Anne of Britany, and had refolved upon an expedition into Italy, to unite the crown of Naples

with


348 Hi ft or y of Caricature and Grotefque


with that of France. Such an expedition affe&ed many political interefts, and Louis had to employ a certain amount of diplomacy with his neigh- bours, feveral of whom were ftrongly oppofed to his projects of ambition, and among thofe who a6ted moft openly were the Swifs, who were



No. 171. The Political Game of Cards.

believed to have been fecretly fupported by England and the Netherlands. Louis, however, overcame their oppofition, and obtained a renewal of the alliance which had expired with his predeceflbr Charles VIII. This temporary difficulty with the Swifs is the iubjecl of our caricature, the original of which bears the title " Le Revers du Jeu des Suyfles " (the defeat of the game of the Swifs). The princes moft interefted are aflembled round a card-table, at which are leated the king of France to the right, oppofite him the Swifs, and in front the doge of Venice, who

was


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was in alliance with the French againft Milan. At the moment repre- fented, the king of France is announcing that he has a flulh of cards, the Swifs acknowledges the weaknefs of his hand, and the doge lays down his cards in fact, Louis XII. has won the game. But the point of the caricature lies principally in the group around. To the extreme right the king of England, Henry VII., diftinguifhed by his three armorial lions, and the king of Spain, are engaged in earneft converfation. Behind the former ftands the infanta Margarita, who is evidently winking at the Swifs to give him information of the ftate of the cards of his opponents. At her fide ftands the duke of Wirtemberg, and juft before him the pope, the infamous Alexander VI. (Borgia), who, though in alliance with Louis, is not able, with all his efforts, to read the king's game, and looks on with evident anxiety. Behind the doge of Venice ftands the Italian refugee, Trivulci, an able warrior, devoted to the interefls of France 5 and at the doge's right hand, the emperor, holding in his hands another pack of cards, and apparently exulting in the belief that he has thrown confufion into the king of France's game. In the background to the left are feen the count Palatine and the marquis of Montferrat, who alfo look uncertain about the refult ; and below the former appears the duke of Savoy, who was giving afliftance to the French defigns. The duke of Lorraine is ferving drink to the gamblers, while the duke of Milan, who was at this time playing rather a double part, is gathering up the cards which have fallen to the ground, in order to make a game for himfelf. Louis XII. carried his defigns into execution ; the duke of Milan, Ludovico Sforza, nick-named the Moor, played his cards badly, loft his duchy, and died in prifon.

Such is this earlieft of political caricatures and in this cafe it was purely political but the queftion of religion foon began not only to mix itfelf up with the political queftion, but almoft to abforb it, as we have feen in the review of the hiftory of caricature under the Reformation. Before this period, indeed, political caricature was only an affair between crowned heads, or between kings and their nobles, but the religious agita- tion had originated a vaft focial movement, which brought into play oopular feelings and paffions : thefe gave caricature a totally new value.

Its


350 Hiflory of Caricature and Grotefque


Its power was greateft on the middle and lower claffes of fociety, that is, on the people, the tiers etat, which was now thrown prominently forward. The new focial theory is proclaimed in a print, of which a fac-fimile will be found in the " Mufee de la Caricature," by E. J. Jaime, and which, from the ftyle and coftume, appears to be German. The three orders, the church, the lord of the land, and the people, reprefented refpetively by a bifhop, a knight, and a cultivator, ftand upon the globe in an honour- able equality, each receiving dire6t from heaven the emblems or imple- ments of his duties. To the biftiop is delivered his bible, to the hufband-



No. 172. The Three Orders of the State.

man his mattock, and to the knight the fword with which he is to protect and defend the others. This print fee cut No. 172 which bears the title, in Latin, " Quis te praetulit ? " (Who chofe thee ?) belongs probably to the earlier half of the fixteenth century. A painting in the Hotel de Ville of Aix, in Provence, reprefents the fame fubje6t much more fatirically, intending to delineate the three orders as they were, and

not


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not as they ought to be. The divine hand is letting down from heaven an immenfe frame in the form of a heart, in which is a picture repre- fenting a king kneeling before the crofe, intimating that the civil power was to be fubordinate to the ecclefiaftical. The three orders are repre- fented by a cardinal, a noble, and a peafant, the latter of whom is bending under the burthen of the heart, the whole of which is thrown upon his ihoulders, while the cardinal and the noble, the latter drefied in the falhionable attire of the court minions of the day, are placing one hand to the heart on each fide, in a manner which (hows that they fupport none of the weight.

Amid the fierce agitation which fell upon France in the fixteenth century, for a while we find but few traces of the employment of caricature by either party. The religious reformation there was rather ariftocratic than popular, and the reformers fought lefs to excite the feelings of the multitude, which, indeed, went generally in the contrary direction. There was, moreover, a character of gloom in the religion of Calvin, which contracted ftrongly with the joyoufnefe of that of the followers of Luther; and the factions in France fought to (laughter, rather than to laugh at, each other. The few caricatures of this period which are known, are very bitter and coarfe. As far as I am aware, no early Huguenot caricatures are known, but there are a few directed againft the Huguenots. It was, however, with the rife of the Ligue that the taite for political caricature may be faid to have taken root in France, and in that country it long continued to flourifh more than anywhere ehe. The firft caricatures of the ligueurs were directed againft the perfon of the king, Henri de Valois, and poffefs a brutality almoft beyond defcription. It was now an object to keep up the bitternefs of fpirit of the fanatical multitude. In one of thefe caricatures a demon is represented waiting on the king to fummon him to a meeting of the " Eftates" in hell ; and in the diftance we fee another demon flying away with him. Another relates to the murder of the Guifes, in 1588, which the ligueurs profefled to afcribe to the councils of M. d'Epernon, one of his favourites, on whom they looked with great hatred. It is entitled, " Soufflement et Confeil diabolique de d'Epernon a Henri de Valois pour faccager les Catholiques."

In


352 Hi ft or y of Caricature and Grot efque

In the middle of the pi&ure ftands the king, and befide him D'Epernon, who is blowing into his ear with a bellows. On the ground before them lie the headlefs corpfes of the deux frkres Catholiqucs, the duke of Guife, and his brother the cardinal, while the executioner of royal vengeance is holding up their heads by the hair. In the diftance is feen the caftle of Blois, in which this tragedy took place ; and on the left of the pidure appear the cardinal de Bourbon, the archbilhop of Blois, and other friends of the Guifes, exprefling their horror at the deed. Henri III. was himfelf murdered in the year following, and the caricatures againft him became ftill more brutal during the period in which the ligueurs tried to fet up a king of their own in his place. In one caricature, which has more of an emblematical character than moft of the others, he is pictured as " Henri le Monflrueux ;" and in others, entitled "Les Hermaphro- dites," he is exhibited under forms which point at the infamous vices with which he was charged.

The tide of caricature, however, foon turned in the contrary dire&ion, and the coarfe, unprincipled abufe employed by the ligueurs found a favourable contraft in the powerful wit and talent of the fatirifts and caricaturiils who now took up pen and pencil in the caufe of Henri IV. The former was, on the whole, the more formidable weapon, but the latter reprefented to fome eyes more vividly in picture what had already been done in type. This was the cafe on both fides ; the caricature lafl mentioned was founded upon a very libellous fatirical pamphlet againft Henri III., entitled "L'Ifle des Hermaphrodites." It is the cafe alfo with the firft caricatures againft the ligueurs, which I have to mention. The Eftates held in Paris by the duke of Mayenne and the ligueurs for the purpofe of ele&ing a new king in oppofition to Henri of Navarre, were made the fubjeft of the celebrated "Satyre Menippee," in which the pro- ceedings of thefe Eftates were turned to ridicule in the moft admirable manner. Four large editions were fold in lefs than as many months. Several caricatures arofe out of or accompanied this remarkable book. One of thefe is a rather large print, entitled "La Singerie des Eftats de la Ligue, I'an 1593," in which the members of the Eftates and the ligueurs are pictured with the heads of monkeys. The central part reprefents the

meeting


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meeting of the Eftates, at which the lieutenant-general of the kingdom, the duke of Mayenne, feated on the throne, prefides. Above him is fufpended a large portrait of the infanta of Spain, L'Efpoufee de la Ligue, as fhe is called in the fatire, ready to marry any one whom the Eftates (hall declare king of France. In chairs, on each fide of Mayenne, are the two "ladies of honour " of the faid future ipoufe. To the left are feated



No. 173. The AJJembly of Apes.

in a row the celebrated council of fixteen (lesfeize), reduced at this time to twelve, becaufe the duke of Mayenne, to check their turbulence, had caufed four of them to be hanged. They wear the favours of the future fpoufe. Oppofite to them are the reprefentatives of the three orders, all, we are told, devoted to the fervice of "the faid lady." Before the throne

z z are


354 Hijlory of Caricature and Grotefque

are the two muficians of the Ligue, one defcribed as Phelipottin, the blind performer on the viel, or hurdy-gurdy, to the Ligue, and his fubordinate, the player on the triangle, " kept at the expenfe of the future fpoufe." Thefe were to entertain the aflembly during the paufes between the orations of the various fpeakers. All this is a fatire on the efforts of the king of Spain to eftablifh a monarch of his own choice. On the bench behind the muficians fit the deputies from Lyons, Poitiers, Orleans, and Rheims, cities where the influence of the Ligue was ftrong, difcufling the queftioa as to who mould be king. Thus much of this picture is repre- fented in our cut No. 173. There are other groups of figures in the reprefentation of the aflembly of the Eftates ; and there are two fide com- partments that on the left reprefenting a forge, on which the fragments of a broken king are laid to be refounded, and a multitude of apes, with hammers and an anvil, ready to work him into a new king ; the other fide of the pifture reprefents the circumftances of a then well-known aft of tyranny perpetrated by the Eftates of the Ligue. Another large and well-executed engraving, publimed at Paris in 1594, immediately after Henri IV. had obtained pofleflion of his capital, alfo reprefents the grand procefiion of the Ligue as defcribed at the commencement of the " Satyre Menippee," and was intended to hold up to ridicule the warlike temper of the French Catholic clergy. It is entitled, "La Proceffion de la Ligue."

Henri's triumph over the Ligue was made the fubjecl: of a feries of three caricatures, or perhaps, more correctly, of a caricature in three divifions. The firft is entitled the " Naiflance de la Ligue," and repre- fents it under the form of a monfter with three heads, feverally thofe of a wolf, a fox, and a ferpent, ifluing from hell-mouth. Under it are the following lines :

L\nfer, four affervlr foubs fes loix tout le monde, Vomit ce monflre h\deux,fait d"un hup raviffeur, D*un renard en-veilly, et d^un ferpent immo>;de t Affuble d'un mantcau propre a toute couleur.

The fecond divifion, the " Declin de la Ligue," reprefenting its downfall,


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is copied in our cut No. 1 74. Henri of Navarre, in the form of a lion, has pounced fiercely upon it, and not too foon, for it had already feized the crown and fceptre. In the diftance, the fun of national profperity is feen rifing over the country. The third pi&ure, the " Effets de la Ligue," reprefents the deftru&ion of the kingdom and the flaughter of the people, of which the Ligue had been the caufe.

The caricatures in France became more numerous during the feven- teenth century, but they are either fo elaborate or fo obfcure, that each



No. 174. The Deftrufiion of the Ligue.

requires almofl a difiertation to explain it, and they often relate to queftions or events which have little intereft for us at the prefent day. Several rather fpirited ones appeared at the time of the difgrace of the marefchal d'Ancre and his wife ; and the inglorious war with the Netherlands, in 1635, furnifhed the occafion for others, for the French, as ufual, could make merry in their reverfes as well as in their fuccefles. The imp^rialift general Galas inflided ferious defeat on the French armies, and cj.melled them to a very difaftrous retreat from the countries they had invaded, a.. A they tried to amufe themfelves at the expenfe ot their conqueror. Galas was rather remarkable for obefity, and the French

caricaturing


356 Hijlory of Caricature and Grotefque


caricaturifts of the day made this circumftance a fubjedt for their fatire. Our cut No. 1 75 is copied from a print in which the magnitude of the ftomach of General Galas is certainly fomewhat exaggerated. He is



No. 175. General Galas.

reprefented, not apparently with any good reafon, as puffed up with his own importance, which is evaporating in fmoke; and along with the fmoke thus ifluing from h;s mouth, he is made to proclaim his greatnels in the following rather doggrel verfes :

Jejuis ce grand Galas, autrefois dans Paroiee La gloire de rEfpagne et de mes compagnons ; Maintenant je nefuii qiiun corps plein de fumee t Pour avoir trap mange de raves et fmgtHnt,

re* &

Gargantua jantaii tCeut unt telle panfe } (S?c.

Caricatures


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Caricatures iu France began to be tolerably abundant during the middle of the feventeenth century, but under the crufhing tyranny of Louis XIV., the freedom of the prefs, in all its forms, ceafed to exift, and caricatures relating to France, unlefs they came from the court party, had to be publifhed in other countries, efpecially in Holland. It will be fufficient to give two examples from the reign of Louis XIV. In the year 1661, a difpute arofe in London between the ambaflador of France, M. D'Eftrades, and the Spanilh ambaflador, the baron de Batteville, on



No. 176. Batte-vllle Humiliated.

the queftion of precedence, which was carried fo far as to give rife to a tumult in the ftreets of the Englifh capital. At this very moment, a new Spanifli ambaflador, the marquis de Fuentes, was on his way to Paris, but Louis, indignant at Batteville's behaviour in London, fent orders to flop Fuentes on the frontier, and forbid his further advance into his kingdom. The king of Spain difavowed the att of his ambaflador in England, who was recalled, and Fuentes received orders to make an

apology


358 Hijlory of Caricature and Grotefque

apology to king Louis. This event was made the fubjeft of a rather boafting caricature, the greater portion of which is given in our cut No. 1/6. It is entitled " Batteville vient adorer le Soliel " (Batteville comes to worfhip the fun). In the original the fun is feen mining in the upper corner of the picture to the right, and prefenting the juvenile face of Louis XIV., but the caricaturift appears to have fubftituted Batteville in the place of Fuentes. Beneath the whole are the following boaftful lines :

On ne -ua plus a Rome, on went de Rome en France, Merlter le pardon de quelque grande offence. L? Italic tout entiere eft foumije a ces loix ; Un Efpagnol J^oppofe a ce droit de nos rois. Mais un Franfais puijjant joua des bajtonnades, Et punlt rinfolent de fes rodomontades.

From this time there fprung up many caricatures againft the Spaniards ; but the moft ferocious caricature, or rather book of caricatures, of the reign of Louis XIV., came from without, and was directed againft the king and his minifters and courtiers. The revocation of the edi6t of Nantes took place in October, 1^85, and was preceded and followed by frightful perfecutions of the Proteftants, which drove away in thoufands the earneft, intelligent, and induftrious part of the population of France. They carried with them a deep hatred to their oppreflbrs, and fought refuge efpecially in the countries moft hoftile to Louis XIV. England and Holland. The latter country, where they then enjoyed the greateft freedom of action, foon fent forth numerous fatirical books and prints againft the French king and his minifters, of which the book juft alluded to was one of the moft remarkable. It is entitled " Les Heros de Ja Ligue, ou la Proceffion Monacale conduite par Louis XIV. pour la Con- verfion des Proteftans de fon Royaume," and confifts of a series of twency- four moft grotefque faces, intended to reprefent the minifters and courtiers of the " grand roi " moft odious to the Calvinifts. It muft have provoked their wrath exceedingly. I give one example, and as it is difficult to feleft, I take the firft in the lift, which reprefents William of Fiirftemberg, one of the German princes devoted to Louis XIV., who, by his intrigues, had forced him into the archbimopric of Cologne, by which he became

an


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an ele&or of the empire. For many reafons William of Fiirftemberg was hated by the French Proteftants, but it is not quite clear why he is here reprefented m the character of one of the low merchants of the Halles.



No. 177. William of Furjiemberg.

Over the picture, in the original, we read, Guillaumc de Furjtemleig, crie, ite, miffa eft, and beneath are the four lines :

J^ay yu'itte man fais pour fervir a la France, Soil far ma trahifon, foil far ma lachete ; 'Jf'ay trouble let e tats far ma me'chancete, Une abbaye eft ma recompense.


360 Hi/lory of Caricature and Grotefque


CHAPTER XXI.

EARLY POLITICAL CARICATURE IN ENGLAND. THE SATIRICAL WHITINGS

AND PICTURES OF THE COMMONWEALTH PERIOD. SATIRES AGAINST

THE BISHOPS ; BISHOP WILLIAMS. CARICATURES ON THE CAVALIERS ;

SIR JOHN SUCKLING. THE ROARING BOYS ; VIOLENCE OF THE

ROYALIST SOLDIERS. CONTEST BETWEEN THE PRESBYTERIANS AND

INDEPENDENTS. GRINDING THE KING'S NOSE. PLAYING-CARDS USED

AS THE MEDIUM FOR CARICATURE ; HASELRIGGE AND LAMBERT.

SHROVETIDE.

DURING the fixteenth century caricature can hardly be faid to have exifted in England, and it did not come much into fafhion, until the approach of the great ftruggle which convulfed our country in the century following. The popular reformers have always been the firft to appreciate the value of piftorial fatire as an offenfive weapon. Such was the cafe with the German reformers in the age of Luther ; as it was again with the Englifh reformers in the days of Charles I., a period which we may juftly confider as that of the birth of Englifh political caricature. From 1640 to 1 66 1 the prefs launched forth an abfolute deluge of political pamphlets, many of which were of a fatirical character, fcurrilous in form and language, and, on whatever fide they were written, very unfcrupulous in regard to the truth of their ftatements. Among them appeared a not unfrequent engraving, feldom well executed, whether on copper or wood, but difplaying a coarfe and pungent wit that muft have told with great effect on thofe for whom it was intended. The firft objects of attack in thefe caricatures were the Epifcopalian party in the church and the profanenefs and infolence of the cavaliers. The Puritans or Prefbyterians who took the lead in, and at firft directed, the great political movement, looked upon Epifcopalianifm as differing in little from popery, and, at all events, as leading dire6t to it. Arminianifm was with them only another

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jiame for the fame thing, and was equally detefted. In a caricature published in 1641, Arminius is reprefented fupported on one fide by Herefy, wearing the triple crown, while on the other fide Truth is turning away from him, and carrying with her the Bible. It was the indifcreet zeal of archbifhop Laud which led to the triumph of the Puritan party, and the downfall of the epifcopal church government, and Laud became the butt for attacks of all defcriptions, in pamphlets, fongs and fatirical prints, the latter ufually figuring in the titles of the pam- phlets. Laud was efpecially obnoxious to the Puritans for the bitternefs with which he had perfecuted them.

In 1640 Laud was committed to the Tower, an event which was hailed as the firft grand ftep towards the overthrow of the bifhops. As an example of the feeling of exultation difplayed on this occafion by his enemies, we may quote a few lines from a fatirical fong, publiflied in 1641, and entitled " The Organs Eccho. To the Tune of the Cathedrall Service." It is a general attack on the prelacy, and opens with a cry of triumph over the fall of William Laud, of whom the fong fays

sis he "was in his tra-verie, A nd thought to bring us all in fla-verie, The parliament found out his kna-verie ;

And fo fell William.

Alas ! poore William !

His pope-like domineering, And fame other tricks appearing, Provofd Sir Edivard Deer ing

To blame t'te old prelate

Mas ! poore prelate !

Some fay he 'was in hope

To bring England againe to th? p-jpe ;

But n<n-j he is in danger of an axe or a rope.

Farewell, old Canterbury.

Alas ! pcore Canterbury !

Wren, bifhop of Ely, was another of the more obnoxious of the prelates, and there was hardly lefs joy among the popular party when he was committed to the Tower in the courfe of the year 1641. Another

3 A


362 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque

fong, in verfe fimilar to the laft, contains a general review of the demerits of the members of the prelacy, under the title of "The Bifhops Laft Good-night." At the head of the broadfide on which it is printed ftand two fatirical woodcuts, but it muft be confeired that the words of the fong are better than the engraving. The bifliop of Ely, we are told, had juft gone to join his friend Laud in the Tower

Ely, thcu haft alway to thy power

Left the church naked in a ftorme and jbowre,

And now Jor V thou muft to thy old friend /' tK Tower.

To the Tower muft Ely ;

Come away, Ely.

A third obnoxious prelate was biftiop Williams. Williams was a WeHhman who had been high in favour with James I., but he had given offence to the government of Charles I., and been imprifoned in the Tower during the earlier part of that king's reign. He was releafed by the parliament in 1640, and fo far regained the favour of king Charles, that he was raifed to the archbifliopric of York in the year following. When the civil war began, he retired into Wales, and garrifoned Conway for the king. Williams's warlike behaviour was the fource of much mirth among the Roundheads. In 1642 was publilhed a large caricature on the three clafles to whom the parliamentarians were efpecially hoftile the royalift judges, the prelates, and ^he ruffling cavaliers ; reprefented here, as we are told in writing in the copy among the king's pamphlets, by judge Mallet, bifhop Williams, and colonel Lunsford. Thefe three figures are placed in as many compartments with doggrel verfes under each. That of bifliop Williams is copied in our cut No. 178. The bilhop is armed cap-a-pie, and in the diftance behind him are feen on one fide his cathedral church, and on the other his war-horfe. The verfes beneath it contain an allufion to this prelate's Welfh extraction in the orthography of fome of the words :

Oh,Jir, Vme ready, did you never heere

How forward I ha-tfe byn t~h many a yeare,

T^oppofe the practice dot is now onfoote,

Which plucks my brethren up both pranch and roott f

My pojture and my hart toth well agree

To fight ; now plud is up : come, follow mee.

rhe


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The country had now begun to experience the miferies of war, and to fmart under them ; and the cavaliers were efpecially reproached for the cruelty with which they plundered and ill-treated people whenever they gained the maftery. Colonel Lunsford was efpecially notorious for the



No. 178. The Church Militant.


barbarities committed by himfelf and his men to fuch a degree that he was popularly accufed of eating children, a charge which is frequently alluded to in the popular fongs of the time. Thus one of thefe fongs couples him with two other obnoxious royalifts :

From Fielding, and from Va-uafour,

Both ill-affefied men, From Lunsford eke deliver us,

Who eateth up children.

In


364 Hi/lory of Caricature and Grotefque


In the third compartment of the caricature juft mentioned, we fee in the background of the picture, behind colonel Lunsford, his foldiers occu- pied in burning towns, and maflacring women and children. The model of the gay cavalier of the earlier period of this great revolution, before



No. 179. The Sucklington Fafticn.


the war had broken out in its intenfity, was the courtly Sir John Suckling, the poet of the drawing-room and tavern, the admired of "roaring boys," and the hated of rigid Puritans. Sir John outdid his companions in extravagance in everything which was fafhionable, and the difplay of his zeal in the caufe of royalty was not calculated to conciliate the reformers.

When


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When the king led an army againft the Scottifti Covenanters in 1639, Suckling raifed a troop of a hundred horfe at his own expenfe ; but they gained more reputation by their extraordinary drefs than by their courage, and the whole affair was made a fubje6t of ridicule. From this time the name of Suckling became identified with that gay and profligate clafs who, difgufled by the outward (how of fanctity which the Puritans affected, rufhed into the other extreme, and became notorious for their profanenefs, their libertinifm, and their indulgence in vice, which threw a certain degree of difcredit upon the royalift party. There is a large broadfide among the King's Pamphlets in the Britifh Mufeum, entitled, " The Sucklington Faction ; or (Sucklings) Roaring Boys." It is one of thofe fatirical compofitions which were then falhionable under the title of " Characters," and is illuftrated by an engraving, from which our cut No. 179 is copied. This engraving, which from its fuperior ftyle is perhaps the work of a foreign artift, reprefents the interior of a chamber, in which two of the Roaring Boys are engaged in drinking and fmoking, and forms a curious picture of contemporary manners. Underneath the engraving we read the following lines :

Much meate doth gluttony produce,

And makes a man afivine , But hee '* a temperate man indeed That with a leafe can dine.

Hee needei no napkin fir his handes,

His fngcrs for to loipc ; He hath his kitchin in a box,

His roaft meate in a pipe.

When the war fpread itfelf over the country, many of thefe Roaring Boys became foldiers, and difgraced the profeffion by rapacity and cruelty. The pamphlets of the parliamentarians abound with complaints of the outrages perpetrated by the Cavaliers, and the evil appears to have been increafed by the ill-conduct of the auxiliaries brought over from Ireland to ferve the king, who were efpecially objects of hatred to the Puritans. A broadfide among the king's pamphlets is adorned by a fatirical picture of " The Englifli Irilh Souldier, with his new difcipline, new armes, old

ftomacke,


366 Hi/lory of Caricature and Grotefque


ilomacke, and new taken pillage ; who had rather eat than fight." It was publiftied in 1642. The Englilh Irifh foldier is, as may be fuppofed, heavily laden with plunder. In 1646 appeared another caricature, which is copied in our cut No. 180. It reprefents "England's Wolfe with



No. 1 80. " England's Wdf."

Eagles clawes: the cruell impieties of bloud-thirfty royalifts and blaf- phemous anti-parliamentarians, under the command of that inhumane prince Rupert, Digby, and the reft, wherein the barbarous crueltie of our civill uncivill warres is briefly difcovered." England's wolf, as will be feen, is drefled in the high fafh on of the gay courtiers of the time.

A few large caricatures, embodying fatire of a more comprehenfive defcription, appeared from time to time, during this troubled age. Such is a large emblematical pidure, publifhed on the pth of November, 1642,

and


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and entitled " Heraclitus' Dream," for the fcene is fuppofed to be mani- fefted to the philofopher in a vificn. In the middle of the picture the fheep are feen {hearing their fhepherd ; while one cuts his hair, another treats his beard in the fame manner. Under the picture we read the couplet

Thefacke that ivas wont to be fhorne by the herd, Ncnu pc/lleth the Jbepherd in jpight of hh beard.

On the ipth of January, 1647, a caricature appeared under the title " An Embleme of the Times." On one fide War, reprefented as a giant in armour, is feen ftanding upon a heap of dead and mutilated bodies, while Hypocrify, in the form of a woman with two faces, is flying towards a diftant city. " Libertines," " anti-fabbatarians," and others, are haften-



No. 181. Folly Uppermcft.

ing in the fame direction ; and the angel of peftilence, hovering over the city, is ready to pounce upon it.

The party of the parliament was now triumphant, and the queftion of religion again became the fubjeft of difpute. The Prelbyterians had been eftabliming a fort of tyranny over men's minds, and fought to pro- fcribe all other feels, till their intolerance gradually raifed up a ftrong and

general


368 Hijiory of Caricature and Grotejque

general feeling of refiftance. Since 1643 a brifk war of political pam- phlets had been carried on between the Prefbyterians and their opponents, when, in 1647, the Independents, whofe caufe had been efpoufed by the army, gained the mattery. " Sir John Prelbyter " or to ufe the more familiar phrafe, " Jack Prefbyter," furnilhed a fubjeft for frequent fatire, and the Prefbyterians were not flow in returning the blow. In the collection in the Britilh Mufeum we find a caricature which muft have come from the Prefbyterian party, entitled " Reall Perfecution, or the Foundation of a general Toleration, difplaied and portrayed by a proper emblem, and adorned with the fame flowers wherewith the fcoffers of this lafl age have ftrowed their libellous pamphlets." The group which occupies the middle part of this broadfide, is copied in our cut No. 181. It has its feparate title, "The Picture of an Englifh Perfecutor, or a foole- ridden ante-Preflbeterian feclary." (I give the fpelling as in the original.) Folly is riding on the feclarian, whom he holds with a bridle, the feftarian having the ears of an afs. The following homely rhymes are placed in the mouth of Folly,

Behould my Aaiit, like my witty Equalh hit on -whom IJitt.

Anti-Preibyterian is, as will be feen, drefled in the height of the fafhion, and fays

My curjed fpeechcs againji Prefbetry Declares unto the "world my foolery,

The mortification of the Prefbyterians led in Scotland to the procla- mation of Charles II. as king, and to the ill-fated expedition which ended in the battle of Worcefter in 1651, when fatirical pamphlets, ballads, and caricatures againft the Scottifh Prefbyterians became for a while very popular. One of the beft of the latter is reprefented in our cut No. 182. Its objeft is to ridicule the conditions which the Prefbyterians exacted from the young prince before they offered him the crown. It is printed in the middle of the broadfide, in profe, published on the I4th of July, 1651, with the general title, " Old Sayings and Prediaions verified and fulfilled, touching the young King of Scotland and his- gude fubjeds."

The


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The picture has its feparate title, "The Scots holding their young kinges nofe to the grinftone." followed by the lines

Come to the grinflone, Charles, tis now to late To recohft, V/'j frejbiterian fate, You covinant pretenders, muft I bee

The futjefi ofyouer tradgie-comedie ?

In fatt, the picture reprefents Prefbyterianifm Jack Prefbyter holding the young king's nofe to the grindftone, which is turned by the Scots,


'Jockie



No. 182. Conditions of Royalty.

perfonified as Jockey. The following lines are put into the mouths of the three aclors in this Icene :

Jockey. I, Jockey, turne the stone of all your plots,

For none turnes faster than the turne-coat Scots. Pre/byter. We for our ends did make thee king, be sure,

Not to rule us, we will not that endure. King. You deep dissemblers, I kow what you doe, And, for revenges sake, I will dissemble too.

Charles's defeat and flight from Worceftei furnifhed materials for a

3 B much


370 Hi ft or y of Caricature and Grotefque


much more elaborate caricature than moft of the fimilar productions of this period, and of a fomewhat fingular defign. It was publiftied on the 6th of November, 1651, and bears the title "A Mad Defigne ; or a Defcription of the king of Scots marching in his difguife, after the Rout at Worcefter." A long, and not unneceflary, explanation of the feveral groups forming this picture, enables us to underftand it. On the left Charles is feated on the globe " in a melancholy pofture." A little to the right, and nearly in front, the bifhop of Clogher is performing mats, at which lords Ormond and Inchquin, in the fhapes of ftrange animals, hold torches, and the lord Taaf, in the form of a monkey, holds up the bifhop's train. The Scottilh army is feen marching up, confifting, accord- ing to the defcription, of papifts, prelatical malignants, Prelbyterians, and old cavaliers ; the latter of whom are reprefented by the " fooles head upon a pole in the rear." The next group confifts of'two monkeys, one with a fiddle, the other carrying a long ftarT with a torch at the end, con- cerning which we learn that " The two ridiculous anticks, one with a fiddle, and the other with a torch, ft* forth the ridiculoufnefs of their condition when they marched into England, carried up with high thoughts, yet altogether in the darke, having onely a fooles bawble to be their light to walke by, mirth of their own whimfies to keep up their fpirits, and a fheathed fword to trufte in." Next come a troop of women, children, and papifts, lamenting over their defeat. Two monkeys on foot, and one on horfeback, follow, the latter riding with his face turned to the horfe's tail, and carrying in his hand a fpit with provifions on it. It is explained as "The Scots Kings flight from Worcefter, reprefented by the foole on horfeback, riding backward, turning his face every way in feares, ufhered by duke Hambleton and the lord Wilmot." Laftly, a crowd of women with flags bring up the rear. It cannot be faid that the wit difplayed in this fatire is of the very higheft order.

After this period we meet with comparatively few caricatures until the death of Cromwell, and the eve of the Reftoration, when there came a new and fierce flruggle of political parties. The Dutch were the fubjecl of fome fatirical prints and pamphlets in 1652 ; and we find a fmall number of caricatures on the focial evils, fuch as drunkennefs and gluttony, and on

one




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one or two fubje6ts of minor agitation. With the clofe of the Common- wealth a new form of caricature came in. Playing cards had, during this feventeenth century, been employed for various purpofes which were quite alien to their original character. In France they were made the means of conveying instruction to children. In England, at the time of which we are fpeaking, they were adopted as the medium for fpreading political



No. 183. Arthur Hafelrigg.

caricature. The earlieft of thefe packs of cards known is one which appears to have been publilhed at the very moment of the reftoration of Charles II., and which was, perhaps, engraved in Holland. It contains ? feries of caricatures on the principal ads of the Commonwealth, and on the parliamentary leaders. Among other cards of a fimilar character which have been preferred is a pack relating to the popifh plot, another

relating


37 2 Hiftory of Caricature a nd Grotefque




relating to the Rye Houfe confpiracy, one on the Miffiffippi fcheme, publifhed in Holland, and one on the South Sea bubble.

The earlieft of thefe packs of fatirical cards, that on the Common- wealth, belonged a few years ago to a lady of the name of Preft, and is very fully defcribed in a paper by Mr. Pettigrew, printed in the " Journal of the Britifh Archaeological Affociation." Each of the fifty-two cards



. 184. General Lambert.


prefents a picture with a fatirical title. Ihus the ace of diamonds repre- fents"The High Court of Juftice, or Oliver's Slaughter Houfe." The eight of diamonds is reprefented in our cut No. 183 ; its fubjecl: is " Don Hafelrigg, Knight of the Codled Braine." It is hardly neceflary to fay that Sir Arthur Hafelrigg afted a very prominent and remarkable part during the whole of the Commonwealth period, and that his manner ;

were




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were impetuous and authoritative, which was probably the meaning of the epithet here given to him. The card of the king of diamonds repre- fents rather unequivocally the fubjeft indicated by its title, "Sir H. Mild- may folicits a citizen's wife, for which his owne corrects him." It is an allufion to one of the petty fcandals of the republican period. The eight of hearts is a fatire on major-general Lambert. This able and diftin- guifhed man was remarkably fond of flowers, took great pleafure in cultivating them, and was ikilful in drawing them, which was one of his favourite amufementst He withdrew to Amfterdam during the Protec-



Ab. 185. Shrovetide.

torate, and there gave full indulgence to this love of flowers, and I need hardly fay that it was the age of the great tulip mania in Holland. When, after the Reftoration, he was involved in the fate of the regicides, but had his fentence commuted for thirty years of imprifonment, he alleviated the dulnefs of his long confinement in the ifle of Guernfey by the fame amufement. In the card we have engraved, Lambert is repre- fented in his garden, holding a large tulip in his hand ; and it is no doubt in allufion to this innocent tafte that he is here entitled " Lambert, Knight

of the Golden Tulip."

The


374 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque


The Reftoration furnifhed better fongs than prints, and many years pafled befoie any caricatures worthy of notice appeared in England. Even burlefque fubjecTs of any merit occur but rarely, and I hardly know of one which is worth defcribing here. Among the beft of thofe I have met with, is a pair of plates, publifhed in 1660, reprefenting Lent and Shrovetide, and thefe, I believe, are copied or imitated from foreign prints. Lent is come as a thin miferable-looking knight-errant, appro- priately armed and mounted, ready to give battle to Shrovetide, whofe good living is pernicious to the whole community, and he abufes his oppo- nent in good round terms. In the companion print, of which our cut No. 185 is a copy, Shrovetide appears as a jolly champion, quite ready to meet his enemy. He is beft defcribed in the following lines, extracted from the verfes which accompany the prints :

Fatt Shro'tetyde, mounted on a goad fan oxe, Suppofd that Lent was mad, or caught a foxe,* Armed cap-a-pea from head unto the heel, A/pit his long fioor d, Jomew hat worfe than fteale, {Sheathed in a fatt pigge and a peece of porke), His bottles fid with wine, wellftopt 'with corke ; The tiuo plump capons fluttering at his crupper ; And 'i /boulders lac'd ivith fa-wfages for f upper ; The gridiron (like a well ftrung injlrument) Hung at his backe, and for the turnament His helmet is a brajje pott, and his flagge A cookesfoule apron, which the -wind doth "wagg, Fixd to a broome : thus bravely he did ride t And boldly to his foe he thus replied.

  • /rf , was drunk.


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CHAPTER XXII.

ENGLISH COMEDY. BEN JONSON. THE OTHER WRITERS OF HIS

SCHOOL. INTERRUPTION OF DRAMATIC PERFORMANCES. COMEDY

AFTER THE RESTORATION. THE HOWARDS BROTHERS ; THE DUKE OF

BUCKINGHAM ; THE REHEARSAL. WRITERS OF COMEDY IN THE LATTER

PART OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. INDECENCY OF THE STAGE.

COLLEY CIBBER. FOOTE.

IN England, as in Athens of old, perfect comedy arofe gradually out of the perfonalities of the rude dramatic attempts of an earlier period. Such productions as Ralph Roifter Doifter and Gammer Gurton's Needle were mere imperfect attempts at, we may perhaps rather fay feelers towards, comedy itfelf that djama, the objecl: of which was to carica- ture, and thus to diflecl: and apply correctives to, the vices and weak-

Jlfiffcs "f rrmtpmpnrary fociety. The genius of Shakefpeare was far too

exquifitely poetical to qualify him for a talk like this ; it wanted fome one who could ufe the lancet and fcalpel Ikilfully, but foberly, and who was not liable to be led aftray by too much vigour of imagination.

Such a one was^Ben Jonlon, whom we may rightly confideras the father of Englifh comedy. " Bartholomew Fair," firft performed at the Hope Theatre, on Bankfide, London, on the 3ift of October, 1614, is the moft perfect and mod remarkable example of the truly Engliih comedy, remarkable, among many other things, for the extraordinary number of characters who were brought upon the ftage in one piece, and who are all at the fame time grouped and individualifed with a Ikill that reminds us of the pictorial triumphs of a Callot or a Hogarth. London life is placed before us in all its moie popular forms in one grand tableau, the one in which it would fliow itfelf in its more grotefque attitudes^^the^ London citizen, his vain or eafy wife, (harpers of every, defcription, and their victims no lefs varied in character, the petty city officers, all come

in


376 Htftory of Caricature and Grotefque

in for their fhare of fatire. The different groups are diftributed fo natu- rally, that it is difficult to fay who is the principal character of the piece and who ever was the principal character in Bartholomew Fair? Per- haps the character of Cokes, the young booby fquire from Harrow for in thofe times even fo near London as Harrow, a young fquire was confidered to be in all probability but a young country booby ftrikes us moft. It is faid to have been at a later period the favourite character of Charles II. Among the other principal characters of the play are a proctor of the Arches Court named Littlewit, who imagines himfelf to be a bel cfprit of the firft order; his wife, and her mother, dame Purecraft, who is a widow ; Juftice Overdo, a London magiftrate, to whofe ward, Grace Wellborn, Cokes is affianced in marriage; a zealous Puritan, named Zeal-of-the-land Bufy, who is a fuitor to the widow Purecraft, herfelf alfo a Puritan ; Winwife, Bufy's rival ; and a gamefter named Tom Quarlous, who figures as Winwife's friend and companion. All thefe meet in town, on the morning of the fair, Cokes under the care of a fort of fteward or upper fervant, named Wafpe, who was of a quarrelfome difpofition, and feparate in groups among the crowd which filled Smithfield and its vicinity, each having their feparate adventures, but meeting from time to time, and reaffembling at the end. Cokes behaves as a fimpleton from the country, longs for everything, and wonders at everything, buys up toys and gingerbread, is feparated from all his companions, robbed of his money and even of his outer garments, and in this condition finally fettles down at a puppet-lhow. Meanwhile the Puritan Bufy, by his zeal againft the "heathen abominations" of the fair on one hand, and Wafpe, by his quarrelfome temper on the other, fall into a feries of fcrapes, which end in both being carried to the flocks. They are there joined by another important perfonage. Juftice Overdo, who is diftin- guifhed by an extraordinary zeal for the right adminiftration of juftice and the fuppreflion of focial vices of all kinds, has come into the fair in difguife, in order to make himfelf acquainted with its various abufes, and he paffes among them unknown ; and his inquifitive intermeddling brings him into a variety of miftiaps, in the courfe of which he alfo is feized by the conftable, and allows himfelf to be taken to the flocks, rather than

betray


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betray nis identity. Thus all three, Bufy, Wafpe, and Overdo, are placed in the flocks at the fame time 5 but Wafpe, by a clever trick, efcapes, and leaves the Puritan and the juftice confined together, the one looking upon himfelf as a martyr for religion's fake, the other rather glorying in fuffering through his difinterefted zeal for the common good. They, too, after a while make their efcape through an accidental overfight of their keepers, and mix again with the mob. The women, likewife, have bj;en feparated from their rnalp <"" r "pnni r> nsr^ >a v H f a Mep among (harpers jmjl_b_unies j _been made drunk, and efcaped but narrowly from ftill worfe difafters. They all finally meet before the puppet-fhow, which has fixed the attention of Cokes, and there juftice Overdo difcovers himfelf. Such are the materials of Ben Jonfon's " Bartholomew Fair," the bufieft and moft amufing of plays. It is faid, when firft a&ed, to have given great fatif- fa&ion to king James, by the ridicule thrown upon the Puritans, and it continued to be a favourite comedy when revived after the Reftoration.

"The Alchemift," by the fame author, preceded "Bartholomew Fair," by four years, and was defigned as a fatire upon a clais of impoftors who, in that age, were among the greateft pells of fociety, and were inftruments, one way or other, in the greateft crimes of the day. "The Alchemift" belongs, alfo, to the pure Englifh comedy, but its plot is more fimple and diftincl than that of " Bartholomew Fair." It involves events which may have occurred frequently, at periods when the metropolis was from time to time expofed to the vicifiitudes of the plague. On one of thefe occafions, Love wit, a London gentleman, obliged to quit the metropolis in order to avoid the plague, leaves his town houfe to the charge of one man-fervant, Face, who proves diftioneft, afibciates himfelf with a rogue named Subtle, and an immoral woman named Dol Common, and introduces them into the houfe, which is made the bafis for their fubfequent opera- tions. Subtle afTumes the character of a magician and alchemift, while Dol a<5ts various female parts, and Face goes about alluring people into their fnares. Among their dupes are a knight who lives upon the town, two Englifh Puritans from Amfterdam, a lawyer's clerk, a tobacco man, a young country fquire, and his fifter dame Pliant, a widow. The various intrigues in which thefe individuals are involved, (how us the way in

3 c which


378 Hi ft or y of Caricature and Grotefque

which the pretended conjurers and alchemifts contributed to all the vices of the town. At length their bafe dealings are on the point of being expofed by the cunning of one upon whom they had attempted to impofe, when Truewit, the matter of the houfe, returns unexpectedly, and all is difcovered, but the alchemift and his female aflbciate contrive to efcape. The objet of their laft intrigue had been to entrap dame Pliant, who was rich, into a marriage with a needy (harper ; and Lovewit, finding the lady in the houfe, and liking her, marries her himfelf, and, in confidera- tionof the fatisfa&ion he has thus procured, forgives his unfaithful fervant. Many have confidered the Alchemift to be the beft of Jonfon's dramas. "Epicrene, or the Silent Woman," which belongs to the year 1609, is another fatirical pifture of London fociety, in which the fame clafs of characters appear. Morofe, an eccentric gentleman of fortune, who has a great horror for noife, and even obliges his fervants to communicate with him by figns, has a nephew, a young knight named Sir Dauphine Eugenie, with whom he is difiatisfied, and he refufes to allow him money for his fupport. A plot is laid by his friends, whereby the uncle is led into a marriage with a fuppofed filent woman, named Epicoene, but fhe only fuftains the character until the wedding formalities are completed, and thefe are followed by a fcene of noife and riot, which completely horrifies Morofe, and leads to a reconciliation with his nephew, to whom he makes over half his fortune. The earlieft of Ben Jonfon's comedies, " Every Man in his Humour," was compofed in its prefent form in 1598, and is the firfl of thefe dramatic fatires on the. manners and character of the citizens of London, of whom it was faftiionable at the courts of James I. and Charles I. to fpeak contemptuously. Kno'well, an old gentleman of refpe&ability, is highly difpleafed with his fon Edward, becaufe the latter has taken to writing poetry, and has formed a friendftiip with another gentleman of his own age, who loves poetry and frequents the rather gay fociety of the poets and wits of the town. Wellbred has a half-brother, a "plain fquire," named Downright, and a fitter married to a rich city merchant named Kitely. Kitely, the merchant, who is extremely jealous of his wife, has a great defire to reform Wellbred, and draw him to a fteadier line of life, a fentiment in which Downright

heartily


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heartily joins. Kitely's jealoufy, and the fteps taken to reform Wellbred, lead to the moft comic parts of the play, which concludes with the marriage of young Kno'well to Kitely's daughter, Mifs Bridget, and his reconciliation with his father. Among the other characters in the piece are captain Bobadil, " a bluftering coward," juftice Clement, " an old merry magiftrate," his clerk, Roger Formal, and a country gull and a town gull.

Thefe comedies of London life became popular, and continued fo during this "and the following reign in fact, the mafs of thofe who attended the theatres could underftand and appreciate them better than any others, and, what was more, they felt them. Among Jonfon's con- temporaries in the literature of this Englifh comedy were Middleton and Thomas Heywood, both very prolific writers, Chapman, and Marfton. Certain clafles of characters are continually repeated in this comedy, becaufe they belonged efpecially to the London fociety of the time, but the employment and diftribution of thefe characters admitted of great variations, and they perhaps often had at the time a fpecial intereft, as reprefenting known individuals, or as being combined in a plot which was built upon real incidents in London life. Among thefe were ufually a country gentleman of fortune, who was very avaricious, and had a fpendthrift fon, or who had a daughter, a rich heirefs, who was the object of the intrigues of fpendthrift fuitors ; young heirs, who have juft come to their eftates, and are fpending them in London ; young country fquires who are eafy victims ; a needy knight, as poor in principles as in money, who lived upon the public in every way he could ; defigning and unfcru- pulous women ; bullies and {harpers of every defcription. In fact, we feem to be always in the fmell of the tavern, and in the midft of diflipa- tion. Then there are fat, fleek, and wealthy citizens, whofe fouls are entirely wrapt up in their merchandife, who are proud, neverthelefs, of their pofition^ and eafy, credulous city wives, who are fond of finery and of praife, eager for gaiety and difplay, impatient of the rule of hulbands, or of the dulnefs of home, and very ready to liften to the advances of the gay gallants from the court end of the town, or from the tavern. The city tradesman has generally an apprentice or two, fometimes very fober,

but


380 Hijtory of Caricature and Grotefque

but perhaps more frequently diflipated, who play their parts in the piece ; and often a daughter, who is either a model of modefty and all the domeftic virtues, and is finally the reward of fome hero of good principles, who has been temporarily led aftray, and his character mifinterpreted, or who is gay and intriguing, and comes to difgrace. But the favourite idea of excellence, or, to ufe a technical phrafe, the beau ideal of this comedy, appears to have been a wild youth, who goes through every fcene of diflipation, in a gentlemanly manner (as the term was then under- ftood), and comes out at the end of the play as an honeft, virtuous man, and receives the reward for qualities which he had not previoufly difplayed.

Sometimes the writers of this comedy indulged in perfonal, or even in political, allufions which brought them into trouble. In the year 1605, Ben Jonfon, George Chapman, and John Marfton, wrote jointly a comedy entitled " Eaftward Hoe." It is a very excellent and amufing comedy, and was very popular. Touchftone, an honeft goldfmith in the city, has two apprentices, Golding, a fober and induftrious youth, and Quickfijver, who is an irreclaimable rake. Touchftone has alfo two daughters, the eldeft of whom, Gertrude, affe6ts the fine lady, and is ambitious of finding a hufband in the fafhionable world, while her younger fifter, Mildred, is all virtue and humility. An attachment arifes between Golding and Mildred. Another character in this drama is a needy, fcheming knight, who lives upon the town, and rejoices in the name of Sir Petronel Flafh. Sir Petronel is attracted by the rich dowry which the young lady, Gertrude, had to expect, pays his court to her, and eafily works upon her vanity ; and, her mother encouraging her, they are haftily married, contrary to the wifhes of her father. The knight is fuppofed to poflefs a magnificent caftle fomewhere to the eaft of London, and the young bride and her mother proceed in fearch of this, from which the comedy derives its title of " Eaftward Hoe," but they are involved in various dif- agreeable adventures in the fearch, which ends in the conviction that it is all a fable. Another character in the play is a greedy and unprincipled ufurer, who is fo jealous of his young and pretty wife, that he keeps her under lock and key ; and this man is deeply involved in money-lending with Sir Petronel Flafh, and they are engaged in a feries of unprincipled

tranfactions,


in Literature and Art. 3 81

tranfa&ions, which lead to the difgrace of them all, and in the courfe of which the virtue of the ufurer's wife falls a facrifice. Meanwhile the fortunes of the two apprentices have been advancing in diredtly oppofite directions. Quickfilver, the unworthy apprentice, leaves his matter, pro- ceeds from bad to worfe, and finally is committed to prifon, for a crime the punimment of which was death. On the other hand, Golding has not only gained his matter's efteem and married his daughter Mildred, and been adopted as the heir to his wealth, but he has merited the refpe6t of his fellow-citizens, and has been promoted in municipal rank. It becomes Golding's duty to prefide over the trial of his old fellow apprentice Quick- filver, but the latter efcapes through Golding's generofity.

There is fome found morality in the (pint of this comedy, and a very large amount of immorality in the text. There was, indeed, a coarfe licence in the relations of fociety at this period, which are but too faith- fully reprefented in its literature. But there are two circumftances, acci- dentally attached to this drama, which give it a peculiar intereft. When brought out upon the ftage it contained reflections upon Scotchmen which provoked the anger of king James I. to fuch a degree, that all the authors were feized and thrown into prifon, and narrowly efcaped the lofs of their ears and nofes, but they obtained their releafe with fome diffi- culty, and only through powerful interceflion. In the copy which has been brought down to us through the prefs, we find no reflections what- ever upon Scotchmen, fo that it mutt have been altered from the original text. When we confider that, at this time, the Englifh court and capital were crowded with needy Scottifh adventurers, who were looked upon with great jealoufy, it is not improbable that in the original form of the comedy, Sir Petronel Flafli may have been a Scotchman, and intended not only as a fatire upon the Scottifh adventurers in general, but to have been defigned for fome one in particular who had the means of bringing upon the authors the extreme difpleafure of the court.

The other circumftance which has given celebrity to this comedy, is one of ftill greater intereft. After the Reftoration, it was new modelled by Nicholas Tate, and brought again upon the flage under the title of " Cuckold's Haven." Perhaps through this remodelled edition, Hogarth

took


582 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque

took from the comedy of " Eaftward Hoe," the idea of his feries of plates of the hiflory of the Idle and Induftrious Apprentices.

When we confider the ridicule which was continually thrown upon them in this earlier period of the Englilh comedy, we can eafily under- fland the bitternefs with which the Puritans regarded the ftage and the drama. When they obtained power, the ftage, as might be expected, was fupprefled, and for fome years England was without a theatre. At the Reftoration, however, the theatres were opened again, and with greater freedom than ever. At firft the old comedies of the days of James I. and Charles I. were revived, and many of them, modified and adapted to the new circumftances, were again brought upon the flage. The original comedies which appeared immediately after the Reftoration, were often marked with a political tinge; as the ftage faw its natural pro- tectors in the court, and in the court party, it embraced their politics ; and Puritans, Roundheads, Whigs, all whofe principles were fuppofed to be con- trary to royalty and arbitrary power, fell under its fatire. Such was the character of the comedy of "The Cheats," by a play-writer of fome repute named Wilfon, which was brought out in 1662. The object of this play appears to have been, in the firft place, to fatirife the Nonconformifts or Puritanical clergy with whom were clafled the aftrologers and conjurers, who had increafed in number during the Commonwealth time, and infefted fociety more than ever and the city magiftrates, who were not looked upon as being generally over-loyal. The three cheats who are the heroes of this comedy, are Scruple, the Nonconformift, Mopus, a pretender to phyfic and aftrology, and alderman Whitebroth. Dired perfonal attacks had been introduced into the comedy of the Reftoration, and it is probable that fomebody of influence was fatirifed under the name of Scruple, for the play was fupprefled by authority, and at a later period, when it was revived, the prologue announces this facl: in the following words :

Sad news, my maflert ; and too true, I fear, For us Scruple's ajilenc'd mini/ier. Would ye the c auje ? The brethren fni-vel, and fay, ' Tis fcandalous that any cheat but they.

Many of the dramatifts of the Reftoration were men of good and

ariftocratic


in Literature and Art. 383

ariftocratic families, witty and profligate cavaliers, who had returned from exile with their king. The family of the earl of Berkfhire produced no leis than four writers of comedy, all brothers, Edward Howard, colonel Henry Howard, fir Robert Howard, and James Howard, while their fifter, the lady Elizabeth Howard, was married to the poetDryden. Edward Howard's firft dramatic piece was a tragi-comedy entitled " The Ufurper," which came out in 1668, and was intended as a fatire upon Cromwell. His beft known comedies were "The Man of Newmarket," and "Woman's Conqueft." Colonel Henry Howard compofed a comedy entitled " United Kingdoms/' which appears not to have been printed. To James Howard, the youngeft of the brothers, the play-going public, even then rather a large one, owed "The Englilh Mounfieur," and "All Miftaken, or the Mad Couple." Sir Robert Howard was the beft writer of the four, and wrote both tragedies and comedies, which were afterwards publifhed collectively. The beft of his comedies is " The Committee," which was firft brought on the ftage in 16?$. and through fome chance, certainly not by its merit, continued to be an acting play during the whole of the laft century.

" The Committee " is by far the beft of the dramatic writings of the Howards. Its defign was to turn to ridicule the Commonwealth men and the Puritans. Colonel Blunt and colonel Carelefs are .two royalifts, whofe eftates are in the hands of the committee of fequeftrations, and who repair to London for the purpofe of compounding for them. The chairman of the committee is a Mr. Day, a worldly-minded and fufficiently felfifh Puritan, but who is ruled by his more crafty and ftill lefs fcrupulous wife, a defign- ing and very talkative woman. Both are of low origin, for Mrs. Day had been a kitchen-woman, and both are very proud and very tyrannical. Among the other principal characters are Abel Day, their fon, Obadiah, the clerk to the committee, a man in the intereft of the Days, and an Irifh fervant named Teague, who had been the fervant of Carelefs's dear friend, a royalift officer killed in battle, and whom the colonel finds in great diftrefs, and takes into his own fervice out of charity. The cha- racter of Teague is a very poor caricature upon an Irimman, and his blunders and bulls are of a very fpiritlefs defcription. Here is an example.

Teague


384 Hi/lory of Caricature and Grotefque

Teague has overheard the two colonels ftate that they fhould be obliged to take the Covenant, and exprefs their' reludance to do it, and in his inconfiderate zeal, he hurries away to try if he cannot take the covenant for them, and thus fave them a difagreeable operation. In the ttreet he meets a wandering bookfeller a elate of pedlars who were then common and a fcene takes place which is beft given in the words of the original :


books, new books ! A Desperate Plot and Engage- ment of the Bloody Cavaliers ! Mr. Saltmarshe's Alarum to the Nation, after having been three days dead ! Mercurius Britannicus-^

Teague. How's that ? They cannot live in Ireland after they are dead three days !

Book. Mercurius Britannicus, or the Weekly Post, or the Solemn League and Covenant !

r<wg-. What is that you say ? Is it the Covenant you have ?

Book. Yes ; what then, sir ?

Teag. Which is that Covenant ?

Book. Why, this is the Covenant.

Teag. Well, I must take that Covenant.

Book. You take my commodities ?

Teag. I must take that Covenant, upon my soul, now.

Book. Stand off, sir, or I'll set you further !

Teag. Well, upon my soul, now, I will take the Covenant for my master.

Buok. Your master must pay me for 't, then !

Teag. I must take it first, and my master will pay you afterwards.

Book. You must pay me now.

Teag. Oh ! that I will [Knocks him downi], Now you're paid, you thief of the world. Here's Covenants enough to poison the whole nation. [Exit.

Book. What a devil ails this fellow ? [Crying], He did not come to rob me, certainly ; for he has not taken above two-pennyworth of lamentable ware away ; but I feel the rascal's fingers. I may light upon my wild Irishman again, and, if I do, I will fix him with some catchpole, that shall be worse than his own country bogs. [Exit.

Iu the frquel, Teague is caught by the conftables, and is liberated at the interference of his matter, who pays twopence for the book. The plot of the comedy is but a fimple one, and is neither fkilfully nor natu- rally carried out. Colonel Blunt comes to London from Reading in the

infide




in Literature and Art. 385

infide of a ftage-coach, having for his travelling companions Mrs. Day, her fuppofed daughter Ruth, and Arabella, a young lady whofe father is recently dead, leaving his eftates in the hands of the committee of fequef- trations. Ruth is, in truth, a young lady whofe eftates the Days have, under fimilar circumftances, robbed her of, and it is their defign to treat Arabella in the fame manner, under difguife of forcing her to marry their fon Abel, a vain filly lad. To effect this, as the committee itfelf requires fome influencing to engage them in the felfifh plans of their chairman, Day and his wife forge a letter from the exiled king, complimenting the former on his great power and influence and talents as a ftatefman, and offering him great rewards if he will fecretly promote his caufe. Day communicates this to the committee under the pretext that it is his duty to make them acquainted with allfuch perfidious defigns that might come to his knowledge, and they, convinced of his honefty and value to them, give up Arabella's eftates to the Days, and (he falls entirely under their power. Meanwhile, on the one hand, Arabella has gained the confidence of Ruth, who makes her acquainted with the whole plot againft her and her eftates, and on the other, Ruth falls in love with colonel Carelefs, and colonel Blunt is frpitten with the charms of Arabella, and all this takes place in the committee room. Various incidents follow, which feem not very much to the purpofe, but at laft, as the marriage ot Arabella to Abel Day is prefied forward, the two young ladies, although as yet they have hardly had an interview with the colonels, refolve to make their efcape from the houfe of the chairman of the committee, and fly to their lovers for protection. A Ihort abfence from the houfe of Mr. and Mrs. Day and their fon together, prefents the defired opportunity, and Day having accidentally left his keys behind him, the idea fuggefts itfelf to Ruth to open his cabinet, and gain pofieflion of the deeds and papers of her own eftates and thofe of Arabella. As flie had before this fecretly obferved the private drawer in which they were placed, fhe met with no difficulty in effecting her purpofe, and not only found thefe documents, but alfo with them the forged letter from the king, and fome letters addrefled to Day by ypung women whom he was fecretly keeping, and who demanded money for the fupport of children they had by him, and

3 D alluded


386 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque

alluded to matters of a ftill more ferious character. Ruth takes pofleflion of all thefe, and thus laden, the two damfels hurry away, and reach without interruption the houfe where they were to meet the colonels. The Days return home immediately after the departure of their wards, and at once fufpeft the real ftate of affairs, which is fully confirmed, when Mr. Day finds that his moft private drawer has been opened, and his moft important papers carried off. They immediately proceed in fearch of the fugitives, having fent orders for a detachment of foldiers to affift them, and the houfe in which the lovers have taken refuge is fur- rounded before they have had time to efcape. Finding it ufelefs to attempt refiftance by force, the beiieged call for a parley, and then Ruth frightens Day by acquainting him with the contents of the private letters (he has become poflefied of, and his wife by the knowledge fhe has obtained of the forged letter, which alfo fhe has in her poffeffion. The Days are thus overreached, and the play ends with a general reconciliation. The ladies are left with the titles of their eftates, and with their lovers, and we are left to fuppofe that they afterwards married, and were happy.

The plot of "The Committee, t will be feen, is not a very capital one, but the manner in which it is worked out is ftill worfe. The dialogue is extremely tame, and the incidents are badly interwoven. When I fay that the example of wit given above is the beft in the play, and that there are not many attempts at wit in it, it will hardly be thought that it could be amufing, and we cannot but feel aftonifhed at the popularity which it once enjoyed. This popularity, indeed, is only explained by the fafhion of ridiculing the Puritans, which then prevailed fo ftrongly j and it perhaps retained its place on the ftage during the laft century chiefly from the circumftance of its wanting the objetlionable qualities which chara&erifed the written plays of the latter half of the feventeenth century.

"The Committee" is, after all, one of the very beft comedies of the fchool of dramatifts reprefented by the brothers Howard. Contemporary with this fchool of flat comedies, there was a fchool of equally inflated tragedy, and both foon became obje6ts of ridicule to the fatirifts of the day. Of thefe, one of the boldeft was George Villiers, duke of Buckingham,

the


in Literature and Art. 387

the fon of the favounte of king James I., and equally celebrated for his talents and his profligacy. Buckingham is faid to have planned and begun his fatirical comedy of " The Rehearfal " as early as the year 1663, and to have had it ready for reprefentation towards the December of 1665, when the breaking out of the great plague caufed the theatres to be clofed. After this interruption its author, who was a defultory writer, appears to have laid it afide for fome time and then, new objeds for fatire having prefented themfelves, he altered and modified it, and it was finally completed in 1671, when it was brought out at the Theatre Royal in Covent Garden. It is faid that Buckingham was aflifted in the compofition of this fatire, but it is not ftated in what manner, by Butler, and by Martin Clifford, of the Charter-houfe. It is underftood that, in the firft form of his fatire, Buckingham had chofen the Hon. Edward Howard for its hero, and that he afterwards exchanged him for Sir William Davenant, but he finally fixed upon Dryden, whofe tragedies and comedies are certainly not the beft of his writings poflibly fome perfonal pique may have had an influence in the felection. Neverthelefs, with Dryden, the Howards, Davenant, and one or two other writers of comedy, come in for their fhare of ridicule. Dryden, under the name of Bayes, has compofed a new drama, and a friend named Johnfon goes to witnefs the rehearfal of this play, taking with him a country friend of the name of Smith. The play itfelf is a piece of mockery throughout, made up of parodies, often very happy, on the different play-writers of the day, and efpecially upon Dryden ; and it is mixed up with a running converfation between Bayes, the author, and his two vifitors, which is full of fatirical humour. The firft part of the prologue explains to us fufficiently the fpirit in which this fatire was written.

We might <well call this Jhort mock-play of our t A pojte made ofiveedt mftead of flower i } Yet fuch have been prefented to your nofes, And there are fuch, I fear, -who thought V rofes. Would fame of em loere here, to fee this night What fluff It is in "which they took delight . Here, brijk, infipid rogues, for <wit, let fall Sometimes dullfenfe, but ofCner none at all ,-

There


388 Htftory of Caricature and Grotefque


There, ftrutting heroes, tvith a grim-foe* d train, Shalt brave the gods, in king Cambyfes vein. For (changing rules, of late, as if men writ Injpite offeajon, nature, art, and wit) Our f Mi make us laugh at tragedy, And "with their comedies they make us cry.

A fhort account of this latire will, perhaps, be beft understood, if I explain that the antagonifra of two contending kings of Granada having been a favourite idea of Dryden in his tragedies, Buckingham is faid to have defigned to ridicule him in making two, not rival, but aflbciate kings of Brentford, though others fay that thefe two kings of Brentford were intended for a fneer upon king Charles II. and the duke of York. Thefe two kings are the heroes of Bayes's play. The firft al of "The Rehearfal " confifls of a difcuffion between Bayes, Johnfon, and Smith, on the general character of the play, in which Bayes exhibits a large amount of vanity and felf-confidence, faid to have been a characteriftic of all thefe play- writers of the earlier period of the Reftoration, and he informs them that he has "made a prologue and an epilogue, which may both ferve for either j that is, the prologue for the epilogue, or the epilogue for the prologue, (do you mark !) nay, they may both ferve, too, 'egad, for any other play as well as this." Smith obferves, "That's indeed artificial." Finally Bayes explains, that as other authors, in their prologues, fought to flatter and propitiate their audience, in order to gain their favourable opinion of the plot, he, on the contrary, intended to force their applaufe out of them by mere dint of terror, and for that purpofe, he had intro- duced as fpeakers of his prologue, no lefs perfonages than Thunder and Lightning. This prologue, difengaged from the remarks of Bayes and his friends, runs as follows :

Enter THUNDER and LIGHTNING.

Thun.l am the bold Thunder.

Light. The brisk Lightning I.

Thun. I am the bravest Hector of the sky.

Light. And I fair Helen, that made Hector die.

Thun. I strike men down.

Light. I fire the town.

Thun.


in Literature and Art. 389


Thun. Let critics take heed how they grumble,

For then I begin for to rumble. Light. Let the ladies allow us their graces,

Or I'll blast all the paint on their faces,

And dry up their peter to soot. Thun. Let the critics look to't. Light. Let the ladies look to't. Thun. For the Thunder will do't. Light. For the Lightning will shoot. Thun. I'll give you dash for dash. Light. I'll give you flash for flash.

Gallants, I'll singe your feather. Thun. I'll Thunder you together.

Both. Look to't, look to't j we'll do't, we'll do't ; look to't ; we'll do't. [Twice or thrice repeated.

Bayes calls this " but a flafti of a prologue," in reply to which, Smith obferves, "Yes; 'tis ftiort, indeed, but very terrible." It is a parody on a fcene in " The Slighted Maid," a play by Sir Robert Stapleton, where Thunder and Lightning were introduced, and then* converfation begins in the fame words. But the poet has another difficulty on which he denies the opinion of his vifitors. " I have made," he fays, "one of the mott delicate, dainty limiles in the whole world, 'egad, if I knew how to apply it. 'Tis," he adds, "an allufion to love." This is the limile

So boar andfow, when any florm is nigh Snuff up, andfmcll it gathering in the sky ; Soar beckons f<rw to trot in chefnut groves, And there consummate their unfinijbed loves : Penfive in mud they wallow all alone, Andfnore and gruntle to each others moan,

It is a rather coarfe, but clever parody on a limile in Dryden's " Conqueft of Granada," part ii. :

& two kind turtles, "when a form is nigh, Look up, and fee it gathering in the sky; Each calls his mate to /belter in the groves, Leaving, in murmurs, their unfini/bed loves ; Perch" 1 d on fame dropping branch, they Jit alone, And coc, and hearken to each other's moan.

It


390 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque

It is decided that the fimile fliould be added to the prologue, for, as Johnfon remarks to Bayes, " Faith, 'tis extraordinary fine, and very applic- able to Thunder and Lightning, methinks, becaufe it fpeaks of a ftorm." In the fecond aft we come to the opening of the play, the firft fcene confifting of whifpering, in ridicule of a fcene in Davenant's " Play-houfe to Let," where Drake fenior fays

Draw up your men,

And in low lohlfpcrs give your orders out,

In fact, the Gentleman-Ufher and the Phyfician of the two kings of Brentford appear upon the fcene alone, and difcufs a plot to dethrone the two kings of Brentford, which they communicate by whifpers into each other's ears, which are totally inaudible. In Scene ii., " Enter the two kings, hand in hand/' and Bayes remarks to his vifitors, " Oh ! thefe are now the two kings of Brentfordj take notice of their ftyle 'twas never yet upon the flags ; but, if you like it, I could make a fhift, perhaps, to (how you a whole play, writ all juft fo." The kings begin, rather familiarly, becaufe, as Bayes adds, " they are both perfons of the fame quality :"

ift King. Did you observe their whispers, brother king? tnd King , I did, and heard, besides, a grave bird sing,

That they intend, sweetheart, to play us pranks. ijt King. If that design appears,

I'll lay them by the ears,

Until I make 'em crack. znd King. And so will I, i' fack ! ifl King. You must begin, monfoi. ind King. Sweet sir, pardonnex mot.

Bayes obferves that he makes the two kings talk French in order " to ihow their breeding." In the third aft, Bayes introduces a new character, prince Prettyman, a parody upon the character of Leonidas, in Dryden's " Marriage-a-la-Mode." The prince falls afleep, and then his beloved Cloris comes in, and is furprifed, upon which Bayes remarks, " Now, here ihe muft make a fimile." " Where's the neceffity of that, Mr. Bayes ? " aiks the critical Mr. Smith. " Oh," replies Bayes, " becaufe fhe's furprifed. That's a general rule. You muft ever make a fimile

when


in Literature and Art. 391

when you are furprifed; 'tis a new way of writing." Now we have another parody upon one of Dryden's fimiles. In the fourth fcene, the Gentleman-Ufher and Phyfician appear again, difcufling the queftion whether their whifpers had been heard or not, a difcuffion which they conclude by feizing on the two thrones, and occupying them with their drawn fwords in their hands. Then they march out to raife their forces, and a battle to mufic takes place, four foldiers on each fide, who are all killed. Next we have a fcene between prince Prettyman and his tailor, Tom Thimble, which involves a joke upon the princely principle of non-payment. A fcene or two follows in a fimilar tone, without at all advancing the plot ; although it appears that another prince, Volfcius, who, we are to fuppofe, fupports the old dynafty of Brentford, has made his efcape to Piccadilly, while the army which he is to lead has aflembled, and is concealed, at Knightlbridge. This incident produces a difcuffion between Mr. Bayes and his friends :

Smith. But pray, Mr. Bayes, is not this a little difficult, that you were saying e'en now, to keep an army thus concealed in Knights- bridge ?

Bayes. In Knightsbridge ? stay.

Johnfon. No, not if inn- keepers be his friends.*

Bayes. His friends ? Ay, sir, his intimate acquaintance ; or else, indeed, I grant it could not be.

Smith. Yes, faith, so it might be very easy.

Bayes. Nay, if I don't make all things easy, 'egad, I'll give 'em leave to hang me. Now you would think that he is going out of town ; but you will see how prettily I have contrived to stop him, presently.

Accordingly, prince Volfcius yields to the influence of a fair demoifelle, who bears the claffical name of Parthenope, and after various exhibitions of hefitation, he does not leave town. Another fcene or two, with little meaning, but full of clever parodies on the plays of Dryden, the Howards, and their contemporaries. The firft fcene of the fourth act opens with a

funeral,

  • Knightsbridge, as the principal entrance to London from the west, was full

of inns.


392 Hi/lory of Caricature and Grotefque

funeral, a parody upon colonel Henry Howard's play of the " United Kingdoms." Pallas interferes, brings the lady who is to be buried to life, gets up a dance, and furnifhes a very extempore feaft. The princes Prettyman and Volfcius difpute about their fweethearts. At the com- mencement of the fifth ad the two ufurping kings appear in ftate, attended by four cardinals, the two princes, all the lady-loves, heralds, and fergeants-at-arms, &c. In the middle of all this ftate, " the two right kings of Brentford defcend in the clouds, finging, in white garments, and three fiddlers fitting before them in green." " Now," {ays Bayes to his friends, " becaufe the two right kings defcend from above, I make 'em fing to the tune and ftyle of our modern fpirits." And accordingly they proceeded in a continuous parody:


\ft King. Haste, brother king, we are sent from above. znd King. Let us move, let us move 5 Move, to remove the fate Of Brentford's long united state. ift King. Tara, tan, tara ! full east and by south. 2nd King. We sail with thunder in our mouth.

In scorching noon-day, whilst the traveller stays,

Busy, busy, busy, busy, we bustle along, Mounted upon warm Phoebus's rays, Through the heavenly throng,

Hasting to those

Who will feast us at night with a pig's pettytoes. ijl King. And we'll fall with our plate

In an olio of hate

  • </ King But, now supper's done, the servitors try,

Like soldiers, to storm a whole half-moon pie.

  • ft King. They gather, they gather, hot custards in spoons ;

But, alas ! I must leave these half-moons, And repair to my trusty dragoons. ind King. O stay ! for you need not as yet go astray ;

The tide, like a friend, has brought ships in our way, And on their high ropes we will play ; Like maggots in filberts, we'll snug in our shell, We'll frisk in our shell, We'll firk in our shell,

And farewell. ift King. But the ladies have all inclination to dance,

And the green frogs croak out a coranto of France.

All


in Literature and Art.


393


All this is quite Ariftophanic. It is interrupted by a difcuffion between Bayes and his via" tors on the mufic and the dance, and then the two kings continue :

^nd King. Now mortals, that hear How we tilt and career, With wonder, will fear

The event of such things as shall never appear. \ft King. Stay you to fulfil what the gods have decreed. ind King. Then call me to help you, if there shall be need. \ft King. So firmly resolved is a true Brentford king,

To save the distressed, and help to 'em bring, That, ere a full pot of good ale you can swallow, He's here with a whoop, and gone with a halloo.

The rather too inquifitive Smith wonders at all this, and complains that, to him, the fenfe of this is " not very plain." " Plain !" exclaims Bayes, " why, did you ever hear any people in the clouds fpeak plain ? They muft be all for flight of fancy, at its full range, without the leaft check or control upon it. When once you tie up fprites and people in clouds to fpeak plain, you fpoil all." The two kings of Brentford now "light out of the clouds, and ftep into the throne," continuing the fame dignified converfation :

ifi King. Come, now to serious council we'll advance. f.nd King. I do agree ; but first, let's have a dance.

This confidence of the two kings of Brentford is fuddenly difturbed by the found of war. Two heralds announce that the army, that of Knightf- bridge, had come to proteft them, and that it had come in difguife, an arrangement which puzzles the author's two vifitors :

ijt King. What saucy groom molests our privacies ?

ift Herald. The army's at the door, and, in disguise,

Desires a word with both your majesties.

^nd Herald. Having from Knightsbridge hither march'd by stealth. in d King. Bid 'em attend a while, and drink our health. Smith. How, Mr. Bayes ? The army in disguise ! Bayes. Ay, sir, for fear the usurpers might discover them, that went out but just now.

jj E War


394 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque

War itfelf follows, and the commanders of the two armies, the general and the lieutenant-general, appear upon the ftage in another parody upon the opening fcenes of Dryden's " Siege of Rhodes :"

Enter, at fever al doors, the GENERAL and LlEUTENANT-GENERAL, armed cap-a-pie, with each a lute in hit hand, and his /-word drawn, and hung with a fear let riband at the ivrift.

Lieut. -Gen. Villain, thou liest.

Gen. Arm, arm, Gonsalvo, arm. What ! ho !

The lie no flesh can brook, I trow. Licut.-Gen. Advance from Acton with the musqueteers. Gen. Draw down the Chelsea cuirassiers. Lieut.-Gen. The band you boast of, Chelsea cuirassiers,

Shall in my Putney pikes now meet their peers. Gen. Chiswickians, aged, and renowned in fight,

Join with the Hammersmith brigade. Lieut.-Gen. You'll find my Mortlake boys will do thrm right,

Unless by Fulham numbers over-laid. Gen. Let the left wing of Twick'n'am foot advance,

And line that eastern hedge. Lieut.-Gen. The horse I raised in Petty France Shall try their chance,

And scour the meadows, overgrown with sedge. Gen. Stand : give the word. Lieut.-Gen. Bright sword. Gen. That may be thine,

But 'tis not mine. Lieut.-Gen. Give fire, give fire, at once give fire,

And let those recreant troops perceive mine ire. Gen. Pursue, pursue ; they fly,

That first did give the lie ! [Exeunt.

Thus the battle is carried on in talk between two individuals. Bayes alleges, as an excufe for introducing thefe trivial names of places, that " the fpe&ators know all thefe towns, and may eafily conceive them to be within the dominions of the two kings of Brentford." The battle is 6nally Hopped by an eclipfe, and three perfonages, reprefenting the fun, moon, and earth, advance upon the flage, and by dint of tinging and manoeuvring, one gets in a line between the other two, and this, accord- ing to the ftrit rules of aftronomy, conftituted the eclipfe. The eclipfe is followed by another battle of a more defperate character, to which a flop


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is put in an equally extraordinary manner, by the entrance of the furious hero Drawcanfir, who flays all the combatants on both fides. The marriage of prince Prettyman was to form the fubject of the fifth ad, but while Bayes, Johnfon, and Smith withdraw temporarily, all the players, in difguft, run away to their dinners, and thus ends " The Rehearfal " of Mr. Bayes's play. The epilogue returns to the moral which the play was defigned to inculcate :

The play is at an end, but where 's the plot f That circumftance the poet Bayes forgot. And ive can boaft, though 'tis a plotting age. No place is freer from it than the J}age,

Formerly people fought to write fo that they might be underftood, but " this new way of wit " was altogether incomprehenfible :

Wherefore, for ours, and for the kingdom's peace, May this prodigious ivay of "writing ceafe ; Left have, at haft once in our lives, a time When we may hear fame reafon, not all rhyme. We have this ten years felt its influence } Pray let this prove a year of profe andjenfe.

Englifh comedy was certainly greatly reformed, in fome fenfes of the word reform, during the period which followed the publication of " The Rehearfal," and, in the hands of writers like Wycherley, Shadwell, Congreve, and D'Urfey, the dulnefs of the Howards was exchanged for an extreme degree of vivacity. The plot was as little confidered as ever it was a mere peg on which to hang fcenes brilliant with wit and repartee. The fmall intrigue is often but a frame for a great picture of fociety in its forms then moft open to caricature, with all the petty intrigues infeparable from it. " Epfom Wells," one of Shadwell's earlier comedies, and perhaps his beft, will bear comparifon with Jonfon's " Bartholomew Fair." The perfonages reprefented in it are exactly thofe which then fhone in fuch fociety three " men of wit and pleafure," one of the clals of country fquires whom the wits of London loved to laugh at, aud who is defcribed as "a country juflice, a public Ipirited, politick,

difcontented


396 Hiflory of Caricature and Grotefque

difcontented fop, an immoderate hater of London, and a lover of the country above meafure, a hearty true Englifti coxcomb." Then we have " two cheating, (harking, cowardly bullies." The citizens of London are reprefented by BHket, " a comfit-maker, a quiet, humble, civil cuckold, governed by his wife, whom he very much fears and loves at the fame time, and is very proud of," and Fribble, " a haberdalher, a furly cuckold, very conceited, and proud of his wife, but pretends to govern and keep her under," and their wives, the firfl " an impertinent, imperious ftrumpet," and the other, " an humble, fubmitting wife, who jilts her hufband that

way, a very " One or two other characters of the fame ftamp,

with " two young ladies of wit, beauty, and fortune," who behave them- felves not much better than the others, and a full allowance of " parfons, hedtors, conftables, watchmen, and fiddlers," complete the dramatis perfonce of " Epfom Wells." With fuch materials anybody will under- ftand the character of the piece, which was brought out on the ftage in 1672. "The Squire of Alfatia," by the fame author, brought upon the ftage in the eventful year 1688, is a vivid picture of one of the wildeft phafes of London life in thofe ftill rather primitive times. Alfatia, as ever)' reader of Walter Scott knows, was a cant name for the White Friars, in London, a locality which, at that time, was beyond the reach of the law and its officers, a refuge for thieves and rogues, and efpecially for debtors, where they could either refift with no great fear of being over- come, or, when refiftance was no longer poflible, efcape with eafe. With fuch a fcene, and fuch people for characters, we are not furprifed that the printed edition of this play is prefaced by a vocabulary of the cant words employed in it. The principal characters in the play are of the fame clals with thofe which form the ftaple of all thefe old comedies. Firft there is a country father or uncle, who is rich and fevere upon the vices of youth, or arbitrary, or avaricious. He is here reprefented by fir William Belfond, " a gentleman of about ^3000 per annum, who in his youth had been a fpark of the town ; but married and retired into the country, where he turned to the other extreme rrigid, morofe, moft fordidly covetous, clownifti, obftinate, pofitive, and forward." He muft have a London brother, or near relative, endowed with exactly contrary qualities, here reprefented

by


in Literature and Art. 397

by fir Edward Belfond, fir William's brother, " a merchant, who by lucky hits had gotten a great eftate, lives fingle with eafe and pleafure, reafonably and virtuoufly, a man of great humanity and gentleneis and compaflion towards mankind, well read in good books, poifefied with all gentlemanlike qualities." Sir William Belfond has two fons. Belfond fenior, the eldeft, is "bred after his father's ruftic, fwinifh manner, with great rigour and feverity, upon whom his father's eftate is entailed, the confidence of which makes him break out into open rebellion to his father, and become lewd, abominably vicious, ftubborn, and obftinate." The younger Belfond, Sir William's fecond fon, had been " adopted by Sir Edward, and bred from his childhood by him, with all the tendernels and familiarity, and bounty, and liberty that can be 5" "he was "inftru&ed in all the liberal fciences, and in all gentleman-like education ; fomewhat given to women, and now and then to good fellowfhip ; but an ingenious, well-accomplifhed gentleman ; a man of honour, and of excellent difpo- fition and temper." Then we have fome of the leading heroes of Alfatia, and firft Cheatly, who is defcribed as " a rafcal, who by reafon of debts, dares not ftir out of Whitefryers, but there inveigles young heirs in tail j and helps 'em to goods and money upon great diladvantages ; is bound for them, and fhares with them, till he undoes them; a lewd, impudent, debauched fellow, very expert in the cant about the town." Shamwell is "coufin to the Belfonds, an heir, who, being ruined by Cheatly, is made a decoy-duck for others; not daring to ftay out of Alfatia, where he lives ; is bound with Cheatly for heirs, and lives upon them, a diflblute, debauch'd life." Another of thefe characters is captain Hackum, " a block-headed bully .of Alfatia ; a cowardly, impudent, bluftering fellow ; formerly a fergeant in Flanders, run from his colours, retreating into Whitefryers for a very fmall debt ; where by the Alfatians he is dubb'd a captain j marries one that lets lodgings, fells cherry-brandy, and is a bawd." Nor is Alfatia without a reprefentative of the Puritanical part of fociety, in Scrapeall, " a hypocritical, repeating, praying, pfalm- finging, precife fellow, pretending to great piety ; a godly knave, who joins with Cheatly, and fupplies young heirs with goods and money." A rather large number of inferior characters fill up the canvas ; and the

females


398 Htftory of Caricature and Grotefqu'e

females, with two exceptions, belong to the fame clafs. The plot of this play is very fimple. The elder fon of fir William Belfond has taken to Alfatia, but fir William, on his return from abroad, hearing talk of the fame of a fquire Belfond among the Alfatians, imagines that it is his younger fon, and out of this miftake a confiderable amount of mifunder- ftanding arifes. At lafl fir William difcovers his error, and finds his eldefl fon in Whitefryers, but the youth fets him at defiance. The father, in great anger, brings tipftaff conflables, to take away his fon by force ; but the Alfatians rife in force, the officers of the law are beaten, and fir William himfelf taken prifoner. He is refcued by the younger Belfond, and in the conclufion the elder brother becomes penitent, and is reconciled with his father. There is an underplot, far from moral in its character, which ends in the marriage of Belfond junior. It is a bufy, noify play, and was a great favourite on the flage ; but it is now chiefly interefting as a vivid picture of London life in the latter half of the feventeenth century. "Bury Fair," by Shadwell, is another comedy of the fame defcription ; with little interefl in the plot, but full of life and movement. If " The Squire of Alfatia " was noify, " The Scowrers," another comedy by the fame author, firfl brought on the flage in 1691, was ftill more fo. The wild and riotous gallants who, in former times of inefficient police regulation, infefted the flreets at night, and committed all forts of outrages, were known at different periods by a variety of names. In the reign of James I. and Charles I. they were the "roaring boys j" in the time of Shadwell, they were called the " fcowrers," becaufe they fcowered the flreets at night, and rather roughly cleared them of all paffengers ; a few years later they took the name of Mohocks, or Mohawks. During the night London lay at the mercy of thefe riotous clatfes, and the flreets witneffed fcenes of brutal violence, which, at the prefent day, we can hardly imagine. This flate of things is pictured in Shadwell's comedy. Sir William Rant, Wildfire, and Tope, are noted fcowrers, well known in the town, whofe fame has excited emulation in men of lefs diflinftion in their way, Whachum, " a city wit and fcowrer, imitator of fir William," and " two fcoundrells," his companions, Blufler and Dingboy. Great enmity arifes between the

two


in Literature and Art. 399

two parties of rival fcowrers. The more ferious characters in the play are Mr. Rant, fir William Rant's father, and fir Richard Maggot, "a foolifli Jacobite alderman " (it muft be remembered that we are now in the reign of king William). Sir Richard's wife, lady Maggot, like the citizen's wives of the comedy of the Reftoration generally, is a lady rather wanting in virtue, ambitious of mixing with the gay and fafhionable world, and fomewhat of a tyrant over her hulband. She has two hand- fome daughters, whom the feeks to keep confined from the world, left they fhould become her rivals. There are low characters of both fexes, who need not be enumerated. Much of the play is taken up with ftreet rows, capital fatirical pictures of London life. The play ends with marriages, and with the reconciliation of fir William Rant with his father, the ferious old gentleman of the play. Shadwell excelled in thefe bufy comedies. One of the neareft approaches to him is Mountfort's comedy of " Greenwich Park," which is another ftriking fatire on the loofenefs of London life at that time. As in the others, the plot is fimply nothing. The play confifts of a number of intrigues, fuch as may be imagined, at a time when morality was little refpefted, in places of faihionable refort like Greenwich Park and Deptford Wells.

An element of fatire was now introduced into Englifti comedy which does not appear to have belonged to it before this was mimicry. Although the principal characters in the play bore conventional names, they appear often to have been intended to reprefent individuals then well known in fbciety, and thefe individuals were caricatured in their drefs, and mimicked in their language and manners. We are told that this mimicry contributed greatly to the fuccefs of " The Rehearfal," the duke of Buckingham having taken incredible pains to make Lacy, who acted the part of Bayes, perfect in imitating the voice and manner of Dryden, whofe drefs and gait were minutely copied. This perfonal fatire was not always performed with impunity. On the ift of February, 1669, Pepys went to the Theatre Royal to fee the performance of "The Heirefs," in which it appears that fir Charles Sedley was perfonally caricatured, arid the fecretary of king Charles's admiralty has left in his diary the following entry : " To the king's houfe, thinking to have feen

the


400 Hi/lory of Caricature and Grotefque

the Heyreffe, firft acted on Saturday, but when we come thither we find no play there ; Kynafton, that did act a part therein in abufe to fir Charles Sedley, being laft night exceedingly beaten with flicks by two or three that faluted him, fo as he is mightily bruifed, and forced to keep his bed." It is faid that Dryden's comedy of " Limberham," brought on the ftage in 1678, was prohibited after the firft night, becaufe the character of Limberham was confidered to be too open a fatire on the duke of Lauderdale.

Another peculiarity in the comedies of the age of the Reftoration was their extraordinary indelicacy. The writers feemed to emulate each other in prefenting upon the ftage fcenes and language which no modeft ear or pure mind could fupport. In the earlier period coarfenefs in con- verfation was characteriftic of an unpolifhed age the language put in the mouths of the actors, as remarked before, fmelt of the tavern ; but under Charles II. the tone of faihionable fociety, as reprefented on the ftage, is modelled upon that of the brothel. Even the veiled allufion is no longer reforted to, broad and direct language is fubftituted in its place. This open profligacy of the ftage reached its greateft height between the years 1670 and 1680. The ftaple material of this comedy may be con- fidered to be the commiffion of adultery, which is prefented as one of the principal ornaments in the character of the well-bred gentleman, varied with the feducing of other men's miftrefles, for the keeping of miftrefies appears as the rule of focial life. The " Country Wife," one of Wycherley's comedies, which is fuppofed to have been brought on the ftage perhaps as early as 1672, is a malsof grofs indecency from beginning to end. It involves two principal plots, that of a voluptuary who feigns himfelf incapable of love and infenfible to the other fex, in order to purfue his intrigues with greater liberty ; and that of a citizen who takes to his wife a filly and innocent country girl, whofe ignorance he believes will be a protection to her virtue, but the very means he takes to prevent her, lead to her fall. The " Parfon's Wedding," by Thomas Killigrew, firft acted in 1673, is equally licentious. The fame at leaft may be faid of Dryden's " Limberham, or the Kind Keeper," firft performed in 1678, which, according to the author's own ftatement, was prohibited on account

of


in Literature and Art. 401

of its freenefs, but more probably becaufe the charafter of Limberham was believed to be intended for a perfonal fatire on the unpopular earl of Lauderdale. Its plot is fimple enough ; it is the flory of a debauched old gentleman, named Aldo, whofe fon, after a rather long abfence on the Continent, returns to England, and afiumes the name of Woodall, in order to enjoy freely the pleafures of London life before he makes himfelf known to his friends. He takes a lodging in a houfe occupied by fome loofe women, and there meets with his father, but, as the latter does not recognife his fon, they become friends, and live together licentioufly fo long, that when the fon at length difcovers himfelf, the old man is obliged to overlook his vices. Otway's comedy of "Frieridfhip in Fafhion," performed the fame year, was not a whit more moral. But all thefe are far outdone by Ravenfcroft's comedy of " The London Cuckolds," firft brought out in 1682, which, neverthelefs, continued to be afted until late in the laft century. It is a clever comedy, full of a&ion, and confifting of a great number of different incidents, fele&ed from the lefs moral tales of the old ftory-tellers as they appear in the " Decameron " of Boccaccio, among which that of the ignorant and uneducated young wife, fimilar to the plot of Wycherley's " Country Wife," is again introduced.

The corruption of morals had become fo great, that when women took up the pen, they exceeded in licentioufnefs even the other fex, as was the cafe with Mrs. Behn. Aphra Behn is underflood to have been born at Canterbury, but to have pafled fome part of her youth in the colony of Surinam, of which her father was governor. She evidently poffefied a difpofition for intrigue, and me was employed by the Englifh govern- ment, a few years after the Refloration, as a political fpy at Antwerp, She fubfequently fettled in London, and gained a living by her pen, which was very prolific in novels, poems, and plays. It would be difficult to point out in any other works fuch fcenes of open profligacy as thofe pre- fented in Mrs. Behn's two comedies of" Sir Patient Fancy" and "The City Heirefs, or Sir Timothy Treat-all," which appeared, in 1678 and 1681. Concealment of the flighteft kind is avoided, and even that which cannot be expofed to view, is tolerably broadly defcribed.

It appears that the performance of the " London Cuckolds " had

a F been


402 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque


been the caufe of fome fcandal, and there were, even among play-goers, fome who took offence at fuch outrages on the ordinary feelings of modefty. The excefs of the evil had begun to produce a reaftion. Ravenfcroft, the author of that comedy, produced on the ftage, in 1684, a comedy, entitled "Dame Dobfon, or the Cunning Woman," which was intended to be a modeft play, but it was unceremonioufly " damned " by the audience. The prologue to this new comedy intimates that the " London Cuckolds " had pleafed the town and diverted the court, but that fome " fqueamifh females " had taken offence at it, and that he had now written a " dull, civill " play to make amends. They are addrefled, therefore, in fuch terms as thefe :

In you, chafte ladies, then <we hope to-day,

Thii is the poefs recantation play.

Come often to V, that he at length may fee

'Tw more than a pretended modefty.

Stick by him now, for if 'he finds you falter ,

He quickly "will his way of "writing alter ;

And every play Jball fend you blujhing home,

For, though you rail, yet then "we're fare you 11 come.

And it is further intimated, -

A naughty play was never counted dull Nor modeft comedy e^er p leafed you much.

"I remember," fays Colley Gibber in his "Apology," looking back to thefe times, " I remember the ladies were then obferved to be decently afraid of venturing bare-faced to a new comedy, till they had been aflured they might do it without the rifk of an infult to their modefty ; or if their curiofity were too ftrong for their patience, they took care at leaft to fave appearances, and rarely came upon the firft days of acting but in mafks (then daily worn, and admitted in the pit, the lide boxes, and gallery), which cuftom, however, had fo many ill confequences attending it, that it has been abolimed thefe many years." According to the Spectator, ladies began now to defert the theatre when comedies were brought out, except thofe who " never mifs the firft day of a new play, left it fhould prove too lufcious to admit of their going with any countenance to the fecond."

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In the midft of this abufe, there fuddenly appeared a book which created at the time a great fenfation. The comedies of the latter half of the feventeenth century were not only indecent, but they were filled with profane language, and contained fcenes in which religion itfelf was treated with contempt. At that time there lived a divine of the Church of England, celebrated for his Jacobitifm for I am now fpeaking of the reign of king William for his talents as a controveriial writer, and for his zeal in any caufe which he undertook. This was Jeremy Collier, the author of feveral books of fome merit, which are feldom read now, and who fuffered for his zeal in the caufe of king James, and for his refufal to take the oath of allegiance to king William. In the year 1698 Collier publifhed his " Short View of the Immorality and Profanenefs of the Englifh ftage," in which he boldly attacked the licentioufnefs of the Englifh comedy. Perhaps Collier's zeal carried him a little too far; but he had offended the wits, and efpecially the dramatic poets, on all fides, and he was expofed to attacks from all quarters, in which Dryden himfelf took an aftive part. Collier (bowed himfelf fully capable of dealing with his opponents, and the controverfy had the effect of calling attention to the immoralities of the ftage, and certainly contributed much towards reforming them. They were become much lefs frequent and lefs grofs at the opening of the eighteenth century.

Towards the end of the reign of king Charles II., the ftage was more largely employed as a political agent, and under his fucceflbr, James II., the Puritans and the Whigs were conftantly held up to fcorn. After the Revolution, the tables were turned, and the fatire of the ftage was often aimed at Tories and Non-jurors. "The Non-juror," by Colley Cibber, which appeared in 1717, at a very opportune moment, gained for its author a penfion and the office of poet-laureate. It was founded upon the "Tartufte" of Moliere, for the Englifh comedy writers borrowed much from the foreign ftage. A difguifed prieft, who pafies under the name of Dr. Wolf, and who had been engaged in the rebellion of 171$, has in- finuated himfelf into the houfehold of a gentleman of fortune, of not very ftrong judgment, Sir John Woodvil, whom, under the title of a Non-juror, he has not only induced to become an abettor of rebels, but he has

perfuaded


404 Hiflory of Caricature and Grotefque

perfuaded him to difinherit his fon, and he labours to feduce his wife and to deceive his daughter. His bafenefs is expofed only juft foon enough to defeat his defigns. Such a production as this could not fail to give great offence to all the Jacobite party, of whatever fhade, who were then rather numerous in London, and Gibber afTures us that his reward was a con- fiderable amount of adverfe criticifm in every quarter where the Tory influence reached. His comedies were inferior in brilliance of dialogue to thofe of the previous age, but the plots were well imagined and conduced, and they are generally good a&ing plays.

To Samuel Foote, born in 1722, we owe the laft change in the form and character of Englifh comedy. A man of infinite wit and humour, and poflefled of extraordinary talent as a mimic, Foote made mimicry the principal inftrument of his fuccefs on the ftage. His plays are above all light and amufingj he reduced the old comedy of five a6ts to three afts, and his plots were ufually fimple, the dialogue full of wit and humour ; but their peculiar characterise was their open boldnels of per- fonal fatire. It is entirely a comedy of his own. He fought to direct his wit againft all the vices of fociety, but this he did by holding up to ridicule and fcorn the individuals who had in fome way or other made themfelves notorious by the practice of them. All his principal characters were real characters, who were more or lefs known to the public, and who were fo perfectly mimicked on the ftage in their drefs, gait, arfd fpeech, that it was impoffible to miftake them. Thus, in " The Devil upon Two Sticks," which is a general fatire on the low condition to which the practice of medicine had then fallen, the perfonages introduced in it all reprefented quacks well known about the town. "The Maid of Bath" dragged upon the ftage fcandals which were then the talk of Bath fociety. The nabob of the comedy which bears that title, had alfo his model in real life. " The Bankrupt " may be confidered as a general fatire on the bafenefs of the newfpaper prefs of that day. which was made the means of propagating private fcandals and libellous accufations in order to extort money, yet the characters introduced are faid to have been all portraits from the life ; and the fame ftatement is made with regard to the comedy of " The Author."

It




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It is evident that a drama of this inquifitorial character is a dangerous thing, and that it could hardly be allowed to exift where the rights of fociety are properly defined ; and we are not furprifed if Foote provoked a hoft of bitter enemies. But in fome cafes the author met with punim- ment of a heavier and more fubftantial defcription. One of the individuals introduced into "The Maid of Bath," extorted damages to the amount of ^3,000. One of the perfons who figured in " The Author," obtained an order from the lord chamberlain for putting a flop to the performance after it had had a (hort ran j and the confequences of " The Trip to Calais," were ftill more difaftrous. It is well known that the character of lady Kitty Crocodile in that play was a broad caricature on the notorious duchefs of Kingfton. Through the treachery of fome of the people employed by Foote, the duchefs obtained information of the nature of this play before it was ready for reprefentation, and fhe had fufficient influence to obtain the lord chamberlain's prohibition for bringing it on the ftage. Nor was this all, for as the play was printed, if not afted, and it was fubfequently brought out in a modified form, with omiflion of the part of lady Kitty Crocodile, though the characters of fome of her agents were ftill retained, infamous charges were got up againft Foote, in retaliation, which caufed him fo much trouble and grief, that they are faid to have fhortened his days.

The drama which Samuel Foote had invented did not outlive him ; its caricature was itfelf transferred to the caricature of the print-fhop.


40 6 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotejque


CHAPTER XXIII.

CARICATURE IN HOLLAND. ROMAIN DE HOOGHE. THB ENGLISH

REVOLUTION. CARICATURES ON LOUIS XIV. AND JAMES II. DR. SA-

CHEVERELL. CARICATURE BROUGHT FROM HOLLAND TO ENGLAND.

ORIGIN OF THE WORD "CARICATURE." MISSISSIPPI AND THE SOUTH

SEA; THE YEAR OF BUBBLES.

MODERN political caricature, born, as we have feen, in France, maybe confidered to have had its cradle in Holland. The petition of that country, and its greater degree of freedom, made it, in the feven- teenth century, the general place of refuge to the political difcon- tents of other lands, and efpecially to the French who fled from the tyranny of Louis XIV. It poflefled at that time fome of the moft ikilful artifts and beft engravers in Europe, and it became the central fpot from which were launched a multitude of fatirical prints againft that monarch's policy, and againft himfelf and his favourites and minifters. This was in a great meafure the caufe of the bitter hatred which Louis always difplayed towards that country. He feared the caricatures of the Dutch more than their arms, and the pencil and graver of Romain de Hooghe were among the moft effective weapons employed by William of Naflau.

The marriage of William with Mary, daughter of the duke of York, in 1677, naturally gave the Dutch a greater intereft than they could have felt before in the domeftic affairs of Great Britain, and a new ftimulus to their zeal againft Louis of France, or, which was the fame thing, againft arbitrary power and Popery, both of which had been rendered odious under his name. The acceffion of James II. to the throne of England, and his attempt to re-eftablifh Popery, added religious as well as political fuel to thefe feelings, for everybody underflood that James was afting

under


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under the prote6tion of the king of France. The very year of king James's acceflion, in 1685, the caricature appeared which we have copied in our cut No. 186, and which, although the infcription is in Englifti, appears to have been the work of a foreign artift. It was probably intended to reprefent Mary of Modena, the queen of James II., and her



No. 1 8 6. A Dangerous ConfeJ/br.

rather famous confeflbr, father Petre, the latter under the character of the wolf among the fheep. Its aim is fufficiently evident to need no expla- nation. At the top, in the original, are the Latin words, Convcrte Angliam, " convert England," and beneath, in Englifh, " It is a fooliih. fheep that makes the wolf her confeflbr."

The period during which the Dutch fchool of caricature flourilhed, extended through the reign of Louis XIV., and into the regency in France, and two great events, the revolution of 1688 in England, and the wild money fpeculations of the year 1720, exercifed efpecially the pencils

of


40 8 Htftory of Caricature and Grotefque

of its caricaturifts. The firft of thefe events belongs almoft entirely to Remain de Hooghe. Very little is known of the perfonal hiftory of this remarkable artift, but he is believed to have been born towards the middle of the feventeenth century, and to have died in the earlier years of the eighteenth century. The older French writers on art, who were pre- judiced againft Remain de Hooghe for his bitter hoftiliry to Louis XIV., inform us that in his youth he employed his graver on obfcene fubjects, and led a life fo openly licentious, that he was banifhed from his native town of Amfterdam, and went to live at Haerlem. He gained celebrity by the feries of plates, executed in 1672, which reprefented the horrible atrocities committed in Holland by the French troops, and which raifed againft Louis XIV. the indignation of all Europe. It is faid that the prince of Orange (William III. of England), appreciating the value of his fatire as a political weapon, fecured it in his own interefts by liberally patronifing the caricaturift j and we owe to Remain de Hooghe a fuccef- fion of large prints in which the king of France, his protege James II., and the adherents of the latter, are covered with ridicule. One, publifhed in 1688, and entitled " Les Monarches Tombants," commemorates the flight of the royal family from England. Another, which appeared at the fame date, is entitled, in French, " Arlequin fur 1'hypogryphe a la croifade Loiolifte," and in Dutch, " Armee van de Heylige League voor der Jefuiten Monarchy' 1 (i.e. " the army of the holy league for eflablifhing the monarchy of the Jefuits "). Louis XIV. and James II. were reprefented under the characters of Arlequin and Panurge, who are feated on the animal here called a " hypogryphe," but which is really a wild afs. The two kings have their heads joined together under one Jefuit's cap. Other figures, forming part of this army of Jefuitifm, are diftributed over the field, the moft grotefque of which is that given in our cut No. 187. Two perfonages introduced in fome ridiculous pofition or other, in moft of thefe caricatures, are father Petre, the Jefuit, and the infant prince of Wales, afterwards the old Pretender. It was pretended that this infant was in fact the child of a miller, fecretly introduced into the queen's bed concealed in a warming-pan ; and that this ingenious plot was contrived by father Petre. Hence the boy was popularly called Peterkin, or

Perkin,


in Literature and Art.


409


Perkin, i.e. little Peter, which was the name given afterwards to the Pretender in fongs and fatires at the time of his rebellion ; and in the prints a windmill was ufually given to the child as a fign of its father's trade. In the group reprefented in our cut, father Petre, with the child in his arms, is feated on a rather fingular fteed, a lobfter. The young



No. 187. A Jefuit luell Mounted.

prince here carries the windmill on his head. On the lobfter's back, behind the Jefuit, are carried the papal crown, furmounted by a fleur-de- lis, with a bundle of relics, indulgences, &c., and it has feized in one claw the Englifh church fervice book, and in the other the book of the laws of England. In the Dutch defcription of this print, the child is called " the new born Antichrift." Another of Romain de Hooghe's prints, entitled " Panurge feconde par Arlequin Deodaat a la croifade d'Irlande, 1689," is a fatire on king James's expedition to Ireland, which led to the memo- rable battle of the Boyne. James and his friends are proceeding to the place of embarkation, and, as reprefented in our cut No. 188, father Petre marches in front, carrying the infant prince in his arms.

The drawing of Romain de Hooghe is not always correct, efpecially in his larger fubjecls, which perhaps may be afcribed to his hafty and carelefs manner of working ; but he difplays great fkiJ.l in grouping his figures, and great power in inverting them with a large amount of fatirical

3 o humour.


4 1 o Htjtory of Caricature and (JroteJ que


humour. Moft of the other caricatures of the time are poor both in defign and execution. Such is the cafe with a vulgar fatirical print which was publimed in France in the autumn of 1690, on the arrival of a falfe rumour that king William had been killed in Ireland. In the



No. 188.


Ireland.


field of the picture the corpfe of the king is followed by a proceflion con- fifting of his queen and the principal fupporters of his caufe. The lower corner on the left hand is occupied by a view of the interior of the infernal regions, and king William introduced in the place allotted to him among the flames. In different parts of the picture there are feveral infcrip- tions, all breathing a fpirit of very infolent exultation. One of them is the

Billet Enterrement .

Vous estes priez d'assister au convoy, service, et enterrement du tres haut, tres grand, et tres infame Prince infernal, grand stadouter, des Arm6s diaboliques de la ligue d'Ausbourg, et insigne usiirpateur des Royaumes d'Angleterre, d'Eccosse, et d'Irlande, ddc6dedans 1'Irlandeau mois d'Aoust 1690, qui se fera ledit mois,dans sa paroisse infernale, ou assisteront Dame Proserpine, Radamonte, et les Ligueurs. Les Dames lui diront s'il leur plaist des injures.

The prints executed in England at this time were, if poflible, worfe than thofe publifhed in France. Almoft the only contemporary caricature on the downfall of the Stuarts that I know, is an ill-executed print, pub- limed


in Literature and Art. 41 1

lilhed immediately after the acceffion of William III., under the title, " England's Memorial of its wonderful deliverance from French Tyranny and Popifh Opprefiion." The middle of the pidure is occupied by " the royal orange tree," which flourifhes in Ipite of all the attempts to deftroy it. At the upper corner, on the left fide, is a reprefentation of the French king's " council," confifting of an equal number of Jefuits and devils, feated alternately at a round table.

The circumftance that the titles and infcriptions of nearly all thefe caricatures are in Dutch, feems to ihow that their influence was intended to be exercifed in Holland rather than elfewhere. In two or three only of them thefe defcriptions were accompanied with tranflations in Englifh or French ; and after a time, copies of them began to be made in England, accompanied with Englifh defcriptions. A curious example of this is given in the fourth volume of the " Poems on State Affairs," printed in 1707. In the preface to this volume the editor takes occafion to inform the reader "That having procur'd from beyond fea a Collection of Satyrical Prints done in Holland and elfewhere, by Rom. de Hoog, and other the beft mailers, relating to the French King and his Adherents, fince he unjuftly begun this war, 1 have perfuaded the Bookfeller lo be at the expenfe of ingraving feveral of them ; to each of which I have given the Explanation in Engliih verfe, they being in Dutch, French, or Latin in the originals." Copies of feven of thefe caricatures are accordingly given at the end of the volume, which are certainly inferior in every refpedt to thofe of the beft period of Romain de Hooghe. One of them commemorates the eclipfe of the fun on the I2th of May, 1706. The fun, as it might be conjectured, is Louis XIV., eclipfed by queen Anne, whofe face occupies the place of the moon. In the foreground of the picture, juft under the eclipfe, the queen is feated on her throne under a canopy, furrounded by her counfellors and generals. With her left arm fhe holds down the Gallic cock, while with the other hand fhe clips one of its wings (fee our cut No. 189). In the upper corner on the right, is inferted a pi6^ure of the battle of Ramillies, and in the lower corner on the left, a fea-fight under admiral Leake, both victories gained in that year. Another of thefe copies of foreign prints is given in our cut

No. 190


412


Htftory of Caricature and Grotefque


No. 190. We are told that " thefe figures reprefent a French trumpet and drum, fent by Louis le Grand to enquire news of feveral citys loft by the Mighty Monarch laft campaign." The trumpeter holds in his hand a lift of loft towns, and another is pinned to the bread of the drummer j



No. 189. Cliff ing the Cock $ Wmgt.

the former lift is headed by the names of " Gaunt, Bruflels, Antwerp, Bruges," the latter by " Barcelona."

The firft remarkable outburft of caricatures in England was caufed by the proceedings againft the notorious Dr. Sacheverell in 1710. It is fomewhat curious that Sacheverell's partifans fpeak of caricatures as things brought recently from Holland, and new in England, and afcribe the ufe of them as peculiar to the Whig party. The writer of a pamphlet, entitled "The Pifture of. Malice, or a true Account of Dr. Sacheverell's Enemies, and their behaviour with regard to him," informs us that " the chief means by which all the lower order of that fort of men call'd Whigs, (hall ever be found to aft for the ruin of a potent adverfary, are the following three by the Print, the Canto or Doggrell Poem, and by the Libell, grave, calm, and cool, as the author of the ' True Anfwer ' defcribes it. Thefe are not all employed at the fame

time


in Literature and Art.


413


time, any more than the ban and arierban of a kingdom is raifed, unlels to make fure work, or in cafes of great exigency and imminent danger." "The Print," he goes on to fay, "is originally a Dutch talifman (be- queathed to the ancient Batavians by a certain Chinefe necromancer and



No. 1 90. Trumpet and Drum.

painter), with a virtue far exceeding that of the Palladium, not only of guarding their cities and provinces, but alfo of annoying their enemies, and preferving a due balance amongft the neighbouring powers around." This writer warms up fo much in his indignation againft this new weapon of the Whigs, that he breaks out in blank verfe to tell us how even the myfterious power of the magician did not deftroy its victims

Swifter than heretofore the Print effaced The pomp of mightieji monarchs, and dethroned The dread idea of royal majefty ; Dwindling the prince below the pigmy


1 4 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque


ffttnefs the once Great Louis in youthful pride , And Charles of happy days, who both confeJJ^d The magic power of mezzotinto * Jbade, And form grotesque, in manifejiocs loud Denouncing death to boor and burgomajler. fFitnefs, yefacred popes with triple crown, JVho likewise vitJimsfell to hideous print, Spurn 1 d by the populace who whilome lay Proflrate, an.i erfn adored before your thrones.

We are then told that " this, if not the firft, has yet been the chief machine which his enemies have employ'd againft the doftor ; they have



No. 191. The Three Falfe Brethren.

expofed him in the fame piece with the pope and the devil, and who now could imagine that any fimple prieft (hould be able to ftand before a power which had levelled popes and monarchs ? " At leaft one copy of the caricature here alluded to is preferred, although a great rarity, and it is reprefented in our cut No. 191. Two of the party remained long

aflbciated

  • The method of engraving called mezzotinto was very generally adopted in

England in the earlier part of the last century for prints and caricatures. It was continued to rather a late period by the publishing house of Carrington Bowles.


in Literature and Art. 4 1 5

aflbciated together in the popular outcry, and as the name of the third fell into contempt and oblivion, the doctor's place in this aflbciation was taken by a new caufe of alarm, the Pretender, the child whom we have juft feen fo joyoufly brandifhing his windmill. It is evident, however, that this caricature greatly exafperated Sacheverell and the party which fupported him.

It will have been noticed that the writer juft quoted, in ufing the term "print," ignores altogether that of caricature, which, however, was about this time beginning to come into ufe, although it is not found in the dictionaries, I believe, until the appearance of that of Dr. Johnfon, in 1755. Caricature is, of courfe, an Italian word, derived from the verb caricare, to charge or load ; and therefore, it means a picture which is charged, or exaggerated (the old French dictionaries fay, " c'eft la memc chofe que charge en peinture "). The word appears not to have come into ufe in Italy Qntil the latter half of the feventeenth century, and the earlieft inftance I know of its employment by an Englifh writer is that quoted by Johnfon from the " Chriftian Morals " of Sir Thomas Brown, who died in 1682, but it was one of his lateft writings, and was not printed till long after his death : " Expofe not thyfelf by four-footed manners unto monftrous draughts (i.e. drawings) and caricatura reprefen- tations." This very quaint writer, who had pafled fbme time in Italy, evidently ufes it as an exotic word. We find it next employed by the writer of the EfTay No. 537, of the " Spectator," who, fpeaking of the way in which different people were led by feelings of jealoufy and preju- dice to detract from the characters of others, goes on to fay, " From all thefe hands we have fuch draughts of mankind as are reprefented in thofe burlefque pictures which the Italians call caricaturas, where the art confifts in preferving, amidft diftorted proportions and aggravated features, fome diflinguilhing likenefs of the perfon, but in fuch a manner as to transform the moft agreeable beauty into the moft odious monfter." The word was not fully eftabliflied in our language in its Englifh form of caricature until late in the laft century.

The fubject of agitation which produced a greater number of carica- tures than any previous event was the wild financial fcheme introduced

into


41 6 Hi/lory of Caricature and Grotefque


into France by the Scottifb adventurer, Law, and imitated in England in the great South Sea Bubble. It would be impoflible here, within our necefiary limits, to attempt to trace the hiftory of thefe bubbles, which all burft in the courfe of the year 1720 ; and, in faft, it is a hiftory of which few are ignorant. On this, as on former occafions, the great mafs of the caricatures, efpecially thofe againft the Miflifiippi fcheme, were execnted in Holland, but they are much inferior to the works of Remain de Hooghe.



No. 192. Atlcu.

In faft, fo great was the demand for thefe caricatures, that the publifhers, in their eagernefs for gain, not only deluged the world with plates by artifts of no talent, which were without point or intereft, but they took old plates of any fubjett in which there was a multitude of figures, put new titles to them, and publifhed them as fatires on the Mifiiflippi fcheme ; for people were ready to take anything which reprefented a crowd as a fatire on the eagernefs with which Frenchmen rufhed into the

fbare-market.


in Literature and Art. 4 1 7

fhare-market. One or two curious inftances of this deception might be pointed out. Thus, an old picture, evidently intended to reprefent the meeting of a king and a nobleman, in the court of a palace, furrounded by a crowd of courtiers, in the coftume probably of the time of Henri IV., was republifhed as a picture of people crowding to the grand fcene of (lock-jobbing in Paris, the Rue Quinquenpoix j and the old pidture of the battle between Carnival and Lent came out again, a little re-touched, under the Dutch title, f( Stryd tufzen de fmullende Bubbel-Heeren en de aanflaande Armoede," i.e., " The battle between the good-living bubble-- lords and approaching poverty."

Befides being iflued fingly, a confiderable number of thefe prints were collected and publiftied in a volume, which is ftill met with not unfre- quently, under the title " Het groote Tafereel der Dwaaftieid," "The great picture of folly." One of this fet of prints reprefents a multitude of perfons, of all ages and fexes, acting the part of Atlas in fupporting on their backs globes, which, though made only of paper, had become, through the agitation of the flock exchange, heavier than gold. Law himfelf (fee our cut No. 192) flands foremoft, and requires the afliftance of Hercules to fupport his enormous burthen. In the French verfes accompanying this print, the writer fays

Ami sStlas, on volt (fans center vous et mo'i) Fa ire /' 'Atlas part out des divers perfannages, Ricfte, pau-vre, homme,femme, etfot et quaji-fage, Valet, et paifan, le gueuxfeleve en roi.

Another of thefe caricatures reprefents Law in the character of Don Quixote, riding upon Sancho's donkey. He is haftening to his Dulcinia, who waits for him in the aflie huis (adion or fhare-houfe), towards which people are dragging the animal on which he is seated. The devil (fee our cut No. 193), fits behind Law, and holds up the afs's tail, while a ihower of paper, in the form of (hares in companies, is fcattered around, and fcrambled for by the eager aSlionnaires. In front, the animal is laden with the money into which this paper has been turned, the box bears the infcription, " Bomlarioos Geldkift, 1720," " Bombario's (Law's) gold cheft ; " and the flag bears the infcription, " Ik koom, ik koom, Dul-

3 H cirua


41 8 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque


cinia," " I come, I come, Dulcinia." The befl, perhaps, of this lot of caricatures is a large engraving by the well-known Picart, inferred among the Dutch colleftion with explanations in Dutch and French, and which was re-engraved in London, with Englifh defcriptions and applications.



No. 193. The Don Quixote of Finance.

It is a general fatire on the madnefs of the memorable year 1720. Folly appears as the charioteer of Fortune, whofe car is drawn by the reprefen- tatives of the numerous companies which had fprung up at this time, moft of which appear to be more or lefs unfound. Many of thefe agents have the tails of foxes, " to (how their policy and cunning," as the explana- tion informs us. The devil is feen in the clouds above, blowing bubbles of foap, which mix with the paper which Fortune is diftributing to the crowd. The picture is crowded with figures, fcattered in groups, who are employed in a variety of occupations connected with the great felly of the day, one of which, as an example, is given in our cut No. 194. It Js a transfer of ftock, made through the medium of a Jew broker.

It


in Literature and Art.


419


It was in this bubble agitation that the Englifh fchool of caricature began, and a few fpecimens are preferred, though others which are advertifed in the newfpapers of that day, feem to be entirely loft. In fa6t, a very confiderable portion of the caricature literature of a period fo compara- tively recent as the firft half of the laft century, appears to have perifhedj



No. 194. Transfer of Stock.

for the intereft of thefe prints was in general fo entirely temporary that few people took any care to preferve them, and few of them were very attractive as pictures. As yet, indeed, thefe Englifh prints are but poor imitations of the works of Picart and other continental artifts. A pair of Englifh prints, entitled " The Bubbler's Mirrour," reprefents, one a head joyful at the rife in the value of ftock, the other, a fimilar head forrowful at its fall, furrounded in each cafe with lifts of companies and epigrams upon them. They are engraved in mezzotinto, a ftyle of art fuppofed to have been invented in England its invention was afcribed to Prince Rupert and at this time very popular. In the imprint of thefe laft- mentioned plates, we are informed that they were " Printed for Carington Bowles, next y e Chapter Houfe, in St. Paul's Ch. Yard, London," a well- known name in former years, and even now one quite familiar to col- lectors, of this clafs of prints, efpecially. Of Carington Bowles we fhall have more to fay in the next chapter. With him begins the long lift of celebrated Englifh printfellers.


42 o Hi/iory of Caricature and Grotefque


CHAPTER XXIV.

ENGLISH CARICATURE IN THE AGE OF GEORGE II. ENGLISH PRINT- SELLERS. ARTISTS EMPLOYED BY THEM. SIR ROBERT WALPOLE*S

LONG MINISTRY. THE WAR WITH FRANCE. THE NEWCASTLE AD- MINISTRATION. OPERA INTRIGUES. ACCESSION OF GEORGE III., AND

LORD BUTE IN POWER.

WITH the acceffion of George II., the tafte for political caricatures increafed greatly, and they had become almofl a neceffity of focial life. At this time, too, a diftinft Englifh fchool of political caricature had been eftablithed, and the print-fellers became more numerous, and took a higher pofition in the commerce of literature and art. Among the earlieft of thefe printfellers the name of Bowles ftands efpecially con- fpicuous. Hogarth's burlefque on the Beggar's Opera, publifhed in 1728, was " printed for John Bowles, at the Black Horfe, in Cornhill." Some copies of "King Henry the Eighth and Anna Bullen," engraved by the fame great artift in the following year, bear the imprint of John Bowles ; and others were " printed for Robert Wilkinfon, Cornhill, Carington Bowles, in St. Paul's Church Yard, and R. Sayer, in Fleet Street." Hogarth's " Humours of Southwark Fair " was alfo publifhed, in 1733, by Carington and John Bowles. This Carington Bowles was, perhaps, dead in 1755, for in that year the caricature entitled " Britilh Refentment " bears the imprint, " Printed for T. Bowles, in St. Paul's Church Yard, and Jno. Bowles & Son, in Cornhill." John Bowles appears to have been the brother of the firlt Carington Bowles in St. Paul's Churchyard, and a fon named Carington fucceeded to that bunnefs, which, under him and his fon Carington, and then as the eftablifhment of Bowles and Carver, has continued to exift within the memory of the prefent generation. Another very celebrated printftiop was eftablifhed in Fleet Street by Thomas

Overton,


in Literature and Art. 42 1


Overton, probably as far back as the clofe of the feventeenth century. On his death his bufinefs was purchafed by Robert Sayers, a mezzotihto engraver of merit, whofe name appears as joint publimer of a print by Hogarth in 1729. Overton is faid to have been a perfonal friend of Hogarth. Sayers was fucceeded in the bufinefs by his pupil in mezzo- tinto engraving, named Laurie, from whom it defcended to his fon, Robert H. Laurie, known in city politics, and it became fubfequently the firm of Laurie and Whittle. This bufinefs ftill exifts at 53, Fleet Street, the oldeft eltablifhment in London for the publication of maps and prints. During the reign of the fecond George, the number of publifhers of caricatures increafed confiderably, and among others, we meet with the names of J. Smith, " at Hogarth's Head, Cheapfide," attached to a caricature publifhed Auguft, 17565 Edwards and Darly, "at the Golden Acorn, facing Hungerford, Strand," who alfo publifhed caricatures during the years 1756-7$ caricatures and burlefque prints were publiihed by G. Bickham, May's Buildings, Covent Garden, and one, directed againft the employment of foreign troops, and entitled " A Nurfe for the Heffians," is ftated to have been " fold in May's Buildings, Covent Garden, where is 50 more 5 "The Raree Show," publiftied in 1762, was " fold at Sumpter's Political Print-mop, Fleet Street," and many carica- tures on contemporary coftume, efpecially on the Macaronis, about the year 1772, were "publiftied by T. Bowen, oppofite the Haymarket, Piccadilly." Sledge, " printfeller, Henrietta Street, Covent Garden," is alfo met with about the middle of the laft century. Among other burlefque prints, Bickham, of May's Buildings, iffued a feries of figures reprefenting the various trades, made up of the different tools, &c., ufed by each. The houfe of Carington Bowles, in St. Paul's Churchyard, produced an immenfe number of caricatures, during the laft century and the prefent, and of the moft varied character, but they confifted more of comic fcenes of fociety than of political fubjefts, and many of them were engraved in mezzotinto, and rather highly coloured. Among them were caricatures on the faftiions and foibles of the day, amufing accidents and incidents, common occurrences of life, characters, &c., and they are frequently aimed at lawyers and priefts, and efpecially at monks and

friars.


422 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefq ue

friars, for the anti-Catholic feeling was ftrong in the laft century. J. Brotherton, at No. 132, New Bond Street, publifhed many of Bun- bury's caricatures ; while the houfe of Laurie and Whittle gave employ- ment efpecially to the Cruikfhanks. But perhaps the moft extenfive publifher of caricatures of them all was S. W. Fores, who dwelt firft at No. 3, Piccadilly, but afterwards eftablifhed himfelf at No. 50, the corner of Sackville Street, where the name ftill remains. Fores feems to have been moft fertile in ingenious expedients for the extenfion of his bufinefs. He formed a fort of library of caricatures and other prints, and charged for admifiion to look at them ; and he afterwards adopted a fyftem of lending them out in portfolios for evening parties, at which thefe port- folios of caricatures became a very fafhionable amufement in the latter part of the laft century. At times, fome remarkable curiofity was em- ployed to add to the attractions of his fhop. Thus, on caricatures pub- lifhed in 1790, we find the ftatement that, "In Fores' Caricature Mufeum is the completed collection in the kingdom. Alfo the head and hand of Count Struenzee. Admittance, is." Caricatures againft the French revolutionifts, published in 1793, bear imprints ftating that they were " publifhed by S. W. Fores, No. 3, Piccadilly, where may be feen a complete Model of the Guillotine admittance, one /hilling." In fome this model is faid to be fix feet high.

Among the artifts employed by the print-publifhers of the age of George II., we ftill find a certain number of foreigners. Coypel, who caricatured the opera in the days of Farinelii, and pirated Hogarth, belonged to a diftinguifhed family of French painters. Goupy, who alfo caricatured the arti/les of the opera (in 1727), and Boitard, who worked actively for Carington Bowles from 1750 to 1770, were alfo Frenchmen. Liotard, another caricaturift of the time of George II., was a native of Geneva. The names of two others, Vandergucht and Vanderbank, pro- claim them Dutchmen. Among the Englifh caricaturifls who worked for the houfe of Bowles, were George Bickham, the brother of the print- feller, John Collet, and Robert Dighton, with others of lefs repute. R. Attwold, who publifhed caricatures againft admiral Byng in 1750, was an imitator of Hogarth. Among the more obfcure caricaturifts of the

Jatter


in Literature and Art. 423

latter part of the half-century, were MacArdell whofe print of " The Park Shower," reprefenting the confufion raifed among the falhionable company in the Mall in St. James's Park by a fudden fall of rain, is fo well known and Darley. Paul Sandby, who was patronifed by the duke of Cumberland, executed caricatures upon Hogarth. Many of thefe artifts of the earlier period of the Englifh fchool of caricature appear to have been very ill paid the firft of the family of Bowles is faid to have boafled that he bought many of the plates for little more than their value as metal. The growing tafte for caricature had alib brought forward a number of amateurs, among whom were the countefs of Burlington, and general, afterwards marquis, Townfliend. The former, who was the lady of that earl who built Burlington Houfe, in Piccadilly, was the leader of one of the factions in the opera difputes at the clofe of the reign of George I., and is underftood to have defigned the well-known caricature upon Cuzzoni, Farinelli, and Heidegger, which was etched by Goupy, whom me patronifed. It mufl not be forgotten that Bunbury himfelf, as well as Sayers, were amateurs ; and among other amateurs I may name captain Minfhull, captain Baillie, and John Nixon. The firft of thefe publifhed caricatures againft the Macaronis (as the dandies of the earlier part of the reign of George III. were called), one of which, entitled "The Macaroni Drefiing-Room," was efpecially popular.

Englifh political caricature came into its full activity with the miniftry of fir Robert Walpole, which, beginning in 1721, lafted through the long period of twenty years. In the previous period the Whigs were accufed of having invented caricature, but now the Tories certainly took the utmoft advantage of the invention, for, during feveral years, the greater number of the caricatures which were publifhed were aimed againft the Whig miniftry. It is alfo a rather remarkable characteriftic of fociety at this period, that the ladies took fo great an intereft in politics, that the caricatures were largely introduced upon fans, as well as upon other objects of an equally perfonal character. Moreover, the popular notion of what conflituted a caricature was ftill fo little fixed, that they were ufually called hieroglyphics, a term, indeed, which was not ill applied, for they were fo elaborate, and fo filled with myftical allufions, that now it is by

uc


424 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque

no means eafy to underftand or appreciate them. Towards the year 1739, there was a marked improvement in the political caricatures they were better defigned, and difplayed more talent, but ftill they required rather long delcriptions to render them intelligible. One of the moft celebrated was produced by the motion in the Houfe of Commons, Feb. 13, 1741, againft the minifter Walpole. It was entitled "The Motion," and was a Whig fatire upon the oppofition, who are reprefented



No, 195. A Party of Mourner t.

as driving fo hurriedly and inconfiderately to obtain places, that they are overthrown before they reach their obje6t The party of the oppofition retaliated by a counter-caricature, entitled, "The Reafon," which was in fome refpe6ts a parody upon the other, to which it was inferior in point and fpirit. At the fame time appeared another caricature againft the miniftry, under the title of " The Motive." Thefe provoked another,

entitled,


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425


entitled, " A Confequence of the Motion " which was followed the day after its publication by another caricature upon the oppofition, entitled, " The Political Libertines ; or, Motion upon Motion " while the oppo- nents of the government alfo brought out a caricature, entitled, "The Grounds," a violent and rather grofs attack upon the Whigs. Among other caricatures publifhed on this occafion, one of the beft was entitled, "The Funeral of Fa&ion," and bears the date of March 26, 1741. Beneath it are the words, "Funerals performed by Squire S s," allud- ing to Sandys, who was the motion-maker in the Houfe of Commons, and who thus brought on his party a fignal defeat. Among the chief mourners on this occafion are feen the oppofition journals, The Craftsman, the creation of Bolingbroke and Pulteney, the ftill more fcurrilous



No. 196. Bi itifh Rejenimcnt.

Champion, The Daily Pofl, The London and Evening Pojl, and The Common Senfe Journal. This mournful group is reproduced in our cut No. 195.

From this time there was no falling off in the fupply of caricatures, which, on the contrary, feemed to increafe every year, until the activity of the pidorial fatirifts was roufed anew by the hoftilities with France in

3 i 1755.


426 Hijlory of Caricature and Grotefque


1755, and the minifterial intrigues of the two following years. The war, accepted by the Englifh government reluctantly, and ill prepared for, was the fubjedt of much difcontent, although at firft hopes were given of great fuccefs. One of the caricatures, published in the middle of thefe early hopes, at a time when an Englifh fleet lay before Louifbourg, in Canada, is entitled, " Britifh Refentment, or the French fairly coop'd at Louif- bourg," and came from the pencil of the French artift Boitard. One of its groups, reprefenting the courageous Englifh failor and the defpairing Frenchman, is given in our cut No. tp6, and may ferve as an example of Boitard's ftyle of drawing. It became now the fafhion to print political caricatures, in a diminifhed form, on cards, and feventy-five of thefe were formed into a fmall volume, under the title of "A Political and Satirical Hittory of the years 1756 and 1757. In a feries of feventy-



No. 197. Britannia in a New Drcft<

five humorous and entertaining Prints, containing all the moft remarkable Tranfa6tions, Characters, and Caricaturas of thofe two memorable years. . . . London: printed for E. Morris, near St. Paul's." The im- prints of the plates, which bear the dates of their feveral publications, inform us that they came from the well-known mop of " Darly and Edwards, at the Acorn, facing Hungerford^ Sfrand." Thefe caricatures begin with our foreign relations, and exprefs the belief that the minifters were facrificing Englifh interefts to French influence. In one of them

(our


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427


(our cut No. 197), entitled, "England made odious, or the French Dreffers," the minifter, Newcaftle, in the garb of a woman, and his colleague, Fox, have dreffed Britannia in a new French robe, which does not fit her. She exclaims, " Let me have my own cloathes. I cannot ftir my arms in thefej befides, everybody laughs at me." Newcaftle replies, rather imperioufly, " Huffy, be quiet, you have no need to ftir your arms why, fure ! what's here to do?" While Fox, in a more infinuating tone, offers her a fleur-de-lis, and fays, " Here, madam, ftick



No. 198. Caught by a Bait.

this in your bofom, next your heart." The two pictures which adorn the walls of the room reprefent an axe and a halter ; and underneath we read the lines,

And (ball the fubjtitutes of power

Our genius thus bedeck ? Let them remember there s an hour

Of quittance then, -ware neck.

In another print of this feries, this laft idea is illuftrated more fully. It is aimed at the minifters, who were believed to be enriching themfelves at the expenfe of the nation, and is entitled, " The Devil turned Bird- catcher." On one fide, while Fox is greedily fcrambling for the gold, the fiend has caught him in a baiter fufpended to the gallows ; on the other fide another demon is letting down the fatal axe on Newcaftle, who is fimilarly employed. The latter (fee our cut No. 198) is defcribed

as


428 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque

as a " Noddy catching at the bait, while the bird-catcher lets drop an axe." This implement of execution is a perfect picture of a guillotine, long before it was fo notorioufly in ufe in France.

The third example of thefe caricatures which I (hall quote is entitled " The Idol," and has for its fubjet the extravagancies and perfonal jealou- fies connected with the Italian opera. The rivalry between Mingotti and Vannefchi was now making as much noife there as that of Cuzzoni and



No. 199. Britifh Idolatry.


Fauftina fome years before. The former acted arbitrarily and capricioufly, and could with difficulty be bound to fing a few times during the feafon for a high falary : it is faid, ^2,000 for the feafon. In the caricature to which I allude, this lady appears raifed upon a ftool, infcribed "^2,000 per annum," and is receiving the worlhip of her admirers. Immediately before her an ecclefiaftic is feen on his knees, exclaiming, "Unto thee be praife now and for evermore ! " In the background a lady appears, hold- ing up her pug-dog, then the fafhionable pet, and addrefling the opera favourite, " 'Tis only pup and you I love." Other men are on their knees behind the ecclefiaftic, all perfons of diftinftion; and laft comes a nobleman and his lady, the former holding in his hand an order for $2,000, his fubfcription to the opera, and remarking, "We mall have but

twelve


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twelve fongs for all this money." The lady replies, with an air of con- tempt, "Well, and enough too, for the paltry trifle." The idol, in return for all this homage, fings rather contemptuoufly

Ra, rUf ra y rot ye t My name is Mingctti, If you war/hi f me notri, You jhall all go to pottl.

The clofing years of the reign of George II., under the vigorous adminiftration of the firft William Pitt, witnefied a calm in the domeftic politics of the country, which prefented a ftrange contrail to the agita- tion of the previous period. Faction feemed to have hidden its head, and there was comparatively little employment for the caricaturift. But this calm lafted only a Ihort time after that king's death, and the new reign was ufhered in by indications of approaching political agitation of the moft violent defcrip- tioh, in which fatirifts who had hitherto con- tented themfelves with other fubjects were tempted to embark in the ftrife of politics. Among thefe was Hogarth, whole difcom- forts as a political caricaturift we {hall have to defcribe in our next chapter.

Perhaps no name ever provoked a greater amount of caricature and fatirical abufe than that of Lord Bute, who, through the favour of the Princefs of Wales, ruled fupreme at court during the firft period of the reign of George III. Bute had taken into the miniftry, as his confidential colleague, Fox the Henry Fox who became fubfequently the firft Lord Holland, a man who had en- riched himfelf enormoufly with the money of the nation, and thefe two appeared to be

, , . No. 200 Fox on Boots.

aiming at the eftablilhment of arbitrary power

in the place of conftitutional government. Fox was ulually reprefented in

the



430 Hi ft or y of Caricature and Grotefque

the caricatures with the head and tail of the animal reprefented by his name rather ftrongly developed ; while Bute was drawn, as a very bad pun upon his name, in the garb of a Scotchman, wearing two large boots, or fometimes a (ingle boot of ftill greater magnitude. In thefe caricatures Bute and Fox are generally coupled together. Thus, a little before the refigna- tion of the duke of Newcaftle in 1762, there appeared a caricature entitled " The State Nurfery," in which the various members of the miniftry, as it was then formed under Lord Bute's influence, are reprefented as engaged in childifh games. Fox, as the whipper-in of parliamentary majorities, is riding, armed with his whip, on Bute's moulders (fee our cut No. 200), while the duke of Newcaftle performs the more menial fervice of rocking the cradle. In the rhymes which accompany this caricature, the firft of thefe groups is defcribed as follows (Fox was commonly fpoken of in fatire by the title of Volpone)

Firft you fee old Jly Volf>one-y, Riding on the /boulders brawny Of the tnuc kle favourite Saivny ,- Doodle, doodle, doo.

The number of caricatures publilhed at this period was very great, and they were almoft all aimed in one direction, againft Bute and Fox, the Princefs of Wales, and the government they directed. Caricature, at this time, ran into the leaft difguifed licence, and the coarfeft allufions were made to the fuppofed fecret intercourfe between the minifter and the Princefs of Wales, of which perhaps the moft harmlefs was the addi- tion of a petticoat to the boot, as a fymbol of the influence under which .the country was governed. In mock proceffions and ceremonies a Scotchman was generally introduced carrying the ftandard of the boot and petticoat. Lord Bute, frightened at the amount of odium which was thus heaped upon him, fought to ftem the torrent by employing fatirifts to defend the government, and it is hardly neceflary to ftate that among thefe mercenary auxiliaries was the great Hogarth himfelf, who accepted a pennon, and publimed his caricature entitled, "The Times, Nov. i," in the month of September, 1762. Hogarth did not excel in political caricature, and there was little in this print to diftinguifh it above

the


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the ordinary publications of a fimilar chara6ler. It was the moment ol negotiations for Lord Bute's unpopular peace, and Hogarth's iatire is directed againft the foreign policy of the great ex-minifter Pitt. It reprefents Europe in a ftate of general conflagration, and the flames already communicating to Great Britain. While Pitt is blowing the fire, Bute, with a party of foldiers and failors zealoufly aflifted by his favourite Scotchmen, is labouring to extinguish it. In this he is impeded by the interference of the duke of Newcaftle, who brings a wheelba"rro\v full of Monitors and North Britons, the violent .oppofition journals, to feed the



. 20 1. Fanatiilfm in another Shape.


flames. The advocacy of Bute's mercenaries, whether literary or artiftic, did little fervice to the government, for they only provoked increafed activity among its opponents. Hogarth's caricature of " The Times," drew feveral anfwers, one of the beft of which was a large print entitled " The Raree Show : a political contraft to the print of ' The Times,' by William Hogarth." It is the houfe of John Bull which is here on fire, and the Scots are dancing and exulting at it. In the centre of the pittnre appears a great afters' barn, from an upper window of which Fox thrufts out his head and points to the fign, reprefenting jEneas and Dido

entering


432 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque

entering the cave together, as the performance which was acUng within. It is an allufion to the fcandal in generaj circulation relating to Bute and the princefs, who, of courfe, were the ./Eneas and Dido of the piece, and appear in thofe characters on the fcaffbld in front, with two of Bute's mercenary writers, Smollett, who edited the Briton, and Murphy, who wrote in the Auditor, one blowing the trumpet and the other beating the drum. Among the different groups which fill the picture, one, behind the adors' barn (fee our cut No. 201), is evidently intended for a fatire on the fpirit of religious fanaticifm which was at this time fpreading through the country. An open-air preacher, mounted on a ftool, is addrefling a not very intelle6hial-looking audience, while his infpiration is conveyed to him in a rather vulgar manner by the fpirit, not of good, but of evil.

The violence of this political warfare at length drove Lord Bute from at leaft oftenfible power. He refigned on the 6th of April, 1763. One of the popular favourites at this time was the duke of Cumberland, the hero of Culloden, who was regarded as the leader of the oppofition in the Houfe of Lords. People now believed that it was the duke of Cumber- land who had overthrown " the boot," and his popularity increafed on a fudden. The triumph was commemorated in feveral caricatures. One of thefe is entitled, "The Jack-Boot kick'd down, or Englifti Will triumphant : a Dream." The duke of Cumberland, whip in hand, has kicked the boot out of the houfe, exclaiming to a 'young man in failor's garb who follows him, " Let me alone, Ned ; I know how to deal with Scotfmen. Remember Culloden." The youth replies, " Kick hard, uncle, keep him down. Let me have a kick too." Nearly the fame group, ufing fimilar language, is introduced into a caricature of the fame date, entitled, " The Boot and the Blockhead." The youthful perfonage is no doubt intended for Cumberland's nephew, Edward, duke of York, who was a failor, and was raifed to the rank of rear-admiral, and who appears to have joined his uncle in his oppofition to Lord Bute. The "boot," as feen in our cut No. 202, is encircled with Hogarth's celebrated "line of beauty," of which I {hall have to fpeak more at length in the next chapter.

With


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With the overthrow of Bute's miniftry, we may confider the Englifti fchool of caricature as completely formed and fully eftabliflied. From this time the names of the caricaturifts are better known, and we (hall



No, ZO2. The Overthrow of the Boot.

have to confider them in their individual characters. One ol thefe, William Hogarth, had rifen in fame far above the group of the ordinary men by whom he was lurrounded.


434 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque


CHAPTER XXV.

HOGARTH. HIS EARLY HISTORY. HIS SETS OF PICTURES. THE HAR-

LOT's PROGRESS. THE RAKE*S PROGRESS. THE MARRIAGE A LA

MODE. HIS OTHER PRINTS. THE ANALYSIS OF BEAUTY, AND THE

PERSECUTION ARISING OUT OF IT. HIS PATRONAGE BY LORD BUTE.

CARICATURE OF THE TIMES. ATTACKS TO WHICH HE WAS EX- POSED BY IT, AND WHICH HASTENED HIS DEATH.

ON the loth of November, 1697, William Hogarth was born in the city of London. His father, Richard Hogarth, was a London fchoolmafter, who laboured to increafe the income derived from his fcholars by compiling books, but with no great fuccefs. From his child- hood, as he tells us in his "Anecdotes " of himfelf, the young Hogarth difplayed a tafte for drawing, and efpecially for caricature ; and, out of fchool, he appears to have been feldom without a pencil in his hand. The limited means of Richard Hogarth compelled him to take the boy from fchool at an early age, and bind him apprentice to a fteel-plate engraver. But this occupation proved little to the tafte of one whofe ambition rofe much higher; and when the term of his apprenticelhip had expired, he applied himfelf to engraving on copper ; and, fetting up on his own account, did considerable amount of work, firft in engraving arms and (hop-bills, and afterwards in defigning and engraving book illuftrations, none of which difplayed any fuperiority over the ordinary run of fuch productions. Towards 1728 Hogarth began to prattife as a painter, and he fubfequently attended the academy of fir James Thornhill, in Covent Garden, where he became acquainted with that painter's only daughter, Jane. The refult was a clandeftine marriage in 1730, which met the difapproval and provoked the anger of the lady's father. Subfequently, however, fir James became convinced of the genius of his fon-in-law, and a reconciliation was effected through the medium of lady Thornhill.

At


in Literature and Art. 435


At this time Hogarth had already commenced that new ftyle of defign which was deftined to raife him foon to a degree of fame as an artift few men have ever attained. In his " Anecdotes " of himfelf, the painter has given us an interefting account of the motives by which he was guided. " The reafons," he fays, " which induced me to adopt this mode of defigning were, that I thought both writers and painters had, in the hiftorical ftyle, totally overlooked that intermediate fpecies of fubjects which may be placed between the fublime and the grotefque. I there- fore wifhed to compofe pictures on canvas-limilar to reprefentations on the Itage ; and further hope that they will be tried by the fame tett, and criticifed by the fame criterion. Let it be obferved, that I mean to fpeak only of thofe fcenes where the human fpecies are actors, and thefe, I think, have not often been delineated in a way of which they are worthy and capable. In thefe compofitions, thofe fubjects that will both entertain and improve the mind bid fair to be of the greateft public utility, and muft therefore be entitled to rank in the higheft clafs. If the execution is difficult (though that is but a fecondary merit), the author has claim to a higher degree of praife. If this be admitted, comedy, in painting as well as writing, ought to be allotted the tirft place, though the fublime, as it is called, has been oppofed to it. Ocular demonftration will carry more conviction to the mind of a fenfible man than all he would find in a thoufand volumes, and this has been attempted in the prints I have compofed. Let the decifion be left to every unprejudiced eye ; let the figures in either pictures or prints be confidered as players dreffed either for the fublime, for genteel comedy or farce, for high or low life. I have endeavoured to treat my fubjects as a dramatic writer : my picture is my ftage, and men and women my players, who, by means of certain actions and geftures, are to exhibit a duml-jhow"

The great feries of pictures, indeed, which form the principal founda- tion of Hogarth's fame, are comedies rather than caricatures, and noble comedies they are. Like comedies, they are arranged, by a feries of fuc- ceflive plates, in acts and fcenes ; and they reprefent contemporary fociety pictorially, juft as it had been and was reprefented on the ftage in Englilh comedy. It is not by delicacy or excellence of drawing that Hogarth

excels,


43 6 Hi/lory of Caricature and Grotefque

excels, for he often draws incorrectly ; but it is by his extraordinary and minute delineation of character, and by his wonderful ikill in telling a flory thoroughly. In each of his plates we fee a whole act of a play, in which nothing is loft, nothing glofled over, and, I may add, nothing exaggerated. The moft trifling object introduced into the picture is made to have fuch an intimate relationfhip with the whole, that it feems as if it would be imperfect without it. The art of producing this effect was that in which Hogarth excelled. The firft of Hogarth's great fuites of prints was "The Harlot's Progrefs," which was the work of the years 1733 and 1734. It tells a ftory which was then common in London, and was acted more openly in the broad face of fociety than at the prefent day; and therefore the effect and confequent fuccefs were almoft inftan- taneous. It had novelty, as well as excellence, to recommend it. This feries of plates was followed, in 1735, by another, under the title of " The Rake's Progrefs." In the former, Hogarth depicted the fhame and ruin which attended a life of proftitution ; in this, he reprefented the fimilar confequences which a life of profligacy entailed on the other fex. In many relpects it is fuperior to the " Harlot's Progrefs," and its details come more home to the feelings of people in general, becaufe thofe of the proftitute's hiftory are more veiled from the public gaze. The progrefs of the fpendthrift in diflipation and riot, from the moment he becomes poflefied of the fruits of paternal avarice, until his career ends in prifon and madnels, forms a marvellous drama, in which every incident prefents itfelf, and every agent performs his part, fo naturally, that it feems almoft beyond the power of acting. Perhaps no one ever pictured defpair with greater perfection than it is mown in the face and bearing of the unhappy hero of this hiflory, in the laft plate but one of the feries, where, thrown into prifon for debt, he receives from the manager of a theatre the announcement that the play which he had written in the hope of retrieving fomewhat of his pofition his laft refource has been refufed. The returned manufcript and the manager's letter lie on the wretched table (cut No. 203) ; while on the one fide his wife reproaches him heartleflly with the deprivations and fufferings which he has brought upon her, and on the other the jailer is reminding him of the fact that

the


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the fees exaded for the flight indulgence he has obtained in prifon are unpaid, and even the pot-boy refufes to deliver him his beer without firft receiving his money. It is but a ftep further to Bedlam, which, in the next plate, clofes his unblefled career.

Ten years almoft from this time had patted away before Hogarth gave



No. 703. Defpair.


to the world his next grand feries of what he called his " modern moral fubjefts." This was " The Marriage a la mode,' 1 which was publifhed in fix plates in 1745, and which fully fuftained the reputation built upon the " Harlot's Progrefs " and the " Rake's Progrefs." Perhaps the beft plate of the " Marriage d la mode," is the fourth the mufic fcene in which one principal group of figures efpecially arrefts the attention. It is repre- fented in our cut No. 204. William Hazlitt has juflly remarked upon it that, " the prepofterous, overftrained admiration of the lady of quality ; the fentimental, infipid, patient delight of the man with his hair in papers, and fipping his tea ; the pert, fmirking, conceited, half-diftorted approbation of the figure next to him ; the transition to the total infenfi- bility of the round face in profile, and then to the wonder of the negro boy at the rapture of his miftrefs, form a perfect whole."

In


43 8 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque


In the interval between thefe three great monuments of his talent, Hogarth had publimed various other plates, belonging to much the fame




A'o. 204. Fa/hknable Society.

clafs of fubje&s, and difplaying different degrees of excellence. His engraving of " Southwark Fair," publifhed in 1733, which immediately



No. 205. An Old Maid and her Page.

preceded the " Harlot's Progrefs," may be regarded almoft as an attempt to rival the fairs of Callot. " The Midnight Modern Converfation "

appeared


in Literature and Art. 439

appeared in the interval between the " Harlot's ProgreCs " and the " Rake's Progrefs ;" and three years after the feries latt mentioned, in 1738, the engraving, remarkable equally in defign and execution, of the " Strolling A6trefles in a Barn," and the four plates of " Morning," " Noon," "Evening," and "Night," all full of choiceft bits of humour. Such is the group of the old maid and her footboy in the firft of this feries (cut No. 205) the former ftiff and prudifh, whofe religion is evidently not that of charity ; while the latter crawls after, fhrinking at the fame time under the effects of cold and hunger, which he fuftains in confequence of the hard, niggardly temper of his miftrefs. Among



No. 206. Lofs and Gain.

the humorous events which fill the plate of " Noon," we may point to the difafler of the boy who has been fent to the baker's to fetch home the family dinner, and who, as reprefented in our cut No. 206, has broken his pie-dim, and fpilt its contents on the ground; and it is diffi- cult to fay which is exprefied with moft fidelity to nature the terror and Ihame of the unfortunate lad, or the feeling of enjoyment in the face of the little girl who is feafting on the fragments of the fcattered meal. In 1 741 appeared the plate of " The Enraged Mufician." During this period Hogarth appears to have been hefitating between two fubjefts for his third grand pictorial drama. Some unfiniflied iketches have been found,

from


440 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque


from which it would feem that, after depiding the miferies of a life of diUipation in either fex, he intended to reprefent the domeftic happinels which refulted from a prudent and well-aflbrted marriage ; but for fome reafon or other he abandoned this defign, and gave the pi&ure of wedlock in a lefs amiable light, in his " Marriage d la mode." The title was pro- bably taken from that of Dryden's comedy. In 1750 appeared "The March to Finchley," in many refpe&s one of Hogarth's belt works. It is a ftriking expofure of the want of difcipline, and the low morale of the Englifh army under George II. Many amufing groups fill this pi&ure, the fcene of which is laid in Tottenham Court Road, along which the guards are fuppofed to be marching to encamp at Finchley, in confequence



No. 207. A brave Soldier.

of rumours of the approach of the Pretender's army in the Rebellion of '45. The foldiers in front are moving on with fome degree of order, but in the rear we fee nothing but confufion, fome reeling about under the effefts of liquor, and confounded by the cries of women and children, camp-followers, ballad-fingers, plunderers, and the like. One of the latter, as reprefented in our cut No. 207, is aflifting a fallen foldier with an additional dofe of liquor, while his pilfering propenfities are betrayed by the hen fcreaming from his wallet, and by the chickens following dif- tra6tedly the cries of their parent.

Hogarth prefents a fingular example of a fatirift who fuffered under

the


in Literature and Art. 441


the very punifhment which he infli&ed on others. He made many perfonal enemies in the courfe of his labours. He had begun his career with a well-known perfonal fatire, entitled "The Man of Tafte," which was a caricature on Pope, and the poet is faid never to have forgiven it. Although the fatire in his more celebrated works appears to us general, it told upon his contemporaries personally ; for the figures which a&. their parts in them were fo many portraits of individuals who moved in contemporary fociety, and who were known to everybody, and thus he provoked a hoft of enemies. It was like Foote's mimicry. He was to an extraordinary degree vain of his own talent, and jealous of that of others in the fame profeffion; and he fpoke in terms of undifguifed contempt of almoft all artifts, part or prefent. Thus, the painter intro- duced into the print of " Beer Street," is faid to be a caricature upon John Stephen Liotard, one of .he artifts mentioned in the laft chapter. He thus provoked the hoftility of the greateft part of his contemporaries in his own profeffion, and in the fequel had to fupport the full weight of their anger. When George II., who had more tafte for foldiers than pictures, faw the painting of the " March to Finchley," inftead of admir- ing it as a work of art, he is faid to have exprefied himfelf with anger at the infult which he believed was offered to his army ; and Hogarth not only revenged himfelf by dedicating his print to the king of Pruffia, by which it did become a fatire on the Britilh army, but he threw himfelf into the faction of the prince of Wales at Leicefter Houfe. The firft occafion for the difplay of all thefe animofities was given in the year 1753, at the clofe of which he publiftied his " Analyfis of Beauty." Though far from being himfelf a fuccefsful painter of beauty, Hogarth under- took in this work to invefligate its principles, which he referred to a waving or ferpentine line, and this he termed the " line of beauty." In 1 745 Hogarth had publifhed his own portrait as the frontifpiece to a volume of his collected works, and in one corner of the plate he introduced a painter's palette, on which was this waving line, infcribed " The line of beauty." For feveral years the meaning of this remained either quite a myftery, or was only known to a few of Hogarth's acquaintances, until the appearance of the book juft mentioned. Hogarth's manufcript was

3 L revifed


442 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque


revifed by his friend, Dr. Morell, the compiler of the " Theiaurus," whofe name became thus affociated with the book. This work expofed its author to a hofl of violent attacks, and to unbounded ridicule, efpe- cially from the whole tribe of offended artifts. A great number of cari- catures upon Hogarth and his line of beauty appeared during the year 1754, which fhow the bitternete of the hatred he had provoked ; and to hold ftill further their terror over his head, moft of them are infcribed with the words, " To be continued." Among the artifts who efpecially



c. 208. A. Painter" t Amufementt.


fignalifed themfelves by their zeal againft him, was Paul Sandby, to whom we owe fome of the beft of thefe anti-Hogarthian caricatures. One of thefe is entitled, "A New Dunciad, done with a view of [fixing] the fluctuating ideas of tafte." In the principal group (which is given in our cut No. 208), Hogarth is reprefented playing with a pantin, or figure which was moved into activity by pulling a firing. The firing takes fomewhat the form of the line of beauty, which is alfo drawn upon his palette. This figure is defcribed underneath the picture as " a painter

at


in Literature and Art. 443

at the proper exercife of his tafte." To his breaft is attached a card (the knave of hearts), which is defcribed by a very bad pun as " the fool of arts." On one fide " his genius " is reprefented in the form of a black harlequin ; while behind appears a rather jolly perfonage (intended, perhaps, for Dr. Morell), who, we are told, is one of his admirers. On the table are the foundations, or the remains, of "a houfe of cards." Near him is Hogarth's favourite dog, named Trump, which always accompanies him in thefe caricatures. Another caricature which appeared at this time reprefents Hogarth on the ftage as a quack do6lor, holding in his hand the line of beauty, and recommending its extraordinary qualities. This



No. 209. The Line of Beauty exemplified.

print is entitled " A Mountebank Painter demonftrating to his admirers and fubfcribers that crookednefs is y e moft beautifull." Lord Bute, whofe patronage at Leicefter Houfe Hogarth now enjoyed, is reprefented fiddling, and the black harlequin ferves as " his puff." In the front a crowd of deformed and hump-backed people are preffing forwards (fee our cut No. 209), and the line of beauty fits them all admirably.

Much as this famous line of beauty was ridiculed, Hogarth was not allowed to retain the fmall honour which feemed to arife from it undif- puted. It was laid that he had ftolen the idea from, an Italian writer named Lomazzo, Latinifed into Lomatius, who had enounced it in a

treatife


444 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque


treatife on the Fine Arts, publifhed in the fixteenth century.* In another caricature by Paul Sandby, with a vulgar title which I will not repeat, Hogarth is vifited, in the midft of his glory, by the ghoft of Lomazzo, carrying in one hand his treatife on the arts, and with his other holding up to view the line of beauty itfelf. In the infcriptions on the plate, the principal figure is defcribed 38 "An author finking under the



No. z 10. Piracy Expofed.

weight of his faturnine analyfis 3" and, indeed, Hogarth's terror is broadly painted, while the volume of his analyfis is refting heavily upon " a ftrong fupport bent in the line of beauty by the mighty load upon it." Befide Hogarth ftands " his faithful pug," and behind him " a friend of the author endeavouring to prevent his finking to his natural lownefs." On t the

  • It was translated into English by Richard Haydocke, under the title of " The

Artes of Curious Paintinge, Carvinge, Buildinge," fol. 1598. This is one of the earliest works on art in the English language.


in Literature and Art. 445

the other fide ftands Dr. Morell, or, perhaps, Mr. Townley, the matter of Merchant Taylors' School, who continued his fervice in preparing the book for the prefs after Morell's death, defcribed as " the author's friend and correclor," aftonifhed at the fight of the ghoft. The ugly figure on the left hand of the picture is described as tf Deformity weeping at the condition of her darling fon, while the dog is " a greyhound bemoaning his friend's condition." This group is reprefented in our cut No. 210. The other caricatures which appeared at this time were two numerous to allow us to give a particular defcription of them. The artift is ufually reprefented, under the influence of his line of beauty, painting ugly pictures from deformed models, or attempting hiftorical pictures in a ftyle bordering on caricature, or, on one occafion, as locked up in a mad-houfe, and allowed only to exercife his Ikill upon the bare walls. One of thefe caricatures is entitled, in allufion to the title of one of his moft popular prints, " The Painter's March through Finchley, dedicated to the king of the gipfies, as an encourager of arts, &c." Hogarth appears in full flight through the village, clofely purfued by women and children, and animals in great variety, and defended only by his favourite dog.

With the " Marriage d la mode," Hogarth may be confidered as having reached his highefl point of excellence. The fet of " Induftry and Idle- nefs" tells a good and ufeful moral ftory, but difplays inferior talent in defign. "Beer Street" and "Gin Lane" difguft us by their vulgarity, and the " Four Stages of Cruelty " are equally repulfive to our feelings by the unveiled horrors of the fcenes which are too coarfely depi&ed in them. In the four prints of the proceedings at an election, which are the laft of his pictures of this defcription, publiflied in 1754, Hogarth rifes again, and approaches in fome degree to his former elevation.

In 1757, on the death of his brother-in-law, John Thornhill, the office of fergeant-painter of all his Majefty's works became vacant, and it was beflowed upon Hogarth, who, according to his own account, received from it an income of about aSzoo a-year. This appointment caufed another difplay of hoftility towards him, and his enemies called him jeeringly the king's chief panel painter. It was at this moment that a plan for the eftablimment of an academy of the fine arts was agitated,

which,


446 Hijlory of Caricature and Grotefque

which, a few years later, came into exiftence under the title of the Royal Academy, and Hogarth proclaimed fo loud an oppofition to this project, that the old cry was raifed anew, that he was jealous and envious of all his profeffion, and that he fought to ftand alone as fuperior to them all. It was the fignal for a new onflaught of caricatures upon himfelf and his line of beauty. Hitherto his aflailants had been found chiefly among the artifts, but the time was now approaching when he was deftined to thruft himfelf into the midft of a political ftruggle, where the attacks of a new clafs of enemies carried with them a more bitter fling.

George II. died on the r7th of October, 1760, and his grandfcn fucceeded him to the throne as George III. It appears evident that before this time Hogarth had gained the favour of lord Bute, who, by his intereft with the princefs of Wales, was all-powerful in the houfehold of the young prince. The painter had hitherto kept tolerably clear of politics in his prints, but now, unluckily for himfelf, he fuddenly rufhed into the arena of political caricature. It was generally faid that Hogarth's object was, by difplaying his zeal in the caufe of his patron, lord Bute, to obtain an increafe in his penfion ; and he acknowledges himfelf that his obje6t was gain. " This," he fays, " being a period when war abroad and contention at home engrofled every one's mind, prints were thrown into the background ; and the ftagnation rendered it neceflary that I fhould do fome timed thing [the italics are Hogarth's] to recover my loft time, and flop a gap in my income." Accordingly he determined to attack the great minifter, Pitt, who had then recently been compelled to refign his office, and had gone over to the oppofition. It is faid that John Wilkes, who had previoufly been Hogarth's friend, having been privately informed of his delign, went to the painter, expoftulated with him, and, as he continued obftinate, threatened him with retaliation. In Sep- tember, 1762, appeared the print entitled " The Times, No. i," indicating that it was to be followed by a fecond caricature. The principal features of the picture are thefe : Europe is reprefented in flames, which are communicating to Great Britain, but lord Bute, with foldiers and failors, and the afliftance of Highlanders, is labouring to extinguilh them, while Pitt is blowing the fire, and the duke of Newcaftle brings a barrowful of

Monitor




in Literature and Art.


447


Monitors and North Britons, the violent journals of the popular party, to feed it. There is much detail in the print which it is not neceffary to defcribe. In fulfilment of his threat, Wilkes, in the number of the North Briton published on the Saturday immediately following the pub- lication of this print, attacked Hogarth with extraordinary bitternefs, cafting cruel reflections upon his domeftic as well as his profeflional character. Hogarth, ftung to the quick, retaliated by publishing the well- known caricature of Wilkes. Thereupon Churchill, the poet, Wilkes's friend, and formerly the friend of Hogarth alfo, publifhed a bitter inveftive



No. 211. An Independent Draughtsman.

in verfe againft the painter, under the title of an " Epiftle to William Hogarth." Hogarth retaliated again: "Having. an old plate by me," he tells us, "with fome parts ready, fuch as a background and a dog, I began to confider how I could turn fo much work laid afide to fome account, fo patched up a print of Matter Churchill in the character of a bear." The unfinifhed picture was intended to be a portrait of Hogarth himfelf ; the canonical bear, which reprefented Churchill, held a pot of

porter


44 8 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque


porter in one hand, and in the other a knotted club, each knot labelled "lie J," "lie 2," &c. The painter, in his "Anecdotes," exults over the pecuniary profit he derived from the extenfive fale of thefe two prints.

The virulence of the caricaturifls againft Hogarth became on this occafion greater than ever. Parodies on his own works, fneers at his perfonal appearance and manners, reflections upon his character, were all embodied in prints which bore fuch names as Hogg-afs, Hoggart, O'Garth, &c. Our cut No. 211 reprefents one of the caricature portraits of the artift. It is entitled " Wm. Hogarth, Efq., drawn from the Life." Hogarth wears the thiftle on his hat, as the fign of his dependence on lord Bute. At his breaft hangs his palette, with the line of beauty infcribed upon it. He holds behind his back a roll of paper infcribed " Burlefque on L d B t." In his right hand he prefents to view two pictures, "The Times," and the "Portrait of Wilkes." At the upper corner to the left is the figure of Bute, offering him in a bag a penfion of "^"300 per aim." Some of the allufions in this picture are now obfcure, but they no doubt relate to anecdotes well known at the time. They receive fome light from the following mock letters which are written at the foot of the plate :


" Copy of a Letter from Mr. Hog-garth to Lord Mucklemon, w*A his Lord/hip's Anjioer.

" My Lord, The enclosed is a design I intend to publish ; you are sensible it will not redound to your honour, as it will expose you to all the world in your proper colours. You likewise know what induced me to do this ; but it is in y r power to prevent it from appearing in publick, which I would have you do immediately.

"WILL" HOG-GARTH.

" Mais r Hog-garth, By my saul, mon, I am sare troobled for what I have done; I did na ken y r muckle merit till noow ; say na mair aboot it; I'll mak au things easy to you, & gie you bock your Pension.

"SAWNEY MUCKLEMON."

In an etching without a title, publifhed at this time, and copied in our cut No. 212, the Hogarthian dog is reprefented barking from a cautious diftance at the canonical bear, who appears to be meditating further mifchief. Pugg ftands upon his matter's palette and the line of beauty, while Bruin refts upon the " Epiflle to Wm. Hogarth," with the

pen


in Literature and Art.


449


pen and ink by its fide. On the left, behind the dog, is a large frame, with the words " Pannel Painting " infcribed upon it.

The article by Wilkes in the North Briton, and Churchill's metrical epiftle, irritated Hogarth more than all the hoftile caricatures, and were



No.


Beauty ar.d the Bear.


generally believed to have broken his heart. He died on the a6th of October, 1764, little more ihan a year after the appearance of the attack by Wilkes, and with the taunts of his political as well as his profeffional enemies ftill ringing in his ears.


3 *


45 o Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque


CHAPTER XXVI.

THE LESSER CARICATURISTS OF THE REIGN OF GEORGE III. PAUL

SANDBY. COLLET ; THE DISASTER, AND FATHER PAUL IN HIS CUPS.

JAMES SAYER ; HIS CARICATURES IN SUPPORT OF PITT, AND HIS

REWARD. CARLO KHAN*S TRIUMPH. BUNBURY ; HIS CARICATURES ON

HORSEMANSHIP. WOODWARD ; GENERAL COMPLAINT. ROWLANDSON's

INFLUENCE ON THE STYLE OF THOSE WHOSE DESIGNS HE ETCHED. JOHN KAY OF EDINBURGH : LOOKING A ROCK IN THE FACE.

THE fchoolof caricature which had grown amid the political agitation of the reigns of the two firft Georges, gave birth to a number of men of greater talent in the fame branch of art, who carried it to its higheft degree of perfection during that of George III. Among them are the three great names of Gillray, Rowlandfon, and Cruikmank, and a few who, though fecond in rank to thefe, are flill well remembered for the talent difplayed in their works, or with the effed they produced on contemporaries. Among thefe the principal were Paul Sandby, John Collet, Sayer, Bunbury, and Woodward.

Sandby has been fpoken of in the laft chapter. He was not by pro- feflion a caricaturift, but he was one of thofe riling artifts who were offended by the fneering terms in which Hogarth fpoke of all artifts but himfelf, and he was foremoft among thofe who turned their fatire againft him. Examples of his caricatures upon Hogarth have already been given, fufficient to mow that they difplay fkill in compofition as well as a large amount of wit and humour. After his death, they were republifhed collectively, under the title, " Retrofpective Art, from the Collection of the late Paul Sandby, Efq., R.A." Sandby was, indeed, one of the original members of the Royal Academy. He was an artift

much


in Literature and Art. 45 1

much admired in his time, but is now chiefly remembered as a topo- graphical draughtfman. He was a native of Nottingham, where he was born in 1725,* and he died on the 7th of November, iSop.f

John Collet, who alfo has been mentioned in a previous chapter, was born in London in 1725, and died there in 1780. Collet is faid to have been a pupil of Hogarth, and there is a large amount of Hogarthian cha- racter in all his defigns. Few artifts have been more induftrious and



Ac. 213. ADifaJier.


produced a greater number of engravings. He worked chiefly for Carrington Bowles, in St. Paul's Churchyard, and for Robert Sayers, at 53, Fleet Street. His prints publimed by Bowles were engraved generally in

mezzotinto,

  • His death is usually placed, but erroneously, in 1732.

f Sandby etched landscapes on steel, and in aquatinta, the latter by a method peculiarly his own, besides painting in oil and opaque colours. But his fame rests mainly on being the founder of the English school of water-cclour fainting, since he was the first to show the capability of that material to produce finished pictures, and to lead the way to the perfection in effect and colour to which that branch of art has since attained.


452 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque

mezzotinto, and highly coloured for fale ; while thofe publiflied by Sayers were ufually line engravings, and fometimes remarkably well executed. Collet chofe for his field of labour that to which Hogarth had given the title of comedy in art, but he did not poffefs Hogarth's power of delineat- ing whole acts and fcenes in one picture, and he contented himfelf with bits of detail and groups of characters only. His caricatures are rarely poli- tical they are aimed at focial manners and focial vanities and weakneffes, and altogether they form a fingularly curious picture of fociety during an important period of the laft century. The firft example I give (No. 213) is taken from a line engraving, publifhed by Sayers in 1776. At this time the natural adornments of the perfon in both fexes had fo far yielded to artificial ornament, that even women cut off their own hair in order to replace it by an ornamental peruque, fupporting a head-drefs, which varied from time to time in form and in extravagance. Collet has here intro- duced to us a lady who, encountering a fudden and violent wind, has loft all her upper coverings, and wig, cap, and hat are caught by her footman behind. The lady is evidently fuffering under the feeling of fhamej and hard by, a cottager and his wife, at their door, are laughing at her dif- comfiture. A bill fixed againft a neighbouring wall announces " A Lecture upon Heads."

At this time the " no-popery " feeling ran very high. Four years afterwards it broke out violently in the celebrated lord Gordon riots. It was this feeling which contributed greatly to the fuccefs of Sheridan's comedy of "The Duenna," brought out in 1775. Collet drew feveral pictures founded upon fcenes in this play, one of which is given in our cut No. 214. It forms one of Carington Bowles's rather numerous feries of prints from defigns by Collet, and reprefents the well-known drinking fcene in the convent, in the fifth fcene of the third act of "The Duenna." The fcene, it will be remembered, is "a room in the priory," and the excited monks are toafting, among other objects of devotion, the abbefs of St. Urfuline and the blue-eyed nun of St. Catherine's. The " blue- eyed nun" is, perhaps, the lady feen through the window, and the patron faint of her convent is reprefented in one of the pictures on the wall. There is great fpirit in this picture, which is entitled " Father Paul in his

Cups.


in Literature and Art.


453


Cups, or the Private Devotions of a Convent." the following lines :


It is accompanied with


See with thefe friars how) religion thrives, Who love good living better than good lives ; Paul, the fuperior father, rules the roaj}, His god '* the glafs, the blue-eyed nun his toaft t Thus priefts confume "what fearful fools beftow. ^ind faints'" donations make the bumpers Jioiv. The butler Jleeps the cellar door it free This is a modern cloifter'i piety.

From Collet to Sayer we rufti into the heat I may fay into the bitternefs of politics, for James Sayer is known, with very trifling ex-



No. 214. Father Paul in hit Cups.

ceptions, as a political caricaturift. He was the fon of a captain of a merchant ihip at Great Yarmouth, but was himfelf put to the profef- fion of an attorney. As, however, he was pofleffed of a moderate inde- pendence, and appears to have had no great tafte for the law, he neglected his bufinefs, and, with confiderable talent for fatire and caricature, he threw himfelf into the political ftrife of the day. Sayer was a bad

draughtfman,


454 Htftory of Caricature and Grotefque

draughtfman, and his pictures are produced more by labour than by Ikill in drawing, but they poflefs a confiderable amount of humour, and were fufficiently fevere to obtain popularity at a time when this latter character excufed worfe drawing even than that of Sayer. He made the acquaint- ance and gained the favour of the younger William Pitt, when that ftatefman was afpiring to power, and he began his career as a caricaturift by attacking the Rockingham miniftry in 1782 of courfe in the intereft of Pitt. Sayer's earlieft productions which are now known, are a feries of caricature portraits of the Rockingham adminiftration, that appear. to have been given to the public in inftalments, at the feveral dates of April 6, May 14, June 17, and July 3, 1782, and bear the name of C. Bretherton as publiftier. He publifhed his firft veritable caricature on the occafion of the minifterial changes which followed the death of lord Rockingham, when lord Shelburne was placed at the head of the cabinet, and Fox and Burke retired, while Pitt became chancellor of the exchequer. This caricature, which bears the title of " Paradife Loft," and is, in faft, a parody upon Milton, reprefents the once happy pair, Fox and Burke, turned out of their paradife, the Treafury, the arch of the gate of which is ornamented with the heads of Shelburne, the prime minifter, and Dunning and Barre, two of his ftaunch fupporters, who were confidered to be efpecially obnoxious to Fox and Burke. Between thefe three heads appear the faces of two mocking fiends, and groups of piftols, daggers, and fwords. Beneath are infcribed the well-known lines of Milton

To the eaftcrnjide

Of Paradife, fo late their happy feat, Waved over by that flaming brand ; the gate With dreadful faces thronged and fiery arms ! Some natural tears they dropt, but -wiped themfoon. The "world *was all before them, -where to chooje Their place of reft, and providence their guide. They, arm in arm, -with, wandering fteps, and flow, Thro" 1 Eden took their folitary -way.

Nothing can be more lugubrious than the air of the two friends, Fox and Burke, as they walk away, arm in arm, from the gate of the minifterial paradife. From this time Sayer, who adopted all Pitt's virulence towards

Fox,


in Literature and Art.


455


Fox, made the latter a continual fubjeft of his fatire. Nor did this zeal pafs unrewarded, for Pitt, in power, gave the caricaturift the not unlucra- tive offices of marfhal of the court of exchequer, receiver of the fixpenny duties, and curfitor. Sayer was, in fad, Pitt's caricaturift, and was employed by him in attacking fucceffively the coalition under Fox and North, Fox's India Bill, and even, at a later period, Warren Haftings on his trial.

I have already remarked that Sayer was almoft exclufively a political caricaturift. The exceptions are a few prints on theatrical fubjects, in



No. 415. A Contra ft.

which contemporary adors and adrefles are caricatured, and a fingle fubjed from fafhionable life. A copy of the latter forms our cut No. 215. It has no title in the original, but in a copy in my pofleflion a contemporary has written on the margin in pencil that the lady is Mifs Snow and the gentleman Mr. Bird, no doubt well-known perfonages in contemporary fociety. It was publiihed on the ipth of July, 1783.

One of Sayer's moft fuccefsful caricatures, in regard to the effed it

produced


456 Hiflory of Caricature and Grotefque

produced on the public, was that on Fox's India Bill, publifhed on the <th of September, 1783. It was entitled "Carlo Khan's Triumphal Entry into Leadenhall Street," Carlo Khan being perfonified by Fox, who is carried in triumph to the door of the India Houfe on the back of an elephant, which prefents the face of lord North. Burke, who had been the principal fupporter of the bill in debate, appears in the character of the imperial trumpeter, and leads the elephant on its way. On a banner behind Carlo, the old infcription, " The Man of the People," the title popularly given to Fox, is erafed, and the two Greek words, BA2IAEYS BASIAEQN, "king of kings," fubftituted in its place. From a chimney above, the bird of ill omen croaks forth the doom of the ambitious minifter, who, it was pretended, aimed at making himfelf more powerful than the king himfelf; and on the fide of the houfe juft below we read the words

The night- crow cried foreboding lucklefs time. Shakespeare.

Henry William Bunbury belonged to a more ariftocratic clafs in fociety than any of the preceding. He was the fecond fon of fir William Bunbury, Bart., of Mildenhall, in the county of Suffolk, and was born in 1750. How he firfl took fo zealoufly to caricature we have no information, but he began to publifh before he was twenty-one years of age. Bunbury's drawing was bold and often good, but he had little (kill in etching, for fome of his earlier prints, publifhed in 1771, which he' etched himfelf, are coarfely executed. His defigns were afterwards engraved by various perfons, and his own ftyle was fometimes modified in this procefs. His earlier prints were etched and fold by James Bretherton, who has been already mentioned as publifhing the works of James Sayer. This Bretherton was in fome efteem as an engraver, and he alfo had a print-mop at 132, New Bond Street, where his engravings were publifhed. James had a fon named Charles, who difplayed great talent at an early age, but he died young. As early as 1772, when the macaronis (the dandies of the eighteenth century) came into fafhion, James Bretherton's name appears on prints by Bunbury as the engraver and publifher, and it occurs again as the engraver of his print of " Strephon and Chloe " in

1801,


in Literature and Art. 4.57

1801, which was publifhed by Fores. At this and a later period forae of his defigns were engraved by Rowlandfon, who always transferred his own ftyle to the drawings he copied. A remarkable inftance of this is furnifhed by a print of a party of anglers of both fexes in a punt, entitled "Anglers of 1811 " (the year of Bunbury's death). But for the name, " H. Bunbury, del.," very diftinctly infcribed upon it, we ihould take this to be a genuine defign by Rowlandfon ; and io 1803 Rowlandfon engraved fome copies of Bunbury's prints on horfemanfliip for Acker- mann, of the Strand, in which all traces of Bunbury's ftyle are loft. Bunbury's ftyle is rather broadly burlefque.

Bunbury had evidently little tafte for political caricature, and he



No. 2l6. How to Travel on Two Legs in a Fro/1.

feldom meddled with it. Like Collet, he preferred fcenes of focial life, and humorous incidents of contemporary manners, fafhionable ot popular. He had a great tafte for caricaturing bad or awkward horfe- manmip or unmanageable horfes, and his prints of fuch fubjects were numerous and greatly admired. This tafte for equeftrian pieces was fhown in prints publifhed in 1772, and feveral droll feries of fuch fubjecls appeared at different times, between 1781 and 1791, one of which was long famous under the title of " Geoffrey Gambado's Horfemanfhip."

3 N An


458 Htftory of Caricature and Grotefque


An example of thefe incidents of horfemanftiip is copied in our cut No. 216, where a not very (kilful rider, with a troublefome horfe, is taking advantage of the ftate of the ground for accelerating locomotion. It is entitled, "How to travel on Two Legs in a Froft," and is accom- panied with the motto, in Latin, " OJlendunt terris hunc Ionium fata, neque ultra effejznent."

Occafionally Bunbury drew in a broader ftyle of caricature, efpecially in fome of his later works. Of our examples of this broader ftyle, the firft cut, No. 217, entitled " Strephon and Chloe," is dated the



No. ZI7. Strephon and Chloe.

ift of July, 1801. It is the very acme of fentimental courtfliip, exprefled in a fpirit of drollery which could not eafily be excelled. The next group (cut No. 218), from a fimilar print publifhed on the 2ift of July in the fame year, is a no leis admirable piclnre of overflrained politenefs. It is entitled in the original, " The Salutation Tavern," probably with a tem- porary allufion beyond the more apparent defign of the pi&ure. Bunbury, as before ftated, died in 1811. It is enough to fay that fir Jofhua Reynolds ufed to exprefs a high opinion of him as an artift.

Bunbury's prints rarely appeared without his name, and, except when they had pafled through the engraving of Rowlandfon, are eafily recognifed. No doubt his was confidered a popular name, which was almoft of as much importance as the print itfelf. But

a


in Literature and Art.


459


a large mafs of the caricatures publifhed at the latter end of the lafl century and the beginning of the prefent, appeared anonymoully, or with imaginary names. Thus a political print, entitled " The Modern Atlas," -bears the infcription " Mafr Hook fecit 5" another entitled "Farmer George delivered," has that of " Poll Pitt del." "Every- body delin^," is infcribed on a caricature entitled " The Lover's Leap 5" and one which appeared under the title of "Veterinary Operations," is infcribed " Giles Grinagain fed." Some of thefe were probably



No. 218. A Fa/blonable Salutation.

the works of amateurs, for there appear to have been many amateur caricaturifts in England at that time. In a caricature entitled "The Scotch Arms," publifhed by Fores on the 3rd of January, 1787, we find the announcement, " Gentlemen's defigns executed gratis," which means, of courfe, that Fores would publifh the caricatures of amateurs, if he approved them, without making the faid amateurs pay for the engraving. But alfo fome of the beft caricaturifts of the day publifhed much anony- moufly, and we know that this was the cafe to a very great extent with fuch artifts as Cruikfhank, Woodward, &c., at all events until fuch time as their names became fufficiently popular to be a recommendation to, the print. It is certain that many of Woodward's defigns were publifhed

without


460 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque


without his name. Such was the cafe with the print of which we give a copy in our cut No. 219, which was publifhed on the ^th of May, 1796, and which bears ftrongly the marks of Woodward's ftyle. The fpring of this year, 1796, witnefled a general difappointment at the failure of the negociations for peace, and therefore the neceffity of new facrifices for carrying on the war, and of increafed taxation. Many clever caricatures appeared on this occafion, of which this by Woodward was one. Of



No. 219. General Complaint.

courfe, when war was inevitable, the queftion of generals was a very important one, and the caricaturift pretends that the greateft general of the age was " General Complaint. ' The general appears here with an empty purfe in his right hand, and in his left a handful of papers contain- ing a lift of bankrupts, the ftatement of the budget, &c. Four lines beneath, in rather doggrel verfe, explain the fituation as follows :

Don't tell me of generals raijedfrom mere boys,

Though, believe mt, I mean not their laurel to taivt ;

But the general, rm fore, that -will make the mojl noife t If the war Jiill goes on, -will be General Complaint.

There


in Literature and Art.


461


There was much of Bunbury's ftyle in that of Woodward, who had a tafte for the fame broad caricatures upon fociety, which he executed in a fimilar fpirit. Some of the fuites of fubjeds of this defcription that he published, fuch as the feries of the " Symptoms of the Shop," thofe ot " Everybody out of town " and " Everybody in Town," and the " Speci- mens of Domeftic Phrenfy," are extremely clever and amufing. Wood- ward's defigns were alfo not unfrequently engraved by Rowlandfon, who, as ufual, imprinted his own ftyle upon them. A very good example of this practice is feen in the print of which we give a copy in our cut No. 220. Its title, in the original, is "Defire," and the paflion is



No. 220. Defire.

exemplified in the cafe of a hungry fchoolboy watching through a window a jolly cook carrying by a tempting plum-pudding. We are told in an infcription underneath : "Various are the ways this paffion might be depifted ; in this delineation the fabjects chofen are fimple a hungry boy and a plum-pudding." The defign of this print is ftated to be Woodward's ; but the ftyle is altogether that of Rowlandfon, whofe name appears on it as the etcher. Jt was publilhed by R. Ackermann, on the

20th


462 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque


20th of January, 1800. Woodward is well known by his prolific pencil, but we are fo little acquainted with the man himfelf, that I cannot flate the date either of his birth or of his death.

There lived at this time in Edinburgh an engraver of fome eminence in his way, but whofe name is now nearly forgotten, and, in fad, it does not occur in the lafl edition of Bryan's "Dictionary of Engravers." This name was John Kay, which is found attached to prints, of which about four hundred are known, with dates extending from 1784 to 1817. As an engraver, Kay poflefied no great talent, but he had confiderable humour,



No. 221. Looking a Rock in the Face.

and he excelled in catching and delineating the ftriking points in the features and gait of the individuals who then moved in Edinburgh Society. In fat, a large proportion of his prints confift of caricature portraits, often feveral figures on the fame plate, which is ufually of fmall dimenfions.

Among


in Literature and Art. 46 3

Among them are many of the profeflbrs and other diftinguifhed members of the univerfity of Edinburgh. Thus one, copied in our cut No. 221, reprefents the eminent old geologift, Dr. James Hutton, rather aftonifhed at the fhapes which his favourite rocks have fuddenly taken. The original print is dated in 1787, ten years before Dr. Hutton's death. The idea of giving faces to rocks was not new in the time of John Kay, and it has been frequently repeated. Some of thefe caricature portraits are clever and amufing, and they are at times very fatirical. Kay appears to have rarely ventured on caiicature of any other defcription, but there is one rare plate by him, entitled " The Craft in Danger," which is ftated in a few words pencilled on the copy I have before me, to have been aimed at a cabal for propofing Dr. Barclay for a profeflbrfhip in the univerfity of Edinburgh. It difplays no great talent, and is, in fact, now not very intelligible. The figures introduced in it are evidently intended for rather caricatured portraits of members of the univerfity engaged in the cabal, and are in the ftyle of Kay's other portraits.*


  • In the library of the British Museum there is a collection of John Kay's

works bound in two volumes quarto, with a title and table of contents in manu- script, but whether it is one of a few copies intended for publication, or whether it is merely the collection of some individual, I am not prepared to say. It contains 343 plates, which are stated to be all Kay's works down to the year 1813, when this collection was made. " The Craft in Danger " is not among them. I have before me a smaller, but a very choice selection, of Kay's caricatures, the loan of which I owe to the kindness of Mr. John Camden Hotten, of Piccadilly. I am indebted to Mr. Hotten for many courtesies of this description, and especially for the use of a very valuable collection of caricatures of the latter part of the eighteenth century and earlier part of the present, mounted in four large folio volumes, which has been of much use to me.


464 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque


CHAPTER XXVII.

GILLRAY. HIS FIRST ATTEMPTS. HIS CARICATURES BEGIN WITH THE

SHELBURNE MINISTRY. IMPEACHMENT OF WARREN HASTINGS. CARI- CATURES ON THE KING ; " NEW WAY TO PAY THE NATIONAL DEBT."

ALLEGED REASON FOR GILLKAY*S HOSTILITY TO THE KING. THE

KING AND THE APPLE-DUMPLINGS. GILLRAY*S LATER LABOURS.

HIS IDIOTCY AND DEATH.

IN the year 1757 was born the greateft of Englifh caricaturifts, and perhaps of all caricaturifts of modern times whofe works are known James Gillray. His father, who was named like himfelf, James, was a Scotchman, a native of Lanark, and a foldier, and, having loft one arm at the battle of Fontenoy, became an out-penlioner of Chelfea Hofpital. He obtained alfo the appointment of fexton at the Moravian burial-ground at Chelfea, which he held forty years, and it was at Chelfea that James Gillray the younger was born. The latter, having no doubt fhown figns of artiftic talent, was put apprentice to letter-engraving ; but after a time, becoming difgufted with this employment, he ran away, and joined a party of ftrolling players, and in their company pafled through many adven- tures, and underwent many hardlhips. He returned, however to London, and received fome encouragement as a promifing artift, and obtained admifllon as a ftudent in the Royal Academy the then young institution to which Hogarth had been oppofed. Gillray foon became known as a defigner and engraver, and worked in thefe capacities for the publifliers. Among his earlier productions, two illuftrations of Goldfmith's " Deferted Village " are fpoken of with praife, as difplaying a remarkable freedom of efteft. For a long time after Gillray became known as a caricaturift he continued to engrave the defigns of other artifts. The earlieft known caricature which can be afcribed to him with any certainty, is the plate entitled " Paddy on Horfeback," and dated in 1779, when he was twenty- two years of age. The " horfe " on which Paddy rides is a bull ; he is

feated


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feated with his face turned to the tail. The fubjeft of fatire is fuppofed to- be the chara&er then enjoyed by the Irifh as fortune-hunters. The point, however, is not very apparent, and indeed Gillray's earlieft carica- tures are tame, although it is remarkable how rapidly he improved, and how foon he arrived at excellence. Two caricatures, publifhed in June and July, 1782, on the occafion of admiral Rodney's victory, are looked upon as marking his firft decided appearance in politics.

A diftinguifhing charadteriftic of Gillray's ftyle is, the wonderful tad with which he feizes upon the points in his fubjedt open to ridicule, and the force with which he brings thofe points out. In the finenefs of his defign, and in his grouping and drawing, he excels all the other cari- caturifts. He was, indeed, born with all the talents of a great hiftorical painter, and, but for circumftances, he probably would have fhone in that branch of art. This excellence will be the more appreciated when it is underftood that he drew his picture with the needle on the plate, without having made any previous Iketch of it, except fometimes a few hafty outlines of individual portraits or characters fcrawled on cards or fcraps of paper as they ftruck him.

Soon after the two caricatures on Rodney's naval viclory, the Rocking- ham adminHtration was broken up by the death of its chief, and another was formed under the direction of Lord Shelburne, from which Fox and Burke retired, leaving in it their old colleague, Pitt, who now deferted the Whig party in parliament. Fox and Burke became from this moment the butt of all forts of abufe and fcornful fatire from the caricaturifts, fuch as Sayer, and newfpaper writers in the pay of their opponents j and Gillray, perhaps becaufe it offered at that moment the befl. chance of popularity and fuccefs, joined in the crufade againft the two ex-minifters and their friends. In one of his caricatures, which is a parody upon Milton, Fox is reprefented in the character of Satan, turning his back upon the minifterial Paradife, but looking envioufly over his {houlder at the happy pair (Shelburne and Pitt) who are counting their money on the treafury table :


Jijlde hi turned For envy, yet with jealous leer malign Eyed them ajkance.

3 o


Another


466 Hijlory of Caricature and Grotefque

Another, alfo by Gillray, is entitled " Guy Faux and Judas Ifcariot," the former reprefented by Fox, who difcovers the defertion of his late colleague, lord Shelburne, by the light of his lantern, and recriminates angrily, "Ah! what, I've found you out, have I? Who arm'd the high priefts and the people ? Who betray'd his mas ?" At this point he is inter- rupted by a fneering retort from Shelburne, who is carrying away the treafury bag with a look of great felf-complacency, " Ha, ha ! poor Gun- powder's vexed ! He, he, he ! Shan't have the bag, I tell you, old Goofetooth !" Burke was ufually caricatured as a Jefuit 3 and in another of Gillray's prints of this time (publifhed Aug. 23, 1782), entitled " Cin- cinnatus in Retirement," Burke is reprefented as driven into the retire- ment of his Irim cabin, where he is furrounded by Popim relics and emblems of fuperftition, and by the materials for drinking whilky. A veffel, infcribed " Relick No. i., ufed by St. Peter," is filled with boiled potatoes, which Jefuit Burke is paring. Three imps are feen dancing under the table.

In 1783 the Shelburne miniftry itfelf was diffolved, and fucceeded by the Portland miniftry, in which Fox was fecretary of ftate for foreign affairs, and Burke, paymafter of the forces, and Lord North, who had joined the Whigs againft lord Shelburne, now obtained office as fecretary for the home department. Gillray joined warmly in the attacks on this coalition of parties, and from this time his great activity as a caricaturift begins. Fox, efpecially, and Burke, ftill under the character of a Jefuit, were incelTantly held up to ridicule in his prints. In another year this miniftry alfo was overthrown, and young William Pitt became eftablifhed In power, while the ex-minifters, now the oppofhion, had become un- popular throughout the country. The caricature of Gillray followed them, and Fox and Burke conftantly appeared under his hands in fome ridiculous fituation or other. But Gillray was not a hired libeller, like Sayer and fome of the lower caricaturifts of that time ; he evidently chofe his fubjefts, in fome degree independently, as thofe which offered him the beft mark for ridicule ; and he had fo little refped for the minifters or the court, that they all felt his fatire in turn. Thus, when the plan of national fortifications brought forward by the duke of Richmond, who

had


in Literature and Art. 467

had deferted the Whigs to be made a Tory minifter, as mafter-general of the ordnance was defeated in the Houfe of Commons in 1787, the beft caricature it provoked was one by Gillray, entitled " Honi foit qui mal y penfe," which reprefents the horror of the duke of Richmond at being fo unceremonioufly compelled to fwallow his own fortifications (cut No. 222).



No. 222. A Strong Dofe.

It is lord Shelburne, who had now become marquis of Lanfdowne, who is reprefented as adminiftering the bitter dofe. Some months afterwards, in the famous impeachment againft Warren Haftings, Gillray fided warmly againft the impeachers, perhaps partly becaufe thefe were Burke and his friends ; yet feveral of his caricatures on this affair are aimed at the minifters, and even at the king himfelf. Lord Thurlow, who was a favourite with the king, and who fupported the caufe of Warren Haftings with firmnefs, after he had been deferted by Pitt and the other minifters, was efpecially an object of Gillray's fatire. Thurlow, it will be remem- bered, was rather celebrated for profane fwearing, and was fometimes fpoken of as the thunderer. One of the fineft of Gillray's caricatures at this period, published on the ift of March, 1788, is entitled "Blood on Thunder fording the Red Sea," and reprefents Warren Haftings carried on chancellor Thurlow's moulders through a fea of blood, ftrewed with

the


468 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque

the mangled corpfes of Hindoos. As will be feen in our copy of the moft important part of this print (cut No. 223), the " faviour of India/- as he was called by his friends, has taken care to fecure his gains.. A remarkably bold caricature by Gillray againft the government appeared on the 2nd of May in this year. It is entitled " Market-Day every man has his price," and reprefents a fcene in Smithfield, where the horned cattle expofed for fale are the fupporters of the king's miniftry. Lord



No. 223. Blood on Thunder.

Thurlow, with his charac\erifl.ic frown, appears as the principal purchafer. Pitt, and his friend and colleague Dundas, are reprefented drinking and fmoking jovially at the window of a public-houfe. On one fide Warren Haftings is riding off with the king in the form of a calf, which he has juft purchafed, for Haftings was popularly believed to have worked upon king George's avarice by rich prefents of diamonds. On another fide, the overwhelming rum of the cattle is throwing over the van in which Fox, Burke, and Sheridan are driving. This plate deferves to be placed among Gillray's fineft works.

Gillray caricatured the heir to the throne with bitternefs, perhaps

becaufe


in Literature and Art. 469

becaufe his diflipation and extravagance rendered him a fair fubject of ridicule, and becaufe he aflbciated himfelf with Fox's party in politics; but his hoftility to the king is afcribed in part to perfonal feelings. A large and very remarkable print by our artift, though his name was not attached to it, and one which difplays in a fpecial manner the great charadterittics of Gillray's ftyle, appeared on the 2ift of April, 1786, juft after an application had been made to the Houfe of Commons for a large fum of money to pay off the king's debts, which were very great, in Ipite of the enormous income then attached to the crown. George was known as a careful and even a parfimonious man, and the queen was looked upon generally as a mean and very avaricious woman, and people were at a lols to account for this extraordinary expenditure, and they tried to explain it in various ways which were not to the credit of the royal pair. It was faid that immenfe fums were fpent in fecret corruption to pave the way to the eftabliihment of arbitrary power ; that the king was making targe favings, and hoarding up treafures at Hanover j and that, inftead of fpending money on his family, he allowed his eldeft fon to run into ferious difficulties through the fmallnefs of his allowance, and thus to become an object of pity to his French friend, the wealthy due d'Orleans, who had offered him relief. The caricature juft mentioned, which is extremely fevere, is entitled " A new way to pay the National Debt." It reprefents the entrance to the treafury, from which king George and his queen, with their band of penfioners, are iffuing, their pockets., and the queen's apron, fo full of money, that the coins are rolling out and fcattering about the ground. Neverthelefs, Pitt, whofe pockets alfo are full, adds to the royal trealures large bags of the national revenue, which are received with fmiles of fatisfadion. To the left, a crippled foldier fits on the ground, and alks in vain for relief ; while the wall above is covered with torn placards, on fome of which may be read, " God fave the King ;" " Charity, a romance 3" " From Germany, juft arrived a large and royal aflortment .... j" and " Laft dying fpeech of fifty-four male- fa6tors executed for robbing a hen-rooft." The latter is a fatirical allu- fion to the notorious feverity with which the moft trifling depredators on the king's private farm were profecuted. In the background, on the

-right


470 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque

right hand fide of the pidure, the prince appears in ragged garments, and in want of charity no lets than the cripple, and near him is the duke of Orleans, who offers him a draft for ,=200,000. On the p.acards on the walls here we read fuch announcements as " Economy, an old fong ;" "Britifti property, a farce;" and "Juft publiftied, for the benefit of pofterity, the dying groans of Liberty ;" and one, immediately over the prince's head, bears the prince's feathers, with the motto, " Ich ftarve." Altogether this is one of the moft remarkable of Gillray's caricatures.

The parfimonioufnefs of the king and queen was the fubjecl: of carica- tures and fongs in abundance, in which thefe illuftrious perfonages appeared



No. 224. Farmer George and his Wife.

haggling with their tradefmen, and making bargains in perfon, rejoicing in having thus faved a fmall fum of money. It was laid that George kept a farm at Windfor, not for his amufement, but to draw a fmall profit from it. By Peter Pindar he is defcribed as rejoicing over the fkill he has ftiown in purchafing his live ftock as bargains. Gillray feized greedily all thefe points of ridicule, and, as early as 1786, he publifhed a print of" Farmer George and his Wife" (fee our cut No. 224), in which the two royal

perform gen


in Literature and Art. 47 1

perfonages are reprefented in the very familiar manner in which they were accuftomed to walk about Windfor and its neighbourhood. This picture appears to have been very popular j and years afterwards, in a caricature on a fcene in " The School for Scandal," where, in the fale of the young profligate's effects, the audtioneer puts up a family portrait, for which a broker offers five (hillings, and Carelefs, the auctioneer, fays, " Going for no more than one crown," the family piece is the well- known picture of " Farmer George and his Wife," and the ruined prodigal is the prince of Wales, who exclaims, " Carelefs, knock down the farmer."

Many caricatures againft the undignified meannefs of the royal houfe- hold appeared during the years 1791 and 1792, when the king pa fled much of his time at his favourite watering-place, Weymouth ; and there his domeftic habits had become more and more an object of remark. It was faid that, under the pretence of Weymouth being an expenfive place, and taking advantage of the obligations of the royal mail to carry parcels for the king free, he had his provifions brought to him by that conveyance from his farm at Windfor. On the 28th of November, 1791, Gillray publiflied a caricature on the homelinefs of the royal houfehold, in two compartments, in one of which the king is reprefented, in a drefs which is anything but that of royalty, toafting his muffins for breakfaft j and in the other, queen Charlotte, in no lefs homely drefs, though her pocket is over- flowing with money, toafting fprats for fupper. In another of Gillray's prints, entitled " Anti-faccharites," the king and queen are teaching their daughters economy in taking their tea without fugarj as the young princefles (how fome diflike to the experiment, the queen admoniihes them, concluding with the remark, " Above all, remember how much expenfe it will fave your poor papa ! "

According to a ftory which feems to be authentic, Gillray's diflike of the king was embittered at this time by an incident fomewhat fimilar to that by which George II. had provoked the anger of Hogarth. Gillray had vifited France, Flanders, and Holland, and he had made (ketches, a few of which he engraved. Our cut No. 225 reprefents a group from one of thefe (ketches, which explains itfelf, and is a fair example of

Gillray's


472 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque


Gillray's manner of drawing fuch fubjeds. He accompanied the painter Loutherbourg, who had left his native city of Strafburg to fettle in England, and become the king's favourite artift, to affift him in making fketches for his great painting of " The Siege of Valenciennes," Gillray Iketching groups of figures while Loutherbourg drew the landfcape and buildings. After their return, the king exprefled a defire to fee their fketches, and they were placed before him. Loutherbourg's landfcapes and buildings were plain drawings, and eafy to under- ftand, and the king exprefled himfelf greatly pleafed with them. But



No. 225. A Fleml/h Proclamation.


the king's mind was already prejudiced againft Gillray for his fatirical prints, and when he faw his hafty and rough, though fpirited fketches, of the French foldiers, he threw them afide contemptuoufly, with the remark, " I don't understand thefe caricatures." Perhaps the very word he ufed was intended as a fneer upon' Gillray, who, we are told, felt the affront deeply, and he proceeded to retort by a caricature, which ftruck at once at one of the king's vanities, and at his political prejudices. George III. imagined himfelf a great connoiffeur in the fine arts, and the caricature was entitled 'A Connoifieur examining a Cooper." It repre-

fented


in Literature and Art. 473


fented the king looking at the celebrated miniature of Oliver Cromwell, by the Englifti painter, Samuel Cooper. When Gillray had completed this print, he is faid to have exclaimed, "I wonder if the royal connoiffeur will underftand this !" It was publifhed on the i8th of June, 1792, and cannot have failed to produce a fenfation at that period of revolutions. The king is made to exhibit a ftrange mixture of alarm with aftonifliment in contemplating the features of this great overthrower of kingly power, at a moment when all kingly power was threatened. It will be remarked, too, that the fatirift has not overlooked the royal character for domeftic



No. za6. A Connoiffeur in Art.

economy, for, as will be feen in our cut No. 226, the king is looking at the pi6ture by the light of a candle-end ftuck on a " fave-all."

From, this time Gillray rarely let pafs an opportunity of caricaturing the king. Sometimes he pictured his awkward and undignified gait, as he was accuftomed to fhuffle along the efplanade at Weymouth ; fome- times in the familiar manner in which, in the courfe of his walks in the neighbourhood of his Windfor farm, he accofted the commoneft labourers and cottagers, and overwhelmed them with a long repetition of trivial qneftions for king George had a chara&eriftic manner of repeating his queftions, and of frequently giving the reply to them himfelf.

Then ajks the farmer t wife, or farmer t maid, How many eggs the foivls have laid ;

3 P


474 Hi/lory of Caricature and Grotefque


What '. in the oven, in -the pet, the crock } Whether 'twill rain or no, and <whafs o'clock ; Thutfrom poor hovels gleaning information, Toferve as future treasure for the nation.

So faid Peter Pindar ; and in this rdle king George was reprefented not unfrequently in fatirical prints. On the loth of February Gillray illuftrated the quality of " Affability " in a pifture of one of thefe ruftic encounters. The king and queen, taking their walk, have arrived at a cottage, where a very coarfe example of Englifh peafantry is feeding his pigs with wafh. The fcene is reprefented in our cut No. 227. The vacant



No. -LIT. Royal Affability.

ftare of the countryman betrays his confufion at the rapid fucceffion of queftions "Well, friend, where a' you going, hay? What's your name, hay? Where do you live, hay? hay?" In other prints the king is reprefented running into ludicrous adventures while hunting, an amufe-

ment


in Literature and Art.


475


ment to which he was extremely attached. One of the beft known of thele has been celebrated equally by the pen of Peter Pindar and by the needle of Gillray. It was faid that one day while king George was following the chafe, he came to a poor cottage, where his ufual curiofity was rewarded by the difcovery of an old woman making apple dumplings. When informed what they were, he could not conceal his aftoniftiment how the apples could have been introduced without leaving a feam in their covering. In the caricature by Gillray, from which we take our cut No. 228, the king is reprefented looking at the procefs of dumpling mak- ing through the window, inquiring in aftonilhment, " Hay ? hay ? apple



No. 228. A Leffln in Apple Dumplings .

dumplings ? how get the apples in ? how ? Are they made without feams?" The ftory is told more fully in the following verfes of Peter Pindar, which will ferve as the beft commentary on the engraving :

THE KING AND THE APPLE DUMPLING.

Once on a time a monarch, tired -with whooping, Whipping and fpurring, Happy in -worrying A poor, defencelefs, harmlefi buck (The horje and rider wet as muck), Frtm his high conjequence and loifdom ftooping, Entered through curiojity a cot, Where Jat a poor eld woman and her pot.

Tht


476 Uiftory of Caricature and Grotefque


The -wrinkled, blear-eyed, good old granny,

In this fame cot, ilium" a" by many a cranny, Hadfinijb'd apple dumplings for her pot.

In tempting row the naked dumplings lay,

When lo ! the monarch In his ufual way

Like lightening fpoke, " What this ? what this f -what ? what?'* Then taking up a dumpling in his hand, His eyes with admiration did expand,

And oft did majefty the dumpling grapple. " 'Tit monftrous, monftrous hard, indeed f" he cried} " What makes it, pray, Jo hard f "The dame replied,

Low curt/eying, " Pleafe your majefty, the apple." " Very afton:Jhlng, indeed ! ftrange thing ! " Turning the dumpling round, rejoined the king ;

" TM moft extraordinary then, all this is

/; beats Pinettrs conjuring all to pieces Strange I jbould never of a dumpling dream I But, Goody, tell me where, where, -where' s the f earn f " " Sir, thereof no f earn," quoth /he, " / never knew That folks did apple dumplings few." " No ! " cried the flaring monarch -with a grin, " How, how the devil got the apple in f" On which the dame the curious fcheme reveaTd By which the apple lay fo Jiy concealed,

Which made the Solomon ef Britain ftart f Who to the palace with full fpeed repaired And queen, and princej/es fo beauteous, feared^ All with the wonders of the dumpling art. There did he labour one -whole week, to Jbow The wlfdom of an apple dumpling maker ; And lot fo deep -was majefty In dough, The palace feem 'd the lodging of a baker !

Gillray was not the only caricaturift who turned the king's weaknefles to ridicule, but none caricatured them with fo little gentlenefs, or evidently with fo good a will. On the ^th of March, 1796, the princefs of Wales gave birth to a daughter, fo well known fince as the princefs Charlotte. The king is faid to have been charmed with his grandchild, and this fentiment appears to have been anticipated by the public, for on the I3th of February, when the princefs's accouchment was looked forward to with general intereft, a print appeared under the title of " Grandpapa in his Glory." In this caricature, which is given in

our


in Literature and Art.


477


our cut No. 229, king George, feated, is reprefented nurfing and feeding the royal infant in an extraordinary degree of homelinefs. He is finging the nurfery rhyme

There -was a laugh and a craw t

There toas a giggling honey t Goody good girl /ball be fed,

But naughty girl (hall have noney.

This print bears no name, but it is known to be by Woodward, though it betrays an attempt to imitate the ftyle of Gillray. Gillray was often



No. 219. Grandfather George.


imitated in this manner, and his prints were pirated. He even at times copied himfelf, for the fake of gaining money.

At the period of the regency bill in I policy in that affair with great feverity. In 3rd of January, he drew the premier in the vulture, with one claw fixed firmly on the


not unfrequently copied and and difguifed his own ftyle,

789, Gillray attacked Pitt's a caricature publilhed on the character of an over-gorged crown and fceptre, and with the


478 HIJlory of Caricature and Grotefque

the other feizing upon the prince's coronet, from which he is plucking

the feathers. Among other good caricatures on this occafion, perhaps

the fineft is a parody on Fufeli's picture of "The Weird Sifters," in which

Dundas, Pitt, and Thurlow, as the lifters, are contemplating the moon,

the bright fide of whofe difc reprefents the face of the queen, and the

other that of the king, overcaft with mental darknefs. Gillray took a

ftrongly hoftile view of the French revolution, and produced an immenfe

number of caricatures againft the French and their rulers, and their

friends, or fuppofed friends, in this country, during the period extending

from 1790 to the earlier years of the prefent century. Through all the

changes of miniftry or policy, he feems to have fixed himfelf ftrongly on

individuals, and he feldom ceafed to caricature the perfon who had once

provoked his attacks. So it was with the lord chancellor Thurlow, who

became the butt of favage fatire in fome of his prints which appeared in

1792, at the time when Pitt forced him to refign the chancellorfhip.

Among thefe is one of the boldeft caricatures which he ever executed.

It is a parody, fine almoft to fublimity, on a well-known fcene in Milton,

and is entitled, " Sin, Death, and the Devil." The queen, as Sin, nifties

to feparate the two combatants, Death (in the femblance of Pitt) and

Satan (in that of Thurlow). During the latter part of the century Gillray

caricatured all parties in turn, whether minifterial or oppofition, with

indifcriminate vigour j but his hoftility towards the party of Fox, whom

he perfifted in regarding, or at leaft in reprefenting, as unpatriotic revo-

lutionifts, was certainly greateft. In 1803 he worked energetically againft

the Addington miniftry} and in 1806 he caricatured that which was

known by the title of "All the Talents j" but during this later period of

his life his labours were more efpecially aimed at keeping up the fpirit of

his countrymen againft the threats and defigns of our foreign enemies.

It was, in fa6t, the caricature which at that time met with the greateft

encouragement.

In his own perfon, Gillray had lived a life of great irregularity, and as he grew older, his habits of diflipation and intemperance increafed, and gradually broke down his intelled. Towards the year 1811 he ceafed producing any original works ; the laft plate he executed was a drawing

of


in Literature and Art. 479


of Bunbury's, entitled " A Barber's Shop in Aflize Time,' which is fuppofed to have been finifhed in the January of that year. Soon after- wards his mind fank into idiotcy, from which it never recovered. James Gillray died in 1815, and was buried in St. James's churchyard, Piccadilly, near the reftory houfe.


480 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque


CHAPTER XXVIII.

GILLRAY'S CARICATURES ON SOCIAL LIFE. THOMAS ROWLANDSON. HIS

EARLY LIFE. HE BECOMES A CARICATURIST. HIS STYLE AND WORKS.

HIS DRAWINGS. THE CRUIKSHANKS.

GILLRAY was, beyond all others, the great political caricaturift of his age. His works form a complete hiftory of the greater and more important portion of the reign of George III. He appears to have had lefs tafte for general caricature, and his caricatures on focial life are lefs numerous, and with a few exceptions lefs important, than thofe which were called forth by political events. The exceptions are chiefly fatires on individual characters, which are marked by the fame bold ftyle which is difplayed in his political attacks. Some of his caricatures on the extravagant coftume of the time, and on its more prominent vices, fuch as the rage for gambling, are alfo fine, but his focial (ketches generally are much inferior to his other works.

This, however, was not the cafe with his contemporary, Thomas Rowlandfon, who doubtlefsly ftands fecond to Gillray, and may, in fome refpefts, be considered his equal. Rowlandfon was born in the Old Jewry in London, the year before that of the birth of Gillray, in the July of 1756. His father was a city merchant, who had the means to give him a good education, but embarking ralhly in fome unfuccefsful fpecula- tions, he fell into reduced circumftances, and the fon had to depend upon the liberality of a relative. His uncle, Thomas Rowlandfon, after whom probably he was named, had married a French lady, a Mademoifelle Chatelier, who was now a widow, refiding in Paris, with what would be confidered in that capital a handfome fortune, and {he appears to have been attached to her Englifh nephew, and fupplied him rather freely with money. Young Rowlandfon had ihown at an early age great talent for

drawing


in Literature and Art. 481

drawing, with an efpecial turn for fatire. As a fchoolboy, he covered the margins of his books with caricatures upon his matter and upon hisfellow- fcholars, and at the age of fixteen lie was admitted a ftudent in the Royal Academy in London, then in its infancy. But he did not profit imme- diately by this admillion, for his aunt invited him to Paris, where he began and followed his ftudies in art with great fuccefs, and was remarked for the Ikill with which he drew the human body. His ftudies from nature, while in Paris, are faid to have been remarkably fine. Nor did his tafte for fatirical defign fail him, for it was one of his greateft amufe- ments to caricature the numerous individuals, and groups of individuals, who muft in that age have prefented objects of ridicule to a lively Englifhman. During this time his aunt died, leaving him all her property, confifting of about ^7,000 in money, and a confiderable amount in plate and other objects. The fudden pofleffion of fo much money proved a misfortune to young Rowlandfon. He appears to have had an early love for gaiety, and he now yielded to all the temptations to vice held out by the French metropolis, and efpecially to an uncontrollable paflion for gambling, through which he foon difiipated his fortune.

Before this, however, had been effected, Rowlandfon, after having refided in Paris about two years, returned to London, and continued his ftudies in the Royal Academy. But he appears for fome years to have given himfelf up entirely to his diflipated habits, and to have worked only at intervals, when he was driven to it by the want of money. We are told by one who was intimate with him, that, when teduced to this con- dition, he ufed to exclaim, holding, up his pencil, " I have been playing the fool, but here is myrefource!" and he would then produce with extraordinary rapidity caricatures enough to fupply his momentary wants. Moft of Rowlandfon's earlier productions were publifhed anony- moufly, but here and there, among large collections, we meet with a print, which, by companion of the ftyle with that of his earneft known works, we can hardly hefitate in afcribing to him ; and from thefe it would appear that he had begun with political caricature, becaafe, perhaps, at that period of great agitation, it was molt called for, and, therefore, moft profitable. Three of the earlieft of the political

3 Q. caricatures


482 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque


caricatures thus afcribed to Rowlandfon belong to the year 1784, when he was twenty-eight years of age, and relate to the diflblution of parliament in that year, the refult of which was the eftablifhment of William Pitt in power. The firft, published on the nth of March, is entitled "The Champion of the People." Fox is reprefented under this title, armed with the fword of Juftice and the Ihield of Truth, combat- ing the many-headed hydra, its mouths refpectively breathing forth "Tyranny," "Affumed Prerogative," "Defpotifm," "Opprefiion," " Secret Influence," " Scotch Politics," " Duplicity," and " Corruption." Some of thefe heads are already cut off. The Dutchman, Frenchman, and other foreign enemies are feen in the background, dancing round the ftandard of" Sedition." Fox is fupported by numerous bodies of Englilh and Irilhmen, the Engliih fhouting, "While he protects us, we will lupport him." The Irifti, " He gave us a free trade and all we afked ; he (hall have our firm fupport." Natives of India, in allufion to his un- fuccefsful India Bill, kneel by his fide and pray for his fuccefs. The fecond of thefe caricatures was pubhlhed on the 26th of March, and is entitled " The State Auction." Pitt is the auctioneer, and is reprefented as knocking down with the hammer of " prerogative " all the valuable articles of the conftitution. The clerk is his colleague, Henry Dundas, who holds up a weighty lot, entitled, "Lot i. The Rights of the People." Pitt calls to him, " Show the lot this way, Harry a'going, a'going fpeak quick, or it's gone hold up the lot, ye Dund-afs 1" The clerk replies in his Scottifh accent, " I can hould it na higher, lir." The Whig members, under the title of the " chofen reprefenters," are leaving the auction room in difcouragement, with reflections in their mouths, fuch as, " Adieu to Liberty !" " Defpair not ! ' " Now or never !' While Fox Hands firm in the caufe, and exclaims "I am determined to bid wiai fpirit for Lot i ; he lhall pay dear for it that outbids me !" Pitt's Tory fupporters are ranged under the auctioneer, and are called the " here- ditary virtuofis ;" and their leader, who appears to be the lord chancellor, addrefles them in the words, " Mind not the nonfenfical biddings of thofe common fellows." Dundas remarks, " We lhall get the fupplies by this tale." The third of thefe caricatures is dated on the .31 ft of March,

when


in Literature and Art. 483

when the elections had commenced, and is entitled, " The Hanoverian Horfe and Britilh Lion a Scene in a new Play, lately a6ted in Weft- minfter, with diftinguilhed applaufe. A6t 2nd, Scene laft." At the back of the pifture ftands the vacant throne, with the intimation, " We fhall refume our fituation here at pleafure, Leo Rex" In front, the Hanoverian horfe, unbridled, and without faddle, neighs " pre-ro-ro-ro-ro- rogative," and is trampling on the fafeguard of the conflitution, while it kicks out violently the "faithful commons" (alluding to the recent dif- folution of parliament). Pitt, on the back of the horfe, cries, " Bravo ! go it again ! I love to ride a mettled fteed ; fend the vagabonds packing !" Fox appears on the other fide of the picture, mounted on the Britilh lion, and holding a whip and bridle in his hand. He fays to Pitt, "Prithee, Billy, difrnount before ye get a fall, and let fome abler jockey take your feat ;" and the lion obferves, indignantly, but with gravity, " If this horfe is not tamed, he will foon be abfolute king of our foreft."

If thefe prints are corre6tly afcribed to Rowlandfon, we fee him here fairly entered in the lifts of political caricature, and riding with Fox and the Whig party. He difplays the fame boldnefs in attacking the king and his minifters which was difplayed by Gillray a boldnefs that pro- bably did much towards preferving the liberties of the country from what was no doubt a refolute attempt to trample upon them, at a time when caricature formed a very powerful weapon. Before this time, however, Rowlandfon's pencil had become pra6tifed in thofe burlefque pidures of focial life for which he became afterwards fo celebrated. At firfl he feems to have publifhed his defigns under fictitious names, and one now before me, entitled "The Tythe Pig," bears the early date of 1786, with the name of " Wigftead," no doubt an aflumed one, which is found on fome others of his early prints. It reprefents the country parfon, in his own parlour, receiving the tribute of the tithe pig from an interefting looking farmer's wife. The name of Rowlandfon, with the date 1792, is attached to a very clever and humorous etching which is now alfo before me, entitled " Cold Broth and Calamity," and reprefenting a party of ikaters, who have fallen in a heap upon the ice, which is breaking under their weight. It bears the name of Fores as publilher. From

this


484 Hi/lory of Caricature and Grotefque

th's time, and efpecially toward the cbfe of the century, Rowlandfon's caricatures on focial life became very numerous, and they are fo well known that it becomes unneceflary, nor indeed would it be eafy, to feleS a few examples which would illuftrate all his charafteriftic excellencies. In prints publifhed by Fores at the beginning of 1 794, the addrefs of the publifher is followed by the words, " where may be had all Rowlandfon's works," which fhows how great was his reputation as a caricaturift at that time. It may be flared briefly that he was diftinguiftied by a remarkable verfatility of talent, by a great fecundity of imagination, and by a fkill in grouping quite equal to that of Gillray, and with a fingular eafe in forming his groups of a great number of figures. Among thofe of his contemporaries who fpoke of him with the higheft praife were fir Jofhua Reynolds and Benjamin Weft. It has been remarked, too, that no artift ever pofTefled the power of Rowlandfon of exprefling fo much with fo little effort. We trace a great difference in ftyle between Rowlandfon's earlier and his later works j although there is a general identity of cha-




No. 230. Opera Beauties.

rafter which cannot be miftaken. The figures in the former fhow a tafte for grace and elegance that is rare in his later works, and we find a deli- cacy of beauty in his females which he appears afterwards to have entirely laid afide. An example of his earlier ftyle in depifting female faces is fur- nifhed by the pretty farmer's wife, in the print of " The Tythe Pig," jnft alluded to 5 and I may quote as another example, an etching publilhed on

the


in Literature and Art.


4*5


the i ft of January, 1794, under the title of " Englifh Curiofity; or, the foreigner flared out of countenance." An individual, in a foreign coftume, is feated in the front row of the boxes of a theatre, probably intended for the opera, where he has become the object of curiofity of the whole audience, and all eyes are eagerly directed upon him. The faces of the men are rather coarfely grotefque, but thofe of the ladies, two of which are given in our cut No. 230, poflels a confiderable degree of refinement. He appears, however, to have been naturally a man of no real refine- ment, who eafily gave himfelf up to low and vulgar taftes, and, as his caricature became more exaggerated and coarfe, bis females became left and lefs graceful, until his model of female beauty appears to have been reprefented by fomething like a fat oyfter-woman. Our cut No. 231,



A'o. 231. The Trumpet and BaJ/oon.

taken from a print in the pofleflion of Mr. Fairholt, entitled, " The Trumpet and Balloon," prefents a good example of Rowlandfon's broaa humour, and of his favourite models of the human face. We can afmolt fancy we hear the different tones of this brace of fnorers.

A good example of Rowlandfon's grotefques of the human figure is

given


Hi/lory of Caricature and Grotesque


given in our cut No. 232, taken from a print publifhed on the jft of January, 1796, under the title of "Anything will do for an Officer. People complained of the mean appearance of the officers in our armies, who obtained their rank, it was pretended, by favour and purchafe rather



No. 232. A Model Officer.

than by merit ; and this caricature is explained by an infcription beneath, which informs us how " Some fchool-boys, who were playing at foldiers, found one of their number fo ill-made, and fo much under fize, that he would have disfigured the whole body if put into the ranks. ' What fhall we do with him?' afced one. 'Do with him?' fays another, 'why make an officer of him.' " This plate is infcribed with his name, " Rowlandfon fecit."

\t this time Rowlandfon ftill continued to work for Fores, but before the end of the century we find him working for Ackermann, of the Strand, who continued to be his friend and employer during the reft of his life, and is faid to have helped him generoufly in many difficulties. In thefe, indeed, he was continually involved by his diflipation and

thoughtleffuefs.


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thoughtleflhefs. Ackermann not only employed him in etching the drawings of other caricaturifls, efpecially of Bunbury, but in furnifhing illuftrations to books, fuch as the feveral feries of Dr. Syntax, the ".New Dance of Death," and others. Rowlandfon's illuftrations to editions of the older ftandard novels, fuch as "Tom Jones," are remarkably clever. In transferring the works of other caricaturifts to the copper, Rowlandfon was in the habit of giving his own ftyle to them to fuch a degree, that nobody would fufpe6t that they were not his own, if the name of the defigner were not attached to them. I have given one example of this in a former chapter, and another very curious one is furniflied by a print now before me, entitled "Anglers of 1811," which bears only the name " H. Bunbury del.," but which is in every particular a perfect example of



No. 233. Antiquaries at Work.

the ftyle of Rowlandfon. During the latter part of his life Rowlandfon amufed himfelf with making an immenfe number of drawings which were never engraved, but many of which have been preferved and are ftill found fcattered through the portfolios of collectors. Thefe are generally better finifhed than his etchings, and are all more or lets burlcfque. Our cut No. 233 is taken from one of thefe drawings, in the poflefiion of

Mr


488 Hijlory of Caricature and Grot ejque

Mr. Fairholt ; it reprefents a party of antiquaries engaged in important excavations. No doubt the figures were intended for well-known archae- ologifts of the day.

Thomas Rowlandfon died in poverty, in lodgings in the Adelphi, on the 22nd of April, 1827.

Among the mofl aftive caricaturifts of the beginning of the prefent century we muft not overlook Ifaac Cruikfhank, even if it were only becaufe the name has become fo celebrated in that of his more talented fon. Ifaac's caricatures, too, were equal to thofe of any of his contem- poraries, after Gillray and Rowlandfon. One of the earliefl examples which I have feen bearing the well-known initials, I. C., was publifhed on the loth of March, 1794, the year in which George Cruikfhank was born, and probably, therefore, when Ifaac was quite a young man. It is entitled "A Republican Belle," and is an evident imitation of Gillray. In another, dated the ift of November, 1795, Pitt is reprefented as " The Royal Extinguifher," putting out the flame of " Sedition." Ifaac Cruik- fhank publifhed many prints anonymoufly, and among the numerous cari- catures of the latter end of the lafl century we meet with many which have no name attached to them, but which referable fo exa&ly his known flyle, that we can hardly hefitate in afcribing them to him. It will be remarked that in his acknowledged works he caricatures the oppofition ; but perhaps, like other caricaturifts of his time, he worked privately for anybody who would pay him, and was as willing to work againfl the government as for it, for moft of the prints which betray their author only by their ftyle are caricatures on Pitt and his meafures. Such is the group given in our cut No. 234, which was publifhed on the ijjth of Auguft, 1797, at a time when there were loud complaints againfl the burthen of taxation. It is entitled " Billy's Raree-Show j or, John Bull Ew-lighten'd," and reprefents Pitt, in the character of a fhowman, exhibiting to John Bull, and picking his pocket while his attention is occupied with the fhow. Pitt, in a true fhowman's ftyle, fays to his vidim, " Now, pray lend your attention to the enchanting profpe6t before you, this is the profpe<a of peace only obferve what a bufy fcene prefents itfelf the ports are filled with fhipping, the quays loaded with merchandife, riches


in Literature and Art.


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are flowing in from every quarter this profpeft alone is worth all the money you have got about you." Accordingly, the fhowman abftra6ts the fame money from his pocket, while John Bull, unconfcious of the theft, exclaims with furprife, " Mayhap it may, matter fhowman, but I canna zee ony thing like what you mentions, I zees nothing but a



No. 234. The Raree-Shmu,

woide plain, withfome mountains and molehills upon't as fure as a gun, it muft be all behoind one of thofe!" The flag of the mow is infcribed, " Licenfed by authority, Billy Hum's grand exhibition of moving mechanifm; or, deception of the fenfes."

In a caricature with the initials of I. C., and publifhed on the 2Oth of June, 1797, Fox is reprefented as "The Watchman of the State," ironically, of courfe, for he is betraying the truft which he had oftenta tioufly affumed, and abfenting himfelf at the moment when his agents are putting the match to the train they have laid to blow up the conftitu-

3 R tion


490 Hijlory of Caricature and Grotefque


tion. Yet Cruikftiank's caricatures on the Irilh union were rather oppofed to minifters. One of thefe, publilhed on the 2oth of June, 1800, is full of humour. It is entitled "A Flight acrofs the Herring Pond." Eng- land and Ireland are feparated by a rough fea, over which a crowd of Irift " patriots " are flying, allured by the profpecl of honours and rewards. On the Irifh fhore, a few wretched natives, with a baby and a dog, are in an attitude of prayer, expoftulating with the fugitives, " Och, och ! do not leave us confider your old houfe, it will look like a big wallnut-mell without a kernel." On the Englifh fhore, Pitt is holding open the " Imperial Pouch," and welcoming them, " Come on, my little fellows, there's plenty of room for you all the budget is not half full." Infide



No. 235. Flight acrojs the Herring Pond.

the " pouch " appears a hoft of men covered with honours and dignities, one of whom fays to the foremoft of the Irifh candidates for favour, "Very fnug and convenient, brother, I affure you." Behind Pitt, Dundas, feated on a pile of public offices united in his perfon, calls out to the immigrants, "If you've ony confciences at a', here's enugh to fatisfy ye a'." A portion of this clever caricature is reprefented in our cut No. 235.

There


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There is a rare caricature on the fubje<3: of the Irilh union, which exhibits a little of the ftyle of Ifaac Cruikfhank, and a copy of which is in the pofieffion of Mr. Fairholt. From this I have taken merely the group which forms our cut No. 236. It is a long print, dated on the i ft of January, 1800, and is entitled "The Triumphal entry of the Union



No. 436. A Cafe of AbduRion.

into London." Pitt, with a paper entitled " Irifti Freedom " in his pocket, is carrying off the young lady (Ireland) by force, with her natural accompaniment, a keg of whhky. The lord chancellor of Ireland (lord Clare) fits on the horfe and performs the part of fiddler. In advance of this group are a long rabble of radicals, Irimmen, &c., while clofe behind comes Grattan, carried in a fedan-chair, and earneftly appealing to the lady, " lerne, lerne ! . my fweet maid, liften not to him he's a falfe, flattering, gay deceiver." Still farther in the rear follows St. Patrick, riding on a bull, with a fack of potatoes for his faddle, and playing on the Irifti harp. An Irifliman expoftulates in the following words " Ah, long life to your holy reverence's memory, why will you lave your own nate little kingdom, and go to another where they will tink no more of you then they would of an old biogue ? Shure, of all the faints in the red letter calendar, we give you the preference ! och hone ! och hone !"

Another


492 Hiflory of Caricature and Grotefque

Another Irilhman pulls the bull by the tail, with the lament, " Ah, mafther, honey, why will you be after leaving us ? What will become of poor Shelagh and all of us, when you are gone >" It is a regular Irifh cafe of abduclion.

The laft example I (hall give of the caricatures of Ifaac Cruikfhank is the copy of one entitled "The Farthing Rufhlight," which, I need hardly



No. 237. The Farthing Rujhlight.

fay, is a parody on the fubjed of a well-known fong. The rufhlight is the poor old king, George, whom the prince of Wales and his Whig aflbciates, Fox, Sheridan, and others, are labouring in vain to blow out. The lateft caricature I poffefs, bearing the initials of Ifaac Cruikfhank, was publifhed by Fores, on the 19111 of April, 1810, and is entitled, " The Laft Grand Minifterial Expedition (on the Street, Piccadilly)." The fubjea is the riot on the arreft of fir Francis Burdett, and it mows that Cruikfhank was at this time caricaturing on the radical fide in politics.

Ifaac Cruikfhank left two fons who became diflinguifhed as caricaturifts, George, already mentioned, and Robert. George Cruikfhank, who is ftill amongft us, has raifed caricature in art to perhaps the higheft degree of excellence it has yet reached. He began as a political caricaturift, in imitation of his father Ifaac in fad the two brothers are underftood to

have


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have worked jointly with their father before they engraved on their own account. 1 have in my own pofleflion two of his earlieft works of this clais, publiihed by Fores, of Piccadilly, and dated refpedively the 3rd and the I9th of March, 1815. George was then under twenty-one years of age. The firft of thefe prints is a caricature on the reftri&ions laid upon the trade in corn, and is entitled " The Bleffings of Peace, or, the Curfe ot the Corn Bill." A foreign boat has arrived, laden with corn at a low price one of the foreign traders holds out a fample and fays, " Here is de beft for 505." A group of bloated ariftocrats and landholders ftand on the Ihore, with a clofed ftorehoufe, filled with corn behind them ; the foremoft, warning the boat away with his hand, replies to the merchant, " We won't have it at any price we are determined to keep up our own to 80*., and if the poor can't buy at that price, why they muft ftarve. We love money too well to lower our rents again ; the income tax is taken off." One of his companions exclaims, "No, no, we won't have it at all." A third adds, " Ay, ay, let 'em ftarve, and be d to 'em." Upon this another of the foreign merchants cries, " By gar, if they will not have it at all, we muft throw it overboard !" and a failor is carrying this alternative into execution by emptying a fack into the fea. Another group Hands near the clofed ftorehoufe it confifts of a poor Englifhman, his wife with an infant in the arms, and two ragged children, a boy and a girl. The father is made to fay, " No, no, mailers, I'll not ftarve ; but quit my native country, where the poor are cruihed by thofe they labour to fupport, and retire to one more hofpitable, and where the arts of the rich do not interpofe to defeat the providence of God." The corn bill was parted in the fpring of 1815, and was the caufe of much popular agitation and rioting. The fecond of thefe caricatures, on the fame fubjeft, is entitled, " The Scale of Juftice reverfed," and reprefents the rich exulting over the difappearance of the tax on property, while the poor are cruihed under the weight of taxes which bore only upon them. Thefe two caricatures prefent unmiftakable traces of the peculiarities of ftyle of George Cruikfhank, but not as yet fully developed.

George Cruikfhank rofe into great celebrity and popularity as a political caricaturift by his illuftrations to the pamphlets of William Houe,

fuch


494 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque.

fuch as " The Political Houfe that Jack built," " The Political Showman at Home," and others upon the trial of queen Caroline ; but this fort of work fuited the tafte of the public at that time, and not that of the artift, which lay in another diretion. The ambition of George Cruikfhank was to draw what Hogarth called moral comedies, pictures of fociety carried through a feries of acts and fcenes, always pointed with fome great moral ; and it muft be confefled that he has, through a long career, fucceeded admirably. He poflefles more of the true fpirit of Hogarth than any other artift fince Hogarth's time, with greater Ikill in drawing. He poflefles, even to a greater degree than Hogarth himfelf, that admirable talent of filling a picture with an immenfe number of figures, every one telling a part of the ftory, without which, however minute, the whole picture would feem to us incomplete. The picture of the " Camp at Vinegar Hill," and one or two other illuftrations to Maxwell's " Hiftory of the Irifh Rebellion in 1798," are equal, if not fuperior, to anything ever produced by Hogarth or by Callot.

The name of George Cruikfliank forms a worthy conclufion to the " Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque." He is the laft reprefentative of the great fchool of caricaturifts formed during the reign of George III. Though there can hardly be faid to be a fchool at the prefent day, yet our modern artifts in this field have been all formed more or lefs under his influence ; and it muft not be forgotten that we owe to that influence, and to his example, to a great degree, the cleanfing of this branch of art from the objectionable character! ftics of which I have on more than one occafion been obliged to fpeak. May he ftill live long among the friends who not only admire him for his talents, but love him for his kindly and genial fpirit ; and none among them love and admire him more fincerely than the author of the prefent volume.


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