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Although the term Europeanism is occasionally used to describe support for European integration (and thus anti-Europeanism is, by extension, sometimes used to describe hostility to integration), it is more commonly used in relation to the idea that Europeans have common norms and values that transcend national or state identity, that have been promoted most actively (if not always necessarily consciously) by the building of the European Union, and that can help us understand the way Europeans approach politics, economics and society, and that give Europeans in general a distinctive identity. Opponents to the idea stress, however, that various factors don't necessarily follow the premise as well as the fact that there are various differences among European nations, states and regions.

Recent arguments

A new assessment of Europeanism was sparked by the events leading up to the March 2003 invasion of Iraq. Widespread public opposition in every major European country (even those such as Britain, Italy, and Spain, whose governments supported the invasion) prompted the February 15, 2003 anti-war protests in London, Berlin, Paris, Rome, Madrid and other cities. The philosophers Jürgen Habermas and Jacques Derrida were inspired to write an article for the newspaper Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung in which they claimed the birth of a ‘European public sphere’. They argued that new values and habits had given contemporary Europe ‘its own face’, and saw an opportunity for the construction of a ‘core Europe’ (excluding Britain and Eastern Europe) that might be a counterweight to the United States. Attempting to explain what Europe represented, they listed six facets of what they described as a common European ‘political mentality’:

Expanding the idea

A new study by political scientist John McCormick expands on these ideas, and identifies the following as core attributes of Europeanism:

  • The decline of identification with the state, the rediscovery of national identities (while repudiating state-based nationalism), and a rethinking of the meaning of citizenship and patriotism. In regard to the latter, pride in country is being replaced with pride in ideas, otherwise known as constitutional patriotism. Identification with nations or states is being increasingly joined with identification with Europe.
  • Cosmopolitanism, or an association with universal ideas, and a belief that that all Europeans, and possibly even all humans, belong to a single moral community that transcends state boundaries or national identities. The local and the global cannot be separated or divorced.
  • Communitarianism, which - in contrast to the liberal emphasis on individual rights - supports a balance between individual and community interests, emphasizing the responsibilities of government to all those who live under its jurisdiction. Europeanism argues that society may sometimes be a better judge of what is good for individuals rather than vice versa.
  • The collective society. Europeanism emphasizes the view that societal divisions will occur in spite of attempts to ensure equal opportunity, and accepts the role of the state as an economic manager and as a guarantor of societal welfare.
  • Welfarism, or a reference to Europeanist ideas that while individual endeavour is to be welcomed, applauded and rewarded, the community has a responsibility for working to ensure that the playing field is as level as possible, and that opportunity and wealth are equitably distributed. Europeanism emphasizes equality of results over equality of opportunity.
  • Sustainable development, or the belief that development should be sustainable, meeting the needs of the present without compromising the needs of future generations.
  • Redefining the family. The place of the European family is changing, with fewer Europeans opting to marry, their ages at marriage rising, their divorce rates growing, their fertility rates declining, more children are being born outside marriage, and single-parent households becoming more usual.
  • Working to live. Post-material Europeans are working fewer hours, are doing more with those hours, and have developed family-friendly laws and policies.
  • Criminal rights. In matters of criminal justice, Europeanism means a greater emphasis on individual rights, and a preference for resolving disputes through negotiation rather than confrontation through the law.
  • Multiculturalism, in which Europe has a long and often overlooked tradition arising from the diversity of European societies, and a Europeanist habit of integrating core values and features from new groups with which its dominant cultures have come into contact. This has been challenged of late by the increased racial and religious diversity of Europe.
  • Secularism is probably the one quality most clearly associated with Europe: while religion continues to grow in most of the rest of the world, in Europe its role is declining, and it plays an increasingly marginal role in politics and public life, while heavily influencing Europeanist attitudes towards science and towards public policies in which religious belief plays a role.
  • Perpetual peace. Where once Europe was a region of near constant war, conflict and political violence, it is today a region of generalized peace, and one which has made much progress along the path to achieving the Kantian condition of perpetual peace. Inter-state war in the region is all but unthinkable.
  • Multilateralism. Europeanism has eschewed national self-interest in favour of cooperation and consensus, of the promotion of values rather than interests, of reliance on international rules and agreements, and of building coalitions and working through international organizations to resolve problems.

Unless indicated otherwise, the text in this article is either based on Wikipedia article "Europeanism" or another language Wikipedia page thereof used under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License; or on research by Jahsonic and friends. See Art and Popular Culture's copyright notice.

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