From The Art and Popular Culture Encyclopedia
A planned community, or planned city, is any community that was carefully planned from its inception and is typically constructed in a previously undeveloped area. An example of a planned community is Marktown, Clayton Mark's planned worker community in Northwest Indiana.
New settlements were planned in Europe at least since Greek antiquity (see article Urban planning). The Greeks build new colonial cities around the Mediterranean. The ancient Romans also founded many new colonial towns through their empire. There are, however, also traces of planned settlements of non-Roman origin in pre-historic northern Europe. Most planned settlements of ancient Europe were created in the period of about the 12th to 14th centuries. All kinds of landlords, from the highest to the lowest rank, tried to found new villages and towns on their estates, in order to gain economical, political or military power. The settlers generally were attracted by fiscal, economical and juridical advantages granted by the founding lord, or were forced to move from elsewhere from his estates. Most of the new towns were to remain rather small (as for instance the bastides of southwestern France, but some of them became important cities, such as Cardiff, Leeds, ‘s-Hertogenbosch, Montauban, Bilbao, Malmö, Lübeck, Munich, Berlin, Bern, Klagenfurt, Alessandria, Warsaw and Sarajevo.