Handbook of London as it Is  

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"The whole of the railings of Hyde Park were torn down by a lawless mob, led on by the Reform League, on July 23, 1866, under pretence of holding a reform meeting in the Park. Mob law prevailed. The police stationed inside were brutally beaten with stones and brick- bats, and more than 40 were injured for life. The Conservative Government were cowed. Yet a previous Whig Government through Sir George Grey had forbad a reform meeting to be held on this very ground ; they stopped Garibaldi meetings there. On the 10th April, 1848, Lord Russell's Government closed the gates, and kept them with guards of cavalry."-- Handbook of London as it Is (1873) by John Murray

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Handbook of London as it Is () is a book by John Murray.

Full text of the 1873 edition

IN no part of the Old World do changes occur so rapidly as in London. An improvement mooted one year is carried into execution the next. The Editor of a Guide-book needs consequently to be ever on the watch, if he desires to place his readers au courant with the actual state of things. Endeavours have been made in every new Edition of the present work to effect this object, and its success in securing the public favour is no doubt due to this cause. Care has been taken to insert the lines of Metropolitan and Underground Railways, which furnish such facilities for transport to all corners of London, and a plan of them forms the frontispiece to this edition . A full historical description of London, and of 6* NOTICE. houses and streets no longer existing, will be found in "The Handbook for London, Past and Present," of which a New Edition is being prepared.

Any corrections of errors or omissions will be thankfully received by the Publisher, 50, Albemarle Street. CONTENTS. 1. INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION • II. PALACES OF THE SOVEREIGN AND ROYAL FAMILY III. HOUSES OF THE PRINCIPAL NOBILITY AND GENTRY IV. PARKS AND PUBLIC GARDENS v. HOUSES OF PARLIAMENT • VI. THE THAMES, ITS QUAYS, EMBANKMENT, ANd Bridges; TUNNEL, POOL, AND PORT OF LONDON VII. GOVERNMENT OFFICES VIII. COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS, BANKS, ROYAL EXCHANGE, DOCKS, &c. • . IX. MARKETS, ISLINGTON, SMITHfield, BillingSGATE, &C. x. BREWERIES XI. WATER COMPANIES FAGE · 9* • 1 9 . 25 • 35. • 1115 41 4782728 60 7677 7980 .. 94 . 132 136 140 146 XII. MAIN DRAINAGE-SEWERAGE XIII. TOWER OF LONDON XIV. CHURCHES-WESTMINSTER ABBEY- ST. PAUL'S-ST. BAR- THOLOMEW'S-ST. SAVIOUR'S-TEMPLE CHURCH -ST. HELEN'S, &e. • XV. CEMETERIES, KENSAL GREEN, HIGHGATE, &c. XVI. COURTS OF LAW AND JUSTICE XVII. INNS OF COURT AND INNS OF CHANCERY XVIII. PRISONS AND PENITENTIARIES XIX. PERMANENT FREE EXHIBITIONS BRITISH MUSEUMNATIONAL GALLERY- SOUTH KENSINGTON MUSEUM- MUSEUM OF COLLEGE OF SURGEONS-SOANE MUSEUMUNITED SERVICE MUSEUM-MUSEUM OF PRACTICAL GEOLOGY, &c. • 149 XX. THEATRES AND PLACES OF PUBLIC AMUSEMENT XXI. LEARNED INSTITUTIONS-SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES XXII. COLLEGES AND SCHOOLS · 187 192 • • 203 XXIII. HOSPITALS AND CHARITABLE INSTITUTIONS-GREENWICH HOSPITAL, &c.. XXIV. CLUB HOUSES XXV. THE CITY AND THE CITIZENS 214 · 227 234 XXVI. EMINENT PERSONS BORN IN LONDON 250 XXVII. EMINENT PERSONS BURIED IN LONDON AND VICINITY XXVIII. HOUSES IN WHICH EMINENT PERSONS HAVE LIVED 252 256 XXIX. STREETS, &C. , IN WHICH EMINENT PERSONS HAVE LIVED 200 8* CONTENTS. 288 • • 289 Fleet-street Cheapside and Poultry Drury- lane Chancery- lane . 281 High-street, Southwark 295 282 The Thames 284 Belgrave- sq.; Grosvenor- sq. 301 285 Berkeley- sq.; Portman- sq. 302 286 St. James's- sq.; Hanover-sq. 303 Cavendish-sq.; Leicester-sq. 304 Soho-square . Bloomsbury-square . Oxford-st. , New- rd., City-rd. 287 Bow-street, Covent Garden . 288 Great Queen- st. , Lincoln's- Inn-Fields Charing Cross to Westmin- ster Abbey XXXIII. ENVIRONS OF LONDON • • 265 Pall-Mall Piccadilly · • 268 Park-lane . • . 267 290 270 Newgate- street 291 St. James's-street Regent-st. and Waterloo-pl. 276 Fish-st.- Hill, Gracechurch- st. . 274 Aldersgate- street 292 Holborn Strand . 278 . 280 and Bishopsgate- street . 293 Upper and Lower Thames-st. 294 . 296 Cornhill XXX. PLACES AND SITES CONNECTED WITH REMARKABLE EVENTS . XXXI. OUT-DOOR MONUMENTS AND PUBLIC STATUES XXXII. PRINCIPAL THOROUGHFARES, SQUARES, LANES, &c. PAGE 261 . 305 • 305 Covent-Garden Market 306 Lincoln's- Inn-Fields • 306 Trafalgar- square • 307 . 308 Windsor Castle and Forest . 308 Chiswick 310 Virginia Water 308 Dulwich College and Picture Eton College . 308 Gallery 310 Hampton Court . 308 Greenwich Park and HosCrystal Palace, Sydenham 309 pital 311 Hampstead and Highgate Wimbledon Common Harrow-on-the-Hill . St. Albans INDEX • 309 Woolwich Arsenal . 312 309 Kew Botanical Gardens · 313 309 Richmond and Twickenham . 314 309 317 List of Plans and Maps. Metropolitan Railways. Frontispiece. Westminster Abbey . St. Paul's Cathedral • • 99 . 115 Hyde Park • 27 British Museum . 151 St. James's and Green Parks 30 Regent's Park The Houses of Parliament 19 99 33 " 35 Bank ofEngland, and Offices for Dividends, &c. 60 Tower of London · Reading Room 162 First Floor National Gallery . .164 South Kensington Museum . 173 Royal Horticultural Gardens 203 83 Clue-Map of London at the End. 168 I-INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION. 1. Situation andFogs 2. Population and Traffic. 3. Consumption Food, Piers from West- minster to Lon- don Bridges. of 15. The Thames-from Coal, Clothes, &c. &c. 4. Political and Mu- nicipal Divisions. 5. Social Divisions- the West End. 6. The City. 7. Great Thorough- fares running East and West. 8. Ditto running North and South. 9. Railway Stations. 10. Howto see London quickly. 11. Howto see London leisurely. 12. Its great Architec- tural Centres. 13. The Parks. 14. The Thames- its Quays (Embank26. Objects of Interest to the Painter and Connoisseur. 27. To the Sculptor. To the Architect and Engineer. London Bridge to Gravesend. 28. 16. The Thames from Hampton Court to West- minster Bridge. 29. 30. 17. General Hints to Strangers. Season. The 18. Electric Tele- graph, Commis- sionaires, Cabs. 19. Omnibuses, Tram- 20. Letters. [ways. 21. HOTELS - INNS Lodgings. 22. Where to Lunch, Dine, or Sup. 23. Theatres and Ope- ras. 24. Miscellaneous Exhibitions. ment), Steamers, 25. Music. To the Antiquary. Places and Sights which a Stranger must see. 31. Rides near London for Equestrians. 32. Hints to reigners. 33. Newspapers. 34. Sunday FoServices and Popular Preachers. 35. Studios ofthe Prin- cipal Artists. 36. Metropolitan Im- provements. 37. Metropolitan and Underground Railways. LONDON, the Metropolis of Great Britain and Ireland, which a Cobbett called "the great Wen," and Carlyle "the tuberosity of modern civilization, " and another writer " province covered with houses," is situated upon the River Thames, about 50 miles from its mouth ; the N. and larger portion lying in the counties of Middlesex and Essex, the S. in Surrey and Kent. The Metropolis includes the cities and liberties of London and Westminster, the borough of Southwark, and 36 adjacent parishes, precincts, townships, and places, including among others the extreme points of Hampstead, Islington, Stoke Newington, and Hackney to the north; Stratford- le- Bow, Limehouse, Deptford, Greenwich, Woolwich, Charlton, and Plumstead to the east ; Camberwell and Streatham to the south ; and Kensington, Fulham, Hammersmith, and Putney to the west. The site is generally healthy, the subsoil being, for the most part, gravel. 10* [The Stranger §§ 2. POPULATION


. The Fogs which occur in winter, especially in November, are due, mainly perhaps, to the large expanse of water in the Thames being, often at that season, warmer than the air, and giving forth vapour until the air is densely charged. If the atmosphere be still, on such occasions, the smoke from so many thousand chimneys, consuming 5,000,000 tons of coal, is absorbed by the suspended vapour, and at times becomes so thick a cloud as to involve London in darkness even at midday. A moderate wind rising speedily disperses the fog, which has no dangerous unwholesome qualities, however disagreeable it may be. The smoke has been traced, at times, as far as Slough ; it was often so dense there that the elder Herschel was unable to take solar observations. § 2. The population of London, that is to say of the 36 parishes included in the census of 1871, was 3,251,804 ; i.e. , greater than that of all Scotland, and more than 2-3rds that of Ireland. It increases at a rate of about 42,000 per annum. London covers an area of 78,000 acres, equal to 122 square miles-more than half the area of ancient Babylon, occupying both sides of the Thames from Woolwich to Hammersmith, and across the river from Hampstead to Norwood. § 3. The annual rental of the Metropolis is about £18,700,000. The Metropolis is supposed to consume in one year 1,600,000 quarters of wheat, 300,000 bullocks, 1,700,000 sheep, 28,000 calves, and 35,000 pigs. One market alone (Leadenhall) supplies about 4,025,000 head of game. This, together with 3,000,000 of salmon, irrespective of other fish and flesh, is washed down by 43,200,000 gallons of porter and ale, 2,000,000 gallons of spirits, and 65,000 pipes of wine. To fill its milk and cream jugs, 13,000 cows are kept. To light it at night, 360,000 gas-lights fringe the streets, consuming, every 24 hours, 13,000,000 cubic feet of gas ; while the private consumption of gas in a year amounts to 10,000,000,000 cub. feet. Its arterial or water system supplies the enormous quantity of 44,383,328 gallons per day, while its venous or sewer system carries off 9,502,720 cubic feet of refuse. To warm its people and to supply its factories, a fleet, amounting to upwards of a thousand sail, is employed in bringing annually 3,000,000 tons of coal, * exclusive of 2,000,000 tons brought by rail. The thirsty souls of London need have no fear of becoming

  • See COAL EXCHANGE ( page 70),

n London.] § 3. TRADES AND PROFESSIONS. thirstier as long as there are upwards of 6700 public- houses and 2000 wine merchants to minister to their deathless thirst. The bread to this enormous quantity of sack is represented by 2500 bakers, 1700 butchers, not including pork butchers, 2600 tea-dealers and grocers, 1260 coffee- room keepers, nearly 1500 dairy-men, and 1350 tobacconists. To look after the digestion of this enormous amount of food upwards of 2400 duly licensed practitioners, surgeons and physicians, are daily running to and fro through this mighty metropolis, whose patients, in due course of time and physic, are handed over to the tender mercies of 500 undertakers. Nearly 3000 boot and shoe-makers give their aid to keep our feet dry and warm, while 2950 tailors do as much for the rest of our bodies. The wants of the fairer portion of the population are supplied by 1080 linendrapers, 1560 milliners and dressmakers ; 1540 private schools take charge of our children ; and, let us add, that 290 pawnbrokers' shops find employment and profit out of the reverses, follies, and vices of the community. It is said that 700,000 cats are kept in London, to maintain whom large part of the 3000 horses who die every week is sold by cat's- meat vendors. About 400,000 houses give shelter to upwards of three millions of people, whose little differences are aggravated or settled by upwards of 3000 attorneys and 3900 barristers. The spiritual wants of this mighty aggregate ofhuman souls are cared for by more than 2000 clergymen and dissenting ministers, who respectively preside over 620 churches and 423 chapels, of which latter buildings the Independents have 121, the Baptists 100, the Wesleyans 77, the Roman Catholics about 90, whereas in 1808 they had but 13, the Calvinists and English Presbyterians 10 each, the Quakers 7, and the Jews 10 ; the numerous other sects being content with numbers varying from one to five each. To wind up with the darkest part of the picture, the metropolis contains on an average 129,000 paupers. § 4. The first and most natural action ofa stranger, upon his first visit to London, is to consult a Map-just as he scans narrowly the face of a new acquaintance. Let the reader, therefore, open the Clue Map at the end of this volume, which will enable him to follow out main divisions and characteristic features. 12* § 5. WEST END. [The Stranger The City of London proper is that space which anciently lay within the walls and - liberties, having for its base the N. bank of the Thames, its W. line extending to Middle Temple-lane, where, crossing Fleet- street at Temple Bar (the only City barrier remaining) , and Holborn at Southampton-buildings, it afterwards skirts Smithfield, Barbican, and Finsbury- circus on the N., crossing the end of Bishopsgate-street Without ; and then, pursuing its way southward down Petticoat-lane, across the end of Aldgate-street, and along the Minories, it finally reaches the Thames at the Tower. This portion of London sends four members to Parliament, possesses a corporation, -the oldest, richest, and most powerful municipal body in the world, —and is divided into 108 parishes, of which 11 are called " Without," and 97 " Within," the walls. The population of the City has diminished from 111,608 in 1631 to 74,897 in 1871, owing to so many houses being converted from dwellings into offices, shops, &c. , occupied only in the day-time, by mer- chants, tradesmen, clerks, &c. , who live at the West End or in the suburbs. The number of its inhabited houses is 14,580 their annual rental is £2,109,935 . Since 1830 the greater part of the city has been rebuilt, and in all cases very superior houses have been substituted for inferior. 2000 houses are left at night tenantless in the charge of the police alone-608 men in all . The City of Westminster (now swallowed up in London) possesses no municipality, and though far more populous than "the City," containing 26,400 inhabited houses, and 253,985 inhabitants, sends only two members to Parliament. Its E. line coincides with the W. line of the City of London. From its Tottenham- court end to its suburban limit at Kensington Gardens, it is bounded to the N. by Oxford-street ; and on its far W. side, crossing the centre of the Serpentine in Hyde Park, it reaches the Thames at Chelsea Hospital. The Metropolitan Boroughs, viz. , Marylebone, Finsbury, Tower Hamlets, Hackney, and Chelsea, N. of the Thames, and Southwark and Lambeth, S. of it, return each two members to the House of Commons. Pop. 2,947,169 . § 5. The social and fashionable divisions of London differ materially from the municipal and parliamentary divisions. in London. ] § 5. TYBURNIA. - BELGRAVIA. 13* Thus, the social centre of Modern London is Temple Bar ; the commercial centre the Bank of England ; and the cab centre, Charing Cross. That part of London which radiates from Hyde Park Corner includes the mansions of many of the nobility, the leading Club-houses, many well-inhabited streets, the most fashionable square in London (Grosvenorsquare), and three districts, commonly known by the newcoined names of Tyburnia, Belgravia, and May Fair, or the district lying between Oxford Street and Piccadilly, on the N. and S. respectively, and bounded W. by Park Lane and E. by Clarges Street. "" Tyburnia, or the northern wing, is that vast city, in point of size, which the increasing wealth and population of London have caused to be erected, between 1839 and 1850 , on the green fields and nursery gardens once the See of London's estate at Paddington. Built at one time, and nearly on one principle, it assumes in consequence a regularity ofappearance contrasting strangely with the older portions of Modern London. Fine squares, connected by spacious streets, and houses of great altitude, give a certain air of nobility to the district. The sameness, however, caused by endless repetitions of " compo decorations, distresses the eye, and puzzles the resident in London nearly as much as it does the stranger. Tyburnia is principally inhabited by professional men, the great City merchants, including many representatives of Greek houses, a very wealthy community, and by those who are undergoing the transitional state between commerce and fashion. Its boundaries may be said to be the Edgeware-road on the E., Bayswater on the W., Maidahill on the N., and Hyde Park and Kensington Gardens on the S. Magnificent terraces, squares, and streets now entirely surround Hyde Park and Kensington Gardens, and London has spread without interruption to Kensington, Notting Hill, and Paddington. Belgravia, or the southern wing of the West End, a creation ofabouttwenty-five years, 1826-52, is built on land belonging to the Marquis of Westminster, bounded by Grosvenorplace on the E., Sloane-street on the W., Knightsbridge on the N., and by the Thames on the S. E. This space includes Belgrave and Eaton-squares, whose houses, palatial in character and size, denote the high social position of 14* §5. SOUTH KENSINGTON. -BELGRAVIA. [The Stranger their occupants. Regularity and largeness of proportion are the leading characteristics of this fashionable neighbourhood. Since 1852 it has extended to Chelsea and Pimlico New Bridge, and includes the vast Victoria Railway Station. Contiguous to Belgravia lie Brompton and Chelsea. Brompton, lying low, and the air being moist and warm, is the resort of consumptive persons. Attached to Brompton has risen, since 1854, a new quarter, South Kensington, composed of some splendid rows and streets, and including the South Kensington Museum, and the Horticultural Gardens. The once rural Chelsea is crowded with poor. Close to Belgravia on its S.E. side lies Westminster proper, like the beggar at the rich man's gate. Private liberality has attempted to cure the plague spot by the erection of four or five churches, and the formation of a spacious street (Victoria- street) through the very centre of Tothill- fields. Part of Westminster lies beneath the level of the Thames at high water. To the N.E. of Tyburnia lies the Regent's Park district, extending from the north side of Oxford- street to Camden Town and Somers Town, and including Marylebone proper (with its 375,000 inhabitants) , and the still well-inhabited Portman, Manchester, and Cavendish- squares. Here, with a few solitary exceptions, dwells Middle- Class London. Still further E. we come to the Bloomsbury and Bedfordsquare district, with its well-built houses and squares erected between 1790 and 1810, and, till the great removal towards the west in 1828, a much better frequented neigh- bourhood than it is at present. This portion ofthe Metropolis is chiefly occupied by lawyers and merchants ; its noble mansions no longer holding, as formerly (between 1796 and 1825), the rank and fashion of the Town. Somewhat E. (and in the same Bloomsbury and Bedford- square district) we recognise the architecture of the era of Anne, in the capacious dwellings of Great Ormond- street and Queen-square, now given up for the most part to lodging-house keepers ; and, still stepping eastward, are traces of the continuation from Great Queen- street, Lincoln's- Inn-fields, of that west- ward march which fashion has taken within the last 150 years. S. of Oxford- street is the Covent Garden and Strand in London.] § 6. THE CITY.—BUILDINGS. -WREN'S PLAN. 15 * district; with the exception of streets running at right angles from it to the Thames, principally occupied by shops and lodging-houses : and west of it is the very low Leicester- square neighbourhood, chiefly inhabited by foreigners. § 6. The City of London as originally built, in the style that prevailed between 1666 and 1800, is of dingy brick, ex- cept where stately avenues like King William-street, Cannonstreet, Mansion House- street, and others, have been pierced through the labyrinth of narrow lanes. The streets for the most part are confined and inconvenient, as is observable in all originally walled cities where space was precious . Nevertheless, an immense change has taken place in the buildings of the City since the discovery of gold in California and Australia. The general demand for better accommodation, and especially for new Banks, Assurance and other Offices and warehouses, the proprietors of which deem a splendid exterior the best mode of advertising themselves, has caused small and low houses to be demolished, and in all cases to be replaced by vast and lofty structures, all with pretensions, and many with some claims to architectural beauty and grandeur. The result has been that the city, not only in its great thoroughfares, but also in its minor streets and lanes, has magnificent edifices to show, and has become, in truth, a city of palaces. There is also much picturesqueness in the interiors of many of the palaces of the old merchant princes, now converted into counting- houses and chambers. Wren, under whose direction the City was rebuilt after the Great Fire in 1666, prepared a consummately skilful plan, which is published in his works, in which the principal thoroughfares radiate from St. Paul's, with a width of not less than 70 feet. But economy carried the day against his magnificent design, and the City arose as we have described it. To the antiquary it presents few features of interest ; for the architect the churches built by Wren and his pupils, and many modern public and private buildings, deserve attention. "The.City" is, par excellence, the head-quarters of the trade and commerce of the country. Here everything is brought to a focus, and every interest has its representative. In Lincoln's Inn and the Temple the lawyers find the quiet and retirement congenial to their pursuits. In the great 16* [The Stranger § 6. THE CITY. thoroughfares, retail trade is triumphant. Inthe narrow, dim lanes, which scarce afford room for carriages to pass each other, the wholesale Manchester warehouses are congregated. In Thames-street and its immediate vicinity, commerce is represented by its Custom House, its Corn Exchange, its Coal Exchange, and its great wharves. The fish and foreign fruit trades dwell in the thronged thoroughfare of Thames-street. In Lombard-street the money power is enthroned. It is chiefly occupied by Bankers. In Houndsditch the Jews most do congregate. In Paternoster-row and its neighbourhood, booksellers are located. St. Paul's furnishes the religious element of this strange compound of interests. The Exchange and the Bank, placed side by side, might be likened to the two ventricles of the great City heart ; and grouped around, from first floor to garret in almost every house, are the offices ofthe Brokers who act as the agents for the circulation of the world's wealth. Yet this spot, teeming by day with its hundreds of thousands, its streets gorged by carriages, cabs, and carts, presents at night, and still more on a Sunday, the spectacle of a deserted city. The banks closed, and the post gone, -the railway carriage, the omnibus, and the steam- boat carry the clerks to the outskirts, and the merchants and principals to their villas and mansions at Clap- ham, Hackney, or the West End. The actual resident population of the City is diminishing, and many of its 58 churches-each parish having been provided, by the piety of our ancestors, with its own church—are nearly empty on Sundays. The judicious efforts of the Church Commission to remove them to other sites, are thwarted by the petty interests of local vestries. Still the value of land for offices and warehouses is immensely increased , and it appeared, from legal valuations in 1866, that the ground near St. Paul's and the Royal Exchange has been sold at a rate not far below 1,000,000l. an acre. Sums varying from 207. to 371. the square foot are commonly given. That space without the limits of the City proper which includes the N. bank of the river Thames as far as Blackwall, is occupied by docks, wharves, manufactories, and warehouses, and inhabited by slop-sellers, crimps, and sailors. In this disFrict are Shadwell, Ratcliff, Limehouse, and Poplar. Every- thing here has reference to maritime affairs. N. ofthis district in London.] § 7. MAIN THOROUGHFARES. 17* lies Spitalfields andBethnal Green, in traversing whichthe Great Eastern Railway reveals tothetraveller the crowded dwellings of the silk-weavers, readily distinguishable by the broad garret windows, through which their hand-looms may be seen at work. The once rural Islington, to the N., is mostly inhabited by the middle classes, and those immediately beneath them in the social scale. It lies high, and is considered one of the healthiest portions of the metropolis. The densely peopled district of Clerkenwell (west of Islington and north-east of Lincoln's-Inn-fields) is occupied by some of the best-paid and best-informed artisans in London. If we cross to the Surrey side of the Thames, we come to the boroughs of Southwark and Lambeth, the former, including Bermondsey, the great seat of the tanning trade ; the latter principally occupied by manufactories. Rotherhithe and Commercial Dock are the head- quarters of sailors, and are but meanly built and inhabited-indeed the whole of the right bank of the Thames at London is much inferior in wealth and importance to that portion lying on the left or Middlesex shore. § 7. To enable the visitor to find his way from point to point, his best plan will be to study the Clue Map at the end of this volume, and fix in his mind the direction of the great thoroughfares. These generally run from E. to W., and from N. to S. The great E. and W. lines of streets are those which lead from either side of Hyde Park to the Bank ; their general direction will be seen from the accompanying sketch. Oxford-st. Hyde Park , Holborn. Piccadilly. Long Acre. Gt. Queen st. Haymarket Pall Mall. Strand. Fleet-st. Newgate-st. Cheapside. Ludgate- hill. Bank . To the N. of these lines sweep the New and City Roads, which run like a boulevard almost completely round the N. and E. ofthe metropolis. On the S. side of the river, Stam- b Cornhill 18* § 8. MAIN THOROUGHFARES . [The Stranger ford-street and the York-road follow for a mile the curve of the river, and, together with the New Cut and its continuations, intersect the different roads leading from the bridges. § 8. In the West End, the main thoroughfares running N. and S. are the Edgeware-road, leading from the W. end of Oxford-street to St. John's-wood; Portland-place and Regentstreet, running from Regent's Park to Charing- cross ; Hampstead and Tottenham- court Roads, connecting Hampstead with Holborn. The City is brought into connection with its northern suburbs by Gray's Inn-lane, which runs from Holborn-hill to the New-road ; by Aldersgate- street and Goswell-street, which lead in a direct line from the Post Office to the Angel at Islington ; and by Gracechurchstreet, Bishopsgate-street, Norton-folgate, and Shoreditch, connecting Kingsland and Hoxton with London Bridge and Southwark. On the Southwark and Lambeth, or Surrey side of the Thames and the Metropolis, the roads converge from the six bridges to the well-known tavern, the Elephant and Castle, which is about equidistant from all of them (excepting Vauxhall Bridge) ; from the tavern they again diverge, the Kent-road leading to Greenwich, and the Kennington and Newington Roads leading to Brixton and Clapham, outskirts of London, studded with the villas and cottages of men " upon ' Change." The streets of the Metropolis, about 2800 in number, would, if put together, extend 3000 miles in length. The main thoroughfares are traversed by 1200 omnibuses, and 3500 cabs (besides private carriages and carts), employing 40,000 horses. In addition to these noisy and thronged thoroughfares, we have what has been called "the silent highway" ofthe Thames, running through the heart of the Metropolis, and traversed continually by steamboats which take up and set down pas- sengers at more than 20 different landing- places between Chelsea and Blackwall, Greenwich and Gravesend, and, when the tide serves, run as high as Hampton Court. From London Bridge, St. Katherine's wharf, and from Tower-stairs, the various Continental steamboats start. From London Bridge, the Margate and Ramsgate boats set off, making, in the season, excursions on the Sunday to those places and back the same day. n London.j §§ 9, 10. 19* RAILWAY TERMINI, ETC. § 9. RAILWAY STATIONS OR TERMINI in London. Many of these are buildings of great size and magnificence, and deserve to be visited as architectural and engineering wonders. Especially worthy of note are the Midland, Great Northern, and Great Western Termini. Great Western London and North Western Great Northern .......... Midland Great Eastern South Western South Eastern Paddington. ...Euston-square. King's- cross. St. Pancras. .Shoreditch. Waterloo-road. Crystal Palace, Croydon and Victoria Station, Pimlico. Epsom...... London and Brighton Cannon- street. Charing- cross. London-bridge, Ludgate Hill. Broad- street. London, Chatham, and Dover { Victoria Station, Pimlico. North London Metropolitan (underground)... Blackwall ......... Moorgate-street. Mansion-house. .Fenchurch- street. § 10. The stranger can comprehend, in the quickest wa the most remarkable features of the Metropolis, and in an economical manner, by taking the box-seat of an omnibus, and making friends with the driver. Let him take, for instance, a Kensington omnibus, and go as far eastward as the Bank. In this manner he will make himself acquainted with the characteristic features of Piccadilly with its noble mansions, and of the great thoroughfares of the Strand, Fleetstreet, and Cheapside. The return drive might be made by a Paddington omnibus, which will take him through Holborn, over the Viaduct, by New Oxford and Oxford Streets, as far as the Marble Arch at Cumberland Gate. A direct N. and S. section of the Metropolis might be viewed by taking a "Waterloo " omnibus, which starts from the York and Albany Tavern, Regent's Park, and pursues the line down Regent-street, past Charing- cross, and so along the Strand over Waterloo Bridge ; also by an " Atlas " omnibus, which traverses the same line as far as Charing-cross, and then turns down Whitehall, and goes along Parliament-street across Westminster Bridge to the Elephant and Castle. These b2 20 [The Stranger §§ 11 , 12. ARCHITECTURAL CENTRES. three routes, if followed up by an excursion on the Thames from Chelsea to Greenwich, would show at a rapid glance most of the architectural features of the Metropolis. § 11. For those who have ample time to examine the public buildings, we would recommend a walk from London Bridge W. to Trafalgar-square ; then an examination of Whitehall, Pall-mall, and Regent-street, forming the irregular cross which springs from Trafalgar-square. By this means the visitor will pass the six great centres of life and architecture which distinguish the Metropolis. Another walk-by which many interesting aspects and prospects of London may be obtained-is to " thread the Bridges and Quays ; " commencing with the Albert Quay, at Lambeth, crossing the noble Bridge of Westminster, from which the Parliament Houses are well seen, then along the Victoria Embankment, quickly passing beneath Hungerford, but pausing to admire Waterloo Bridge, to Blackfriars, whence you have the best view of St. Paul's, and after traversing Southwark Bridge, you find your way along the Surrey bank of the Thames to London Bridge. The fine walk along the Thames Embankment, from Westminster to Blackfriars, presents London in perhaps its most agreeable aspect. It ought to become a fashionable drive. § 12. The first of these great centres -London Bridge —is the one a Foreigner naturallysees first, and it is the spot above all others calculated to impress him most with the importance and ceaseless activity of London. The bridge itself-crowded with an ever-moving stream of people and vehicles, and lined at the same time with the heads of curious spectators, gazing upon the busy waters below-is a picture of the manner in which the two currents of business-men and sight-seers are continually shouldering each other. On the other hand, the scene below is equally instinct with life. Above bridge we see the stairs of the penny steamboats, landing and taking in West-End or Greenwich passengers, amid a perfect din of bell-ringing and cloud of steam-blowing. Below bridge we see the " Pool," looking, with its fleets of colliers moored in the stream, like the avenues of a forest in the leafless winter. The Custom-house, with its long columniated façade, and the Italian-looking fish- market at Billingsgate, also strike the eye. The foot of the bridge, on either hand, is flanked in London.] § 12. ARCHITECTURAL CENTRES. 21* with great buildings -the Fishmongers' Hall, belonging to one of the richest of the City companies. Passing up Fish- street-hill the Monument is seen, frombase to summit, erected to commemorate the Great Fire-still the most beautiful and picturesque of all the metropolitan columns. A little farther on, William IV.'s statue, worked in granite, stands guard at the entrance of King- William- street and Cannonstreet, leading thoroughfares opened since 1834 ; it occupies very nearly the site of the famous Boar's Head Tavern in Eastcheap. At the end of King- William- street we approach our second architectural centre-the Bank of England, a low, richly-adorned building- admirably adapted to the purposes of its foundation. The open space at this point is sur- rounded by several striking architectural elevations. The Royal Exchange, the Sun Fire-office, the Mansion-house, and the towers of the church of St. Mary Woolnoth, mark the sky-line in a most picturesque manner ; nor can the equestrian statue of the Duke of Wellington, in front of the Exchange, fail to attract attention. The narrow passage of the Poultry, by which Cheapside is reached, has no feature of interest. Passing King- street, however, the pseudoGothic front of Guildhall, standing full in the light at the end of King-street, strikes one as picturesque, notwith- standing the viciousness of its style ; while in Cheapside the stately steeple of Bow Church (Wren's finest steeple) never fails to arrest the attention of the stranger. Out of the comparative narrowness of Cheapside, the visitor will emerge (left) into St. Paul's- churchyard in presence of the Cathedral, and (right) upon the Post Office, our third great centre of life and architecture. The Cathedral is Wren's great masterpiece ; the Post Office was built by Sir R. Smirke. From St. Paul's, along Fleet-street and the Strand, we gradually see how the characteristic features of one city mingle with those of the other. In our way we pass under Temple Bar, and pass Somerset House (one of the headquarters of the Civil Service) on our left. The countinghouses of the "City" (it is easy to observe) have slowly disappeared, and the shops have a gayer and more miscellaneous aspect. At last Charing- cross is reached, aud we recognise at once our fourth architectural centre of the great West End, from which improvement has shot out on every side 22* § 12. ARCHITECTURAL CENTRES. [ The Stranger Standing on the raised platform beneath the portico of the National Gallery, we see before us the towers of the Houses of Parliament, and the perspective of the leading Govern. ment offices forming a line of street by themselves ; on the left hand is the beautiful church of St. Martin-in-the- Fields, and on the right the vista of Pall-mall, with its splendid Club-houses. Well might the late Sir R. Peel designate Charing- cross as " the finest site in Europe." The square itself, with its ugly fountains and its ill-proportioned column, will require entirely remodelling before it can be worthy of its position, and we have purposely turned our visitor's back to the National Gallery that he may not be offended with its mean front. Charing- cross may claim to be called the centre of the Arts, as the Bank is of Commerce. Turning directly down Whitehall, we approach that portion of Westminster devoted to the principal Government offices and the Legislature ; on the right hand is the Admiralty (distinguished by its screen and portico) , from which the fleets of England are governed and a little further on the Horse Guards, formerly head-quarters ofthe Commanderin- Chief. Nearly opposite is the Chapel Royal, the Banqueting- house of the Old Palace of Whitehall, the masterpiece of Inigo Jones ; in front of it King Charles I. was beheaded. The long range of buildings still further on the right (refronted by Sir Charles Barry) consists of the Home Office, the Privy Council Office, and the Treasury, all under one roof; and the little narrow street forming a cul de sac, which terminates it, is the world-famous Downing- street, containing the official residences of the Prime Minister, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, and the Secretary of State for Colonial Affairs. The old street is partially pulled down, and on its site rise the magnificent Public Offices designed by Sir G. G. Scott, extending to St. James's Park, which occasioned the struggle known as the " Battle of the Styles." In these splendid buildings are the departments of Foreign Affaira and India. The fifth great architectural centre of the Metropolis is at the end of Parliament-street. Here the Church, the Law, and the Legislature, are represented : the first in the noble old Abbey, the second in the Courts of Westminster Hall, and the third in the Parliament Houses, whose towers, rising in London. ] § 12. ARCHITECTURAL CENTRES. 23* to a gigantic height, break in from point to point upon the sight. This spot, indeed, might be considered the intellectual centre of the Metropolis. Within so small a space the earth perhaps holds not so many distinguished men amongst the living and the dead. Retracing our steps down Parliament-street we come to Waterloo-place, our sixth architectural centre, not inaptly called the centre of social and political life. Here we are in the heart of Club-land. Looking towards the Duke of York's Column, which terminates the view, we have on our right hand the Athenæum, chiefly frequented by literary men ; on the left, and exactly opposite it, the United Service Club, whose members are naval and military veterans. Next to the Athenæum, which stands at the commencement of Pall -mall West, is the Travellers'. The Reform, which is observable from its great size and from its Italian architecture, stands next in order. To the Reform succeeds the Carlton, the head-quarters of the Conservatives, a stately building, dis- tinguished by its polished granite pillars. The Oxford and Cambridge and the Guards' Club houses complete this sido of Club-land. On the opposite side, the Junior Carlton, and at the corner, turning into St. James's- square, is the Army and Navy Club. At the bottom of St. James's-street stand Marlborough House, of red brick, and St. James's Palace, a dingy but picturesque old building full of historical associations. Ascending the street, on the left-hand side are seen the Conservative Club, Arthur's, and Brooks's (the Whig headquarters), whilst near the top was the once famous or infamous Crockford's, long a dining tavern, in 1873 con- verted into " Crockford's Auction Hall." " White's" and "Boodle's, " fashionable Clubs, and principally resorted to by elderly country gentlemen, stand on the opposite side near the top. The stranger should endeavour, by personal introduction of a member, to procure admission to see some of these Clubs, especially the Reform, famous for its central hall, and its kitchen planned by M. Soyer. The halls, staircases, and apartments of the Carlton, The Conservative, and Army and Navy Clubs, are very handsome. Returning to Waterloo-place, after noticing for a few moments the noble park front of Carlton-terrace, which 24* 13. THE PARKS AND THAMES. [The Stranger stands upon the site of Carlton House, the visitor should ascend Regent- street. This street was built by Nash during the regency of George IV. , and was the first great improvement of the Metropolis since the days of Wren. Originally, a piazza covered in the footways on both sides of that part of it called the Quadrant ; and the double curve of columns thus formed had a noble effect. The lath - andplaster style of Nash's architecture in Regent- street has given rise to the reproach that it cannot stand either wind or weather. Nevertheless, it is the brightest and most cheerful street in the Metropolis ; and its sunny side, with its shops (many of which are French) filled with elegancies ofall kinds, especially those pertaining to the female toilet, is one of the liveliest promenades in the Metropolis between the hours of 3 and 6 o'clock in the afternoon. Portlandplace, a wide monotonous street, forms the continuation of Regent- street, and terminates in Park-crescent, a fine sweep of houses on either side opening out to the Regent's Park. When the visitor has well surveyed the routes pointed out, presenting an irregular pattern- card of almost every style, he will have made himself master of the entire street architecture of London. To comprehend at a glance the immense amount of business done in London as a Port, I would suggest a walk along Thames-street and Tooley-street, whose gigantic warehouses keep the thoroughfare in a perpetual gloom, and whose cranes hold in mid air during the day the varied produce of the world. The Custom-house-quay, with its long room ; Billingsgate- market, the Coal Exchange close at hand, St. Katherine's and the London Docks, might all be taken in the walk. § 13. The Parks of the Metropolis, not inaptly called the lungs of London, are seven in number, and chiefly in the West End. St. James's Park, the Green Park, Hyde Park, and Kensington Gardens, lie so close to each other, that one may walk from Charing-cross, the very heart of the Metropolis, to Bayswater, a distance of three miles, scarcely taking one's feet off the sod. These three parks enclose London on its W. side ; whilst Regent's Park lies to the N.W., Victoria and Finsbury Parks to the N.E., and Battersea Park, a beautifully kept flower-garden, with fine sheet of water, in London.] § 14. THE THAMES AND ITS BRIDGES. 25* cricket grounds, &c. , on the Thames, opposite to Chelsea, to the S.W. Besides these open spaces, which are beautifully laid out, the ventilation of the Great Babylon is in some degree provided for by its numerous squares, some of them of large extent, and planted with trees ; and by its Botanic Gardens, Cemeteries, and Nurseries ; which, taken together, occupy many hundred acres of ground. § 14. THE THAMES. - Steamers on the Thames, belonging to different Companies, ply up and down the river for a fare varying from 1d. to 3d. and 6d. according to distance, between Chelsea, Westminster, Hungerford, and London Bridges, starting in summer every five minutes-fares and intervals of starting in proportion for greater distances, up to Richmond and down to Greenwich. There is a steamer started from Hungerford Pier almost every five minutes in summer. LIST OF STEAMBOAT PIERS BELOW BRIDGE. London Bridge Pier. -Close to Brighton and Dover Railway; the Monument; Billingsgate ; and not far from the Bank and Royal Exchange ; Tower. Cherry Garden Pier. Thames Tunnel Pier. Limehouse Pier. Commercial Docks Pier. Millwall Pier. Deptford Pier. Blackwall Pier. Greenwich Pier. Woolwich Pier. PIERS ABOVE LONDON BRIDGE. St. Paul's Pier-near to- St. Paul's ; Post Office. Temple 29 ?? " 29 Waterloo Hungerford , Westminster Bridge Pier Lambeth Vauxhall Battersea Station 19 " 19"1 Battersea Park 19 Chelsea Pier Old Battersea Bridge Fier The Temple; Temple Bar. Somerset House ; Strand ; Covent Garden. Charing Cross ; National Gallery ; Lei- cester Square. Houses of Parliament ; Westminster Ab- bey; Public Offices ; Law Courts. Palace and Wire Bridge. Belgravia ; Hyde Park Corner. Railway to Crystal Palace. The Park and Gardens. Cheyne Walk; Chelsea Hospital. Cremorne Gardens. Having traversed the principal streets, let us take boat with our visitor and show him the river Thames thoroughfare of the Metropolis, which displays, in a more complete manner perhaps than any other, what London really is, both in extent and character. Taking one of the penny steamers at Westminster Bridge, he sees before him several specimens of that bridge architecture which has made London so famous. Westminster Bridge, under whose broad shadow 26* §14. THE THAMES AND ITS BRIDGES . [The Stranger " he for a moment rests, was rebuilt 1859-62 of iron, in keeping, as to style, with the adjacent Houses of Parliament. The banks of the river below Westminster Bridge, formerly occupied by coal barges, mud- banks, a few good houses, some mean wharfs, and many still meaner buildings, is now, on that side at least, bordered by Quays worthy the river and metropolis. As we descend the stream, Hungerford Railway Bridge, starting on the Middlesex shore from the Charing Cross Station , close to the Water Gate * of York-house, next crosses the widest portion of the Thames. Then is seen the Adelphi-terrace, built by the brothers Adam-in the centre house of which lived and died David Garrick. Lower down is Waterloo Bridge, with its nine arches, the centre one having a span of 120 feet. This bridge, which is perfectly level, and built of the finest granite, is certainly a noble structure, and well becomes the fine façade of Somerset House, rising from a terrace immediately beyond it, on the left bank, and extending 400 feet along the river. Still farther down, on the same shore, the pleasant Temple Gardens are seen on the left, green and flourishing, amid the surrounding blackness of the City. The two Blackfriars Bridges, over which rises the stately dome of St. Paul's, are next passed ; then comes " the thick " of the City, on the left bank, and the sky is penetrated bythe spires of numerous churches, surmounted by the grand dome of St. Paul's, indicating by their numbers the ancestral piety of London. Southwark Bridge, built of iron, remarkable for its central arch, of 240 feet span, the widest curved arch in the world, is next reached, and, below it, an iron lattice bridge, to carry the Charing Cross railway to Cannon-street, thrusts itself across. London Bridge, the lowest or most seaward of the metropolitan bridges, with its five granite arches crossing the Thames, divides London into "above" and " below " bridge. "Above bridge, " the traffic of the river consists of black coal barges, -bright-coloured and picturesque Thames hoys, laden with straw, -and the crowded penny and twopenny steamboats darting along with almost railway rapidity. Immediately the arches of London Bridge are shot, the

  • Not a work of Inigo Jones' , but of Nicholas Stone, mason and carver.

in London ] § 15. THE POOL." 27* " 66 scene is at once changed. The visitor finds himself in a vast estuary crowded with ships as far as the eye can reach. Many great commercial establishments and the principal Docks of London lie on the left bank of the Thames, " below " bridge. The Fish-market (Billingsgate), the Coal Exchange, and the Custom House, are rapidly passed , after which the Tower, square and massive, with its irregular outbuildings, and its famous Traitor's-gate, may be said to terminate the boundary of the City. § 15. The Pool commences just below London Bridge, where the river is divided into two channels by the treble range of steamers and other vessels anchored in it to discharge their cargoes -the city of London deriving its chief income from a tax of 1s. 1d. per ton levied on coals consumed in the metropolis and its vicinity. Only a certain number of the dingy-looking colliers are admitted into the " Pool” at once, the remainder waiting in " the Lower Pool " until the flag which denotes that it is full is lowered, when those enter that are first in rank. Hereabouts are anchored in midstream some of the North Sea, Hamburg, Hull, &c. , steamers. Passengers are compelled to go on board in boats, and should beware of embarking at Irongate or Horsleydown Stairs, which are the resort of thieves and cheats who prey upon passengers. A body of police ought to be posted here to protect strangers. A little belowthe Tower of London are the St. Katherine's Docks, inclosed by warehouses, over which the masts of the larger shipping are observable. The London Docks succeed, and in connection with them are the wine vaults, in which as many as 65,000 pipes of wine can be stowed. Just past the first entrance to these docks, the steamer passes over the Thames Tunnel. Onthe opposite shore is the Grand Surrey Dock, devoted, together with the Commercial and Greenland Docks, to the timber and corn trades. A little below the Pool, where the river takes an abrupt bend in its course at Limehouse- reach, is one of the entrances to the West India Docks. These docks run right across the base of the tongue of land called the Isle of Dogs, and open into Blackwall- reach ; and the crowd of [ masts looks like a grove of leafless trees. Deptford (on the right hand as you pass down Limehouse- 28* § 15. FROM THE POOL " TO GRAVESEND. [The Stranger reach) was a government dockyard down to 1869. It is now a Metropolitan Meat Market for the landing, slaughter, and sale of foreign cattle. The Corporation gave for the ground 94,0007. , and have expended over 100,000 . in constructing the market, slaughter- houses, &c. The victualling department is still maintained here. A very short distance below Deptford the steamer passes on the right hand side the handsome pile of Greenwich Hospital, whose noble cupolas and double range of columniated buildings, constitute a noble monument of the genius of Wren. Few places are more picturesque than Greenwich as you descend the river. The old irregularly built town and the palacelike hospital are backed by the rising ground of Greenwich Park, with its splendid sweet- chestnut trees, and crowned by the Observatory, from which place the Saxon race throughout the world marks its longitude. The exact time is shown to the shipping below by the fall, every day at one o'clock, of a large black ball, which slides down a mast surmounting the top of the building ; by this means the thousand mariners in the river below have a daily opportunity oftesting the accuracy of their chronometers. Opposite Greenwich are many once busy and noisy Shipbuilders' yards, which made the air ring with the din of hammer upon iron now, often silent, owing to unwise strikes ofworking shipwrights in 1866-instigated by the wire- pullers of the Trades Unions, and bad times. Here, in the yard of the Millwall Company, which employed 4000 men, was built the Colossus of the sea, "The Great Eastern Steam Ship," and the " Northumberland " iron-cased ship- of- war. In the midst of the tongue of land formed by the bend of the river, are the Millwall Docks. BelowGreenwich the river for some distance is dull enough, low flat shores extending on either side, until Blackwall is reached, with its Italian-looking railway station, and its quay, always in fine weather crowded with people. The East India Docks, full of the largest class merchant ships, are situated here. Still further down the river is Woolwich Arsenal (the largest government ordnance depot) , which every visitor should see. The river below, and nearly all the way to its mouth, lies between flat marshes, over which in Lendon. ] § 16. HAMPTON COURT TO WESTMINSTER BR. 29* the ships appear sailing across the grass, as in a Dutch picture. Gravesend, the last town on its banks, is at least 30 miles from London ; a description of it therefore will not fall within our limits : nevertheless an excursion from Londonbridge to Gravesend affords, at a rapid glance, a notion of the vast extent of the commerce of London. The number of vessels entering and clearing the port of London in one year ( 1865) amounted to 42,661 ; their tonnage to nearly ten and a half millions. The sailing vessels belonging to the port average nearly 3000, and the steamers 350, giving employment to crews of 35,000 men and boys. The Customs from this enormous mass of merchandise is upwards of eleven millions sterling, or half the receipts from this department for the whole country. The declared value ofthe exports is nearly of a like amount. § 16. To see the Thames in all its pastoral beauty the visitor should ascend the stream far beyond the limits of the metropolis. The best way of seeing it is to take a row-boat downwards, after visiting Hampton Court or Richmond (which he may reach by the line of the SouthWestern Railway). The windings of the river make the journey a long one (two hours at least), but the lover of beautiful scenery and literary and historical associations will not regard it as time lost, as he will pass many places famous in song and history. At Twickenham he will pass Pope's grotto (the house has been entirely rebuilt), Orleans House, the charming seat of the Duc d'Aumale, as it was of his father the Duc d'Orleans, Strawberry-hill, the sham castle of Horace Walpole; and Ham House, of the time of James I., where the " Cabal" ministers of Charles II. used to meet. Richmond Hill and Park, beautifully wooded, crown the prospect. The old palace of Sheen, celebrated in the early reigns, yet shows some fragments, incorporated in a modern house, the grounds of which come down to the water, just below Richmond Bridge, opposite an island planted with weeping willows. Below Richmond, on the right bank of the river, runs Kew Park, once famous as the Farm where George III. set the example of scientific farming to his subjects and country ; 30* § 17. GENERAL HINTS TO STRANGERS . [The Stranger and on the left is Sion House, the grand mansion of the Duke of Northumberland, with beautiful gardens. Still further down is the charming village of Kew, with its Botanic garden and palm-house ; Fulham succeeds, with the Bishop of London's Palace, amid verdant meadows and rare old trees of the densest foliage; but here adieu to the country ; smoking factories and rows of houses commence, and give to the banks a suburban character. The Thames so far is comparatively clear, running over a gravelly bottom, and banked with verdure on either hand. The swans too, sailing about in fleets, add to the beauty of the water. There are a vast number of these stately birds kept by the various City Companies at a great expense : one company (the Dyers') spending 3007. a year upon their swans. On the left bank, and close to the clumsy old Battersea Bridge, are Cremorne Gardens, the nightly resort, in the summer, of thousands. At Battersea Bridge begins that noble work the Thames Embankment, extending to Blackfriars Bridge, 4 miles, Chelsea Hospital, with its high roof, and the old Physic Garden, marked by a solitary cedar of Lebanon. On the right hand, extends Battersea Park (with walks, carriage drives, and terrace running close beside the water). Here terminates the open character of the banks, which are belowthis occupied with manufactories orwith rows ofhouses. Below the Hospital the Chelsea Chain Bridge, and a double iron bridge for the passage of the Brighton, Chat- ham, and Dover, and 4 or 5 other lines , to the Victoria or WestEnd Terminus, span the river. At Lambeth the visitor sees with interest the antique towers of the Primate's Palace, and old Lambeth Church, rebuilt-all but the tower ; and on the opposite shore, Millbank Penitentiary, covering a vast extent of ground, and looking like a "cut down" bastille . In immediate proximity to it is Pimlico, a new quarter which has arisen since 1840, under the hands of the late Mr. Thomas Cubitt (d. 1856) , the leviathan builder of the Belgravian portion of West-End London, and originally a ship-carpenter. § 17. General Hints to Strangers. London should be seen in May, June, and July; three months which include what is called " the Season. " In May, the Royal Academy Exhibition opens. -The Court is in resi- London.] § 17. GENERAL HINTS TO STRANGERS. 31* dence. The Queen or Princess ofWales holds Drawing- rooms and Levees.-The Parliament is sitting. -TheOpera in full season.--Concerts and other public entertainments daily.- The town is full-the streets overflow with equipages. There is not a more striking sight in London than the bustle of its great streets-the perpetually rolling tide of people, carts, carriages, gay equipages, and omnibuses, in its great thoroughfares. On Drawing- room and Levee Days it is worth while to take your stand in St. James's Park between 1 and 2, to see the distinguished personages going to the Drawing-rooms held at Buckingham Palace, their equi- pages, &c. Saturday is the aristocratic day for sight- seeing. Monday (Saint Monday) is generally a workman's holiday. Take the right- hand side of those you meet in walking along the streets. Beware of mock auctions at shops. Drinking Water supplied by the water companies ought to be filtered before it is drunk. So prepared it is now more wholesome than the waters of springs and pumps, which are liable to the pollution of gas and sewage. To find the direction of a 66 West-End friend " (who is not in lodgings), consult Webster's Royal Red Book, or Boyle's Court Guide, which, however, give only the names of persons residing in private houses. To find the direction of any professional man or tradesman (possessing a house), consult Kelly's Post- office Directory, which is at once an official, street, commercial, trades, law, court, parliamentary, City, conveyance, and postal directory. The visitor may see it at any hotel or in any of the better-class shops. The names and livings of Clergymen of the Church of England may be found in the annual " Clergy List." Foreign money is not current in England, and any attempt to use it will expose the traveller to inconvenience. It should be at once exchanged on arriving. Always note down the number of English bank notes ; if lost or stolen, this precaution will be valuable. The hours of business, during which all offices, counting-houses, &c. , are open are from 10 to 4. The proper hours for calling at private houses are from 2 32* § 17. GENERAL HINTS TO STRANGERS . [ The Stranger to 6at the "West End." A letter of introduction should be left in person with a card and address, or at least delivered with a card by a messenger, and not sent by post. The dinner hour in England for the professional and upper classes varies from 5 to 8 P.M. Guests should arrive not later than a quarter of an hour after the time named, but never a minute before it. In England the gentlemen never hand the ladies from table, but remain by themselves. When requesting permission to view any of the private galleries or mansions, a foreigner had always better write a polite note in the French form and language than in English. Foreigners will find that the knowledge of the French language is universally, and of the German not rarely, diffused from the upper classes downwards, especially amongst females and young persons. At Haymarket and Covent Garden Italian Operas, gentlemen are not admitted unless in black or white neckcloths, black pantaloons, and dress coats. There are some sights peculiarly national, which foreigners should not omit to see whilst in London. Races. -Epsom and Ascot races take place in May and June, and are the great sights of this class. Go to Epsom (if not in your own carriage with four post-horses) outside a four-horse coach, -the scene on the road is most striking. "The Derby"-the Isthmian games of England-is the Carnival of the Metropolis. For it even Parliament suspends its sittings, and the City exchanges are deserted. Then the millions of London are exposed unroofed upon the open Downs. The race itself " the great event," as it is called -will less affect those who are not sporting men than the spectacle of the Downs paved with human heads, and the miles of pic-nics and feasting which follow it. As these races are movable entertainments, consult some resident in London for the days on which they take place. Public Dinners, for various political, social, and charitable objects, are always advertised, and any one may dine who will pay for a dinner ticket, generally one guinea. Distinguished speakers, and sometimes good vocal music, are the attractions. The English peculiarities as to " toasts, " " cheering," " speeches," &c. , may here be witnessed to perfection. Boat Races and Sailing Matches on the Thames. - - Just in London.] § 17. GENERAL HINTS TO STRANGERS. 33 before Easter takes place the annual boat race between the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, from Putney to Mortlake. And at high water several " eights " of the crack rowing clubs may generally be seen. The Game of Cricket is best seen at Lord's Cricket Ground, St. John's Wood Road, Regent's-park ; admission 6d. on ordinary match days, 1s. when there is any first-class match going on. The principal "matches," such as " Kent " against " All England," " Gentlemen" against "Players, " " Oxford" against Cambridge," are generally advertised. The most popular of all, Eton against Harrow. Match takes place in July. Prince's Cricket Ground, Hans-place, Sloane-square, admission, 6d. 66 Hunting is the rage from October to March, -steeple chases in the spring. The " meets " are always advertised, and often take place(especially those ofthe " Queen's Stag Hounds") near to the railway stations within 20 miles of London. An English Trial by Jury may be seen, during Term time, at the Central Criminal Court (Old Bailey) in criminal cases ; and at Guildhall and Westminster Hall. A shilling to a doorkeeper will generally secure a good seat. Be on your guard about the confusion in the nomenclature of London streets, the street branch of the " Post Office Directory" a few years ago recorded the existence, in various parts of the town, of 37 King- streets, 27 Queen-streets, 22 Princes-streets, and 17 Duke- streets, 35 Charles- streets, 29 John-streets, 15 James-streets, 21 George-streets, besides numerous thoroughfares with the common prefixes Robert, Thomas, Frederick, Charlotte, and Mary. Anomalies also are very common :-There are North and South Streets which lie east and west, and 10 East- streets and 11 West-streets which point to a sufficient variety of directions to box the compass. Out of the 24 " New-streets," many are more than a century old. There were no fewer than 18 York-places, 16 York-streets, 14 Cross-streets, 13 Crown- courts, 19 Park-places, 16 Unionstreets, 10 Wellington-places, 10 Gloucester-streets, and 13 Gloucester-places. The suburbs abound in provoking repetitions of streets and terraces bearing the names of “ Victoria” and " Albert. " C 34* § 18. TELEGRAHP. - COMMISSIONAIRES. [ The Stranger § 18. Telegraph. -Commissionaires.- Cabs. The Electric Telegraphs throughout the Kingdom being now national property, are managed by the General Post Office : the head office being in St. Martin's- le- Grand, London (see General Post Office) . More than 300 branch offices are now distributed through London, so that no quarter or neighbourhood is far distant from one. By means of the London Telegraph messages may be sent in a very short time from one part of London to another, through nearly 400 miles of wires carried over the tops of the houses by leave of the inhabitants, and across the principal streets. Commissionaires, or Messengers, a corps of wounded soldiers, many of whom have lost a limb in the service of their country, and bearing good characters, are authorised by a society to execute commissions, carry letters, parcels, and messages, at moderate charges. They are stationed in the chiefthoroughfares at the East and West ends of London, and are known by their green uniform, and badges and medals. Ladies requiring to drive about town in a cab, may take them on the box to act the part of servants, with perfect confidence in their steadiness. The best London messenger is a well- sealed and clearly directed penny- post letter or d. post card. Cab Fares. -Obtain at any bookseller's, price 1s. , the Red Book of fares, published by the Metropolitan Police Commissioners, pursuant to section 6 of Act 16 and 17 Victoria, c. 33. These tables, in case of dispute as to fare, are conclusive evidence of all the distances they contain. The number of cabs in London is about 5000. A fourwheeled cab holds four persons ; a Hansom (named from the inventor) only two. Each cabman must earn ten shillings a day before he can clear his expenses or obtain a penny for himself. The London public, it is calculated, spends 860,000l. a year in cab-hire. If you are in a hurry, and want to catch a railway train, call a Hansom- cab, and promise the man a shilling above his fare, if he takes you in time. The centre of London (for calculating cab fares) is Charing- cross. in London.] § 18. CAB FARES. 35* Fares are according to distance or time, at the option of the hirer, expressed at the commencement of the hiring ; if not otherwise expressed, the fare according to distance. After 8 o'clock in the evening, and before 6 o'clock in the morning, no driver is compellable to hire his carriage for a fare according to time. Distance fares for two persons.-Within the 4- mile Circle, a shilling for any distance under 2 miles for two persons ; 6d. a mile or part of a mile for any distance beyond 2 miles. Beyond the 4-mile circle from Charing- cross, 1s. a mile for every mile or part of a mile exceeding 2. Back-fare cannot be claimed. The charge for waiting, is sixpence for every quarter of an hour completed, for 4- wheeled cabs ; eightpence for 2-wheeled. Time fares for two persons. -For any time within, and not exceeding, one hour, 2s. , within the 4-mile circle ; for 2 wheel cabs, 2s. 6d. a mile. Sixpence for every quarter of an hour, or any part of fifteen minutes not completed above one hour. Back-fare cannot be claimed. When hired by time, the driver may be required to drive at a rate not exceeding four miles an hour. When required to drive at a greater speed, he is entitled to claim 6d. a mile, or fragment of a mile, in addition to the time fare. Distance and time fares for more than two persons. -When more than two persons are carried in one cab, an additional sixpence is to be paid for every additional person for the whole hiring. Two children under ten years of age counted as one adult. For every 15 minutes' stoppage the driver is entitled to 6d. over his distance fare. Luggage.-2d. is to be paid for every package carried outside. In case of any dispute between hirer and driver, the hirer may require the driver to drive to the nearest Metropolitan Police Court, or Justice Room, when the complaint may be determined by the Sitting Magistrate without summons ; if no Police Court or Justice Room be open at the time, then the hirer may require the c 2 36* [The Stranger § 19. OMNIBUS ROUTES . driver to drive him to the nearest Police Station, where the complaint will be entered, and tried by the Magistrate at his next sitting. Every driver, when hired, may be required to deliver to the hirer a card containing the printed number of the Stamp Office plate on such carriage, or such other words or figures as the Commissioners of Police may direct. If you leave any article either in a "bus " or cab, apply for it at the Police Office, Scotland-yard. § 19. Omnibus Routes traverse London in all directions through the central parts, to and from the extreme suburbs. There are about 1500 different omnibuses, employing nearly 7000 persons. The majority commence running at 8 in the morning and continue till 12 at night, succeeding each other during the busy parts of the day every five minutes. Most of them have two charges-fourpence for part of the distance, and sixpence for the whole distance ; some charge as low as one penny for short distances, and few exceed ninepence for the whole journey. It will be well, however, in all cases to inquire the fare to the particular spot ; wherever there is a doubt the conductors will demand the full fare. The " bus " is subject to the inconvenience of heat and crowding ; and in bad weather the steam from wet great- coats and umbrellas is very oppressive. Add to this, it is not unfrequently chosen by pickpockets to carry out their operations. The seat on the roof, vulgo, " the knife-board," is free from those objections, provided you can climb up to it, which for females and infirm persons is not possible. THE CHIEF CENTRES FROM WHICH OMNIBUS ROUTES RADIATE ARE- All the Railway Stations. The Bank. General Post Office. Charing Cross. Oxford Street-corner of Tot- tenham Court Road. Oxford Street-Regent Circus. STARTING POINTS ON THE Piccadilly-Regent Circus and White Horse Cellar. Sloane Street. Bishopsgate Street. Gracechurch Street. Angel, Islington. Elephant and Castle. OUTSKIRTS OF LONDON. Bayswater-to Whitechapel, by Oxford Street, Holborn. Blackwall-to Pimlico (Royal Blue). Brompton-to London Bridge. Camberwell-to Gracechurch Street, by London Bridge. in London.] § 19. OMNIBUS ROUTES. 37* Camberwell-to Camden Town (Waterloo), by Albany Street, Regent Street, Charing Cross, and Waterloo Bridge. Camden Town (See York and Albany). Chelsea-King's Road to Bishopsgate Street, by Sloane Street, St. Paul's, Bank. Hammersmith and Kensington —to the Bank, by Piccadilly, Strand, St. Paul's, Cheapside. Kennington Gate-to King's Cross, by Blackfriars Road, Fleet Street, Gray's Inn Lane. Mother Red Cap-Camden and Kentish Towns, to Bayswater. Paddington-by Oxford Street, Holborn, Newgate Street, Cheapside. St. John's Wood-to the Bank (City Atlas). St. John's Wood-to Elephant and Castle, by Baker Street, Regent Street, Charing Cross, and Westminster Bridge (Atlas). Westminster-to Highgate Archway (Favourite), by Charing Cross, Chancery Lane, Gray's Inn Road, Islington, Holloway. York and Albany-near Zoological Gardens, Regent's Park, to Cam- berwell Gate, by Portland Road, Regent Street, Charing Cross, and Waterloo Bridge (Waterloo). OMNIBUSES FROM LONDON TO THE ENVIRONS. To Blackwall-from Regent Circus, Piccadilly, by Bank. Better by Rail, from Fenchurch Street. To Brixton-from Gracechurch Street, by London Bridge, Newington Causeway, Kennington. To Brixton-from King's Cross, by Chancery Lane, Westminster Bridge. To Clapham-from Gracechurch Street, by the Borough. To Clapham-from Oxford Street (Regent Circus), by Westminster Bridge. To Cremorne Gardens, Chelsea-from Bank, by Charing Cross, Picca- dilly, Sloane Street. ( N.B. Also by Thames steamers to Upper Chelsea Pier. ) To Crystal Palace, Norwood- from Oxford Street, Charing Cross, Westminster Bridge, Kennington, and Brixton. To Crystal Palace, Norwood- from Gracechurch Street, City, by Brixton or Camberwell, and Dulwich. (Quicker by Rail. ) To Dulwich-from Gracechurch Street, London Bridge, every hour. To Greenwich-from Charing Cross, by Westminster Bridge. To Greenwich-from Gracechurch Street, by London Bridge. To Hackney-from the Bank, by Bishopsgate Street, Shoreditch, Clapton. To Hampstead-from the Bank, by Holborn, Tottenham Court Road. To Hampton Court-from St. Paul's, by Charing Cross, White Horse Cellar, Hammersmith, Kew, Richmond, Twickenham (White). To Kensal Green Cemetery-from Oxford Street, Edgeware Road. To Highgate Hill-from Westminster (Favourite), Charing Cross, Chancery Lane, Islington. To Hoxton-from Leicester Square, by Long Acre. To Islington-Barnsbury Park, from Kennington Gate, Blackfriars Bridge, St. Paul's, Post Office, Goswell Road. To Islington-from Old Kent Road ( Borough), by London Bridge. To Putney Bridge-from London Bridge Station, by Fleet Street, Pic- cadilly, Parson's Green, Fulham. To Richmond-from St. Paul's, Charing Cross, Piccadilly, Kensing- ton, Kew Bridge ; also, by Brompton, Putney Bridge, Mortlake. To Wimbledon-by Chelsea, Battersea, Wandsworth. Horse Tramways. —In 1870-71 , large omnibuses running on tramways were introduced into various quarters of Lon- 38* §§ 20. LETTERS

21. HOTELS, INNS, ETC. [ The Stranger

don and its suburbs, e. g. , from Westminster Bridge to Greenwich, Brixton, and Clapham ; from the City to Islington, Holloway, Finsbury, the Bank, and to Highgate Archway :-in Whitechapel, from Aldgate to Stratford. They are extending on all sides of London. § 20. Letters (for distances beyond the London delivery) can be posted at the Receiving Houses throughout the Metropolis until 5h. 30m. p.m., or until 6 p.m., with double postage stamps attached. (See Post Office, Sect. vii. ) There are Eight Postal Districts of London and the Chief Offices. Letters bearing their initials in addition to the address are delivered earlier. E.C. Eastern Central. W.C. Western Central. W. Western. N.W. North Western. S.W. South Western. S.E. South Eastern. Eastern. Northern. E. N. St. Martin's- le- Grand. 126, High Holborn. 3, Vere- street, Oxford-street. 28, Eversholt-street, CamdenTown. 8, Buckingham- gate, Pimlico. 9, Blackman-street, Borough. Nassau- place, Commercial-road. Packington- street, Islington. In the London District Posts there are 11 deliveries of letters daily. Take care to post before to 8, 10, 12, and 2, 4, 6, 8, and in one of the Iron Pillar Boxes (first erected 1855) on the kerb stones of the leading thoroughfares. Letters posted at the Receiving-houses in London before 6 at night are delivered the same evening at all places within a circle of three miles from the General Post Office ; or if posted before 5, they are delivered in the environs the same evening. § 21. Hotels, Inns, &c. -The best Hotels at the West End of London, are Claridge's, late Mivart's, in Brook-street ; Albemarle, York, and London Hotels, in Albemarle-street ; Maurigy's Hotel, Regent- street, of the highest respectability, well managed, resort of clergy and gentry ; Fenton's, a very comfortable house for families or bachelors, good coffeeroom, in St. James's- street ; the St. James's Hotel, Berkeleystreet, Piccadilly ; and numerous other hotels in Jermynstreet, Albemarle-street, and Dover- street ; the Burlington and Queen's, in Cork- street, all good Family Hotels. House- rent in in London.] § 21. WHERE TO LODGE. -HOTELS. 39* this quarter is expensive, and the terms are accordingly high. Long's Hotel, Bond- street ; and Limmer's, Conduit- street, are the resorts chiefly of sporting gentlemen or families. GRAND HOTELS-built expressly for the purpose, in the fashion of those in America and the Hôtel de Louvre, at Paris -have been established at the Termini of the chief Railways-generally in connection with the Company; and in other quarters of London. They have fixed tariffs of prices ; and Coffee-rooms for ladies as well as for gentlemen. At the London and North- Western are the Euston and Victoria Hotels. -At King's Cross, the Great Northern.- Midland Hotel, Euston-road, near the Great Northern, a magnificent Gothic structure of red brick, Sir G. G. Scott, architect. The Great Western Railway Hotel at Paddington is one of the largest and the best in London. The Westminster Palace Hotel at the end of Victoriastreet, close to Westminster Abbey and the Houses of Par- liament, contains 130 bed-rooms. The Palace Hotel, close to Buckingham Palace, quiet and well- managed, for families and gentlemen. The Grosvenor Hotel, at the Victoria Station , Pimlico. The Alexandra Hotel, Hyde Park Corner. The International Hotel, at London Bridge Terminus, close to the Dover and Brighton Railway. Langham Hotel, Portland-place. American House. Charing Cross Hotel at the South Eastern Railway Ter- minus, Strand. Cannon-street Hotel, at the City Terminus of the South Eastern Railway. Fleming's Private Hotel, Half-Moon-street, Beattie's, Doverstreet, and Rawlings' , Jermyn-street, are recommended. Less expensive hotels are Hatchett's and Bath Hotel, Piccadilly ; and as a central house, chiefly for bachelors, the Tavistock, Covent- Garden. Midway between the City and the West End are the British, in Cockspur-street, the Golden Cross, and Morley's, at Charing Cross. Less expensive inns in the City : -The Bridge House 40* § [The Stranger 21. WHERE TO LODGE . Hotel, London Bridge ; the Queen's, close to the Post Office, and the Castle and Falcon, St. Martin's- le- Grand. Hotels for Foreigners. -Visitors of distinction will find French and German spoken at Claridge's. To those who wish to be moderate in their expenses, we would mention the well- conducted house of M. de Keyser (the Royal Hotel) , New Bridge-street, Blackfriars ; here every guest must be introduced personally, or by letter. But the quarter more especially devoted to French and German visitors is Leicester-square, and the vicinity of the Haymarket. The Hôtel de Provence (in Leicester-square), is conducted in the Continental style. The Hôtel de Versailles, 37, Gerrard Street, Soho. There are many disreputable houses in this neighbourhood, therefore travellers should be cautious not to resort to any without some reliable recommendation. Boarding-houses for Foreigners are also numerous around Leicester-square. The visitor who wishes to make a lengthened stay in the Metropolis, will find it most economical to take lodgings. These he may get at all prices, from the suite of elegantly furnished rooms in the West End, at 4, 7, 10, or 15 guineas a week, to the bed-room and use of a breakfast parlour, at 10 shillings a week. In the West End the best kinds of lodgings are to be found in the streets leading from Piccadilly -such as Sackville-street, Dover-street, Half- Moon-street, Clarges-street, and Duke- street, and in streets leading out ofOxford-street and Regent-street, St. James's-street, Jermynstreet, Bury-street, and King- street. The apartments of the best class are those in private houses, let by persons of respectability, generally for the season only. In the windows of these houses you will probably not see "Apartments to Let." A list of such apartments is to be found, however, at the nearest house-agent's, who gives cards to view, and states terms. An advertisement in the Times for such rooms, stating that " no lodging-house-keeper need apply," will often open to the stranger the doors of very respectable families, where he will get all the quiet and comfort of a home, so difficult to be found in the noisy, and often extortionate, professed lodging-house. Furnished houses for families can always be obtained at the West End. iu London.] § 22. WHERE TO DINE AND sup. 41* Strangers seeking for moderate lodgings in a central situation, should seek for apartments in some of the secondary streets leading from the Strand, such as Cecil-street, Cravenstreet, Norfolk- street, Southampton- street, Bedford- street, or the Adelphi. Here, in the season, the prices range from 1 to 4 guineas for a sitting and bed-room. Those again who care not for locality will find every quarter of the town abounding in boarding-houses and lodging-houses, varying in price according to the situation. The middle- class visitor who is bent on sightseeing should obtain a bedroom in a healthy locality, and the use ofa breakfast-room. There are thousands of such lodgings to be had for half-a-guinea a week. He can either provide his breakfast himself or get his landlady to provide it for him. Thevarious chop-houses and dining- rooms, of which there are nearly 600 in the Metropolis, will supply him with his dinner; whilst the 900 coffee-houses will afford him a cheap tea in any quarter of the town. He may pay a visit, however, to the Divan in the Strand, where for 1s. he has the entrée of a handsome room, a cup of coffee and a cigar, and the use of newspapers, periodicals, chess, &c. § 22. RESTAURANTS AND DINING- ROOMS : for large public or private dinners. -At the West End -Willis's Rooms, Kingstreet, St. James's ; St. James's Hall , The Quadrant. In the City-The London Tavern, Bishopsgate-street, and the Albion Tavern, in Aldersgate-street, first-rate cuisine. City dining-houses : Ship and Turtle, Leadenhall- street, famous for its turtle. 66 Joe's," or " Ned's, " Finch-lane, Cornhill, for steaks and chops served on metal plates. 66 The " Cock," 201, Fleet- street, for steaks and chops and snipe kidneys." "Dolly's," Queen's Head Passage, Paternoster-row, a quiet chop- house. Crosby Hall, interesting for its history and Gothic architecture, Bishopsgate-street (see § xxv. ) , is now a restaurant, with a luncheon bar, and much frequented, prices moderate. Three Tuns Tavern, Billingsgate Market, is the celebrated fish ordinary, at 1 and 4 p.m.; charge is 1s. 6d., including butcher's meat and cheese. Pimm's, Poultry. 42* [The Stranger § 22. WHERE TO DINE AND SUP. "The Gresham, " 21 , Bucklersbury. "Perrot's City Restaurant, " Milk-street, Cheapside, has a luncheon bar on the ground floor, and on the first floor chop and steak and smoking- rooms ; the kitchen being above all. "Salutation," in Newgate-street, ordinary every day at 5 o'clock, where you are provided with three courses for 18. 6d. , bread, beer, and cheese included ; you are expected, however, to take wine or spirits afterwards. In Bucklersbury, leading from Cheapside, there are several clean and excellent dining-rooms, where you may dine well from 8d. upwards. These are termed " Dining- rooms," or Eating- houses." As a general rule it is customary to give the waiter 1d. if your dinner is under 18., and so on in proportion, but never to exceed 6d. each person. 66 The " Rainbow,"" Dick's," the " Mitre," and the " Cheshire Cheese," in Fleet- street, and " The London Restaurant," corner of Chancery Lane, are good dining- houses for chops, beefsteaks, or joints, and at moderate prices. London is provided with a separate dining- room for ladies. European Coffee- house, facing the Mansion- house, is an excellent house. The Dining and Luncheon Rooms. - Westward ofTemple Bar : "The Criterion, " Piccadilly, Spiers & Pond, 1874. St. James's Hall, Piccadilly and Regent's Quadrant-kept by Grieve. Luncheon hall for ladies. "Verrey's, " Regent-street, corner of Hanover-street -good French cookery and wines. Café Royale, 68, Regent-street. Gaiety Restaurant, Strand, good and reasonable. "The Burlington " (Blanchard's), Regent-street, corner of New Burlington- street. Beadell's confectionary in Vere- street, excellent rooms for ladies' luncheon. Kühn's, 29, Hanover-street, Regent- street. Bertolini's, St. Martin's- street, Leicester-square ; or Rou- get's, Castle-street, Leicester-square, provide French dinners at moderate rates. Simpson's at the Divan Tavern, 103, Strand. -The great saloon is fitted up like a French Restaurant ; fresh joints are cooked every quarter of an hour, from 5 to 7-30 p.m. Simpson's is much frequented, and deservedly. The " Blue Posts, " in Cork-street, is noted for its good plain cooking and its baked punch. The " Albany," in Piccadilly, cheap. Here ladies may dine with comfort. The " Scotch Stores," in Oxford- street (the in London.] § 22. SUPPER- ROOMS ; 23. THEATRES. 43* "Green Man and Still ") , good houses, the table- cloth clean, and your dinner served on metal. Wilton's, Great Ryder-street, St. James's. Oysters and stout in perfection. West End Supper-houses. -The Albion, in Russell- street, Covent-garden. Evans's, in Covent-garden ; -theHôtel de l'Europe close to the Haymarket Theatre, and the fish-shops, such as Scott's, Quinn's, &c. , which almost line the Haymarket, are much used as late supper houses, after the theatres. City Supper-houses. -The Cock, the Rainbow, Dick's, and Mitre tavern (all four in or off Fleet-street), are the chief houses resorted to after the theatres. The stranger who wishes to see City feasting in all its glory, should procure an invitation to one of the banquets of the City Companies in their own halls. The Goldsmiths' dinners, given in their magnificent hall, behind the General Post Office, exhibit a grand display of gold plate. The Fish- mongers' , Merchant Taylors' , &c. , Companies, are famous for their cookery, and the antique character of their bills of fare --still maintaining the baron of beef, the boar's-head, the swan, the crane, the ruff, and many other delicacies of the days of Queen Elizabeth. After these dinners "the loving cup goes round. In the Carpenters' Company, the new master and wardens are crowned with silver caps at their feast ; at the Clothworkers' , a grand procession enters after dinner. Similar customs prevail at other of the great Com- panies' banquets, and all the dinners are first-rate. 33 The suburban dining-houses are the Star and Garter, and the Castle, at Richmond ; the Ship, and Trafalgar, at Green- wich, and the Ship at Gravesend ; these are all famous for. their white- bait. Crystal Palace Restaurant, Sydenham. § 23. There are now more than 30 licensed Theatres and Play-houses. The best of these, the nature of the per- formances, and the number of audience, are set out below. HER MAJESTY'S THEATRE, Haymarket.-Italian Opera (closed). ROYAL ITALIAN OPERA, Covent Garden. 2,500. DRURY-LANE THEATRE. 3,800. HAYMARKET THEATRE.-British Drama, Vaudeville, Farce, and Bur- lesque, 7 p.m. 1,822. THE LYCEUM, or ENGLISH OPERA HOUSE, Strand, 7 p.m. 1,490. PRINCESS'S, 73, Oxford-street.- British Drama, Spectacles, Melodrama, and Farce, 7 p.m. 1,579. ST. JAMES'S THEATRE, King-street, St. James's.-British Drama, Spec- tacles, Melodrama, Farce ; with French Plays occasionally. 1,220. NEW ADELPHI, 411 , Strand. - Melodrama and Farce. 1,560. OLYMPIC THEATRE, Wych-street. -Melodrama and Farce. 1,140. 44* §§ 24. EXHIBITIONS ; 25. CONCERTS, ETC. [The Stranger STRAND THEATRE, Strand. -Melodrama, Farce, and Burlesque. 1,081. THE HOLBORN THEATRE. -Melodrama and Farce. 2,000. THE HOLBORN AMPHITHEATRE AND CIRCUS -Horsemanship. 2,000. NEW ROYALTY.-Melodrama, Farce, and Burlesque. 722. THE PRINCE OF WALES, Tottenham Court Road. -Melodrama, Farce, and Burlesque. 814. GLOBE THEATRE, Newcastle Street, Strand. GAIETY THEATRE, Strand. THE QUEEN'S THEATRE, Long Acre . 2,000. ALEXANDRA, Park-street, Camden Town. -1,330. MARYLEBONE, Church- street. 1,500. SADLER'S WELLS, Islington. 2,800. BRITANNIA, Hoxton Old Town. -Melodrama, &c. , half-past 6 p.m. 3,923. SURREY, Blackfriars-road. —Melodrama, English Opera, and Farce, 7p.m. 1,800. VAUDEVILLE THEATRE. Strand. COURT THEATRE. Sloane- square. PHILHARMONIC THEATRE. Islington. ASTLEY'S, Bridge-road , Westminster Bridge.-Melodrama, 7 p.m. 3,780. STANDARD, opposite Great Eastern Railway Stat. -Shoreditch, 4,500. GRECIAN THEATRE, City Road. -Melodrama, Farce, and Ballet. 2,120 . ALHAMBRA, Leicester- square.- Concerts and Ballet, 8 p.m. CREMORNE GARDENS, Chelsea. In summer the gardens open at 3, are illuminated at night. Fireworks at 11. Admission, 1s. § 24. Miscellaneous Exhibitions. EGYPTIAN HALL, Piccadilly, opposite Bond-street. THE POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTION, 309, Regent-street, and 5, Cavendish- square. Popular science illustrated by dissolving views, & c.; a collection of all kinds of curious machinery in motion, and of models, &c.; lectures on chemistry, and other scientific subjects, are daily given. Open from 11 o'clock till 5 o'clock, and from 7 o'clock till 10 o'clock. Admission, 18. MADAME TUSSAUD'S WAX WORKS, Baker- street Bazaar, Portman- square. The evening is the best time. Admission, 18. Chamber of Horrors, 6d. extra. Shut 6 to 8 p.m. § 25. Concerts and Music. THE TWO OPERAS. See sec. xx. CONCERTS of the PHILHARMONIC SOCIETY held in St. James's Hall. Apply at Messrs. Addison and Co.'s, 110, Regent-street. SACRED HARMONIC SOCIETY.-Performances of Oratorios, by Handel, Haydn, Mendelssohn, &c., in Exeter Hall, from November to July. MONDAY POPULAR CONCERTS. -St. James's Hall, from 8 to 10 p.m. SATURDAY POPULAR CONCERTS, at the same place, commence 3 p.m. Concerts, Handel Celebrations, &c. at the CRYSTAL PALACE, Sydenham, and the ROYAL ALBERT HALL, S. Kensington. MUSICAL UNION CONCERTS, held in Willis's Rooms, King-street, St. James's. PRIVATE CONCERTS, given by celebrated artists, during the season- May, June, July. Hanover-square Rooms, Almack's, St. James's Hall. ELLA'S CONCERTS OF INSTRUMENTAL Music-most scientific and first-rate. ANNIVERSARY OF THE SONS OF THE CLERGY, in St. Paul's Cathedral in May. ANNIVERSARY OF THE CHARITY CHILDREN OF LONDON, beneath the Dome of St. Paul's, the First Thursday in June. Madrigal, Choral, and Glee Societies, always taking place in the Metro- polis, of which notice is given in the public papers. in London. ] § 26. OBJECTS OF INTEREST TO PAINTERS. 45* § 26. Objects of Interest to the Painter and Connoisseur. The Collections thus marked are private, and placed in dwelling-houses, and can only be seen by special permission ofthe owners.* NATIONAL GALLERY, including the TURNER COLLECTIONS. Free, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, and Saturday. SOUTH KENSINGTON MUSEUM, including the CARTOONS OF RAPHAEL, the SHEEPSHANKS and VERNON GALLERY OF PAINTINGS. THE NATIONAL PORTRAIT GALLERY, South Kensington. BRIDGEWATER GALLERY, St. James's. By Tickets only. GROSVENOR GALLERY (Lord Westminster's), Upper Grosvenor-street. By Tickets, in May, June, and July. § DUKE OF SUTHERLAND'S PICTURES by Murillo, Van Dyck, and P. Dela- roche, in Stafford House, St. James's. DUKE OF BEDFORD'S DUTCH PICTURES, 6, Belgrave-square. THE CORREGGIO (Christ in the Garden) , and other pictures, at Apsley House. 2 THE VAN DYCK PORTRAITS AND SKETCHES (en grisaille), fine Cana- letti ( View of Whitehall), at Montague House. ? DUKE OF GRAFTON'S Van Dyck, of Charles I. standing by his horse. THE HOLBEIN, at Barber- Surgeons' Hall, Monkwell-street, City. 2 TITIAN'S CORNARO FAMILY, at Northumberland House ; to be seen by an order from the Duke of Northumberland only. RUBENS'S CEILING, in Inigo Jones's Banqueting House (now the Chapel Royal), at Whitehall. May be seen on Sunday morning after divine service. OLD MASTERS AND DIPLOMA PICTURES, at the Royal Academy. Write to the Keeper of the Royal Academy. THE HOGARTHS AND CANALETTIS, at the Soane Museum in Lincoln's- Inn-fields. THE HOGARTHS, at the Foundling Hospital, Lincoln's Inn Hall, and St. Bartholomew's Hospital. THE THREE SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS' of the Dilettanti Society, at Willis's Rooms, King- street, St. James's. ? THE VAN DYCKS, at Earl de Grey's, in St. James's-square. THE PORTRAITS in the British Museum. ? LORD LANSDOWNE'S COLLECTION, Lansdowne House. BARRY'S PICTURES at the Society of Arts, Adelphi. THE PICTURES in the Painted Hall, Greenwich Hospital. THE DUKE OF DEVONSHIRE'S GALLERY, Piccadilly. LORD ASHBURTON'S COLLECTION, at Bath House, Piccadilly. LORD DUDLEY'S COLLECTION, Dudley House, Park-lane. SIR RICHARD WALLACE'S COLLECTION, Manchester Square. LORD NORMANTON'S COLLECTION. BARON ROTHSCHILD'S MURILLO ( Infant Saviour), at Gunnersbury, five miles from Hyde- Park-corner. R. S. HOLFORD'S COLLECTION, at Dorchester House, Park-lane. POOL OF BETHESDA, by Murillo, at George Tomline's, Esq., No. 11 Carlton-House-terrace. § PRIVATE COLLECTIONS OF THE LATE H. A. J. MUNRO, Hamilton-place Piccadilly; of THOMAS BARING, ESQ., M.P., 41, Upper Grosvenor- street ; of Mrs. GIBBONS, No. 17, Hanover-terrace, Regent's Park. These Collections are fully and satisfactorily described in Waagen's " Treasures of Art in Britain," 1854. 46* §§ 27, 28. OBJECTS OF INTEREST TO THE [ The Stranger DULWICH GALLERY, daily, except Sundays, 10 to 5. (See Dulwich. ) PICTURE GALLERY at Hampton Court, daily, except Friday. PICTURES BY RUBENS, VAN DYCK, &c., at Windsor. Temporary Exhibitions of Modern Pictures. ROYAL ACADEMY OF ARTS, Burlington House, Piccadilly. The Annual Exhibition of New Works of the best living English Artists, is open to the public daily from the first Monday in May till the end of July. Admission, 1s.; Catalogue, 1s. If you wish to see the pictures, go early, before 11. ROYAL ACADEMY, Piccadilly, Exhibition of Works of OLD MASTERS, lent by their owners, open in March and April. SOCIETY OF BRITISH ARTISTS, exhibiting between 500 and 600 pictures annually, at Suffolk- street, Charing Cross. Admission, 1s. , open April to July. SOCIETY OF PAINTERS IN WATER COLOURS, Pall-mall East. Admission, 1s., open April to August. Catalogue, 6d. INSTITUTE OF PAINTERS IN WATER COLOURS, Pall-mall. Admission, 1s . , open April to August. Catalogue, 6d. PICTURES OF FRENCH ARTISTS, Gallery, Pall-mall, in the summer months. During the London season (April, May, and June) the Connoisseur should make a point of occasionally dropping in at the Auction Rooms of Christie and Manson, in King- street, St. James's- square ; of Sotheby and Wilkinson, Wellingtonstreet, Strand, and Crockford's Auction Mart, St. James'sstreet, Piccadilly. § 27. Objects of Interest to the Sculptor. THE NINEVEH, ELGIN, PHIGALIAN, TOWNLEY, AND OTHER MARBLES in the British Museum. BAS-RELIEF, by Michael Angelo, at the Royal Academy. Write to the Keeper of the Royal Academy. FLAXMAN'S MODELS at University College, in Gower-street. On Satur- day. Tickets given at the Lodge. THE MONUMENTAL SCULPTURE in St. Paul's and Westminster Abbey. STATUE OF CHARLES I., by Le Soeur, at Charing-cross. STATUE OF JAMES II. , by Grinling Gibbons, behind Whitehall. 8 TWO FINE STATUES, by Canova, at Gunnersbury (five miles from Hyde- Park-corner) , seat of Baron Lionel de Rothschild, M.P. THE SEVERAL STATUES in the Squares and public Places-PITT, by Chantrey, in Hanover- square ; Fox, by Westmacott, in Blooms- bury-square ; CANNING, by Westmacott, near Westminster Hall ; GEORGE III., by Wyatt, inCockspur-street ; GEORGE IV., by Chan- trey, in Trafalgar-square ; DUKE OF WELLINGTON before the Royal Exchange, by Chantrey, and at Hyde- Park-corner, by Wyatt, &c. &c. The Italian and other Sculpture in the S. KENSINGTON MUSEUM, including Two STATUES OF MADNESS AND MELANCHOLY, by Cibber, brought from Bethlehem Hospital. in London.] SCULPTOR, ARCHITECT, AND ENGINEER. 47* MARBLES at Lansdowne House, in Berkeley-square, the residence of the Marquis of Lansdowne. § 28. Objects of Interest to the Architect and Engineer. NORMAN AND GOTHIC. The Norman Chapel, in the Tower. The Norman Crypt, under the church of St. Mary- le-Bow. St. Bartholomew the Great, Smithfield, the oldest church in London. St. Mary Overy, London Bridge. Westminster Abbey and Hall. St. Michael's, Cornhill. Temple Church. Dutch Church, Austin Friars. Ely Place Chapel. Crypt at Guildhall. Crypt at St. John's, Clerkenwell. Allhallows, Barking. St. Olave's, Hart- street. Crosby Hall, Bishopsgate- street, built 1466-1472. SavoyChapel. St. John's Gate, Clerkenwell. Lambeth Palace -- (Chapel and Hall, and Lollards' Tower). RENAISSANCE : Holland House, Kensington. WORKS, BY INIGO JONES : Banqueting House, Whitehall. St. Paul's, Covent- garden. Shaftesbury House, Aldersgate- street. Lindsey House, Lincoln's-Inn- fields (West side). Ashburnham House, Cloisters, Westminster. Lincoln's Inn Chapel. St. Catherine Cree-(part only) . Piazza, Covent- garden. BY SIR CHRISTOPHER WREN : St. Paul's Cathedral. St. Stephen's, Walbrook. St. Mary-le- Bow, in Cheapside. St. Bride's, Fleet- street. St. Magnus, London Bridge. St. James's, Piccadilly. Spire of St. Dunstan's- in - the- East. St. Mary Aldermary. St. Michael's, Cornhill Towers ofSt.Vedast, St. Antholin, and St. Margaret Pattens. BY GIBBS : St. Martin-in- the-Fields. St. Mary-le-Strand. BY HAWKSMOOR (WREN'S PUPIL): St. Mary Woolnoth, near the Mansion House. Christ Church, Spitalfields. St. George's, Bloomsbury, Limehouse Church. BY LORD BURLINGTON : Burlington House. Duke of Devonshire's Villa at Chiswick. BY SIR WILLIAM CHAMBERS : Somerset House. BY KENT : Marquis of Bath's House, No. 44, Berkeley-square. BY DANCE ( SENIOR) : The Mansion House. BY DANCE (JUNIOR): Newgate. BY JOHN RENNIE : Waterloo Bridge. BY SIR JOHN SOANE : Bank of England. BY NASH : Regent-street. Buckingham Palace (east front excepted, which is by BLORE) . BY DECIMUS BURTON : Athenæum Club, Pall-mall. Colosseum, in the Regent's Park Gateways at Hyde- Park-corner. BY PHILIP HARDWICK (AND SON) Goldsmiths' Hall. Lincoln's Inn Hall. Euston-square RailwayTerminus. BY SIR ROBERT SMIRKE British Museum. Post Office. 48* §§ 29, 30. INTERESTING TO ANTIQUARY, ETC. [ The Stranger BY SIR CHARLES BARRY : Houses of Parliament. Reform Club, Pall-mall. Travellers' Club, Pall-mall. Treasury, Whitehall. Bridgewater House. By SYDNEY SMIRKE, A.R.A.: Carlton Club-house. Conservative Club-house. Interior of Pantheon. BY SIR G. G. SCOTT, A.R.A .: Camberwell Church. The Government Offices, Down- ing Street, St. James's Park. Prince Consort's Monument. BY BENJAMIN FERREY : St. Stephen's Church, Rochester- row, Westminster. BY EDMUND STREET : St. James the Less Church, Gar- den Street, Vauxhall Road. New Law Courts. BY BUTTERFIELD : All Saints', Margaret-street, Ca- vendish-square. BY CARPENTER : St. Mary Magdalen, Munster- square. BY MESSRS. RAPHAEL, BRANDON AND ROBERT RITCHIE : Catholic and Apostolic [or Irving- ite] Church, Gordon-square. BY SIR JAMES PENNETHORNE: London University, Burlington- gardens. Museum of Economic Geology. Record Office. The Stations of the great Rail- ways, viz., Great Western, North Western, Great North- ern, South Eastern, Victoria, Midland, &c. § 29. Objects of Interest to the Antiquary. THE BRITISH MUSEUM. THE TOWER. White Tower and Chapel, Armoury, Regalia. WESTMINSTER ABBEY, and CHAPTER HOUSE. THE REMAINS OF LONDON WALL, in St. Martin's-court, off Ludgate-hill. LONDON STONE, inserted in the outer wall of the church of St. Swithin in Cannon-street. The top is seen through an oval opening. Camden considers it to have been the central Milliarium, or mile- stone, similar to that in the Forum at Rome, from which the British high roads radiated, and from which the distances on them were reckoned. It is a block of Kentish Rag (Lower Greensand), encased in a frame of Bath stone. Jack Cade struck London Stone with his staff, exclaiming, " Now is Mortimer lord of this City." THE COLLECTION AT THE CITY OF LONDON LIBRARY, at Guildhall. THE ROMAN BATHS-i. Under the Coal Exchange, at Billingsgate ; ii. Strand-lane, Strand, W.C. THE MUSEUM OF THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES, at New Burlington House. Write to the Secretary, for permission. THE GOTHIC CHURCHES named in p. 47*. ST. JOHN'S GATE, Clerkenwell. STAINED- GLASS WINDOW, in St. Margaret's, Westminster. MONUMENT OF CAMDEN, in Westminster Abbey. MONUMENT OF STOW, in St. Andrew's Undershaft, Leadenhall-street. ? THE CHINA (especially Faïence of Henri II. ) OF SIR ANTHONY DE ROTHSCHILD, BART., 2, Grosvenor-place Houses. SOUTH KENSINGTON MUSEUM. Collection of Italian and other sculpture, wood carvings, majolica, ivories, metal work, embroidery, &c. , free. (See Sect. xix.) § 30. Places and Sights, Museums, &c. , which a Stranger must see. THE TOWER, daily, Sundays excepted, 10 to 4, charge 18. WESTMINSTER ABBEY, to be seen daily, Sundays excepted. ST. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL, daily, Sundays excepted. BRITISH MUSEUM, Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, 10 to 4. in London.] § 30. PLACES AND SIGHTS TO BE SEEN. 49* NATIONAL GALLERY, free, Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays, and Saturdays. ALBERT HALL AND INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION. Admi sion, 18.; Wednesdays, 2s. 6d. HOUSES OF PARLIAMENT. Saturday, between 10 and 4. Tickets are to be obtained by all respectable applicants (gratis), at the Lord Great Chamberlain's office, in the Court, near the Victoria Tower. WESTMINSTER HALL. SOUTH KENSINGTON MUSEUM. See p. 172. ST. JAMES'S PARK AND PALACE. LAMBETH PALACE, to be seen by order from the Archbp. of Canterbury. HYDE PARK, ROTTEN ROW, AND THE SERPENTINE DRIVE, from 12 to 2, and 5 to 7 p.m. , from May to July inclusive . KENSINGTON GARDENS, between past 5 and past 6 in May and June. The band plays Tuesdays and Fridays. WHITEHALL BANQUETING HOUSE, in front of which Charles I. was be- headed. THAMES AND ITS QUAYS between Chelsea and Greenwich. CHARING CROSS AND CHARLES I.'S STATUE. WATERLOO Bridge. THAMES TUNNEL. In July, 1869, it was permanently closed as a foot- way, and opened to the trains of the East London Railway, which connects Wapping and Shadwell with Southwark Park . LONDON DOcks. METROPOLITAN CATTLE MARKET, Copenhagen Fields, Islington, (the modern Smithfield) ; to see the market, go early on a Monday. COVENT-GARDEN MARKET; go on a Saturdaymorning early. LONDON STONE. (Described above, p. 48. *.) TEMPLE BAR ; and ST. JOHN'S GATE, Clerkenwell. THE MONUMENT, to commemorate the Fire of London in 1666, open daily, Sundays excepted, admission 3d. OLD PRIORY CHURCH OF ST. BARTHOLOMEW in Smithfield. TEMPLE CHURCH, Sunday morning service at 11 ; afternoon service at 3. A Bencher's order, or personal introduction, will admit you to the best seats. From Monday to Friday inclusive the church may be seen on applying to the sexton. BOW CHURCH and STEEPLE. ST. STEPHEN'S, WalbrooPLE. (Wren's Masterpieces .) ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS, Regent's Park. ROYAL HORTICULTURAL GARDENS, South Kensington. GOLDSMITHS' HALL. SOANE MUSEUM, Lincoln's Inn Fields. ROYAL EXCHANGE. BANK OF ENGLAND. 10 to 3. Any one may walk through the chief halls. THE MINT. Shown on Thursday by Ticket from the deputy-master. MUSEUM OF THE COLLEGE OF SURGEONS. (For men of science. ) ALLSOPP AND SONS' BURTON ALE WAREHOUSES, Upper James-street, Camden Town. BASS'S DITTO, Midland Railway Terminus. BARCLAY'S BREWERY, in Southwark, near London Bridge, is to be seen by order from the Messrs. Barclay. TIMES NEWSPAPER OFFICE, Printing-house-square, Blackfriars, to be The Times usually comprises 72 columns, or 17,500 lines- contain- ing more than a million different pieces of type. More marvellous still, two-fifths of the matter of which the type is the exponent, was unwritten at seven o'clock on the previous evening. The number of compositors employed is 110, and the number of pressmen 25. The Times prints 200 sheets aminute. d 50* [The Stranger § 32. HINTS TO FOREIGNERS , ETC. seen by order signed by the printer of the paper. The office ofthis world-famous Paper is placed in one ofthe most labyrinthine recesses in London. CLOWES'S PRINTING OFFICE, Stamford-street, Blackfriars, to be seen by order from Messrs. Clowes & Son. LORD'S CRICKET-GROUND, near the Eyre Arms, St. John's Wood, or Prince's Cricket Ground, Hans place, Sloane-square, when a match is being played. MUSEUM OF PRACTICAL GEOLOGY, and of the Mineral Productions of Great Britain and her Colonies, in Piccadilly, entrance in Jermyn- street. UNITED SERVICE MUSEUM, at Whitehall. EAST INDIA MUSEUM, Indian Office, Downing- street. Fridays, from 10 to 4. Products of India, and other curiosities . LONDON BRIDGE, about past 9 in the morning, when it is most crowded with passengers, all pushing into the City on business ; or at past 4 and 5 p.m. WESTMINSTER BRIDGE. Best point of viewfor the Houses of Parliament. THE OPENING OF PARLIAMENT, generally in February, and its proroga- tion, generally in July or August. THE HORTICULTURAL FÊTES at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Regent's Park ; and at the Royal Horticultural Society's Gardens, South Kensington. } May. June. July. THE THAMES EMBANKMENT, from Westminster Bridge to Blackfriars. THE GREAT HALLS of the London and North- Western, Midland and Gt. Northern Termini, Euston- road. THE POST OFFICE ARCADE, St. Martin's-le-Grand, at 6 o'clock on Satur- days, when the grand rush to post newspapers takes place. To see the sorting process immediately after, an order from the secretary to the G.P.O. is necessary, and is granted only on application of foreign ministers, &c. THE INNER TEMPLE GARDENS. THE BANK OF ENGLAND CELLARS, and MACHINES for weighing coin and printing bank-notes, by order from a Director. THE LONG ROOM in the Custom House. CHRIST'S HOSPITAL, the boys supping in public every Sunday evening from Quinquagesima Sunday to Easter Sunday inclusive. LIBRARIES FOR CONSULTATION. -British Museum; London Corpora- tion Guildhall Library; London Institution, Finsbury; Sion College Library ; Library of Patent Office, Chancery Lane. Dr. Williams' Library, Queen's Square, contains many books not easily accessible elsewhere. Fine first folio Shakspeare. A most obliging librarian. 231. ENVIRONS OF LONDON. (See the end of this volume. ) FOR EQUESTRIANS.-Rides in the neighbourhood of London-Besides the Parks-Hyde Park, Green Park, Regent's Park, and Battersea, a. The Finchley Road- from St. John's Wood to Hampstead Heath, and Highgate. b. Battersea Park-a terrace ride, partly bythe side of the river, thence to Clapham Common. c. By Hyde Park-Kensington, Hammersmith, Barnes Common, Roehampton- lane, Wimbledon Common-return through Wim- bledon Park (Somerset-road) , Wandsworth, and Battersea Park. d. Along Finchley-road to West End-Kilburn to Kensal-green, return by Harrow- road. § 32. HINTS TO FOREIGNERS. Bythe law of Great Britain all foreigners have unrestricted right of in London.] § 34. SPECIAL SERVICES. -§ 35. STUDIOS. 51* entrance and residence in this country; and while they remain in it, are, equally with British subjects, under the protection of the law ; nor can they be punished except for an offence against the law, and under the sentence of the ordinary tribunals of justice, after a public trial, and ona conviction founded on evidence given in open Court. They may demand that half of the jury shall be foreigners. No foreigners, as such, can be sent out of this country by the Executive Government, except persons removed by virtue of treaties with other States, confirmed by Act of Parliament, for the mutual surrender of criminal offenders. Foreigners may obtain admission in general to private collections not usually shown, by application from their several ambassadors or ministers to the owner. Such an ambassadorial request will also procure for foreigners entrance to the Royal Dockyards, Woolwich Arsenal, &c. § 33. NEWSPAPERS. The principal London morning newspapers are the Times, published daily (Sunday excepted), Office, Printing House- square, Blackfriars ; the Daily News; the Standard ; the Daily Telegraph ; the Morning Post, and the Morning Advertiser. For evening news see the Second Edition of the Times, the Pall-mall Gazette, the Globe, the Evening Standard ; and the Echo (price d.) § 34. SUNDAY SERVICES AND POPULAR PREACHERS. ST. PAUL'S, at 10.30 a.m., 3.15 p.m., and at 7 p.m., under the dome, where 5,000 or 6,000 persons assemble to hear popular preachers. WESTMINSTER ABBEY, 10a.m. , 3 p.m., and 7 p.m. LINCOLN'S INN CHAPEL. THE TEMPLE. Services of the Church of England, Sacred Music, and Sermon. WHITEHALL.-PREACHERS appointed by the Queen-Special Preachers during Lent : Selected Divines from Oxford and Cambridge. 11 a.m., 3.30. ALL SAINTS' , Margaret-street. SCOTCH CHURCH, Drury-lane. -Rev. Dr. Cumming at 11 a.m. and 7 p.m. FOUNDLING HOSPITAL. -Good music. After morning service, visitors may see the children at their dinner. 11 a.m. and 3 p.m. ST. JAMES'S HALL, Piccadilly (Nonconformist). MR. SPURGEON'S TABERNACLE, close to the Elephant and Castle, a vast building of Italian architecture, with porticos, cost, including the land, £31,000, raised by voluntary subscription, 1860-61 . It will hold 4400 persons. Architect W. W. Pocock. Tickets admitting one person for three months cost 3s. In front of the pulpit is a marble bath, for adult baptism. Ingress to the building is attained through 15 doors. § 35. STUDIOS OF THE PRINCIPAL ARTISTS. PAINTERS. Sir Edwin Landseer, R.A....... 1 , St. John's- wood-road. Sir Francis Grant, P.R.A. ...... 27, Sussex-place, Regent's- park. C. W. Cope, R.A. 19, Hyde-park- gate South. J. R. Herbert, R.A................ Hampstead. W. P. Frith, R.A................... 7, Pembridge-villas, Bayswater. E. M. Ward, R.A................... 1, Kent-villas, Lansdowne-road, Notting-hill. E. W. Cooke, R.A. ............... Groombridge and Pall Mall. J. E. Millais, R. A. ............... Cromwell Terrace, S. Kensington. G. F. Watts, R.A. …………………………..... Little Holland House, Kensington. 52* § 36. METROPOLITAN IMPROVEMENTS . [The Stranger SCULPTORS. J. H. Foley, R.A. M. Noble W. C. Marshall, R. A. W. Theed H. H. Armstead ...... 10, Osnaburgh- terrace. Bruton- street, Bond- street. ' 47, Ebury- street, Eaton- square. 12, Henrietta- street, Cavendish- square. 1 Bridge Place, Belgrave Road. § 36. METROPOLITAN IMPROVEMENTS. The METROPOLITAN BOARD OF WORKS was constituted by an Act of Parliament in 1855, superseding numerous local boards, to watch over the various lines of communication between different parts of London ; to open new avenues in proportion to the increase of traffic ; to manage the streets, drains, and buildings ; and to suggest and carry out im- provements in all these. The Board consists of 40 members, elected by the ratepayers. The Board has an office, where meetings are held, at Berkeley House, Spring Gardens, a handsome edifice erected for the purpose, 1861, at a cost of £15,000. Funds are raised by a rate on the property of London, of which the annual value is £ 18,719,000. The principal schemes hitherto undertaken by the Board is the new system of Main Drainage ( see Index) ; the EMBANKMENT OF THE THAMES (see Section vi.) ; the opening of Hamilton-place to carriage traffic , as a means of relieving Park-lane, at a cost of 109,000l . ; finishing of South- wark-street, Borough, 596,7017.; Victoria Park Approaches, 43,4301.; Chelsea Embankment, 106,000l .; Albert Embankment, S. side of Thames, 909,0007.; Whitechapel-street, 175,000l. Queen Victoria street from the Mansion House to Blackfriars Bridge, has laid open to view St. Paul's, and the churches of St. Antholin ( Budge-row) and St. Mary Aldermary, both fine works of Wren. The Corporation of the City of London has constructed the Holborn Valley Viaduct ( see p. 278) , and New Blackfriars Bridge ( see p. 44. ) § 37. METROPOLITAN AND SUBURBAN RAILWAYS. LONDON is now encircled by a girdle of railways : indeed, very shortly it will have a double circle of ironways, chiefly underground, facili- tating communication with all quarters. A. METROPOLITAN OR UNDERGROUND RAILWAY, from Paddington to Moorgate Street, was designed to relieve the streets of London from excessive goods traffic. The Corporation subscribed £200,000 to the undertaking on this account. It runs on a level with or below the gas-pipes and water-mains, and has been called " the Railway ofthe Rats," the companion of sewers. It consists of 3 miles of tunnels and cuttings from Paddington to Farringdon Street and Moorgate, running under the New Road and other great thoroughfares. Travelling in the dark by this line is by no means disagreeable. The carriages are good and well lighted, and the stations conveni- ent. The engines used condense their steam, and, using coke, there is little escape of either smoke or vapour. Engineer, Mr. John Fowler-Cost, £1,300,000 . The first year it carried 9 million pas- sengers, and in 1869, 40 millions . in London. ] METROPOLITAN AND SUBURBAN RAILWAYS. 53* Trains from 6 a.m. to 12 p.m., at intervals of 20 minutes or 4 hour. It begins at Bishop's Road Station, Paddington, near the Great Western Terminus, Kensington Gardens, Bayswater. Edgeware Road Sta. , Praed- street. Baker-street Sta., near to Regent's Park, W., The Bazaar, Mad. Tussaud. Portland Road Sta. , close to Regent's Park, Gower-street Road Sta., near London and North- Western Railway Terminus, Euston Square. King's Cross Sta.-Junction with Great Northern Terminus. The Fleet Ditch sewer is carried in a water-tight iron duct over the line. Open cuttings now begin, but Coldbath Fields Prison is passed in a tunnel. Farringdon Street Junction Sta . , not far from Holborn and Snow Hill. From this the line is prolonged to meet the Chatham and Dover Railway at the Ludgate Hill Sta. From Farringdon Street, the line is carried near Smithfield, and under Barbican and Milton Street, to Aldersgate Sta. , near the General Post Office, and to MOORGATE STREET STA., near the Bank, the Royal Exchange and Finsbury. B. METROPOLITAN DISTRICT RAILWAY, from Mansion House to Padding- ton by Blackfriars Bridge, Westminster Bridge, Victoria Sta. , S. Ken- sington, and Bayswater. The Mansion House terminus, and the part of the line thence to Blackfriars, was opened 1871. This line forms an Inner Circle Railway from Mansion House- street, to Blackfriars Bridge, and along the Thames Embankment to Westminster Bridge and Paddington. At Blackfriars Bridge station the railway is carried over the Fleet Ditch, which enters the Thames through valves and penstocks over the low level main sewers, and under the coal tramway leading to the City gas-works. The sleepers are laid on a layer of tan, six inches thick, to spare the slumbers ofthe Templars as it approaches. Temple Station. Charing Cross Sta. under Hungerford Bridge. The portion of the line opened 1869 commences at Westminster Bridge Sta., at the extremity of the Embankment. Thence it passes under Bridge- street, behind Westminster Palace Hotel, to St. James's Park Sta. , Broadway, close to Birdcage Walk. It passes under part of Watney's Brewery to Victoria Sta. , close to the Terminus of the Brighton, Crystal Palace, and other Lines. Sloane Square Sta. , under Ranelagh Sewer, which is carried obliquely across on iron cylinders. South Kensington Sta. , Cromwell-road. Two minutes' walk to the South Kensington Museum. Brompton Sta. , Gloucester Road. Here this line joins the Metro- politan. The line is prolonged to High Street, Kensington, Sta. 54* METROPOLITAN AND SUBURBAN RAILWAYS. [ The Stranger Addison Road Sta. Notting Hill Gate Sta. Queen's Road, Bayswater, Sta. , near the Royal Oak Tavern, and Kensington Gardens. Praed-street Sta. , opposite the Great Western Hotel and Terminus. C. CHARING CROSS TO CANNON STREET, CITY, AND LONDON BRIDGE- SOUTH-EASTERN RAILWAY. Terminus and Hotel, W. Strand, between Villiers- street and Craven- street, on the site of Hungerford Market. This station is 450 ft. long, 170 ft. wide, 100 ft. high. The railway crosses the Thames by a Lattice Bridge, on cast-iron columns, spans of 154 ft. Junction with S. Western Railway at Waterloo Station. Waterloo Junction Sta. , close to the Waterloo Terminus of the S. Western Railway. The line passes under the London, Chatham, and Dover Railway, coming from Elephant and Castle to Ludgate Hill. It traverses the former estate of the Bishop of Winchester, Iron works, &c. &c. , Southwark Bridge, Union Square. L. Branch over the Thames by a Lattice Bridge, 5 spans, opened 1866, leads to CANNON STREET TERMINUS, near St. Paul's and Man- sion House. The cost of this line is calculated at £1000 per yard, including the two bridges and stations, not much less than 3,000,000 . The London Bridge Branch is carried by a Lattice Bridge, over the new Street, Southwark ; 1. Barclay and Perkins' Brewery, through Borough Market, passing St. Mary Overy church and over Bridge- street, Southwark. LONDON BRIDGE TERMINUS. -In order to secure an approach to London Bridge, the South- Eastern Railway Company was obliged to purchase the building and site of St. Thomas's Hospital, at an outla yof300,000%. D WES LONDON, HAMMERSMITH, Finchley Road Station. St. John's Wood Sta. Baker Street Junct. Sta. Edgeware Road, Paddington, Sta. Bishop's Road, Paddington, Sta. Westbourne Park Sta. Notting Hill Sta. Shepherd's Bush Sta. AND METROPOLITAN, RAILWAYS. Hammersmith (Broadway) Sta. Kensington Sta., W. of Holland House, in Addison Road. Chelsea Sta., close to Fulham-rd. Cross the Thames-Battersea Sta . CLAPHAM JUNCTION STA. Victoria Sta. E. NORTH LONDON, HAMPSTEAD JUNCTION, AND NORTH AND SOUTH- WESTERN JUNCTION RAILWAYS. Trains every hour. Fenchurch Street Station. Highbury and Islington Sta. Stepney Junct. Sta. Bow Sta. Hackney Sta. Victoria Park Sta. Caledonian Road Sta. Camden Town Junct. Chalk Farm Sta. in London.] METROPOLITAN AND SUBURBAN RAILWAYS. 55* Kingsland Road Station. Mildmay Park (Stoke Newington) Sta. Broad Street (City) Terminus. Shoreditch Station. Haggerston Sta. Dalston Sta. Kentish Town Station. Hampstead Sta. Finchley Road Sta. Edgeware Road (Kilburn) Sta. Harlesden Green Sta. Hammersmith Sta. (Botanic Gar dens Kew Road). Acton Sta. F. LONDON AND BLACKWALL RAILWAY. Fenchurch Street Terminus. Shadwell Sta. East and West India Docks Sta. Poplar Sta. StepneyJunction (of N. London) Sta. Blackwall Junct. Sta. Limehouse Sta. G. VICTORIA STATION, PIMLICO to LUDGATE HILL-branch of London, Chatham, and Dover Railway. Wandsworth Road Station. Clapham and N. Stockwell Sta. Brixton and S. Stockwell Sta. Loughborough Junction Sta. Camberwell New Road Sta. Walworth Road Sta. Elephant and Castle Sta. Borough Road Sta. Blackfriars Bridge Sta. Cross the Thames. LUDGATE HILL. Bridge-street. Terminus in H. METROPOLITAN AND ST. JOHN'S WOOD RAILWAY. 2 miles. Terminus in Baker Street. In D., see p. 54.* St. John's Wood Road Station. Marlborough Road Sta. , close to Eyre Arms. SwissCottage Station. Within 1 mile of Hampstead, across fields . I. WATERLOO TO KEW GARDENS AND RICHMOND, from Waterloo terminus of L. & S. W. Railway, hour. Vauxhall Station. Battersea Sta. , in D. Chelsea Sta. , in D. West Brompton Sta. Kensington (Addison Road) Sta. Hammersmith (Grove Road) Sta. Turnham Green Sta. Brentford Rd. Sta. , cross Thames . Kew Gardens Sta. , close to the New Cumberland Gate ofthe Botanic Gardens, on the road from Kew to Richmond. Richmond New Sta. K. EAST LONDON RAILWAY commences at the Wapping end of The Thames Tunnel, runs through it to Rotherhithe Station, [near which a branch goes to the New Cross station ofthe N. Kent and Brighton lines]. Old Kent Road Sta., Deptford, on S. London Railway. It crosses the Surrey Canal.

MODERN LONDON. 11.-PALACES OF THE SOVEREIGN AND ROYAL FAMILY. THE Town Palaces of the Sovereign are Buckingham Palace, in which her Majesty used to reside, in which her Draw- ing-rooms are usually held, St. James's Palace, the beautiful fragment of the Palace of Whitehall, used as a Chapel Royal, commonly known as Inigo Jones's Banqueting-house ; and the Palace at Kensington, in which her Majesty was born. 1. BUCKINGHAM PALACE, in St. James's Park, was com menced in the reign of George IV., on the site of Buckingham House, by John Nash, and completed in the reign of William IV. , but never inhabited by that sovereign, who is said to have expressed his great dislike to the general appear- ance and discomfort of the whole structure. When the first grant to George IV. was given by Parliament, it was intended only to repair and enlarge old Buckingham House ; and therefore the old site, height, and dimensions were retained. This led to the erection of a clumsy building, probably at a cost little inferior to that which would have produced an entirely new Palace. On her Majesty's accession several alterations were effected, and new buildings added, July, 1837. Greater changes have since taken place, by the removal of the Marble arch, and the erection, at a cost of 150,000l. , of an E. front, under the superintendence of Mr. Blore, by which the whole building was converted into a Quadrangle. The chapel on the S. side, originally a conservatory, was consecrated in 1843. The Grand Staircase is of white marble, with decorations by L. Gruner. The magnificent Ball-room, on the S. side, was finished, 1856, from Pennethorne's designs, and decorated withinby Gruner. B 2 II. BUCKINGHAM PALACE. The Green Drawing- room opening upon the upper story ofthe portico of the old building is 50 feet in length, and 32 in height. At state balls, to which the invitations often exceed 2000, those having the entrée alight at the temporary garden entrance, and the general circle enter by the grand hall. Visitors are conducted through the Green Drawing- room to the Picture Gallery and the Grand Saloon. On these occasions refreshments are served in the Garter-room and Green Drawing-room, and supper laid in the principal Dining- room. The concerts, invitations to which seldom exceed 300, are given in the Grand Saloon. The Throne-room is 64 feet in length, and hung with crimson satin, striped. The ceiling of the room is coved, and richly emblazoned with arms ; here is a white marble frieze (the Wars of the Roses), designed by Stothard and executed by Baily, R.A. The Queen has 325,000l. a year settled upon her, of which 60,000l. a year only is in her own hands ; the remainder is spent by the Lord Chamberlain of the Household, the Lord Steward of the Household, and other great officers attached to the Court. The pictures, principally collected by George IV. , include the choice collection of Sir Thomas Baring, chiefly Dutch and Flemish. They are almost without ex- ception first-rate works. The portraits are in the State Rooms adjoining. Among the best areALBERT DURER: An Altar Piece in three parts. -MABUSE: St. Matthew called from the receipt of Custom. -REMBRANDT : Noli me Tangere ; Adoration of the Magi ; The Ship-builder and his wife (very fine, cost George IV. when Prince of Wales, 5000 guineas ) ; Burgomaster Pancras and his Wife.-RUBENS : Pythagoras, the fruit and animals by SNYDERS ; A Landscape ; The Assumption of the Virgin ; St. George and the Dragon; Pan and Syrinx ; The Falconer ; Family of Olden Barneveldt. --VAN DYCK : Marriage of St. Catherine ; Christ healing the Lame Man; Study of Three Horses ; Portrait of a Man in black ; Queen Henri- etta Maria presenting Charles I. with a crown of laurel. -MYTENS : Charles I. and his Queen, full-length figures in a small picture.-JANSEN : Charles I. walking in Greenwich Park with his Queen and two children. -N. MAES : A Young Woman, with her finger on her lip and in a listening attitude, stealing down a dark winding Staircase. -Several fine specimens of CUYP, HOBBEMA, RUYSDAEL, A. VANDERVELDE, YOUNGER VANDERVELDE, PAUL POTTER, BACKHUYSEN, BERGHEM, BOTH, G. DOUW, KAREL DU JARDIN, DE HOOGHE, METZU (his own portrait) , T. MIERIS, A. OSTADE, I. OSTADE, SCHALKEN, JAN STEEN, TENIERS, FERBURG, &c. - SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS : Death of Dido ; Cymon and Iphi- genia; His own portrait, in spectacles .-ZOFFANY : Interior of the Florentine Gallery ; Royal Academy in 1773.-SIR P. LELY : Anne Hyde, Duchess of York. -SIR D. WILKIE : The Penny Wedding ; Blind Man's Buff; Duke of Sussex in Highland dress -SIR W. ALLAN: The Orphan ; Anne Scott near the vacant chair of her father, Sir Walter Scott. N.B.-The interior ofthe Palace is not shown. II. OPENING OF PARLIAMENT. -ST. JAMES'S PALACE. 3 When Parliament is opened, or prorogued, or dissolved, by her Majesty in person, the following is the order observed :- The Queen leaves Buckingham Palace at a quarter before 2, being conducted to her carriage by the Lord Chamberlain and the Vice-Chamberlain, and her Crown carried to the House of Lords by one of the Lord Chamberlain's chief officers. The State procession includes a carriage drawn by 6 bays, conveying 3 gentlemen ushers and the Exon in waiting ; a carriage drawn by 6 bays, conveying the Groom in wait- ing, and the Pages of Honour in waiting ; a carriage drawn by 6 bays, conveying the Equerry in waiting, and the Groom of the Robes ; a carriage drawn by 6 bays, conveying the Clerk Marshal, the Silver Stick in waiting, the Field Officer in waiting, and the Comptroller of the Household ; a carriage drawn by 6 bays, conveying the Captain of the Yeomen of the Guard, the Lord in waiting, and the Treasurer of the Household ; a carriage drawn by 6 black horses, conveying the Mistress of the Robes, the Lord Steward, and the Gold Stick in waiting. Here the carriage procession is broken by the Queen's Marshalmen on foot, the Queen's Footmen in State Liveries, and a party of the Yeomen of the Guard or Beefeaters. Then follows the State Coach drawn by 8 cream- coloured horses, conveying the Queen, and members of the Royal Family, or in their absence, the Mistress of the Robes, and the Master of the Horse, escorted by a detachment of the Horse Guards. ROYAL STABLES. -The Mews, concealed from the Palace by a lofty mound, contains a spacious riding- school ; a room expressly for keeping state harness ; stables for the state horses ; and houses for 40 carriages. Here, too, is kept the magnificent state coach, designed by Sir W. Chambers in 1762, and painted by Cipriani with a series of emblematical subjects ; the entire cost being 76617. 16s. 5d. The stud of horses and the carriage may be inspected by an order from the Master of the Horse. The entrance is in Queen's- row, Pimlico. 2. ST. JAMES'S PALACE. An irregular brick building at the bottom of St. James's Street, was the only London Palace of our Sovereigns from the time of the burning of Whitehall, in the reign of William III. , to the occupation of Buckingham Palace by her present Majesty. It was first made a manor by Henry VIII. , and was previously an hospital dedicated to St. James, and founded for fourteen sisters, "maidens that were leprous." When Henry altered or re- B 2 4 II. ST. JAMES'S PALACE. built it, (it is uncertain which, ) he annexed the present Park, closed it about with a wall of brick, and thus connected the manor of St. James's with the manor or Palace of Whitehall. Little remains of the old Palace but the dingy, patched-up brick gateway towards St. James's-street, contiguous to which is the Chapel Royal, bearing, in the chimney- piece of the old Presence- chamber, the initials H. A. (Henry and Anne Boleyn). The watching of the Palace is entrusted to the Household Brigade of Guards, and the guard is changed every day at a quarter to 11, when the band plays in the outer or E. court for about a quarter of an hour. The stranger should see this once. In the Great Council- chamber the odes of the Poets Laureate were formerly performed and sung, before the King and Queen. Queen Mary I. and Henry, Prince of Wales, eldest son of James I., died here. Charles II. was born here. Here Charles I. passed his last night before his execution, walking the next morning "from St. James's through the Park, guarded with a regiment of foot and par- tisans," to the scaffold before Whitehall. Monk took up his quarters in " St. James's House," while his plans for the Restoration were as yet undecided. James II.'s son, by Mary of Modena, the old Pretender, was born here. A contemporary plan of the Palace is dotted with lines, to show the way in which the child was said to have been con- veyed in the warming-pan to her Majesty's bed in the Great Bed-chamber, pulled down in 1822. Queen Anne (then the Princess Anne) describes St. James's Palace " as much the properest place to act such a cheat in." Here died Caroline, Queen of George II.; and here George IV. was born. In the dingy brick house on the west side of the Am- bassadors' Court, Marshal Blucher was lodged in 1814. He was so popular that he had to show himself every day many times to the mob, who were content to wait until the court was filled, when he was vociferously called forward to the window to be cheered. Every information respecting the mode of presentation at Court may be obtained at the offices of the Lord Steward at Buckingham Palace, and of the Lord Chamberlain, in St. James's Palace. Levees are for the presentation ofgentlemen only ; Drawing- rooms are for introducing ladies (principally) and are attended by few gentlemen. The days on which they take place are advertised in the morning and evening 11.-PRESENTATION AT COURT. -WHITEHALL. 5 papers, with the necessary directions about carriages, &c. , some days before. The greatest occasion in every year is on Her Majesty's birthday (which is made a kind of movable feast) , but presentations do not take place on that day. Any subject of Great Britain, who has been presented at St. James's, can claim to be presented, through the English ambassador, at any foreign court. The names of gentle- men wishing to be presented, with the name of the noble- man or gentleman who is to present them, must be sent to the Lord Chamberlain's office several days previous to presentation, in order that they may be submitted for the Queen's approbation, it being Her Majesty's command that no presentation shall be made at any Levees but in con- formity with the above regulations. Noblemen and gentle- men are also requested to bring with them two cards, with their names clearly written thereon, one to be left with the Queen's Page in attendance in the Presence-chamber, and the other to be delivered to the Lord Chamberlain, who will announce the name to Her Majesty. On the presentation of Addresses to Her Majesty, no comments are suffered to be made. Adeputation to present an Address must not ex- ceed four persons. In the CHAPEL ROYAL, entered from the Colour Court of the Palace, Her Majesty Victoria, and various Princes and Princesses of her line were married. On the festival of the Epiphany, Her Majesty presents to the altar, through two Gentlemen of the Court, gifts of gold, frankincense, and myrrh. The roof is of very elegant Holbeinesque design. The seats in this chapel are appropriated to the nobility. Service is performed at 10 a.m., 12 noon, and 5 p.m. Admittance for strangers, very limited, by tickets from the Lord Chamberlain, or Bishop of London. The service is chaunted by the boys ofthe Chapel Royal. 3. WHITEHALL. The Palace of the Kings of England from Henry VIII. to William III. , of which nothing remains but Inigo Jones's Banqueting-house, James II.'s statue, and the memory of what was once the Privy Garden, in a row of houses, so styled, looking upon the Thames. It was originally called York House; was delivered and demised to Henry VIII. , on the disgrace of Cardinal Wolsey, Archbishop of York, and then first called Whitehall. Henry VIII.'s Whitehall was a building in the Tudor or Hampton Court style of architec- ture, with a succession of galleries and courts, a large Hall, a 6 II.-WHITEHALL. Chapel, Tennis- court, Cockpit, Orchard, and Banqueting- house. James I. intended to have rebuilt the whole Palace, and Inigo Jones designed a new Whitehall for that King worthy of our nation and his own great name. But nothing was built beyond the present Banqueting-house, deservedly looked upon as a model of Palladian architecture, and one ofthe finest buildings in the whole of London. Charles I. contemplated a similar reconstruction, but poverty at first prevented him, and the Civil War soon after was a more effectual prohibition. Charles II. preserved what money he could spare from his pleasures to build a palace at Win- chester. James II. was too busy about religion to attend to architecture, and in William III.'s reign the whole of Whitehall, except the Banqueting-house, was destroyed by fire. William talked of rebuilding it after Inigo's designs, but nothing was done. Anne, his successor, took up her abode in St. James's Palace, and Vanbrugh built a house at White- hall out of the ruins-the house ridiculed by Swift with such inimitable drollery. The present Banqueting-house was designed by Inigo Jones, between 1619 and 1622. The master-mason was Nicholas Stone, the sculptor of the fine monument to Sir Francis Vere in Westminster Abbey. The Hall is exactly a double cube, being 111 feet long, 55 feet 6 inches high, and 55 feet 6 inches wide. King Charles I. was executed on a scaffold erected in front ofthe Banqueting-house, towards the Park. The warrant directs that he should be executed " in the open street before Whitehall." Lord Leicester, in his Journal ; Dugdale, in his Diary ; and a Broadsheet of the time, preserved in the British Museum, concur in the statement that "the King was be- headed at Whitehall-gate," and it is confirmed by a print of the execution published at Amsterdam the same year. There cannot, therefore, be a doubt that the scaffold was erected in front of the building facing the present Horse Guards. It appears from Herbert's minute account of the King's last moments, that " the King was led all along the galleries and Banqueting-house, and there was a passage broken through the wall, by which the King passed unto the scaffold.". The ceiling of the Banqueting-house is lined with pictures on canvas, representing the apotheosis of James I., painted abroad by Rubens, in 1635. Kneller had heard that Rubens was assisted by Jordaens in the execution. The sum he received was 30007. "What, " says Walpole, " had the Ban- queting- house been if completed ! Van Dyck was to have painted the sides with the history and procession of the 11.-WHITEHALL-KENSINGTON PALACE. Order of the Garter." Within, and over the principal en- trance, is a bust, in bronze, of James I., by Le Sœur, it is said. The Banqueting-house was converted into a chapel in the reign of George I. , and altered as we now see it, between 1829 and 1837, by Sir Robert Smirke. It has never been consecrated. Here, on every Maunday Thursday, (the day before Good Friday, ) the Queen's elee- mosynary bounty (a very old custom) is distributed to poor and aged men and women. The statue ofJames II. , in the court behind the Banqueting- house, was the work of Grinling Gibbons, and was set up while the King was reigning, at the charge of an old servant of the crown called Tobias Rustat. Nothing can illustrate better the mild character of the Revolution of 1688, than the fact that the statue of the abdicated and exiled King was allowed to stand, and still stands, in the innermost court-yard of what was once his own Palace. 4. KENSINGTON PALACE is a large and irregular edifice, originally the seat of Heneage Finch, Earl of Nottingham and Lord Chancellor of England ; whose son, the second earl, sold it to King William III. , soon after his accession to the throne. The lower portion of the building was part of Lord Nottingham's house ; the higher story was added by William III., from the designs of Wren, and the N.W. angle by George II. , as a Nursery for his children . William III. and Queen Mary, Queen Anne, her husband Prince George of Denmark, and King George II. , all died in this Palace. Her present Majesty was born in it, (1819, ) and here (1837) she held her first Council. The Duke of Sussex, son of George III. , lived, died, and had his fine library in this Palace. Caroline of Brunswick, Princess of Wales, had apartments here. The Orangery, a very fine detached room, was built by Wren. The last memorable interview between Queen Anne and the Duchess of Marlborough took place in this palace. The collection of pictures (long famous and still known as the Kensington Collection to the readers of Walpole) has been removed to other palaces ; and the kitchen-garden has been built over with two rows of de- tached mansions, called "' Palace-gardens. " MARLBOROUGH HOUSE, Pall Mall, St. James's ; the residence of H.R.H. Albert Edward Prince of Wales. Built 1709-10 by Sir C. Wren for John Churchill, the great Duke of Marlborough, on ground leased to him by Queen Anne. The body of the great duke was brought hither from II.-MARLBOROUGH HOUSE. Windsor-his duchess died in this house. She used to speak of her neighbour George, meaning the King in St. James's Palace, and here she is described as receiving a deputation of the Lord Mayor and sheriffs, " sitting up in her bed in her usual manner." The Pall-mall entrance to the house being, as it still is , extremely bad, the duchess designed a new one, and was busy trying to effect the necessary purchases when Sir Robert Walpole, wishing to vex her, stept in and bought the very leases she was looking after. The sham archway, facing the principal entrance to the house, forms a sort of screen to the parlour in Pall-mall. This was turning the tables on the duchess, who had employed Wren to vex Vanbrugh. Marlborough House was bought by the Crown in 1817 for the Princess Charlotte and Prince Leopold. The Princess died before the assignment was effected, but the Prince (subsequently King of the Belgians) lived here for several years, and afterwards Queen Adelaide, widow of William IV. It was lent for the purposes of a Gallery to contain the Vernon and Turner pictures, and other collections, down to 1859, when they were removed to the South Kensington Museum. III.-LAMBETH PALACE. 6 III.-HOUSES OF THE PRINCIPAL NOBILITY AND GENTRY. LAMBETH PALACE, on the S. side of the Thames over- against the Palace at Westminster, has been the palace of the Archbishops of Canterbury from at least the 13th cen- tury, and exhibits various gradations in its architecture, from E. Eng. to late Perpr. or Jacobean. It is entered through a Gothic Gatehouse of red brick, the lower floor of which was used as a prison, near the parish church. It was built by Archbp. and Card. Morton (d. 1500) . The Chapel, the oldest part, was built by Boniface, Archbishop of Canterbury, (1244-70). It is elegant Early English, with lancet windows and a crypt. There is an oak screen with the arms of Archbishop Laud, by whom it was erected. Before the altar is the grave of Archbishop Parker (d. 1575) . In this chapel all the archbishops have been consecrated since the time of Boniface. The stained glass windows were destroyed in the Civil Wars, and are feelingly lamented by Laud in the History of the Troubles. The glass now in the windows was placed there by Archbp. Howley. In a well- preserved but now dark crypt, plain stone vaulted, rest- ing on detached columns, the Trial of Queen Catherine of Arragon is said to have taken place. The Lollards Tower at the W. end of the chapel, was built by Archp. Chicheley, 1434-45, and so called from the Lollards, who are said to have been imprisoned in it, but rather were sheltered in it from the tender mercies of the civil power, which would have soon burned them in Smithfield . At the top is a small room (13 feet by 12, and about 8 feet high) called the prison, wainscotted with oak above an inch thick, on which several names and broken sentences in old characters are cut, as "Chessam Doctor," " Peiit Iouganham," "Ihs cyppe me out ofall el compane, amen,""John Worth," "Nosce Teipsum," &c. The large iron rings in the wall seem to sanction the sup- posed appropriation of the room. The Post-room in this tower contains an ornamented flat ceiling, of uncommon occurrence. The Hall, 93 feet by 38, was built by Archbp. Juxon, who attended Charles I. to the scaffold. Over the door (inside) are his arms and the date 1663. The roofis of oak, with alouvre or lantern in the centre for the escape of smoke. It is 10 III.-LAMBETH.-APSLEY HOUSE. a singular intermixture of classical framework with Gothic windows and details. In the bay window are the arms of Philip II. of Spain (the husband of Queen Mary) ; of Arch- bishops Bancroft, Laud, and Juxon. In this hall, since 1828, is placed the very valuable Library, of about 30,000 volumes, open to students Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, 10 to 3, was founded by Archbishop Bancroft (d. 1610) ; en- riched by Archbishop Abbot (d. 1633) ; and enlarged by Archbishops Tenison and Secker. It is rich in Historical and State Letters ( MSS. ) . It has a good number of Illuminated Service Books, and some fine Oriental MSS. Curiosities : - A MS. of Lord Rivers's translation of The Dictes and Sayings ofthe Philosophers, containing an illumination of the earl introducing Caxton, the printer, to Edward IV. Among many beautifully illuminated MSS. are the Gospels of Mac- Durnan ; Irish art of the 9th century ; the Mazarine Testa- ments printed on vellum and illuminated ; the Limogen Missal Apocalypse, 13th century ; the St. Alban's Chronicle. Here are numerous Autograph Letters of Lord Bacon. Of the English books in the library printed before 1600, there is a valuable catalogue by Dr. Maitland, many years librarian. The habitable Palace was rebuilt by Archbishop How- ley from the designs of Edward Blore. The walls are hung with a long series of portraits of the Archbishops, among which may be specified those of Archbp. Chicheley, of Archbp. Warham (a genuine Holbein, and of Tillotson, by Mrs. Beale. The income of the Archbishop of Canterbury is 15,000l. a year. In the parish church of Lambeth, adjoining the red brick gateway, several Archbishops of Canterbury are buried ; also Tradescant and Ashmole-the former in the churchyard, with altar-tomb (restored 1853) , the latter in the church with grave-stone. LONDON HOUSE, No. 22, ST. JAMES'S SQUARE, town residence of the Bishop of London. It has no architectural pretensions. The income of the Bishop is fixed at 10,0007. a year. The house belongs to the See. APSLEY HOUSE, HYDE PARK CORNER.-The London residence, 1820-1852, of Field Marshal the Duke of Wellington, built by Henry Bathurst, Baron Apsley, and Lord High Chancellor, (d. 1794,) the son of Pope's friend. The house, originally of red brick, was faced with Bath III.-APSLEY HOUSE. 11 stone in 1828, when the front portico and the W. wing, containing a gallery 90 feet long, (to the W., ) were added for the great Duke by Messrs. S. & B. Wyatt ; but the old house is intact. The iron blinds-bullet-proof-put up bythe great Duke during the ferment ofthe Reform Bill, when his windows were broken and at least one of his pictures damaged by stones thrown by a London mob, -were taken down in 1855 by the present Duke. - Observe. -George IV. , full-length, in a Highland costume ( Wilkie).— William IV., full-length ( Wilkie) .- Sarah, the first Lady Lyndhurst (Wilkie). This picture was penetrated by a stone, thrown by the mob through a broken window, in the Reform Riot, but the injury has been skilfully repaired . -Emperor Alexander.-Kings of Prussia, France, and the Netherlands, full-lengths. - Full lengths of Lord Lynedoch, Marquis of Anglesey, Marquis Wellesley, &c.-Head of Marshal Soult.- Two full length portraits of Napoleon, one consulting a map.- Bust of Sir Walter Scott ( Chantrey) .- Bust of Pitt (Nollekens).-Bust of Duke (Nollekens). Small bronze of Blucher (Rauch) .- Battle of Waterloo, Napoleon in the foreground (Sir W. Allan). The Duke, bought this picture at the Exhibition ; he is said to have called it " good, very good, not too much smoke." -Many portraits of Napoleon, one by David; extremely good . Wilkie's Chelsea Pensioners reading the Gazette of the Battle of Waterloo, painted for the Duke.-Burnet's Greenwich Pensioners celebrating the Anniversary of the Battle of Trafalgar, bought of Burnet by the Duke. Portraits of veterans in both pictures.-Van Amburgh and the Lions ( Sir E. Landseer) .- Highland Whiskey Still (Ditto).- Meet at Melton Mowbray (F. Grant) .- Colossal marble statue of Napoleon, by Canova, with a figure of Victory on a globe in his hand, presented in 1817 to the Duke by the Prince Regent. -Bust of Pauline Buonaparte ( Canova) , a present from Canova to the Duke.-Christ on the Mount of Olives ( Correggio, ) the most celebrated picture of Cor- reggio in this country ; on panel, captured in Spain, in the carriage of Joseph Buonaparte ; restored by the captor to Ferdinand VII., but with others, under like circumstances, again presented to the Duke by that sovereign. An Annunciation, after M. Angelo, of which the original drawing is in the Uffizj at Florence. -The Water-seller ( Velas- quez).-Two fine portraits by Velasquez, of himself, ( and of Pope Innocent X. ) - A fine Spagnoletto.- Small sea-piece, by Claude. - A large and good Jan Steen ( a Wedding Feast, dated 1667) .-A Peasant's Wedding (Teniers) .- Boors Drinking ( 4. Ostade) .- The celebrated Terburg (the Signing the Peace of Westphalia), from the Talleyrand Collection. This picture hung inthe room in which the allied sovereigns signed the treaty of Paris, in 1814.-A fine Philip Wouvermans (the Re- turn from the Chase) .- View of Veght, Vanderheyden. The Crown's interest in the house was sold to the great Duke for the sum of 9530l.; the Crown reserving a right to forbid the erection of any other house or houses on the site. Marshal Soult, when ambassador from France at the Queen's Coronation, was entertained by the Duke in this house. The room in which the Waterloo banquet was held every 18th 12 III.-NORTHUMBERLAND HOUSE. of June is the great west room on the drawing- room floor, with its seven windows looking into Hyde Park. NORTHUMBERLAND HOUSE, CHARING CROSS, the town-house of the Duke of Northumberland, (with rich central gateway, surmounted by the Lion crest of the Percies, ) was sold on the strength of an Act of Parliament to the Board of Works for 250,000l. , 1873, to be pulled down in order to make an approach from Charing Cross to the Thames Embankment. It was built by Henry Howard, Earl of Northampton, Bernard Jansen and Gerard Christmas being, it is said, his architects. The Earl of Northampton left it, in 1614, to his nephew, Thomas Howard, Earl of Suffolk, when it received the name of Suffolk House, by which name it was known until 1642, when Algernon Percy, tenth Earl of Northumberland, bought it for 15,000l., and called it Northumberland House. Josceline Percy, eleventh Earl of Northumberland, (son of the before-mentioned Algernon Percy, ) dying in 1670, without issue male, it became the property of his only daughter, Elizabeth, heiress of the Percy estates, afterwards married to Charles Seymour, commonly called the proud Duke of Somerset, who here lived in great state and magnificence. The date, 1749, on the façade, refers to the work of repara- tion ; and the letters A. S. , P. N., stand for Algernon Somerset, Princeps Northumbria. Observe. The celebrated Cornaro Family, by Titian. Evelyn saw it here in 1658. It has been much touched upon. St. Sebastian bound, on the ground ; in the air two angels : a clear, well-executed picture, by Guercino, with figures as large as life. A small Adoration of the Shepherds, by Giacomo Bassano. Three half figures in one picture, by Dobson, representing Sir Charles Cotterell, embraced by Dobson and Sir Balthazar Gerbier in a white waistcoat. A Fox and a Deer Hunt ; two admirable pictures by Franz Snyders. A genuine but ordinary Holy Family, by J. Jordaens. A pretty Girl, with a candle, before which she holds her hands, by G. Schalken. The School of Athens, after Raphael, copied by Mengs in 1755, and the best copy ever made of this celebrated picture. View of Alnwick, by Canaletti, valuable as showing the state of the building, circ. 1750 ; full-length portrait of Edward VI. when a boy of six or seven, assigned to Mabuse, and curious -he is in a red dress. A large and fine Ruysdael. Josceline, 11th Earl of Northumberland, by Wissing (oval). Portrait of Napoleon when First Consul, by T. Phillips, R.A., taken from repeated observation of Napoleon's face. All that is old of the present building is the portal towards the Strand ; but even of this there is a good deal that is new. III.-DEVONSHIRE HOUSE.-STAFFORD HOUSE. 13 The house is massively furnished and in good taste. The stair- case is stately, the Pompeian room most elegant, and the state Drawing-room, with its ten lights to the E., and its noble copies after Raphael, is not to be matched in London for mag- nificence. Many of the fire- places, fenders, and fire-irons are of silver. The large Sèvres vase in the centre of the great room was presented by Charles X. to a former Duke when representative of Great Britain at Charles's coronation in 1825. It was broken to pieces at the fire of 1868, but admirably repaired by Daniell of Bond-street. DEVONSHIRE HOUSE, PICCADILLY. A good, plain, well-proportioned brick building, built by William Kent, for William Cavendish, third duke of Devonshire (d. 1755) . It stands on the site of Berkeley House, destroyed by fire in 1733, and is said to have cost the sum of 20,000%. , exclusive of 1000l. presented to the architect by the duke. Observe.- Very fine full-length portraits, on one canvas, of the Prince and Princess of Orange, by Jordaens: Fine three- quarter portrait of Lord Richard Cavendish, by Sir Joshua Reynolds ; fine three-quarter portrait, in black dress, by Tintoretto ; Sir Thomas Browne, author of Religio Medici, and family, by Dobson; fine male portrait, by Lely. Portrait of the Earl of Burlington, the architect, by Kneller. The Devonshire Gems-a noble collection. The " Kemble Plays ”—a match- less series of old English plays, with a rich collection of the first editions of Shakspeare, -formed by John Philip Kemble, and bought, for 20007., at his death. The portico is modern, and altogether out of keeping with the rest of the building. The old entrance, taken down in 1840, was by a flight of steps on each side. The magnificent marble staircase at the back of the house, with its glass balustrade, was erected by the late duke. The grand saloon (part of Kent's design) is decorated in the style of Le Brun. The grounds extend to Lansdowne House. STAFFORD HOUSE, in ST. JAMES'S PARK, between St. James's Palace and the Green Park, was built, for the Duke of York, (second son of George III. ,) with money advanced for that purpose by the Marquis of Stafford, after- wards first Duke of Sutherland (d. 1833) . The Duke of York did not live to inhabit it, and the Crown lease was sold in 1841 to the Duke of Sutherland, for the sum of 72,000l. , and the purchase-money spent in the formation of Victoria Park. The upper story was added by the duke of S. This is said to be the finest private mansion in the 14 III.-NORFOLK HOUSE. metropolis. The great dining- room is worthy of Versailles. The internal arrangements were planned by Sir Charles Barry. The pictures, too, are very fine ; but the collection distributed throughout the house is private, and admission is obtained only by the express invitation or permission of the duke. The Sutherland Gallery, as it is called, is a noble room, 126 feet long by 32 feet wide. ObserveRAPHAEL : Christ bearing his Cross ; a small full-length figure, seen against a skyback-ground between two pilasters, from Ricciardi Palace at Florence.-G. B. MORONI : Portrait of a Jesuit, perhaps the finest work here. -GUIDO : Head of the Magdalen ; Study for the large picture of Atalanta in the Royal Palace at Naples ; the Circumcision . - GUERCINO : St. Gregory ; St. Grisogono ; a Landscape. -PARMEGIANO : Head of a Young Man (very fine ).-TINTORETTO : A Lady at her Toilet. -TITIAN : Mercury teaching Cupid to read in the presence of Venus (an Orleans picture, figures life- size) ; St. Jerome in the Desert ; three Portraits.- MURILLO (5 ) : Two from Marshal Soult's Collection : the Return of the Prodigal Son (a composition of nine figures) ; Abraham and the Angels, cost 30007.-F. ZURBARAN (4) : Three from Soult's Collection (very fine). -VELASQUEZ ( 2) : Duke of Gandia at the Door of a Convent ; eight figures, life- size, from the Soult Collection ; Landscape.-ALBERT DURER : the Death ofthe Virgin.-HONTHORST : Christ before Pilate ( Honthorst's chef d'œuvre), from the Lucca Collection. -N. POUSSIN (3).- G. POUSSIN (1) -RUBENS (4) : Holy Family ; Marriage of St. Catharine ; Sketch, en grisaille, for the great picture in the Louvre, of the Marriage of Henry IV. and Marie de Medicis. -VAN DYCK (4) ; Thomas Howard, Earl of Arundel, in an arm-chair (very fine, and finely engraved by Sharp) ; two Portraits ; St. Martin dividing his Cloak (in a circle) .-WATTEAU (5) ; all fine.-D. TENIERS ( 2) : a Witch performing her Incantations ; Ducks in a Reedy Pool. -TERBURG : Gentleman bowing to a Lady (very fine) .- SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS : Dr. Johnson without his Wig, and with his hands up. -SIR D. WILKIE : the Breakfast Table (painted for the first Duke of Sutherland ) .- SIR T. LAWRENCE : Lady Gower and Child. -E. BIRD, R.A.: Day after the Battle of Chevy Chase.-SIR E. LAND- SEER, R.A.: Lord Stafford and Lady Evelyn Gower (now Lady Blantyre). -W. ETTY, R.A.: Festival before the Flood. -JOHN MARTIN : the As- suaging of the Waters.-PAUL DELAROCHE : Lord Strafford on his way to the Scaffold receives the blessing of Archbishop Laud.-WINTER- HALTER Scene from the Decameron. -A collection of 150 portraits , illustrative of French history and French memoirs. The land on which Stafford House stands belongs to the Crown, and the duke pays an annual ground-rent for the same of 7581. It stands partly on the site of Godolphin House, and partly on the site oftheLibrary built bythe Queen of George II. At least 250,000l. have been spent on Stafford House. NORFOLK HOUSE, in the S.-E. corner of ST. JAMES'S SQUARE, was so called from the seventh Duke of Norfolk, who died here, 1701. It was built by Payne. The interior is handsome, the first floor consisting of a fine set ofdrawing- 111.-MONTAGUE HOUSE. - GROSVENOR HOUSE. 15 rooms toward the square, terminated by a magnificent dining- hall, lined with mirrors, the roof of which is very rich and beautiful. The arrangements of the house are not such as will allow of its being shown. In the rear is part of an older house in which Henry Jermyn, Earl of St. Alban, of the time of Charles II. , lived, and in which George III. was born. In it are preserved the very valuable records of the great historical family of the Howards, and of those of Fitzalan and Mow- bray, which have merged into it. Observe.-Portrait of the First Duke of Norfolk (Howard), three- quarter length, in robes, with a marshal's staff in his hand, Holbein ; -portraits of Bishop Trieste, and of Henrietta Maria, in a green dress, Van Dyck; -portrait of his wife, by Rubens ; two very fine landscapes, by Salv. Rosa ; the Crucifixion, a curious picture, by that rare master, Lucas v. Leyden ; Family of the Earl of Arundel, the collector ; small figures, by Mytens ; Shield given by the Grand Duke of Tuscany to the ill-fated Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, at a tournament in Florence, in 1537, painted in the style of Perino del Vaga. MONTAGUE HOUSE, between WHITEHALL GARDENS and RICHMOND TERRACE, the town-house of the Duke of Buccleuch, who inherits it from the noble family of Mon- tague. Was rebuilt 1859-62, from designs of William Burn, architect. The site belongs to the Crown. It contains some dark but good pictures by Van Dyck : viz. full- length of Duke of Hamilton in armour (hand leaning on a helmet) , front face, buff boots, hair over forehead, (very fine) ; full-length of Lord Holland, -slashed sleeves, hair short on forehead ; full-length of Duke of Richmond, in complete black-yellow hair over shoulders, brownish back-ground. 35 sketches (en grisaille), by Van Dyck, made for the series of portraits etched in part by Van Dyck, and published by Martin Vanden Enden ; they belonged to Sir Peter Lely. One of Canaletti's finest pictures, a view of Whitehall, showing Holbein's gateway, Inigo's Banqueting-house, and the steeple of St. Martin's-in- the- Fields with the scaffolding about it. A noble collec- tion of English miniatures, from Isaac Oliver's time to the time of Zincke. GROSVENOR HOUSE, UPPER GROSVENOR STREET. The town-house of the Marquis of Westminster. The handsome screen of classic pillars, with its double archway dividing the court-yard from the street, was added in 1842. Here is the Grosvenor Gallery of Pictures, founded by Richard, first Earl 16 III. LANSDOWNE HOUSE. Grosvenor, and augmented by his son, and grandson, the present noble owner. Rubens and Claude are seen to great advantage. ObserveRAPHAEL (5) : but, according to Passavant, not one by Raphael's own hand.-MURILLO (3) : one a large Landscape with Figures.-VELASQUEZ (2) : his own Head in a Cap and Feathers ; Prince of Spain on Horseback, small full-length.-TITIAN (3) : the Woman taken in Adultery; a Grand Landscape ; the Tribute Money.-PAUL VERONESE ( 3) : Virgin and Child ; the Annunciation ; Marriage at Cana ; small finished Study for the Picture at Venice.-GUIDO (5) : Infant Christ Sleeping (fine, engraved by Strange) ; La Fortuna ; St. John Preaching ; Holy Family; Adoration ofthe Shepherds.-SALVATOR ROSA (4) : one, his own Portrait. -CLAUDE (10) : all important, and not one sea-piece among them.-- N. POUSSIN (4) : Infants at Play (fine) .-G. POUSSIN (3) .-LE BRUN ( 1) : Alexander in the Tent of Darius (finished Study for the large picture in the Louvre).-REMBRANDT (7) : his own Portrait ; Portrait of Berghem : Ditto of Berghem's Wife ; the Salutation of Elizabeth (small and very fine) ; a Landscape with figures. -RUBENS ( 11 ) : Sarah dismissing Hagar ; Ixion ; Rubens and his first wife, Elizabeth Brandt ; Two Boy Angels ; Landscape ( small and fine) ; the Wise Men's Offering ; Conversion of St. Paul ( sketch for Mr. Miles's picture at Leigh Court) ; Four Colossal Pictures, painted when Rubens was in Spain, in 1629, and bought by Earl Grosvenor, in 1810, for 10,000 . - VAN DYCK (2 ) : Virgin and Child ; Portrait of Nicholas Laniere (this picture induced Charles I. to invite Van Dyck to England).-PAUL POTTER (1 ) : Viewover the Meadows of a Dairy Farm near the Hague, Sunset (fine).-HOBBEMA ( 2) .—Gerard Douw (1 ) .-CUYP (4) .— SNYDERS ( 2) .-TENIERS ( 3) .—VAN HUYSUM ( 1).— VANDERVELDE ( 1 ).- WOUVERMANS (1 ) : a Horse Fair.-HOGARTH (2) : the Distressed Poet ; a Boy and a Raven. -SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS (8) : Mrs. Siddons, as the Tragic Muse, the original picture, cost 17607. (a masterpiece).-GAINSBOROUGH (3), all very fine : the Blue Boy ; the Cottage Door; a Coast Scene.-R. WILSON (1) : View on the River Dee. -B. WEST (5) : Battle of La Hogue ; Death of General Wolfe ; Wil- liam III. passing the Boyne ; Cromwell dissolving the Long Parliament; Landing of Charles II. Admission-On Thursdays between 2 and 5 in the months of May and June by order granted by the Marquis of Westminster. LANSDOWNE HOUSE, on the S. side of BERKELEY SQUARE, was built by Robert Adam for the Marquis of Bute, when minister to George III., and sold bythe marquis, before completion, to Lord Shelburne, afterwards Marquis of Lans- downe, for 22,000l. , which was supposed to be 30007. less than it cost. Priestley was living in Lansdowne House as librarian and philosophic companion to Lord Shelburne, when he made the discovery of oxygen. The first cabinet council of Lord Grey's administration was held in this house ; and here, at the same meeting, it was resolved that Brougham should be Lord Chancellor. The Sculpture Gallery, commenced 1778, contains the collection formed by Gavin Hamilton, long a resident in Rome. At the E. end is a large semicircular recess, containing the most important statues. Down the sides of the room are ranged the busts III. LANSDOWNE- BRIDGEWATER HOUSE. 17 and other objects of ancient art. Observe. -Statue of the Youthful Hercules, heroic size, found in 1790, with the Townley Discobolus, near Hadrian's Villa ; Mercury, heroic size, found at Tor Columbaro, on the Appian Way. Here is a statue of a Sleeping Female, the last work of Canova ; also, a copy of his Venus, the original of which is in the Pitti Palace at Florence. A marble statue of a Child holding an alms-dish, by Rauch of Berlin, will repay attention. The Collection of Pictures was formed by the 3rd Marquis, 1809-59. Observe.-St. John Preaching in the Wilderness, a small early picture by Raphael ; half-length of Count Federigo da Bozzola, by Seb. del Piombo; full-length of Don Justino Francisco Neve, by Murillo ; head of himself, head of the Count Duke d'Olivarez ( Velasquez) ; two good specimens of Schidone ; Peg Woffington, by Hogarth; 12 pictures by Sir Joshua Reynolds—including The Sleeping Girl, The Strawberry Girl, Hope Nursing Love, and the noble portrait of Laurence Sterne ; Sir Robert Walpole, and his first wife, Catherine Shorter, by Eckhart (in a frame by Gibbons from Strawberry Hill) ; full-length of Pope, by Jervas; Portrait of Flaxman, by Jackson, R.A.; Deer Stalkers returning from the hills (E. Landseer) ; Italian Peasants approaching Rome (Eastlake) ; Sir Roger de Coverley and the Spectator going to Church (C. R. Leslie) ; Sir Roger de Coverley and the Gipsies (ditto) ; Olivia's return to her Parents, from the Vicar of Wakefield (G. S. Newton, R.A.) ; Macheath in Prison (ditto). Some of these have been re- moved to Bowood in Wiltshire, the country seat of the noble Marquis. The iron bars at the two ends of Lans- downe- passage (a near cut from Curzon-street to Hay- hill) were put up, late in the last century, in consequence of a mounted highwayman, who had committed a robbery in Piccadilly, having escaped from his pursuers through this narrow passage, by riding his horse up the steps. BRIDGEWATER HOUSE, ST. JAMES's, fronts the Green Park, and was built 1846-51, from the designs of Sir Charles Barry, for Francis, Earl of Ellesmere, great nephew and principal heir of Francis Egerton, Duke of Bridgewater. The duke, dying in 1803, left his pictures, valued at 150,000l. , to his nephew, the first Duke of Sutherland (then Marquis of Stafford), with remainder to the marquis's second son, Francis, late Earl of Ellesmere. The collection contains 47 of the finest of the Orleans pictures ; and consists of 127 Italian, Spanish and French pictures; 158 Flemish, Dutch, C 18 III.-BRIDGEWATER HOUSE. and German pictures ; and 33 English and German pictures -some 322 in all. "There is a deficiency of examples of the older Italian and German schools in this collection ; but from the time of Raphael the series is more complete than in any private gallery I know, not excepting the Lichten- stein Gallery at Vienna. The Caracci school can nowhere be studied to more advantage."-Mrs. Jameson. Observe. (O. C. signifying Orleans Collection . ) RAPHAEL (4) : la Vierge au Palmier ( in a circle) ; one of two Madonnas painted at Florence in 1506 for his friend Taddeo Taddei, O.C.; la plus Belle des Vierges, O.C.; la Madonna del Passeggio, O.C .; la Vierge au Diademe ( from Sir J. Reynolds's collection ? ) .- S. DEL PIOMBO ( 1 ) ; the Entombment. -LUINI (1) : Female Head, O.C.-TITIAN (4) : Diana and Actæon, O.C., (very fine) ; Diana and Calisto, O.C., (very fine) ; the Four ages of Life, O.C .; Venus Rising from the Sea, O.C. -PAUL VE- RONESE ( 2 ) : the Judgment of Solomon ; Venus bewailing the death of Adonis, O.C.-TINTORETTO (3) : Portrait of a Venetian Gentleman, O.C.; the Presentation in the Temple ( small sketch) ; the Entombment, O.C. -VELASQUEZ (3) : Head of Himself; Philip IV. of Spain (small full- length) ; full-length of the natural son of the Duke d'Olivarez (life- size, and fine) .-SALV. ROSA ( 2) : les Augures (small oval, very fine).-GASPAR POUSSIN (4) : Landscapes. -N. POUSSIN (8) : The Seven Sacraments of the Roman Catholic Church, O.C.; Moses striking the Rock (very fine), O.C.-AN. CARACCI ( 7) : St. Gregory at Prayer; Vision of St. Francis, O.C .; Danäe, O.C.; St. John the Baptist, O.C.; same subject, O.C.; Christ on the Cross, O.C.; Diana and Calisto, O.C.-L. CARACCI ( 6) : Descent from the Cross, O.C.; Dream of St. Catherine ; St. Francis ; a Pietà ; 2 Copies after Correggio.-DOMENICHINO ( 5) .- GUIDO ( 2) : Infant Christ sleeping on the Cross, O.C.; Assumption of the Virgin (altar- piece) .- GUERCINO ( 2) : David and Abigail, O.C.; Saints adoring the Trinity (study).- BERGHEM (5) .- RUYSDAEL (6) .- CLAUDE (4) : Morning ( a little picture) ; Morning, with the story of Apuleius ; Evening, Moses beforethe Burning Bush ; Morning (composition picture) .-REMBRANDT (5) : Samuel and Eli ; Portrait of Himself; Portrait of a Burgomaster; Portrait of a Lady; Head ofa Man.-RUBENS (3) : St. Theresa(sketch ofthe large picture in the Museum at Antwerp) ; Mercury bearing Hebe to Olympus; Lady with a fan in her hand (half-length) .-VAN DYCK (1) : the Virgin and Child.- BACKHUYSEN (2) .- CUYP (6) : Landing of Prince Maurice at Dort (the masterpiece of this artist).-VANDERVELDE ( 7) : Rising of the Gale (very fine) ; Entrance to the Brill ; a Calm; Two Naval Battles ; a Fresh Breeze; View of the Texel. -TENIERS (8) : Dutch Kermis or Village Fair ( 76 figures) ; Village Wedding ; Winter Scene in Flanders, the Traveller ; Ninepins ; Alchymist in his Study ; Two Interiors. -JAN STEEN ( 2 ) : the Schoolmaster ( veryfine) ; the Fishmonger.-A. OSTADE (6) : Interior of a Cottage ; Lawyer in his Study ; Village Alehouse ; Dutch Peasant drinking a Health ; Tric-Trac ; Dutch Courtship.-G. Douw (3): Interior, with his own Portrait (very fine) ; Portrait of Himself; a Woman selling Herrings.-TERBURG ( 1 ) : Young Girl in white satin drapery.-N. MAES (1 ) : a Girl at Work (very fine) .- HOBBEMA (3).-METZU (3) .-PHILIP WOUVERMANS (4) .-PETER WOUVERMANS (1 ) Unknown (1) :-DOBSON ( 1 ) : Head of Cleveland, the poet. -LELY: Countess of Middlesex (elegant) .-RICHARD WILSON, R.A. (2) .-G. S. NEWTON, R.A. ( 1) : Young Lady hiding her face in grief. -J. M. W. TURNER, R.A. ( 1 ) : Gale at Sea, (nearly as fine as the fine Vandervelde in this collection , Rising of the Gale) .- F. STONE ( 1) : Scene from Philip Van Artevelde.-PAUL DELAROCHE ( 1 ) : Charles I.in the Guard- oom insulted by the soldiers of the Parliament. III. CHESTERFIELD HOUSE. 19 Thehouse stands on the site ofwhat was once Berkshire House, then Cleveland House, and afterwards Bridgewater House. Cards to view the Bridgewater Gallery can be obtained from Messrs. Smith, 137, New Bond- street. Days of admission, Mondays, Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Fridays, from 10 till 5-Catalogues may be had at Messrs. Smith's, and at the Gallery. CHESTERFIELD HOUSE, SOUTH AUDLEY- STREET, facing Hyde Park. The town-house of the Earl of Chesterfield, was sold, 1869, to Charles Magniac, Esq. , for 170,000l. , who has built a row of houses on the gardens behind. It was built by Isaac Ware, the editor of Palladio, for Philip, fourth Earl of Chesterfield, author of the celebrated Letters to his Son, and stands on ground belonging to Curzon, Earl Howe. The boudoir was called by Lord Chesterfield the gayest and most cheerful room in England, and the library the best. "In the magnificent mansion which the earl erected in Audley- street, you may still see his favourite apartments furnished and decorated as he left them-among the rest, what he boasted of as ' the finest room in London,' and perhaps even now it remains unsurpassed, his spacious and beautiful library, looking on the finest private garden in London. The walls are covered half way up with rich and classical stores of literature ; above the cases are in close series the portraits of eminent authors, French and English, with most of whom he had conversed ; over these, and immediately under the massive cornice, extend all round in foot-long capitals the Horatian lines :- NUNC . VETERUM . LIBRIS . NUNC . SOMNO. ET . INERTIBUS . HORIS. DUCERE . SOLICITE . JUCUNDA . OBLIVIA . VITÆ. On the mantel- pieces and cabinets stand busts of old orators, inter- spersed with voluptuous vases and bronzes, antique or Italian, and airy statuettes in marble or alabaster, of nude or seminude Opera nymphs. "We shall never recall that princely room without fancying Chesterfield receiving in it a visit of his only child's mother-while probably some new favourite was sheltered in the dim mysterious little boudoir within-which still remains also in its original blue damask and fretted gold-work, as described to Madame de Monconseil. " -Quarterly Review, No. 152, p. 484. Lord Chesterfield, in his Letters to his Son, speaks of the Canonical pillars of his house, meaning the columns brought from Canons, the seat of the Duke of Chandos. The grand staircase came from the same magnificent house. Observe.- Portrait of the poet Spenser ; Sir Thomas Lawrence's un- finished portrait of himself ; and a lantern of copper- gilt for 18 candles, bought by the Earl of Chesterfield at the sale at Houghton, the seat of Sir Robert Walpole. Stanhope- street, adjoining the house (also built by Lord Chesterfield), stands on ground belonging to the Dean and Chapter ofWestminster, Lord Chesterfield died (1773) in this house, desiring by will that his remains might be buried in the next burying- place to the place where he should die, and that the expense of his funeral might not exceed 1007. He was accordingly interred € 2 20 20 111.-HOLLAND HOUSE. in Grosvenor Chapel, in South Audley-street, but his remains were afterwards removed to Shelford in Nottinghamshire. HOLLAND HOUSE, KENSINGTON, two miles from Hyde- Park- corner (during the life of the late Lord Holland, the meeting- place for Whig politicians, for poets, painters, critics, and scholars) , a picturesque red brick and stone building, in Renaissance style, was built 1607 (John Thorpe, architect) for Sir Walter Cope, whose daughter and co-heir married Henry Rich (second son of Robert, Earl of Warwick) , created by King James I., Baron Kensington and Earl of Holland, and beheaded (1649) for services rendered to King Charles I. The widow of Robert Rich, Earl of Holland and Earl of Warwick, was married, in 1716, to Addison, the poet ; and here, at Holland House, occurred that "awful scene," as Johnson has called it, with the Earl of Warwick, a young man of very irregular life and loose opinions. "I have sent for you," said Addison, " that you may see how a Christian can die ! " after which he spoke with difficulty, and soon expired. On the death, in 1759, of Edward Rich, the last Earl of Holland and Warwick, the house descended by females to William Edwardes, created Baron Kensington, and by him was sold to Henry Fox, first Baron Holland of that name, and father of Charles James Fox. Lord Holland died here, July 1st, 1774. During his last illness, George Selwyn called and left his card ; Selwyn had a fondness for seeing dead bodies, and the dying lord, fully comprehending his feeling, is said to have remarked, " If Mr. Selwyn calls again, show him up ; if I am alive I shall be delighted to see him, and if I am dead he would like to see me." It contains a noble Library, of which John Allen was Librarian, and an interesting collection of family portraits. Chas. James Fox, as a youth, and his sisters, by Gainsborough. Chas. Fox, late in life, Addison (?). "It will be a great pity when this ancient house must come down, and give way to rows and crescents. It is not that Holland House is fine as a building on the contrary, it has a tumble-down look ; and although decorated with the bastard-gothic of James I.'s time, the front is heavy. But it resembles many respectable matrons, who, having been abso- lutely ugly during youth, acquire by age an air of dignity. But one is chiefly affected by the air of deep seclusion which is spread around the domain."-Sir Walter Scott. The stone gateway close to the house (on the east) was de- signed by Inigo Jones, and carved by Nicholas Stone, master- mason to James I. The raised terrace in front was made in 1847-48. William III. and his queen resided in Holland House while negotiating for the purchase of what is now Ken- sington Palace. III.-BATH HOUSE. 21 BATH HOUSE, PICCADILLY, No. 82, corner of Boltonstreet. The residence of Lord Ashburton, built by Alexander Baring, first Lord Ashburton (d. 1848) , on the site of the old Bath House, the residence of the Pulteneys. Here is a noble collection of Works of Art, selected with great good taste, and at a great expense. Pictures of the Dutch and Flemish Schools form the main part of the collection. Observe.-THORWALDSEN'S Mercury as the Slayer of Argus. " The transition from one action to another, as he ceases to play the flute and takes the sword, is expressed with incomparable animation."- Waagen.-LEONARDO DA VINCI ( ?) : the Infant Christ asleep in the arms of the Virgin; an Angel lifting the quilt from the bed .-LUINI : Virgin and Child. -CORREGGIO (?) : St. Peter, St. Margaret, St. Mary Magdalene, and Anthony of Padua.-GIORGIONE : a Girl, with a very beautiful profile, lays one hand on the shoulder of her lover.-TITIAN : the Daughter of Herodias with the head of St. John. -PAUL VERONESE : Christ on the Mount of Olives ( a cabinet picture) .-ANNIBALE CARACCI : the Infant Christ asleep, and three Angels.- DOMENICHINO : Moses before the Burning Bush.-GUERCINO : St. Sebastian mourned by two Angels (a cabinet picture) .- MURILLO : St. Thomas of Villa Nueva, as a child, distributes alms among four Beggar-boys ; the Madonna sur- rounded by Angels ; the Virgin and Child on clouds surrounded by three Angels ; Christ looking up to Heaven.-VELASQUEZ : a Stag Hunt.-RUBENS : the Wolf Hunt-a celebrated picture painted in 1612. "The fire of a fine dappled grey horse, which carries Rubens himself, is expressed with incomparable animation. Next him, on a brown horse, is his first wife, Caroline Brant, with a falcon on her hand." -Waagen. Rape of the Sabines ; reconciliation of the Romans and Sabines. "Both these sketches are admirably composed, and in every respect excellent ; few pictures of Rubens, even of his most finished works, give a higher idea of his genius." -Sir Joshua Reynolds. -VANDYCK : the Virgin Mary, with the Child upon her lap, and Joseph seated in a land- scape looking at the dance of eight Angels ; Count Nassau in armour (three-quarter size) ; one of the Children of Charles I. with flowers (bust) ; Charles I. (full-length) ; Henrietta Maria (full-length).- REM- BRANDT : Portrait of Himself at an advanced age ; Portrait of a middle- aged Man; Lieven Von Coppenol ( the celebrated writing-master) with a sheet of paper in his hand (very fine) ; two Portraits ( Man and Wife). -G. Dow: a Hermit praying before a crucifix. " Of all Dow's pictures of this kind, this is carried the furthest in laborious execution." - Waagen. -TERBURG : a Girl in a yellow jacket, with a lute.-G. METZU a Girl in a scarlet jacket. "In the soft bright manner of Metzu ; sweetly true to nature, and in the most perfect harmony." -Waagen.- NETSCHER : Boy leaning on the sill of a window, blowing bubbles. "Of the best time of the master."-Waagen. -A. VANDERWERFF : St. Mar- garet treading on the vanquished Dragon.-JAN STEEN : an Alehouse, a composition of thirteen figures. " A real jewel." -Waagen. Playing at Skittles.-DE HOOGE : a Street in Utrecht, a Woman and Child walking in the sunshine (very fine) .-TENIERS : the Seven Works of Mercy : the picture so celebrated by the name of La Manchot ; Portrait of Himself (whole-length, in a black Spanish costume) ; Court Yard of a Village Alehouse; a Landscape, with Cows and Sheep.-A. OSTADE ; (Several fine).- I. OSTADE : Village Alehouse. -PAUL POTTER : Cows, &c., marked with his name and the date 1652 ; Oxen butting each other in play; the Church Steeple of Haarlem at a distance. -A. VAN- DERVELDE: the Hay Harvest ; Three Cows, &c. -BERGHEM : " Here we 22 III.-HOLDERNESSE HOUSE- MANCHESTER HOUSE. see what the master could do." -Waagen.-KAREL DU JARDIN & Water- mill . -PHILIP WOUVERMANS.-CUYP.-WYNANTS. -RUYSDAEL.- HOB- BEMA.-W. VANDERVELDE : "la petite Flotte." -BACKHUYSEN.- VANDER HEYDEN Market- place of Henskirk, near Haarlem.-VAN HUYSAM : Flower Pieces.-HOLBEIN a Head. -SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS : Head of Ariadne. HOLDERNESSE HOUSE, PARK LANE, town residence of Earl Vane, is one of the most splendid as well as conveniently planned mansions in London (S. and B. Wyatt, architects), and commands a charming view over Hyde Park. It is remarkable also for several fine works of art and vertusome of them gifts of the Allied Sovereigns to the second Marquis of Londonderry-vases and tables of malachite. The grand gallery is very magnificent. Among the works of art are-ANDREA DEL SARTO : a Holy Family, probably the finest work by the master in this country, from Count Fries's gallery ;-a fine TITIAN.-LAWRENCE : Portraits, whole length, of Lady Londonderry ; of the Duke of Wellington in civil attire, 1814; of George IV., bis.-By HOPPNER : Wm. Pitt, three-quarter size : -the original. -?Hercules and Antæus . Statues. -By CANOVA : Theseus and the Minotaur, perhaps his most splendidwork. -CHANTREY : Bust ofthe Minister, first Lord Londonderry. Four Statuettes of Rosso ANTICO, of Victory-very fine : -gifts of Pope Pius VII. to the late Lord Londonderry. -KNIGHT'S Waterloo and Pen- insular Heroes : Sèvres Vase, six feet high -gift of Louis XVIII. HARCOURT HOUSE, CAVENDISH SQUARE, west side, concealed by a high and dilapidated brick wall, the residence of Bentinck, Duke of Portland, one of the richest of the English aristocracy. It was built by Lord Bingley, and origin- ally called Bingley House. Within the enclosure ofCavendish Square is a statue to the late Lord George Bentinck. HERTFORD HOUSE, PICCADILLY, corner of Engine- street, built (1850-53) by Richard Seymour Conway, Marquis of Hertford-the façade having formed part of the Pulteney Hotel, where the Emperor Alexander of Russia put up during the memorable visit of the Allied Sovereigns in 1814, and where the Duchess of Oldenburg (the Emperor Alexander's sister) introduced Prince Leopold to the Princess Charlotte. MANCHESTER HOUSE, MANCHESTER SQUARE, Sir Richard Wallace ; is one of the most sumptuous Mansions, and contains one of the very finest collections of paintings in London, formed chiefly, 1845 to 1860, by the late Marquis of Hertford, who spared no cost, and selected with good judg- ment ; many are purchases from the best portions of the gal- leries of the King of Holland and Marshal Soult. Observe.- The Water-Mill, the chef-d'œuvre of Hobbema ; la Vierge de Pade, the masterpiece of Andrea del Sarto ; Portraits of III.-MANCHESTER HOUSE. 23 Philippe and Madame le Roy, two noble specimens of Vandyck ; Holy Family, by Rubens (24781. ) ; the Unmerciful Servant, by Rembrandt, from Stowe, cost 2300l.; Nelly O'Brien, by Sir Joshua Reynolds, one of the finest portraits in the world ; Mrs. Braddyl ; The Girl with a dog ; and Strawberry Girl, all by Reynolds ; 4 Holy Families, Murillo ; The Rainbow Landscape, Rubens ; The Rape of Europa, Titian ;-16 Canalettos ; Views of Venice, -A. Ostade ; The Fishmonger-Metzu ; The Sportsman ( cost 30007.). Mrs. Henry T. Hope's celebrated collection of pictures (chiefly Dutch) formed at the Hague by the family of the Hopes and described by Sir Joshua Reynolds-is not at present shown to the public. VANDYCK: The Assumption of the Virgin ; a faint picture. Charity. -RUBENS : The Shipwreck of Æneas ; the clouds in Mr. Turner's style. "Highly poetical in the design, and executed in a most masterly manner in a deep full tone."-Waagen.-CLAUDE : Landscape. -S. ROSA Land- scape.-DOMENICHINO : St. Sebastian. - GIORGIONE : Judith with the Head of Holofernes. -REMBRANDT : Young Woman in an Arm-chair by which a Man is standing. " One of the rare family portraits of this master in whole-length figures ." -Waagen.-BACKHUYSEN : Sea Piece with Ships. " A large and capital picture." -Sir J. R.-NETSCHER : Lady at a Window with Parrot and Ape, marked 1664.-JAN STEEN : An Oyster Feast, "in which is introduced an excellent figure of Old Mieris, standing with his hands behind him." -Sir J. R.-LAIRESSE : Death of Cleopatra .- VAN DER HELST : Halt of Travellers . " In Van der Helst's middle and best period." -Wangen.-REMBRANDT : Our Saviour in the Tempest. " In this picture there is a great effect of light, but it is carried to a degree of affectation." -Sir J. R.- TERBURG : The Music Lesson ; the Trumpeter.-F. MIERIS : A Gentleman with a Violin ; a young Woman with her back turned is making out the reckoning, marked 1660. "This picture, painted when he was only twenty- six years of age, is one of his great master-pieces. " -Waagen.- METZU : Woman reading a Letter ; Woman writing a Letter.- SCHALKEN : Man reading by Candlelight. "A carefully executed picture ; the impasto particularly good. " — Waagen. -RUYSDAEL : Landscape, Cattle and Figures. -VERKOLJE : David and Bathsheba. A. VANDERVELDE : Cattle at a Watering-place ; an evening scene ; a wonderful picture : perhaps the finest Adrian Vandervelde in the world. -P. DE HOOGE; An interior, with Figures. " Spoiled by cleaning." -Waagen.-WEENIX : A Dead Swan and Dead Hare. "Perfect every way; beyond Honde- koeter."-Sir J. R.- VANDERWERF : The Incredulity of St. Thomas.- D. TENIERS : Soldiers playing at Backgammon.-G. Douw : " A Woman at a Window with a Hare in her Hand. Bright colouring and well drawn." - D. TENIERS : Soldiers Smoking. -P. POTTER : Exterior of Stable-Cattle and Figures. -P. WOUVERMANS : Halt of Hawking Party (fine). -A. OSTADE : Exterior of Cottage with Figures.- HOBBEMA ; Wood Scenery.-TERBURG: Trumpeter waiting (fine) .- WOUVERMANS : Cavaliers and Ladies, Bagpiper, &c. "The best I ever saw."-Sir J. R. -METZU: Lady in blue velvet tunic and white satin petticoat. CUYP: Cattle and a Shepherd. "The best I ever saw of him ; and the figure likewise is better than usual; but the employment which he has given the shepherd in his solitude is not very poetical.". Sir J. R.-P. GYZENS : Dead Swan and small Birds. ' Highly finished and well coloured ." -Sir J. R. 24 III.-THOS. BARING, ESQ.'s.-MUNRO COLLECTION. THOMAS BARING, Esq. , 41, UPPER GROSVENOR STREET. A collection rich, not only in Italian, but also in French, Flemish, Dutch, and Spanish pictures of first class selectness. SEBAST. DEL PIOMBO : Virgin, Child, and St. John, with the Donor kneeling. -RAPHAEL: Virgin, with the Child standing on her knees (per- haps by Lo Spagna. -CLAUDE LORRAINE : Six Landscapes.-DOMENI- CHINO : Infant Christ holding a nail of his cross. -AND. MANTEGNA : Christ on the Mount of Olives. -MURILLO : the Virgin on the Crescent ; A Laughing boy playing the Pipe ; The Ascension, an octagon in shape ; Holy Family, Joseph working at the carpenter's-bench. -GREUZE : a Boy. -RUBENS : Diana setting out for the Chase. -G. Dow : his own portrait, writing.-TERBURG : a Girl drinking; a Girl wailing.-METZU : the Intruder, a gentleman trying to force his way into a ladies' dressing- room(500 guineas, from Verstolk Gallery).— JAN STEEN: Himself sing- ing ; The Wedding. -PAUL POTTER : a young brown Bull, two Sheep, &c. -TENIERS : 5 good works. -OSTADE, A. & I.-C. DUJARDIN : Le Manége, horses and horsemen. -D. WILKIE : Sketches for Chelsea Pen- sioners ; Rabbit on the Wall.-MULREADY : Scene from Vicar of Wake- field. -COLLINS : 3 Landscapes. -WEBSTER : Going into School, and Coming out. -CUYP : View of the Maas ; Cavalry Officers and Tents, HOUSE OF BARON LIONEL ROTHSCHILD, PICCADILLY, contains a few fine pictures : good specimen of Cuyp, "Skating ; " a choice De Hooghe, a good Greuze, Head of a Girl, and The Pinch of Snuff, an early work of Wilkie ; with a noble collection of hanaps, cups, &c. , of fourteenth and fif- teenth century work ; rare old china, fine carvings in ivory, &c. DORCHESTER HOUSE, PARK LANE, HYDE PARK, residence of R. S. Holford, Esq. ( Lewis Vulliamy, architect). A building of good design, and showing in its interior the most refined taste and splendour. The staircase, of white marble, is one of the most stately in London. Besides the picture gallery, it contains a most choice and valuable Library. Amongthe pictures veryfine specimen of Hobbema; View of Dort from the River, by Cuyp ; Conde Duque Olivarez, and Philip IV. , by Velasquez ; AbbéScaglia, Vandyck; good examples of Claude, Both, Isaac Ostade, &c.; Columbus by Wilkie. Greuze : Girl with a Pigeon. MUNRO COLLECTION, HAMILTON PLACE, PICCADILLY ; last house on right-hand side. Hon. H. Butler Johnstone. Observe. The Lucca Madonna and Child, by Raphael ; St. Francis Praying, a small picture by Filippo Lippi; Landscape by Gaspar Poussin, fine ; Les Deux Petites Marquises, half-lengths, size oflife, by Watteau, very fine ; characteristic specimens of Jan Steen, one "After a Repast," very clever ; also, good, if not choice, specimens of Cuyp, Vandervelde, Backhuysen, &c. Mrs. Stanhope, half-length, in white, by Sir Joshua Reynolds, very fine ; 5 fine Landscapes, by Richard Wilson; large View in Venice, the masterpiece of Bonington ; The Fishmarket, by Bonington ; The Good Samaritan, by Etty, a choice specimen: 2 fine Italian Landscapes, by Turner, in the best time of his second period, and many other pictures and drawings by that master. IV. HYDE PARK. 25 Other Private Collections of Paintings and Works ofArt. Bale, C. Sackville, Esq. , 71 , Cambridge Terrace. Barker, Alex. , 103, Piccadilly -Italian Pictures : Holy Family, And. Verocchio (the most important of his works)-Lor. da Credi, &c. Bromley, Miss. Davenport, 32, Grosvenor Street. Caledon, Lord, 5, Carlton House Terrace. Cowper, Lady, St. James's- square 4 or 5 wholelength portraits by Van Dyck, &c. Ellis, Wynn, Esq., 30, Cado- gan Place. Morrison, Chas. , 93, Harley Street. Overstone, Lord, 2, Carlton Gardens, Dutch paintings, (Baron Verstolk's), of the greatest excellence ; also Opie's Portrait of Dr. Johnson. Robarts, A. J., 26, Hill Street, Berkeley Square. Ward, Lord, Dudley House, Park Lane, early Italian paintings, 5 works of Greuze. Yarborough, Lord, Arling ton Street. IV. PARKS AND PUBLIC GARDENS. HYDE PARK. A park of 388 acres, deservedly looked upon as one of the lungs of London, extending to Kensington Gardens, and thus carrying a continuous tract ofopenground, or park, from Whitehall, to Kensington. The whole Park is intersected with well-kept footpaths, and the carriage drives are spacious, and, at certain hours, much frequented. The Park is accessible for private carriages, but hackney-coaches and cabs are excluded. The triple archway at Hyde-Park- corner, combined with an iron screen, was erected in 1828 from the designs of Decimus Burton. It cost 17,0697. 18. 9 d. , including 1000l. to Mr. Henning for the bas-reliefs from the Elgin marbles which surround it. The Park derives its name from the Hyde, an ancient manor of that name adjoining Knightsbridge, and, until the dissolution of religious houses in the reign of Henry VIII. , the property of the abbots and monks of Westminster. It then became the property ofthe Crown. For much of its present beauty it is indebted to William III. , and Caroline, consort of George II. In this Park, in the London season, from May to August (between 11 and 1, and 5 and 7, may be seen all the wealth and fashion and splendid equipages of the nobility and gentry of Great Britain. As many as 800 equestrians, including the Knot at the music, have been seen assembled at Hyde-Park in the height of the season. The bridle-road, 26 IV.-HYDE PARK . running east and west (from Apsley House to Kensington Gar- dens) is called Rotten Row, a corruption , it is supposed , of Route du Roi-King's Drive. The first set ofhorsemen are valetudi- narians, along with leading counsel, hard-worked barristers, and solicitors of eminence, some bankers, city merchants, taking their " constitutional" before breakfast. From 12 to 2 the ride is sprinkled with the wives and daughters of our aristocracy, taking exercise with papas, brothers, or grooms ; increased by a few officers and M.P.'s seeking fresh air after a night spent in the House of Commons. The flower-beds parallel with Park Lane, and those stretching W. from Hyde Park Gate, are a great additional ornament to this pleasant public resort. The sheet of water called the Serpentine was formed by Caroline, Queen of George II. The carriagedrive along the N. bank is called " The Lady's Mile." The boats may be hired by the hour. Certain traces ofthe Ring, formed in the reign of Charles I. and long celebrated, may be recognised by the large trees somewhat circularly arranged in the centre of the Park. Beyond the Humane Society's Receiving-house (on the north bank of the Serpen- tine) and close to the bridge is the government store of gunpowder, kept ready for immediate use of the Garrison of London. A review of troops in Hyde Park is a sight worth seeing ; they usually take place in June or July. Re- views or parades of Volunteers are more frequent. Observe.- Statue of Achilles, " inscribed by the women of England, to Arthur, Duke of Wellington, and his brave companions in arms," erected in Hyde Park, 18th of June, 1822, by com- mand of his Majesty George IV. The statue was cast by Sir R. Westmacott, R.A., from cannon taken in the victories of Salamanca, Vittoria, Toulouse, and Waterloo, and the cost was defrayed by a subscription of 10,000l. , raised among the ladies. The figure is copied from one of the famous antiques on the Monte Cavallo, at Rome : so that the name Achilles is a misnomer. The Marble Arch, facing Great Cumberland-street (near where the Tyburn tree for- merly stood) was moved from Buckingham Palace in 1850 and re-erected here 1851. The original cost was 80,0007. , and the cost of removal 11,000l. The equestrian statue of George IV. , now in Trafalgar- square, was intended for the top of this arch. The sculpture on the S. front of arch by Baily; N. by Sir R. Westmacott. The Crystal Palace, or Great Exhibition Building of 1851 (now re-erected and enlarged at Sydenham, in Kent), covered nearly 19 acres on the S. side of the Park, opposite Prince's Gate. During the 24 weeks the Exhibition was IY.-HYDE PARK. 27 .here stood Gallows Tyburn X .Gate Victoria .gate -foot Street Albany and Gate Cumberland .Arch Marble RDEN .Gates Palace Crystal SERDHYPAR PENTINE RIVER .Gate Grosvenor .Gallery Grosvenor .House Dorchester Chesterfield House . D RING Stanhope Gate котт SITE THE OFGREAT EXHIBITION ER Princes Gale Barracks Knightsbridge Prince Consort's Monument Road toKensington ALBERT O HALL .Gate Albert P. Hyde . Corner 28 IV. -HYDE PARK-ALBERT MEMORIAL. open, it was visited by upwards of 6,000,000 persons, or about 250,000 weekly. The receipts exceeded 400,000l. Near the site of the first Crystal Palace, opposite the site of the second and the Horticultural Gardens, rises the National Monument to Albert Prince Consort : a Gothic Cross or Canopy, designed by Sir G. G. Scott, R.A., rising in a spire 175 feet high, supported by four clustered piers of granite, held together by an invisible iron tie or girder, of ingenious construction. This gothic canopy serves as a shrine for a colossal gilt statue of his Royal Highness sitting, by Foley. It is approached by flights of steps, occupying a square of 130 feet each way, of grey Irish granite. The shafts of the four clustered columns supporting the Canopy are of red granite from the Duke of Argyle's quarries in the isle of Mull. The mosaics are designed by Clayton and Bell, executed by Salviati. The marble is Sicilian. The building cost 120,000l. , raised by subscriptions of the public, including her Majesty's bounteous contributions, and a grant of 50,000l. made by Parliament. At the lower angles of the pyramid of steps are 4 groups of marble statues-Europe by McDowell, Asia by Foley, Africa by Theed, and America by John Bell. Above these are smaller groups -Agriculture by Calder Marshall, Manufactures by Weeks, Commerce by Thornycroft, Engineering by Lawlor. The entire basement, above the steps, is surrounded by a crowd of 200 life- sized figures, in high- relief, being portraits of the greatest artists, philosophers, men of Science and Literature, whom the world has pro- duced, by J. P. Philip and H. Armstead. The central figure of the Prince, seated, is of bronze gilt, 15 feet high, in the robes of the Garter. It is one of the grandest and most sumptuous monuments in the world. In 1866 Hyde Park railings, near Cumberland Gate, were forced and torn up bya furious mob, excited by Reform agita- tors. Out of the police force stationed within the Park to pro- tect it, no fewer than 250 were seriously wounded, and nearly 60 were so mutilated as to be rendered unfit for service, by brickbats hurled at them, or injuries otherwise inflicted. ST. JAMES'S PARK. A park of 91 acres (shaped not unlike a boy's kite), originally appertaining to the Palace of St. James's ; first formed and walled in by HenryVIII.; re- planted and beautified by Charles II.; and finally arranged by George IV. , much as we now see it, in 1827-28-29. What I shall call the head of the kite is bordered by three of the principal public offices : the Horse Guards in the centre, the Admiralty on its right, and the Treasury on its left. The tail of the kite is occupied by Buckingham Palace ; its north IV. ST. JAMES'S PARK. 29 side by the Green Park, Stafford House, St. James's Palace, Marlborough House, Carlton-House- terrace, and Carlton Ride ; and its right or south side by Queen- square, and the Wellington Barracks for part of the Household Troops, erected in 1834-59. The gravelled space in front of the Horse Guards is called the Parade, and formed a part of the Tilt Yard ofWhitehall : the north side is called the Mall, and the south the Birdcage-walk. Milton lived in a house in Petty France, with a garden reaching into the Birdcage-walk ; Nell Gwyn in Pall Mall ; her garden with a mound and ter- race at the end, overlooking the Mall ; and Lord Chancellor Jefferies, in a large brick house N. of Storey's Gate, pulled down 1868. St. James's Park, with its broad gravel walks and winding sheet of water, was, till the time of Charles II., little more than a grass park, with a few trees irregularly planted, and a number of little ponds. Charles II. threw the several ponds (Rosamond's Pond excepted) into one artificial canal, built a decoy for ducks, a small ringfence for deer, planted trees in even ranks, and introduced broad gravel walks. Charles I., attended by Bishop Juxon and a regiment of foot walked, Jan. 30th, 1648-49, through this Park from St. James's Palace to the scaffold at Whitehall. In this park Cromwell took Whitelocke aside and sounded the Memorialist on the subject of a King Oliver. Some of the trees in this Park, planted and watered by King Charles II. himself, were acorns from the royal oak at Boscobel ; none, however, are now to be seen. St. Evremont, a French Epi- curean wit, was keeper of the ducks in St. James's Park in the reign of Charles II. The gardens forming the inner enclosure, laid out by Nash the architect (temp. George IV. ) , yield in picturesque- ness to those of no capital in Europe. The walks across them are enlivened by glimpses of the numerous fine build- ings around. In 1857 a chain bridge, for foot passengers, was thrown across the water, between Queen-square and St. James's-street, and the lake bed was cleared out and raised, so that the greatest depth of water does not exceed 4 ft. Hence, the annual sacrifice oflife, from a portion of the crowd who throng the ice in winter, falling in, need no more occur. Observe. On the Parade near the Horse Guards, the Mortar cast at Seville, by order of Napoleon, employed by Soult at Cadiz, where it threw a shell more than three miles, and was left behind in the retreat of the French army after the battle of Salamanca. It was presented to the Prince Regent by the Spanish government, and is mounted on a bronze dragon. On the opposite side of the Parade is a Turkish gun taken 30 IV. ST. JAMES'S PARK AND ITS VICINITY. James's St. St. James's Street . WHITE Gard Gard Spd St ew Parade . Constitution Hill . Garden . Buckgm Spencer revolu 10. Bridgwater S.James ' Square MALL THE Palace MALL THE . Piccadilly Apsley House, Hyde Park Corner. NOR PL RiverThames, Embankment. WEST Bridge . Cana R Parliament S. St King Bridge Marg New Public Offices Storeys G!George AE Chain .Bridge . Palace Cage Walk .Bar Wellingt . Cornwall Hotel of Palace Duchy Princes Westr .Abbey . JAMES'S ST.GREEN AND PARKS ofParliament. Houses IV. GREEN PARK-REGENT'S PARK. 31 from the French in Egypt. The Park was lighted with gas in 1822. The road connecting St. James's Park with Hyde Park, and skirting the garden wall of Buckingham Palace, now called Constitution Hill, was long known as " The King's Coach-wayto Kensington." Near the upper end of this road Sir Robert Peel was thrown (1850) from his horse and killed. In this road Queen Victoria has been fired at by three idiots on three several occasions. GREEN PARK. An open area of 60 acres between Piccadilly and St. James's Park, Constitution-hill, and the houses ofArlington-street and St. James's-place. It was occa- sionally called Upper St. James's Park. Observe. On the E. side of the Park, Stafford House, the residence of the Duke of Sutherland ; Bridgewater House, the residence of the Earl of Ellesmere ; Spencer House, the residence of Earl Spencer; the brick house with five windows, built in 1747, byFlitcroft, for the celebrated Lady Hervey ; 22, St. James's- place, distinguished by bow windows, residence of the Poet Rogers ; in Arlington-street, Earl of Yarborough's, built by Kent, for Henry Pelham, and the modern mansion of the Marquis of Salisbury, built 1872. The small gardens attached to the houses belong to the Crown, but are let on lease to the owners of the houses. In this park, fronting the houses in Arlington-street, was fought the duel with swords, between Mr. Pulteney, afterwards Earl of Bath, and John, Lord Hervey, the Fanny of the poet Pope. REGENT'S PARK, a park of 472 acres, part of old Mary- lebone Park, for a long time disparked, and familiarly known as Marylebone Farm and Fields. On the expiration of a Crown lease held by the Duke of Portland, the present Park was laid out in 1812, from the plans of Mr. John Nash, Architect, who also planned the terraces except York and Cornwall- terraces, designed by Decimus Burton. The Park derives its name from the Prince Regent, afterwards George IV. , who intended building a residence here on the N.E. side. Regent-street was designed as a communication from it to Carlton House. The Crown Property comprises, besides the Park, the upper part of Portland- place, from No. 8, the Park- crescent and square, Albany, Osnaburgh, and the adjoining cross streets, York and Cumberland-terraces, Regent's- Park- basin, and Augustus- street, Park-villages E. and W. , and the outer road. The domed building on the S.E. side is the Colosseum, built to contain a Panorama of London. The Zoological Gardens occupy a large portion of the upper end of the Park (see Index). The Holme, a villa in the 32 IV. - REGENT'S PARK- VICTORIA PARK. centre of the Park, was erected by Mr. William Burton, architect, who covered with houses the Foundling Hospital and Skinner estates. South Villa, the residence of Geo. Bishop, Esq. , includes an Observatory, well known from Mr. Hind's discoveries of stars and comets made there. Through the midst of the Park, on a line with Portland-place, and along the E. side of the Zoological Gardens, runs a fine broad avenue lined with rows of trees, from which footpaths ramify across the sward in all directions, interspersed with ornamental plantations and flower beds. Around the Park runs an agreeable drive nearly two miles long. An inner drive, in the form of a circle, encloses the Botanic Gardens. Contiguous to this Inner Circle is St John's Lodge, seat of Sir Francis Goldsmid, overlooking a beautiful sheet of water, also the garden of the Toxophilite Society. St. Dunstan's Villa, onthe south-west side of the Park, was erected by Decimus Burton, for the Marquis of Hertford (d. 1842). In its gardens are placed the identical clock and automaton strikers which once adorned St. Dunstan's Church in Fleet- street. When old St. Dunstan's was pulled down the giants were put up to auction, and the marquis became their purchaser. They still do duty in striking the hours and quarters. In the chapel of St. Katherine's Hospital, on the E. side of the Park, is the tomb of John Holland, Duke of Exeter (d. 1447), and his two wives ; and a pulpit of wood, the gift of Sir Julius Cæsar. This institution, the houses of the adjoining parish, and the churchyard were both removed, in 1827, from St. Katherine's at the Tower, to make way for St. Katherine's Docks. Separated from Regent's Park by two roads and the canal rises Primrose Hill, which has been planted and laid out with walks, so as to convert it into a public garden. Its summit commands a very extensive view. VICTORIA PARK, BETHNAL GREEN AND HACKNEY, a park of 290 acres, planted and laid out in the reign of Victoria. The first cost of formation was covered by the purchasemoney received from the Duke of Sutherland for the Crown lease of York House, St. James's, sold in 1841 for 72,000 . It is judiciously planted with forced trees and shrubs, and contains two picturesque sheets of water, with row boats. In the midst rises a very handsome drinking Fountain, a gothic structure of granite 60 feet high, erected at a cost of 5000l. by Miss Burdett Coutts. This Park serves as a lung for the N. E. part of London, and has added to the health and recreation f the 550,000 inhabitants of Spitalfields and Bethnal-green It is approached by the N. London Railway at Victoria Station. IV.-REGENT'S PARK. 333 and Atlas of Route Omnibuses Primrose Fine View Hll Garden of London 800.3513.08 noishtala Regent's Canal . FIELD LESFIE ST. DUNSTANS VILLA Susp Bridge Bridgi Gymnasium PRIMROSE HILL ROAD ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS HOUSE OFSIR F. OLDS MID BOTANIC GARDENS TOXOPHILITE SOCIETY RACE EUSTON ROAD To Great Western Railway REGENT'S PARK. ARK CRESCENT D GLOCESTER leading to Camden Town . S. Katherine's Hospital . Albany Street .Route Camden Town of Waterloo Omnibuses To City. 34 IV. -BATTERSEA PARK. -KENSINGTON GARDENS. The French Hospice (see Index) , rising on the outskirts, is a picturesque modern building. BATTERSEA PARK. A pleasure ground of 185 acres, almost all below the level of high tide, on the right bankof the Thames opposite Chelsea Hospital, converted between 1852- 58 from marshy fields, on one of which occurred the duel between the Duke of Wellington and Lord Winchelsea, into a public park at a cost of 312,890l. , of which 246,5177. was paid for the ground. Laid out with ornamental plantations, and rich flower-beds varied by a fine sheet of water, and intersected by roads and walks, it presents great attractions. The Sub- Tropical Garden, of 4 acres, filled with half- hardy plants, is a triumph of modern horticulture. It is admirably kept, its well disposed parterres renewed with fresh flowers at each recurring season of the year, and as the plantations grow up is yearly increasing in beauty. It is approached from Pimlico by an iron suspension bridge over the Thames, of fanciful design, executed by Mr. Page, which cost 85,3197. and was completed 1858. 111,4397. has been laid out on the Chelsea embankment, bordering the left bank of the Thames from Pimlico to Vauxhall bridge. FINSBURY PARK, 1867, 120 acres, cost 95,000l. , for- merly Hornsey Wood, between Holloway and Seven Sisters Road. It is skirted by the Great Northern Railway, and the New River passes through it. SOUTHWARK PARK, ROTHERHITHE, 62 acres, cost 55,1607. The HORTICULTURAL GARDENS, South Kensington, are described in section xxii. KENSINGTON GARDENS. Pleasure-grounds attached to Kensington Palace ( see Index) , and open to the public, but not to be traversed by carriages. The stranger in London should, during the London season, make a point of visiting these Gardens when the band plays. The Gardens are then filled with gaily-dressed promenaders, and the German will be reminded of the scene in the Prater. Kensington Gar- dens were laid out in the reign of William III., by London and Wise, and originally consisted of only 26 acres ; Queen Anne added 30 under Bridgeman's superintendence, and Caroline (Queen of George II . ) 300 under the care of Kent. The Serpentine was formed 1730-33 ; and the bridge over it, separating the Gardens from Hyde Park, was designed by Rennie, and erected 1826. The beautiful wrought iron gates

SCALE OF 50 CTORIA 100 CHANCELLORS CORRIDOR CHAIRMANB N CUARD R "NORMAN- CHANCELLORS CI JUDCES COURT PORCH THE QUEENE ROBING R WEST CORRIDOR PRINCES HOUSE ROYAL CALLERY CHAMBER OF 12000000 PEER ROYAL COURT BLE RODS CORRIDOR GORN BIGHOPS H EAST CORRIDOR B PEERS COURT H PEERS REFRESHM ROOMS PEERS LIBRARY CORRIDOR PEERS LIBRARIES GROUNL ST V.-HOUSES OF PARLIAMENT. 35 facing Rotten Row, were the entrance gates to the S. transept of the Crystal Palace of 1851, and made at Colebrook Dale. V.-HOUSES OF PARLIAMENT. THE HOUSES OF PARLIAMENT, or THE NEW PALACE AT WESTMINSTER, on the left bank of the Thames, between the river and Westminster Abbey. Admission on Saturdays, by tickets obtained on the spot. (See below. ) This is one of the most magnificent buildings ever erected continuously in Europe-probably the largest Gothic edifice in the world. It occupies the site of the old Royal Palace at Westminster, burnt down Oct. 16th, 1834, and covers an area of nearly 8 acres. It has 100 staircases, 1100 apartments, and more than 2 miles of corridors ! The building is warmed through 16 miles of steam pipes, and the gas for one year costs 35051. The cost has exceeded two millions sterling. The architect was Sir Charles Barry, and the first stone was laid April 27th, 1840. In its style and character the building reminds us of those grand civic palaces, the town- halls of the Low Countries, -at Ypres, Ghent, Louvain, and Brussels-and a similarity in its destination renders the adoption of that style more appropriate than any form of classic architecture. The stone employed for the external masonry is a magnesian limestone from Anston in Yorkshire, selected with great care from all the building stones of England by scientific commissioners appointed in 1839 for that purpose. The River Terrace is of Aberdeen granite. There is very little wood about the building ; all the main beams and joists are of iron. The River Front, may be considered the principal. This magnificent façade, 900 feet in length, is divided into five principal compartments, panelled with tracery, and decorated with rows of statues and shields ofarms of the Kings and Queens of England, from the Conquest to the present time. The Land Front, including a new façade to enclose the Law Courts, is not yet completed. The Royal or Victoria Tower, at the S.-W. angle, one of the most stupendous works of the kind in the world, contains the Royal Entrance, is 75 feet square, and rises to the height of 340 feet, or 64 feet less than the height of the cross of St. Paul's. The entrance archway is 65 feet in height, and the roof is a rich and beautifully worked groined stone vault, while the interior is decorated with the statues of the patron saints of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and with statues of her present Majesty, supported by Justice and . Mercy. This stately tower (supplying what Wren con- D 2 36 V.-HOUSES OF PARLIAMENT. sidered Westminster was so much in need of) was finished by slow degrees in 1857, the architect deeming it of impor- tance that the works should not proceed, for fear of settle- ments, at a greater rate than 30 feet a- year. In this tower are deposited the Acts of Parliament for many centuries, removed from the Chapter House. The Central Spire, 60 feet in diameter, and 300 feet high, rises above the Grand Central Octagonal Hall. Its exquisitely groined stone vault is sup- ported without a pillar. The Clock Tower (the " Beffroi " of London) abutting on Westminster Bridge, 40 feet square, and surmounted above the clock with a decorated roof, rises to the height of about 320 feet. Various other subordinate towers, by their pictu- resque forms and positions, add materially to the effect of the whole building. The Palace Clock in the Clock Tower, constructed under the direction and approval of Mr. Airy, the Astronomer Royal, is an eight-day clock, striking the hours and chiming the quarters upon eight bells, and showing the time upon four dials about 30 feet in diameter. The diameter of the dial at St. Paul's is only 18 feet. The Great Bell (Stephen) was cast 1858 ; it weighs more than 8 tons, but has been cracked like its predecessor, Big Ben. The Westminster Bridge end of the Palace contains the apartments of the Speaker and the Serjeant-at-arms, and the Vauxhall Bridge end the apartments of the Usher of the Black Rod and the Lords' librarian. Above these a long range of rooms has been appropriated to Committees of either House. The statues in and about the building exceed in number 450, and are by the late John Thomas. The Cloister Court, surrounded by a richly groined and traceried cloister of 2 stories, of which the upper story is a creation of Sir Charles Barry, is one of the finest features in the building. It is for the most part a restoration, is 49 feet 6 inches from E. to W., and 63 feet from N. to S. It is open to members of the house, but not to the public. The principal public Entrances are through Westminster Hall, and Old Palace Yard :-both lead into the Central Octagon Hall, whence the right hand passage will take you to the Lords, and the left to the Commons. Westminster Hall, and the crypt of St. Stephen's Chapel have been skilfully incorporated into the new building. Westminster Hall was, down to the present age of colossal railway stations, the largest roofed hall in the world unsupported by pillars. It was somewhat altered internally, by Barry, to make it accord with the rest of his building. V. HOUSES OF PARLIAMENT. - WESTMINSTER HALL. 37 That architect planned that the walls, below the windows, should be decorated with a series of historical paintings, and that there should be two tiers of pedestals, to be occupied by figures of those eminent Englishmen to whom . Parliament may decree the honour of a statue. The conception is grand, and appropriate to the building_in which so many Englishmen have been distinguished. (For Westminster Hall, see Section XVI. ) A small staircase de- scends from the S.E. corner of the hall into the crypt of St. Stephen's beneath the modern St. Stephen's Hall, and is the only fragment of the ancient Palace of Westminster which escaped the fire (see a in Plan) . This interesting example of English architecture of the 13th century has undergone a careful restoration. The walls and roof are decorated with paintings, the windows with coloured glass. It is fitted up as a chapel, and prayers are said in it daily for the use of members of Parliament. The Royal Entrance is under the Victoria Tower, and leads to the Norman Porch, so called from the frescoes illustrative of the Norman history of this country and the figures of the Norman Kings, with which it is to be decorated. On the right hand is the Robing Room, facing the river, decorated with frescoes by Dyce, R.A., from the Legend of King Arthur. After the ceremony of robing, which takes place in this room, her Majesty passes through a magni- ficent chamber 110 feet in length, 45 in width, and 45 feet high, called the Victoria Gallery, decorated with frescoes of eventsfrom the history of England, with stained glass windowsand a ceiling rich in gilding and heraldry. On one side is the meeting of Wellington and Blucher after the Battle of Waterloo at la Belle Alliance (at which place they did not meet) . The death of Nelson occupies the opposite wall, -both are by Maclise, R.A., and executed in the water-glass fresco process. Passing thence, her Majesty enters the Prince's Chamber, lined with wood carvings and portraits of the Tudor and Stuart sovereigns, and containing a marble group by Gibson, of the Queen supported by Justice and Mercy. In the Peers' Robing Room is the fresco of Moses bringing down the Law, by Mr. Herbert, the result of six and a half years' hard labour. For Mr. Herbert's Judgment of Daniel the nation has paid £5,000. The House of Peers, 97 feet long, 45 wide, and 45 high, a noble room, first opened April 15th, 1847, presenting a coup d'œil of the utmost magnificence, no expense having been spared to make it one of the richest chambers in the world. The spectator is hardly aware, however, of the lavish rich- 38 V.-HOUSE OF LORDS. ness of its fittings from the masterly way in which all are harmoniously blended, each detail, however beautiful and intricate in itself, bearing only its due part in the general effect. Observe. The Throne, on which her Majesty sits when she attends the House, with the chair for the Prince of Wales ; the Woolsack, in the centre of the House, on which the Lord Chancellor sits ; the Reporters' Gallery (facing the Throne) ; the Strangers' Gallery (immediately above) ; the Frescoes (the first, on a large scale, executed in this country), in the six compartments, three at either end, viz. , The Bap- tism of Ethelbert, by Dyce, R. A. (over the Throne) ; Edward III. conferring the Order of the Garter on the Black Prince, and Henry, Prince of Wales, committed to prison for assaulting Judge Gascoigne, both by Cope, R.A.; the Spirit of Religion, by Horsley, A.R.A., in the centre compartment, over the Strangers ' Gallery ; and the Spirit of Chivalry, and the Spirit of Law, by Maclise, R.A. The 12 figure windows are filled with stained glass, and are lighted at night from the outside. Between the windows, and at either end of the house, are 18 niches, for statues of the Magna Charta barons, carved by Thomas. Immediatelybeneaththe windows runs a light and elegant gallery of brass work, filled in compartments with coloured mastic, in imitation of enamel. On the cornice beneath the gallery are the arms of the Sove- reigns and Chancellors of England, from Edward III. to the present time. A Lord Chamberlain's order or Peeress' ticket, for ladies only, to the Galleries or Area of the House of Lords, when her Majesty opens, prorogues, or dissolves Parliament, is highly prized. The sight is one of the grandest and most impressive courtly displays still surviving in Britain . The peers come in their robes, the heralds in tabards, and all officials in civil or military costume. The opening of Parliament is generally in February, the prorogation in July. Onthese occasions the gallery, which directly fronts the throne, is set apart for ladies in evening dress. Failing to obtain admission here, a seat in the "Royal Gallery, " or corridor, through which the procession twice passes, affords an admirable view of the Queen and her great officers. Gentlemen as well as ladies are admitted here, but sit in separate places. It is not etiquette to ex- amine the Sovereign through a lorgnette. To obtain a good seat, you should be in the House of Lords by half-past 12, for the carriages of strangers are not suffered to pass the barriers later than one, and it is a crowded and dirty struggle to get to the House after that hour. The arrival of her Majesty is announced within the House by the booming of the cannon. Her entrance is preceded by the Heralds in their rich dresses, V.-HOUSES OF PARLIAMENT. 39 and by some of the chief officers of state in their robes. All the peers are in their robes. The Speech is presented to her Majesty by the Lord Chancellor kneeling, and is read by her Majesty or by him ; the Royal Princes and Princesses with the Mistress of the Robes and one of the ladies of the bedchamber standing by her side on the dais. The return to Buckingham Palace is by 3 at the latest. The address to her Majesty in both houses is moved at 5 the same evening ; and the debate, therefore, is always looked to with great interest. The old custom of examining the cellars underneath the House of Lords, about two hours before her Majesty's arrival, still continues to be observed. The custom had its origin in the infamous Gunpowder plot of 1605. The House ofCommons, 62 feet long by 45 feet broad, and 45 feet high, is more simple in character than the House of Peers : the ceiling is, however, of nearly equal beauty. The windows are filled with stained glass, of a simple character ; the walls are lined with oak richly carved, and, supported on carved shafts and brackets, is a gallery extending along them, on either side. At the N. end is the chair for the Speaker, over which is a gallery for visitors, and for the reporters of the debates ; while the S. end is occupied by deep galleries for the Members of the House, and for the public. The Entrance for the Members is either by the public approaches, or a private door and staircase from the Star Chamber Court (one of the twelve Courts lighting the inte- rior), so called from occupying the site of that once dreaded tribunal. England and Wales return 500 members, Ireland 105, and Scotland 53, making in all 658 members composing the House of Commons. St. Stephen's Hall, leading from Westminster Hall to the Great Central Hall, is 95 feet long by 30 wide, and to the apex ofthe stone groining 56 feet high. It derives its name from occupying the same space as St. Stephen's Chapel of the ancient Palace, and is lined by 12 " statues of Parliamentary statesmen who rose to eminence by the eloquence and abilities they displayed in the House of Commons. " They are : Hampden, by Bell ; Falkland, by Foley ; Clarendon, by Marshall ; Selden, by Bell ; Sir Robert Walpole, Lords Somers and Mansfield, Lord Chatham, Charles Fox ; William Pitt, by McDowal ; Burke, by Theed ; and Grattan. The Central or Octagon Hall is a grand apartment 80 ft . high, covered with a groined stone roof containing more than 250 elaborately carved bosses. From this hall corridors extend, rt. to the House of Lords, and 1. to the House of Commons. On the walls of these corridors are 40 V.-HOUSES OF PARLIAMENT. painted The last sleep of Argyle before his Execution, The Burial of Charles I. , The Execution of Montrose. Capture of Alice Lisle, Departure of the Pilgrim Fathers, all by E. N. Ward; "Charles I. erecting his Standard at Nottingham,” by F. R. Pickersgill, A.R.A.; and “ Speaker Lenthall asserting the Privilege of the Commons, when Charles I. attempted to seize the five members," by Cross. The Upper Waiting Hall, or Poets' Hall, will contain 8 frescoes from 8 British poets-viz. , Chaucer, Spenser, Shak- speare, Milton, Dryden, Pope, Scott, and Byron. Some have been completed. The Chaucer, by C. W. Cope, R.A., repre- senting a scene from Griselda; the Shakspeare, byJ. R. Herbert, R.A., Learand his Daughter ; the Milton, by J. C. Horsley, Satan starting at the touch of Ithuriel's Spear ; and the Dryden, by John Tenniel, St. Cecilia. Admission to Inspect the House of Lords-free tickets for Saturdays to be obtained at the Chamberlain's Office in the court next the Victoria Tower. Admission to the Strangers' Gallery to hear the debates -a peer's order. Up to 4 p.m. , during the hearing of appeal cases, the House is open to the public. Admission to the Commons-a speaker's order admits under the gallery to a very few select seats, and a member's order, which any member can give, to the Strangers' Gallery. If you know an M.P. , go to the Octagon Hall with the member's name written on your card ; at the entrance of the corridor leading to the lobby you will see a policeman. If you civilly ask him, he will send your card into the House, and thus fetch out the member you have named. Take care to stand on one side, out of the thoroughfare to the door, or you will be warned off by a policeman. Admis- sion to the Strangers ' Gallery is secured to those holding a member's ticket in the order of their arrival ; doors are opened at 4, but many persons arrive on the spot some hours before, on occasions of debates of any importance. On the oc- casion ofan interesting debate the House seldom rises before 2 o'clock in the morning. Ladies have been excluded from the interior of the House since 1738. There is , however, a small gallery (above that of the Reporters) , behind whose grating the ladies are invisible, and enjoy an imperfect view of the House. Admittance can be obtained for a very few, by a Speaker's order which an M.P. will procure. The Speaker takes the chair at 4 p.m., when prayers are read, and busi- ness commences. The House invariably thins out about dinner-time, 7 p.m., and refills about 9 p.m. The best nights are Mondays and Thursdays. On Wednesdays the House sits only from noon to 6 p.m. Unless forty members are VI. THE THAMES. -THAMES EMBANKMENT. 41 present there is no House. The entire cost of erecting the Houses of Parliament, down to 1858 , was 1,768,9791. , as far as the architect was concerned ; but including other charges it has now swelled to nearly three millions ! NOTE. For a detailed and graphic account of the usual proceedings in the House of Commons, refer to an article in the Quarterly Review, for June, 1854. VI. THE THAMES, ITS QUAYS, EMBANKMENT, AND BRIDGES ; THAMES TUNNEL, POOL AND PORT OF LONDON. THE Thames, on whose banks, about 60 miles above its embouchure in the North Sea, London is situated, is the noblest commercial river in the world, in reference to its length. Until the formation of Quays, between Blackfriars and Westminster, it was almost concealed from view of its inhabitants and degraded into a common sewer. When the tide retires, it leaves behind a deep stratum of soft black mud, having so smooth a surface that the ignorant might be tempted to try and walk over it. To fall into it is almost certain death ; the mud closes over any object in a moment, and unless the place is marked at once it is not possible to save a creature once engulfed . The tide ascends as high as Richmond and Teddington, where it. is a clear flowing stream ; still higher up, from Maiden- head to Reading, its course is marked by picturesque beauty of a very high order. About Pangbourne it is pastoral and pretty ; and at the Nore and Sheerness, where the Medway joins it, it is an estuary where the British navy may sail, or ride safely at anchor. At very high tides, and after long easterly winds, the water at London Bridge is often brackish. Spenser calls it " The silver- streaming Thames." Denham has sung its praises in some noble couplets- "O could I flow like thee, and make thy stream My great example, as it is my theme! Though deep yet clear, though gentle yet not dull, Strong without rage, without o'erflowing full.” And Pope described its banks with the accuracy of a Dutch painter in his ludicrous imitation of Spenser's manner. The first steam-boat was seen on the Thames in 1816. The London visitor should make a point of descending the Thames by a steamboat from Chelsea to Blackwall, a voyage of 1 hour. The objects, principally on the left or Middlesex bank, are enumerated in the order in which they present themselves. (See Thames, at end of volume. ) 42 VI. THAMES EMBANKMENT. -PORT OF LONDON. THE VICTORIA EMBANKMENT, or THAMES QUAY.- While the Seine at Paris, a far inferior stream to the Thames, contributes one of the most beautiful features to the French metropolis, the Londoners have hitherto persisted in shutting out from sight their far more magnificent river, inclosing it with mean hovels and black coal wharves, and converting its stream into a sewer. Many schemes for embanking the Thames have been suggested. It formed part of Sir Christopher Wren's magnificent plan for making London a grand city. After him followed, at a long inter- val, that of John Martin, the painter, but nothing was done until 1864, when the Metropolitan Board of Works took the matter in hand. An Act of Parliament was obtained by which all the rights of owners of wharves and warehouses which previously lined the river were bought up. The Victoria Embankment and Quay was commenced along the left bank of the Thames, and it was finished , 1870, from Westminster Bridge to the Temple and Blackfriars Bridge. It consists of a solid river wall of granite 8 ft. thick, 40 ft. high, and 7000 ft. long, founded 16 to 30 ft . below low water mark. It affords a roadway 100 ft. wide, beneath which are carried two tunnels, the lower is the great intercepting Sewer, the upper for water, gas pipes, and telegraph wires, which can be repaired or removed without disturbing the roadway. Paral- lel with the river, underground, the Metropolitan District Railway runs. The space gained from the river varies in width from 200 to 450 ft . , and amounts to about 30 acres, leaving space for gardens and various new public buildings, also for Public Statues of Great Men, the late Earl of Derby (by Noble) , Gen. Outram, &c. The cost is reckoned at 1,200,000l. , and the purchase of property and compensations at 450,000l. This does not include the lines of approach to be made from Charing Cross, Whitehall Place, Villiers Street, Norfolk Street, and from the Mansion House to Blackfriars Bridge. The money is derived partly from rates and partly from dues levied on coal and wine brought into London. The Albert Embankment of the Thames extends along the right bank from Lambeth to Westminster Bridge, opposite the Houses of Parliament. It has also a wall of granite, a roadway 60 feet wide, and 4300 feet long. It has cost 309,000l. and 771,6167. for land. On it stands St. Thomas's Hospital (see Index) . The Embankment of the left bank, from Chelsea to Battersea Bridge, was begun 1871 . The Port ofLondon, legally so called, extends 6 miles below London Bridge to a point called Bugsby's Hole, over against Blackwall ; but the Port itself does not reach beyond Limehouse. Nearly 50,000 vessels enter and leave the Thames VI.-LONDON BRIDGE. 43 in 12 months, or on an average 120 daily. The Customs duties paid at this Port amount to nearly 12 millions ster- ling per annum, or nearly one-half of the duties paid in the United Kingdom. The Pool is that part of the Thames between London Bridge and Cuckold's Point, where colliers and other vessels lie at anchor. It is said that no vessel of more than 300 tons is seen navigating above London Bridge. For some account of the Docks, see post, Commer- cial Buildings, &c. Every master of a collier is required, upon reaching Gravesend, to notify the arrival of his vessel to the officer upon the spot ; and then he receives a direction to proceed to one ofthe stations appointed for the anchorage of colliers. There are seven of these stations on different Reaches of the river. The ships are then directed to proceed in turn to the Pool, where about 250 are provided with stations in tiers at which they remain for a limited time to unload. "This morning was fair and bright, and we had a passage thither [from London to Gravesend] , I think as pleasant as can be conceived, for take it with all its advantages, particularly the number of fine ships you are always sure of seeing by the way, there is nothing to equal it in all the rivers in the world. The yards of Deptford and Woolwich are noble sights. We saw likewise several Indiamen just returned from their voyage. The colliers likewise, which are very numerous and even assemble in fleets, are ships of great bulk ; and if we descend to those used in the American, African, and European trades, and pass through those which visit our own coasts , to the small craft that lie between Chatham and the Tower, the whole forms a most pleasing object to the eye, as well as highly warming to the heart of an English- man, who has any degree of love for his country, or can recognise any effect ofthe patriot in his constitution ." -Fielding , A Voyage to Lisbon. LONDON BRIDGE, 928 feet long, of five semi- elliptical arches, built from the designs of John Rennie, a native of Scotland, and of his sons, John and George. The first stone was laid June 15th, 1825, and the bridge publicly opened by William IV. , August 1st, 1831. It is built of granite, and cost, including the approaches, 2,566,2687. , defrayed out of the funds of the Bridge House Estate. The centre arch is 152 feet span, with a rise above high-water mark of 29 feet 6 inches ; the two arches next the centre are 140 feet in span, with a rise of 27 feet 6 inches ; and the two abutment arches are 130 feet span, with a rise of 24 feet 6 inches. The piers of the centre arch have sunk about six inches, owing, it is said by Telford and Walker, to over-piling. The lamp- posts are made from cannon taken in the Peninsular War. It is the last bridge over the Thames, or the one nearest to the sea, and is 54 feet wide, or 11 feet more than Waterloo. It has been ascertained that the number of carriages of all descriptions, and equestrians, who daily pass along London 44 VI.-BLACKFRIARS BRIDGE. Bridge in the course of 24 hours exceeds 20,000 ; and that the number of pedestrians who pass across the bridge daily during the same space of time, is not fewer than 107,000. By police arrangement since 1854, vehicles of slow traffic travel at the sides, the quick in the centre. The oldest London Bridge was of wood, and was first erected in 1209. It carried two rows of houses, and, in the street between, Jack Cade's forces were defeated and driven back by the citizens, May 1450. The present low-water mark at London Bridge is 18 feet 11 inches below the Trinity House datum. Previous to 1832, when the old bridge was removed, it was only 15 feet 4 inches. In severe winters the starlings of the old bridge arresting the floating ice, at times caused the river to be frozen over. This is not likely to occur again since the impediments of the old bridge have been removed. These have given an increase of half-a-mile an hour to the pace with which the flood-tide ascends. The SOUTH EASTERN RAILWAY BRIDGE carries that railway from Charing Cross and London Bridge stations to Cannon Street terminus. It is of iron ; five arches, two of 135 ft. , three central 167 ft. span, resting on 16 cylinder piers. SOUTHWARK BRIDGE, 708 feet long, of three cast- iron arches, resting on stone piers, designed by John Rennie, and erected by a public company, at an expense of about 800,0007. The first stone was laid April 23rd, 1815 ; and the bridge publicly opened April, 1819. The span of the centre arch is 402 feet (38 feet wider than the height of the Monument, and the largest span of any arch in the world until the tubular bridges were made. ) The entire weight of iron is about 5780 tons. The penny toll was abolished 1865, and the bridge purchased by the City for 218,8687. from the pro- prietors, 1866-68, and thrown open to the public. The cost of proper approaches would require (at the least) 150,000l. more. BLACKFRIARS BRIDGE. The old bridge of 4 arches, built 1760-69 by Robert Mylne, having failed in its piers and incapacity to accommodate the increasing multitudes who passed over it, is replaced by a new one of iron, 75 feet wide. William Cubitt, engineer, 1864-69. Its granite piers were built on hollow iron piles, sunk into the clay, from which the water was pumped out, and the intervening space filled with concrete, after which the iron above the surface was drawn out. The five arches are composed of 9 parallel ribs of wrought iron, riveted ; it is 1272 ft. long, including the granite abutments. The central arch is 185 ft. span. The total cost 320,000l. This bridge affords a stately and im- VI.-WESTMINSTER BRIDGE. 45 posing view of St. Paul's Cathedral and Bow Church steeple, surmounted by its dragon. Half of the beauty of this bridge is destroyed by the close proximity of the hideous ALEX- ANDRA LATTICE BRIDGE of the London Chatham and Dover Railway, carrying four lines of rails to Ludgate Hill station, 1040 feet long, 55 feet wide ; central span 202 feet. It was built in 2 years. WATERLOO BRIDGE, perhaps the noblest bridge in the world, was built by a public company pursuant to an act passed in 1809. The first stone was laid 1811 , and the bridge opened on the second anniversary of the battle of Waterloo, June 18th, 1817. It is said to have cost above a million. The engineer was John Rennie, son of a farmer at Phantassie, in East Lothian-the engineer of many of our celebrated docks and of the breakwater at Plymouth. "Canova, when he was asked during his visit to England what struck him most forcibly, is said to have replied -that the trumpery Chinese Bridge, thenin St. James's Park, should be the production of the Govern- ment, whilst that of Waterloo was the work of a Private Company."- Quarterly Review, No. 112, p. 309. M. Dupin calls it " a colossal monument worthy of Sesostris and the Cæsars." It consists of nine elliptical arches of 120 feet span, and 35 feet high, supported on piers 20 feet wide at the springing of the arches. The bridge is 1380 feet long, 43 feet wide, the approach from the Strand 310 feet, and the causeway on the Surrey side, as far as supported bythe land- arches, 766 feet, thus raising it to a level with the Strand, and uniform throughout. This bridge affords a noble view of Somerset-house, the chef-d'œuvre of Sir William Chambers The toll charged is a halfpenny each person each way, and the receipts fromfoot-passengers in a half-yearwere 46767. 17s.11d. , received from 2,244,910 persons. The proopietors offer to sell the tolls for 700,000l. CHARING-CROSS or HUNGERFORD BRIDGE crosses the Thames from the Charing Cross Railway Station to Belvedere Road, Lambeth, and was built in 1863 by the South Eastern Railway Company in order to carry their line across the Thames to a station in the heart of Western London. It replaces Hungerford Suspension Bridge, built 1846, for foot passengers only, which has been sold for 85,000l. and removed to Clifton. The new Railway Bridge, which also admits foot passengers at the side, is of iron lattice resting on 6 or 7 cylinder and two brick piers, forming 8 spans 70 ft. wide. Its width is sufficient for 4 lines of rails, and a footway 14 ft. broad. Mr. Hawkshaw was the Engineer. Toll for foot passengers one halfpenny. WESTMINSTER BRIDGE, built from designs of Mr. 46 VI.--VAUXHALL BRIDGE. Page, 1856-62, is double the width of the old bridge, measur- ing 85 feet, and consists of seven arches of iron (that in the centre 120 feet span) resting on stone piers, whose foundations descend 30 feet below low water. It is 1160 feet long, and the centre arch rises 22 feet above high water. The rise in the centre is only 5 feet 4 in. The piers rest on bearing piles of elm, driven 20 feet into the London clay, and are cased with iron piles closely united, forming a sort of permanent coffer-dam. Upon these is laid a stratum of concrete, forming a foundation for the blocks of Cornish granite used in the stone work. The esti- mated cost was 216,000l. The arches are arranged in one continuous curve from side to side of the river, an agreeable novelty. It is a very elegant structure, its roadway, wider than any other bridge in the world, commanding perhaps the best view of the Houses of Parliament. The bridge which this replaces, was the second stone bridge over the Thames. It was built by Labelye, a Swiss, 1739-1750, on caissons of timber, floated to the spot destined for the piers, and then sunk. It was surmounted by a lofty parapet, which M. Grosley, a French traveller, gravely asserted was placed there in order to prevent the English propensity to suicide ; but the real intention of Labelye was to secure a sufficient weight of masonry to keep his caissons down. The scour caused in the river bed by the removal of Old London Bridge effectually undermined several of his piers, whose foundations lay only 6 feet beneath low water. Wordsworth has written a sonnet on the view from this bridge at sunrise- "Earth hath not anything to show morefair." And Crabbe, the poet, tells how in the depth of his early poverty he paced up and down it meditating to throw himself from it. LAMBETH BRIDGE, from Lambeth Church to Horse- ferry Road. An iron wire suspension bridge of 3 spans each of 280 feet, pporting an iron platform, hung from rigid lattice bars resting on double cylinder piers. Peter Barlow, Engineer, 1862. Cost 40,000l. VAUXHALL BRIDGE. An iron bridge, of nine equal arches, over the Thames between Vauxhall and Millbank, built from the designs of James Walker, 1811-1816. It is the property of a private company, toll d. , 2d. each horse. It is 798 feet long, and 36 feet wide, and is built on caissons. BATTERSEA RAILWAY BRIDGE carries several rail- ways to and from Victoria Station. BATTERSEA SUSPENSION BRIDGE leads to Battersea Park. It was made at Edinburgh, under Arthur's Seat. VII. THE TREASURY. 47 THE THAMES TUNNEL, 2 miles below London Bridge, is easily reached by the numerous steam-boats plying on the Thames, but is now used for the passage of the East London Railway, projected to connect the Great Eastern and other lines north ofThames with the Brighton and those on the S., through the tunnel . It extends beneath the bed of the river Thames, connecting Wapping, on the left bank, with Rotherhithe, or Redriff, on the right. This great work-a monument ofthe skill, energy, and enterprise of Sir Isambard K. Brunel (d. 1849) , by whom it was planned, carried out through great difficulties, and finally completed-was com- menced March 2nd, 1825, closed for seven years by an inun- dation which filled the whole tunnel with water, Aug. 12th, 1828, recommenced Jan. 1835 (thousands of sacks of clay having been thrown in the interval into the river-bed above it), and opened to the public, March 25th, 1843. The idea of the shield, upon which Brunel's plan of tunnelling was founded, was suggested to him by the operations of the teredo, a testaceous worm, covered with a cylindrical shell, which eats its way through the hardest wood at the bottom of the sea. Brunel's shield consisted of 12 separate timber frames, each of 3 stages or 36 cells in all. In these cells the miners worked, protected by the shield above and in front, and backed by the bricklayers behind, who built up as fast as the miners advanced. Government lent 247,000l. , in Exchequer Bills, to advance the works, and the total cest is 468,000l. The Tunnel was sold in 1865 for 200,000l. to the East London Railway Company. The Tunnel consists of two arched passages, 1200 feet long, 14 feet wide, 164 feet high, separated by a wall of brick 4 feet thick, with 64 arched openings in it. The crown of the arch is 16 feet below the bottom of the river. The Thames Subway-To relieve the enormous traffic which chokes up London Bridge, a New Tunnel has been formed a little lower down the river from Tower Hill to Tooley- street. It was made in less than 12 months, at a cost of only £16,000 . It is about 60 feet below the surface, was carried under the river, through the London clay, by means of a shield, and is lined with iron hoops or rings, forming an iron tube 7 ft. diameter. It is 1330 ft. long. Engineer, W. P. Barlow, Esq. VII.-GOVERNMENT OFFICES. THE TREASURY, WHITEHALL. A long range of building, between the Horse Guards and Downing- street, so called from its being the office of the Lord High Treasurer ; an office ofgreat importance, first put into commission in 1612, on Lord Salisbury's death, and so continued with very few exceptions till the present time. The prime minister of the country is always First Lord of the Treasury, and enjoys a 48 VII.-NEW PUBLIC OFFICES. salary of 5000l. a year, the same as the Chancellor of the Exchequer, but smaller in amount than the salaries of the Lord Chancellor and of the Lord Chief Justice. He has also an official residence in Downing- street. All the great money transactions of the nation are conducted here. The Lord High Treasurer used formerly to carry a white staff, as the mark of his office. The royal throne still remains at the head of the Treasury table. The present façade toward the street was built (1846-47) , by Sir Charles Barry, to replace a heavy front, the work of Sir John Soane. The core of the building is of an earlier date, ranging from Ripley's time, in the reign of George I., to the times of Kent and Soane. The building called " the Treasury" includes the Board of Trade, the Home, and Privy Council offices. PRIVY COUNCIL OFFICE, DOWNING STREET, WHITE- HALL, is part of the S. end of the range of Treasury buildings. Herethe Judicial Committee of the Privy Council meets to hear appeals, &c. Here are kept the minutes of the Privy Councils of the Crown, commencing in 1540. A minute of the reign of James II . contains the original depositions attesting the birth of the Prince of Wales, afterwards known as the Old Pretender. THE HOME OFFICE, in which the business of the Secretary of State for the Home Department (i.e. Great Britain and Ireland) is conducted, is in part of the Treasury buildings, until Mr. Scott's New Office is ready. The salary of the Secretary is 5000l. a year, and his duty is to see that the laws of the country are observed at home. His office is one of great importance, and is always a Cabinet appointment. NEW PUBLIC OFFICES. Agrand edifice of vast extent, of Italian architecture, from the designs of Sir G. G. Scott, wasbuilt 1868-70 between Downing- street and Charles-street, extending thence to St. James's-park and Parliament- street. It contains the Home, Foreign, Colonial, and the East India Offices : 40,000l. was granted by Parliament for the site alone, and the estimate for the building was 200,000 %. The public are admitted on Friday, 12 to 3, to see the chief rooms of the Foreign and Indian offices, also the East Indian Museum, on delivering their cards to the porter. FOREIGN OFFICE, occupies the N.W. corner. The exterior is enriched by much sculptural decoration. The interior quadrangle is very effective. The grand staircase is of marble and very splendid, with much gold ; so is the Conference Room, measuring 66 ft. long and 35 feet high. The chief officer is a Cabinet Minister, and is called the "Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs." His salary is 5000l. VII. INDIA OFFICE -EXCHEQUER. 49 a year. The Cabinet Councils of her Majesty's Ministers are held generally at the Foreign office, or at the residence of the Chancellor of the Exchequer, also in Downing Street. Passports are here issued by the Foreign Secretary to Bri- tish subjects recommended by a banker, at a charge of 2s. (See Handbook for Travellers on the Continent. ) THE COLONIAL OFFICE, DOWNING STREET- Government office for conducting the business between Great Britain and her 44 colonies, will occupy the side of the Public Offices next to Parliament- street. The head of the office is called the " Secretary for the Colonies," and is always a Cabinet Minister. His salary is 5000l. In a small waiting- room in the old building, the Duke of Wellington, then Sir Arthur Wellesley, and Lord Nelson, both waiting to see the Secretary of State, met, the only time in their lives. The duke knew Nelson from his pictures. Lord Nelson did not know the duke, but was so struck with his conversation that he stept out of the room to inquire who he was. THE INDIA OFFICE, entered from Charles- street, was removed from the East India House, Leadenhall- street, 1860. The government of India by the East India Company, the largest and most magnificent the world ever saw, first incor- porated 1600, came to an end through Act of Parliament, Sept. 1, 1858, when it was transferred to the ministers of the crown, with a Council of 12 members under a Secretary of State, having their offices in this building. The cost ofit was defrayed out of the finances of India. THE EAST INDIA MUSEUM, in the upper story of the building, is shown on Friday. (See Index. ) The private business of the East India Company is now carried on in a small office, in Moorgate-street. The India House in Leadenhall- street was pulled down in 1861. THE EXCHEQUER, OR, OFFICE OF THE CHANCELLOR OF THE EXCHEQUER. The principal office for the adminis tration of taxes is in Downing-street. The word Exchequer is derived from a four-cornered board, about 10 feet long and 5 feet broad, fitted in the manner of a table for men to sit about ; on every side whereof was a standing ledge or border, 4 fingers broad. Upon this board was laid a cloth, parti- coloured, which the heralds call Chequy, and round this board the old Court of Exchequer was held. The Chancellor was one of the judges of the Court, and in ancient times he sat as such, together with the Lord Treasurer and the Barons. His duties since 4th William IV. , c. 15, are entirely ministerial ; the annual nomination of sheriffs being the only occasion on which the Chancellor takes E 50 VII. CUSTOM HOUSE -WOODS, FORESTS . his seat at the Court of Exchequer in Westminster Hall. The salary of the Chancellor is 5000l. a year, with a house in Downing-street and a seat in the Cabinet. The income of Great Britain and Ireland, paid into the Exchequer, has been for some years upwards of 70 millions sterling. SECRETARY OF STATE FOR WAR, established during the war with Russia, 1854-56, when the offices of Secretary at War and Master- General of the Ordnance were united (with other powers) . The affairs of the Army are managed at the War Office, Horse Guards, and the old Ordnance Office, 86, Pall Mall, built for the Duke of Cumberland (d. 1767) , brother of George III. , to which Buckingham House (to the east) is added. (See HORSE GUARDS). THE CUSTOM HOUSE is in Lower Thames- street, facing the river. It was erected 1814-17 from the designs of David Laing, but in consequence of some defects in the piling, the original centre gave way, and the present front, to the Thames, erected by Sir Robert Smirke. Nearly one- half of the customs of the United Kingdom are collected in the Port of London, and about one-half of the persons in the Civil Service of the country are employed in duties connected with the collection. In London alone, upwards of 2230 persons are employed in and attached to the London Custom House, and maintained at an annual expense of about 275,000l. The customs dues levied at the port of London in one year amounts to 12,000,000l. -exceeding con- siderably the amount paid in all the other ports of the empire together. Liverpool, after London, is the next great port, but collects only 2,393,4457. The average Customs revenue in the last nine years is about 20 millions, and the duties are conducted by commissioners appointed by the Crown. Seizures are stored in the Queen's warehouse, and when the warehouse is full there is a public sale. These sales (some four a year) produce about 5000l. They are principally attended by Jews and brokers. The sales take place in Mark Lane, while the goods are on view at a different place. Observe.-The " Long Room," 190 feet long by 66 broad. The Quay is a pleasant walk fronting the Thames. Hither Cowper, the poet, came, intending to make away with himself. OFFICE OF HER MAJESTY'S WOODS, FORESTS, AND LAND REVENUES, 1 and 2, Whitehall- place. This office is managed by two Commissioners. The forests have not yielded a profit for many years, so that the chief revenue of the office has been derived from the Crown property in II.-POST-OFFICE. 51 houses in the Bailiwick of St. James, Westminster, and in the Regent's Park. The principal forest belonging to the Crown is the New Forest in Hampshire, formed by William the Conqueror, and in which William Rufus was slain. OFFICE OF WORKS AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS, 12, Whitehall- place, presided over by a Commissioner who is a Member of the Government. THE GENERAL POST-OFFICE, near ST. PAUL'S, CHEAPSIDE, and NEWGATE STREET, on the site of the church of St. Martin's- le- Grand, was built 1825-29, from the designs of Sir R. Smirke, R.A. It is managed by a Post- Master- General, and one permanent Secretary, together with a staff of clerks, sorters, letter-carriers, & c. , amounting to 24,800 persons (1,500 belonging to the chief office, 3,300 to the London District). In 1840 the penny-post was introduced, which at first caused a loss of revenue, but now yields, after paying all expenses, 1 million sterling. [ See Introduction, § 20. ] The cost of manage- ment is about 2,000,000l.; the gross receipts 3,500,000%. The Government Postage alone, in one year, varies from 140,000l. to 160,000l. The number of letters delivered in a year exceeds 800,000,000, or ten-fold the number de- livered before the reduction of the postage to one penny for every letter not exceeding half an ounce, and the num- ber of newspapers has risen from 42 to 100 millions in a year. The number of letters delivered in the London district, comprising a radius of 12 miles round the Post- Office in St. Martin's-le-Grand, is 6,270,000, far more than that delivered, under the old system, in the whole United Kingdom. Post- Office Money- Orders for sums not exceeding 107., are issued at the several offices at the following rates : -For any sum under 10s. one penny ; 17. twopence ; and increasing 1d. for every 17. additional up to 107. From this source alone the revenue receives more than 50,000l. yearly. APostal Official Circular, containing a statement of the arrival and departure of packet-boats, of unclaimed letters, &c. , is published every morning, under the authority of the Post- Master- General. Letters for departure the same night are received at this office later than at any other office. Some notion of the extent of business carried on in this hive of industry may be obtained from the fact, that the weekly wages of the London District Post alone amount to 13007. In 1838 there were 3,000 post- offices in England and Wales, now there are 11,000. As recently as 1826, there was but one receiving-office, in Pimlico, for letters to be delivered within the London radius ; and the nearest office E 2 52 VII.-POST-OFFICE. for receiving general post letters, that a person living in Pimlico could go to, was situated in St. James's-street. In 1856-57 Iron Receiving Posts, or Road Letter Boxes, properly secured, and inserted in the pavement, were placed in the principal thoroughfares of London. There are now 2,000 of these. A person posting a letter early to a friend in town, may receive a reply and send a rejoinder on the same day. No house in London is more than a furlong distant from a Letter Box, or than of a mile from a Money-Order Office. Mail- coaches, for the conveyance of letters, were intro- duced in 1784, by Mr. Palmer ; and the first conveyance of the kind left London for Bristol on the evening of the 24th of August, 1784. The penny postage (introduced by the exertions of Sir Rowland Hill) Jan. 10, 1840, was followed, 1848, by the improved system of sorting letters in railway trains or on steamers, and by the book and parcel post. The Money-Order Office, shows a staff of 300 clerks and 4000 pigeon holes for the communications of the same number of Money- Order Offices throughout the United Kingdom. The orders issued in one year for the United Kingdom amount to 20 million pounds sterling, and in addition 500,000l. of Foreign Post Office Orders are paid here. The average weight of thePost-Office mail-bags, about 400, leaving London daily is 280 cwt. , of which 219 cwt. consists of newspapers. 150,000,000 newspapers and book parcels are delivered in one year. General Directions. Letters addressed " Post- Office, London," or "Poste Restante, London, " are delivered only at the General Post- Office, St. Martin's- le-Grand from 10 A.M. to 4 P.M. When the person applying for letters is a foreigner, he must produce his passport ; or if he does not apply in person, must send it by the messenger along with a written order, signed and dated by himself. If the applicant for the letters is a subject of the United King- dom, he must be able to state from what place or district he expects letters before he can receive them. Foreign letters addressed "Post-Office," or " Poste Restante, London," are retained for two months at the Post- Office. Inland letters similarly addressed are retained one month ; after the ex- piration of these periods both classes of letters are respectively sent to the Dead Letter- Office, to be disposed of in the usual manner. In 1856 London and its environs were divided into postal districts. See p. 38*, Introduction. ] The di- visions between them can be shown only on a map. Each of these districts has its own centre for sorters, and in each there is a delivery every hour : a street list published by VII.-PAYMASTER- GENERAL'S OFFICE-HORSE GUARDS. 53 the Post- Office gives the initials of the district after every street, and the public are invited to add these initials to the addresses of letters in order to facilitate rapid delivery. The Penny Queen's Heads are engraved, printed, and gummed at 5d. per thousand. (See Introduction. ) GENERAL TELEGRAPH OFFICE, ST. MARTIN'S- LEGRAND, corner of Newgate- street. In 1870, by Act of Par- liament, the Electric Telegraphs throughout the country became the property of the Government, by purchase for 7 millions. Opposite the Post Office a large supplemental edifice has been erected to accommodate the business of the Telegraphs, which is placed under the management of the G.P.O. The same building includes the Money Order Office, now extended to the Colonies and France. The P. O. Savings Banks, which were started 1861, at the suggestion of Mr. Sykes, of Huddersfield, already comprise 12,000,000 sterling of savings. This building also contains reception-rooms for the Postmaster- General, his secretary and clerks ; and on the ground floor steam engines for despatching, by pneumatic tubes, letter-bags to various railway stations. PAYMASTER- GENERAL'S OFFICE, WHITEHall, next the Horse Guards. The office of her Majesty's PaymasterGeneral for the payment of army, navy, ordnance, civil services, and exchequer bills, salaries, pensions, &c. The office is managed by a paymaster, an assistant-paymaster, and a staff of sixty clerks. It was originally the office of the Paymaster-General of the Forces, and was not permanently enlarged till 1836, when the offices of Treasurer of the Navy and Treasurer of the Ordnance were abolished. This office is yearly increasing in importance, and already makes nearly all the national payments in detail. Quarterly payments of salaries are made on and after the 8th day of April, July, October, and January. HORSE GUARDS, at WHITEHALL. A guard- house first built in front of the Palace, 1641, to watch and restrain the apprentices flocking to Westminster to overawe Parliament. To it is attached the Public Office and public building where the Commander- in- Chief, the Adjutant- General, Quartermaster- General, &c. , have their offices. It was built about 1753, after a design furnished, it is said, by Kent. The archway under it forms a principal entrance to St. James's Park from Whitehall ; but the entrée for carriages is permitted only to royal personages and others having leave. 54 VII. THE ADMIRALTY. At each side of the entrance facing Whitehall a mounted cavalry soldier stands sentry every day from 10 to 4. The guard is relieved every morning at a quarter to 11. The pay of the General Commanding-in- Chief is 97. 9s. 6d. a day; of the Adjutant- General, 37. 15s. 10d. a day ; and of the Quartermaster- General, 31. 15s. 10d. a day. The Adjutant- General is responsible to the Commander-in- Chief for the arming, clothing, training, recruiting, discipline, and general efficiency of the army ; the Quartermaster- General carries out the orders of the Commander- in- Chief as regards the movements and quarters of the troops. * The management of the army by Horse Guards and War Office, by 673 clerks and 82 superior officers costs 250,000l. per annum. The troops are divided into Household Troops, the Ord- nance Corps, and the Line. A private of the Life Guards has 18. 11d. a day, and a private of the Horse Guards 1s. 8d. a day ; the difference arising from an oversight in 1796, in not withdrawing barrack allowances from the pri- vates of the Life Guards. The privates in the Foot Guards have 1d. a day more than the Line. The Line have 1s. and 2d. a day. THE ADMIRALTY, in WHITEHALL, occupies the site of Wallingford House, in which the business of the Lord High Admiral, first conducted here in 1626 under Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, became permanently established in the reign of William III . The front towards the street was built (circ. 1726) by Thomas Ripley, architect of Houghton Hall in Norfolk, the " Ripley with a rule," commemorated by Pope.-The Dunciad, b. iii. "See under Ripley rise a new Whitehall, While Jones' and Boyle's united labours fall." The screen towards the street was erected in 1776 by the brothers Adam. The office of Lord High Admiral, since the Revolution of 1688, has, with three exceptions, been held in commission. The exceptions are, Prince George of Den- mark, the husband of Queen Anne, 1702 to 1708 ; Thomas, Earl of Pembroke, for a short time in 1709 ; and the Duke of Clarence, afterwards King William IV. , in 1827-28. Among the First Lords Commissioners we may find the names of Anson, Hawke, Howe, Keppell, and St. Vincent . Adjoin- ing to, and communicating with the Admiralty, is a spacious house for the residence of the First Lord. The Secretary Sir Philip Francis, the author of " Junius," was a clerk in the War Office from 1763 to 1772, when he resigned, or was removed, full of ire against Lord Barrington, who had promoted Mr. Chamier over his head to be Deputy Secretary at War. VII.-SOMERSET HOUSE. 55 and three or four of the junior Lords have residences in the northern wing of the building. The salary of the First Lord, who has the whole patronage of the Navy in his hands, is 4500l. a year. The correspondence of the Admiralty is chiefly conducted here, but the accounts are kept by five different officers in what used to be the Navy and Victualling Offices at Somerset House in the Strand, viz. , 1. Surveyor of the Navy. 2. Accountant- General. 3. Store-keeper- General. 4. Comptroller of the Victualling and Transport Services. 5. Inspector- General of Naval Hospitals and Fleets. Observe.- Characteristic portrait of Lord Nelson, painted at Palermo, in 1799, for Sir William Hamilton, by Leonardo Guzzardi ; he wears the diamond plume which the Sultan gave him. In the house of the Secretary are the portraits of the Secre- taries from Pepys to the present time. SOMERSET HOUSE, in the STRAND. A handsome pile of building, erected 1776-1786, on the site of the palace of the Protector Somerset. The architect was Sir William Chambers, son of a Scottish merchant. The general proportions of the building are good, and some of the details of great elegance, especially the entrance archway from the Strand. The terrace elevation towards the Thames was made, like the Adelphi terrace of the brothers Adam, in anticipation of the long projected embankment of the river, and is one of the noblest façades in London. The building is in the form of a quadrangle, with wings added by Smirke and Pennethorne, and contains within its walls, from 10 to 4, about 900 government officials, maintained at an annual cost of something like 275,000 . The principal government offices in the building are the Audit Office, established in 1785, where the accounts of the king. dom and the colonies are audited by commissioners appointed for the purpose ; the Office of Registrar- General of Births, Deaths, and Marriages in England (in the old rooms of the Royal Academy of Arts) ; the Inland Revenue Office, where public taxes, stamps, legacy and excise duties are received from the several district collectors ; and the offices connected with Doctors' Commons. The Inland Revenue is managed by Commissioners, the chairman having a salary of 2500l. a year, the highest received by any public officer in Somerset House. In rooms two stories below the level of the quadrangle, the mechanical operations are conducted. Legal and commercial stamps are impressed by hand- presses. In the basement story, are presses moved by steam, em- ployed in printing medicine- labels ; stamps on country bank- notes ; in stamping the embossed medallion of the Queen on 56 VII.-SOMERSET HOUSE. postage envelopes ; and in printing half-penny, penny, and two-penny postage stamps on sheets. Downto 1856-71 , the Eastern end of the Strand front was occupied by the Royal and other Learned Societies. Here, also, from 1780 to 1830, were the apartments ofthe Royal Academy ofArts. The last and best of Sir Joshua Reynolds's Discourses was delivered by him in the great room of the Academy, at the top of the building. The east wing of the building, erected 1829, is occupied by King's College. [ See Index. ] The Inland Revenue Office, or the Excise, Stamp, Legacy Duty, and Property-tax Office, occupies nearly one-half of the building. Malt and spirits are the articles produc- ing the most Excise-money to the Exchequer. The duty of excise was first introduced into this country by an ordi- nance of Parliament, of July 22nd, 1643, when an im- post was laid upon beer, ale, wine, and other provisions, for carrying on a war against the king. The duties of the Inland Revenue Office have been consolidated since 1848, when the business of the Excise office in Old Broad- street was transferred hither. The west wing, fronting Wellington- street, erected 1854-6, by Pennethorne, at a cost of 81,123l. , belongs to the Inland Revenue Office. The bronze statue of George III., and figure of Father Thames, in the quadrangle, are by John Bacon, R.A., and cost 2000l. DOCTORS' COMMONS Will Office occupies the centre and great part of the west side of the quadrangle. It was removed hither 1870, from Old Doctors' Commons near St. Paul's. At the PREROGATIVE WILL OFFICE all wills are proved and administration granted. The office abounds in matter of great biographical importance-illustrative of the lives of eminent men, of the descent of property, and of the manners and customs of bygone times. The Department for Literary Inquiry in the Central Hall is open (since 1862) from 10 A.M. to 3.30 P.M., except from August 10th to October 10th, when it is open from 11 to 2.30. It is closed on holidays. Visitors are allowed, without fees, to search the calendars, read registered copies of wills before 1700, and to make extracts in pencil only. Here may be seen the original will of Shakspeare, on three folio sheets of paper, with his signature to each sheet ; the wills of Holbein, 1543, Van Dyck, painters, and of Inigo Jones, Sir Isaac Newton, Dr. Johnson, Izaak Walton ; in short, of all the great men of this country who died possessed of property in the south of England. The will of VII.-SOMERSET HOUSE-ROYAL MINT. 57 Napoleon, made at St. Helena, by which he bequeathed 10,000 francs to Cantillon, a French soldier, for trying to shoot the Duke of Wellington, in Paris, was surrendered to the French, 1853. The office hours at the Prerogative Will Office are 9 to 3 in winter, and 9 to 4 in summer. The charges for searching the calendars of names is 18. for every name. The charge for seeing the original will is a shilling extra. Persons are not allowed to make even a pencil memorandum, but official copies of wills may be had at eightpence per folio. At the Department for Personal Application, persons may prove a will and take out probate without asistance of Proctor or Solicitor since 1861. The iron fastenings on the foot-gates leading to Somerset House from the Strand were made to support a formidable chevaux de frise, and are among the few existing memorials of the memorable 10th of April, 1848. The number of windows in Somerset House is 3600. THE ROYAL MINT, on TOWER HILL, about to be removed to the Thames Victoria Embankment, between the Templeand Blackfriars Bridge. The elevation of the building was by aMr. Johnson ; the entrances, &c. , by Sir Robert Smirke. The coinage of the three kingdoms, and of many of our colo- nies, has been executed within these walls since 1824. The various processes connected with coining, consisting of melt- ing, rolling, cutting, annealing, blanching, and stamping, are carried on by a series of ingenious machines. The most curious is an engine called " the drawing bench," by which the metal, when tested to show that it contains the proper alloy, is drawn through rollers to the precise thickness re- quired for the coin which is to be cut out of it. In the case of gold, the difference of a hair's breadth in any part of the plate or ribbon of gold would alter the value of a sovereign. By another machine circular disks are punched out of the sheets of metal of any size required, and by a number of screw presses these blanks, as they are called, are stamped on obverse and reverse at the same time. Every process has an interest of its own ; but none are more suggestive, and more worth seeing, than the rapid motion by which sixty or seventy sixpences may be struck in a minute, and half- crowns or sovereigns in minor proportions ; or the mode in which the press feeds itself with the blanks to be coined, and, when struck, removes them from between the dies. The coins are, of course, struck from dies. A matrix in relief is first cut in soft steel by the engraver. When this is hardened, many dies may be obtained from it, provided the metal resists the great force required to obtain the impression. Many matrices 58 VII.-BURLINGTON HOUSE. and dies split in the act of stamping. The mode of hardening the dies, by a chemical process, is kept secret . The office of Master of the Mint, held by Sir Isaac Newton and Sir John Herschel, was abolished 1870, when it was transferred to Mr. Lowe, Chancellor of the Exchequer. Thomas Simon was graver to the Mint during the Protectorate of Cromwell, and the early part of the reign of Charles II. The Mint receives gold bullion for coinage, without charge, but the privilege is seldom resorted to by private persons, and all the gold to be coined now comes through the Bank. The average amount of gold coined per annum is 5,000,0007. In 1871 24,339 coins were struck ; the value of which was, in gold (the staple of our coinage), £2,769,732 ; in silver, £209,683 ; in bronze (first coined) , £32,793. The act of Victoria, 1870, does not compel the State to coin silver for the public . Mode of Admission.- Order from the Deputy-Master, not transferable, available only for the day specified. In all applications for admission, the names and addresses of the persons wishing to be admit- ted, or of some one of them, with the number of the party, are to be stated. "The Trial of the Pyx " consists in selecting a sovereign just produced, weighing, and testing it singly. This is done thrice a week. The present standard of fineness for " crown gold " dates from the reign of Charles II. BURLINGTON HOUSE, PICCADILLY, late the residence of the Hon. Charles Cavendish, stands between Bond- street and Sackville- street, and was built by Richard Boyle, Lord Bur- lington, the architect, 1695-1743. The walls and ceilings were painted by Marco Ricci. It was purchased for the nation, 1854, for 140,000l. , including the Gardens, upon which three new edifices have been erected. ( 1 ) Nearest to Piccadilly, and onthe site of the famous gateway and curved colonnade, pulled down, 1868, pronounced by Sir Wm. Chambers " one of the finest pieces of architecture in Europe, " while to Horace Walpole it seemed " antique and imposing, and like one of those fairy edifices raised by genii, " rises New Bur- lington House (Banks and Barry, architects, 1872) , containing rooms for the meetings and management of Learned Societies - the Royal, Geological, and Chemical E. of the entrance. The Antiquarian, Astronomical, and Linnæan on the W. of it. Old Burlington House itself was, in 1868, handed over to the Royal Academy. Passing through the entrance hall of old Burlington house we reach (2) the New Royal Academy Exhibition Rooms, built 1868-69 from designs of Sydney Smirke ( described further on) ; and immediately in the rear of them, fronting towards Burlington Gardens, is VII.- RECORD OFFICE. 59 (3) the London University, containing offices and apartments where examinations are held twice a year, and a hall for meetings of the Council and for the conferring of degrees. (See Index. ) A print by Hogarth, called " The Man of Taste, contain- ing a view of Burlington Gate," 1731 , represents Kent on the summit in his threefold capacity of painter, sculptor, and architect, flourishing his palette and pencils over the heads of his astonished supporters, Michael Angelo and Raphael. On a scaffold, a little lower down, Pope stands, whitewashing the front, and while he makes the pilasters of the gateway clean, his wet brush bespatters the Duke of Chandos, who is passing by ; Lord Burlington serves the poet in the capacity of a labourer. Kent was patronised by Lord Burlington. Handel lived for three years in this house. "-Burlington's fair palace still remains, Beauty within-without, proportion reigns ; Beneath his eye declining art revives, The wall with animated pictures lives. There Handel strikes the strings, the melting strain Transports the soul, and thrills through every vein; There oft I enter-but with cleaner shoes, For Burlington's beloved by every Muse."-Gay, Trivia. The Duke of Portland, when Minister in the reign of George III. , resided in Burlington House. THE RECORD OFFICE. -A Public Record Office was built 1856 on the Rolls estate between Chancery Lane and Fetter Lane. It is a huge, ugly, fire- proof block of buildings, which cost 88,4907. designed by Pennethorne, to include the public records formerly kept in the Tower, the Chapter- house Westminster, Rolls' Chapel, and St. James's Park. Within, it consists of tier upon tier of narrow passages paved with brick, into whichopen, right and left, the iron doors of iron grated closets, shelved with slate. The State Papers include those relating to the Exchequer, Crown expenses, Wardrobe, Household, Mint, Blood - money, Secret Service, War Office, Admiralty, and the old Court of Star Chamber. They are the most ancient, uninterrupted, and complete series of archives in the world. Here are preserved Domesday Book or the Survey of England made by William the Conqueror, two volumes on vellum of unequal size, the earliest survey of the kind made in Europe, and is in a very perfect condition ; deed of resig- nation of the Scottish Crown to Edward II.; the Charter granted by Alfonso of Castile to Edward I. , on his marriage with Eleanor of Castile, with a solid seal of gold attached ; a Treaty of Peace between Henry VIII. and Francis I. of France, with the gold seal attached in high relief, and under- 60 VIII. BANK OF ENGLAND. cut, supposed to be the work of Benvenuto Cellini. The several instruments of the surrender to Henry VIII. of the whole of the monasteries in England and Wales. Access to the papers in the Record and State Paper Office can be obtained by any respectable person, on signing the name in a book kept for the purpose, and he may make what copies he pleases. Unrestricted access to State papers since the Revolution is granted only by a written order from the Secretary of State for the Home Department. A convenient Reading-room has been built. VIII.-COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS AND DOCKS. BANK OF ENGLAND, THREADNEEDLE- STREET, CITY (West End Branch in Burlington Gardens) . " The principal Bank of Deposit and Circulation ; not in this country only, but in Europe,"'-was founded in 1694, and grew out of a loan of 1,200,000l. for the public service. Its principal projector was William Paterson, a Scotch gentleman, en- couraged by Charles Montague, afterwards Chancellor of the Exchequer and Earl of Halifax. By the laws and regulations which heleft, no Scotchman was eligible to fill the post ofa Director. The business of the Bank was carried on in Grocers' Hall, in the Poultry, from 1694 to 1734, when it was removed to an establishment of its own. East and west wings were added by Sir Robert Taylor, between 1766 and 1786. Sir John Soane subsequently receiving the appointment of architect to the Bank, part of the old building was either altered or taken down, and the Bank, much as we now see it, covering an area of more than three acres, was completed by him. It is bounded N. by Lothbury, S. by Thread- needle-street, W. by Princess-street, and E. by Bartholemew- lane. For security's sake, it is without external windows, being lighted from skylights or inner courts. It has the merit ofbeing well adapted for the purposes and business of the Bank. The corner towards Lothbury is copied from the Temple of the Sibyl, at Tivoli . The arch leading into the Bullion-yard is copied from that of Constantine, and Roman Baths are imitated in one of the Stock offices. The stone copings, or breast-work, behind the balustrade along the top of the wall, were added by C. R. Cockerell, R.A., as a defence after the Chartist meeting on the 10th of April, 1848. The area in the centre, planted with shrubs, and ornamented with a fountain, was the churchyard of St. Christopher Le Stocks. The management of the Bank is vested in a Governor, Deputy-Governor, and 24 Di- Lothbury . Princes-street. 223 1. Nightly watch. 2,2. Secretary's office and room. 3. Chief accountant's parlour. 4. Secretary's house. 5. Power of attorney's office. 6. Private rooms Branchbanks office. 7. Deputyaccountant's office. 8. Chief accountant's. 9. Chief cashier's. 10. Governor's room. 11. Deputy governor's. 12, 12. Committee rooms. 13. Officers' rooms. 14. Three per cent. or 34 per cent. transfer. 15. Rotunda or dividend pay office. 16. Bullion office. 17. Pay hall. 18. Cheque office. 19. Servants' room. 20. Coffee room. 21. Discount office. 22. Open light. courts 23. Passages, &c. for lobbies, 24. Waiting room. 25. Chancery offices. GROUND PLAN OF THE BANK OP ENGLAND. £5Note Office . 4 24 11 9 2 21 10 Chief Off .Cashiers 23 2424 12 Court Room Throgmor Lothbury Corat 61 A + 16 Bullion Off

  1. Consols Transf rOffice . 22

+ + + Capel Court and Stock Exchange. Bartholomew-lane. .Office Consols Dividend Off . Reduced + + Entrance. + Office . ++ Transfer Office . 78 Divide cent . 18 + Royal Exchange . 17 Bill Office . Garden Court Pay Hll . 15 Rotunda or .Vestibule Post 軻Bill Pay Dividend Office . Off .cent pr 3 + 12TI Princes-street. Public Draw- ingRooms Mansion House . Paved Court Private Drawing Office AST Christopher leStocks Wellington Statue . Entrance 60 VIII. BANK OF ENGLAND. cut, supposed to be the work of Benvenuto Cellini. The several instruments of the surrender to Henry VIII. of the whole of the monasteries in England and Wales. Access to the papers in the Record and State Paper Office can be obtained by any respectable person, on signing the name in a book kept for the purpose, and he may make what copies he pleases. Unrestricted access to State papers since the Revolution is granted only by a written order from the Secretary of State for the Home Department. A convenient Reading- room has been built. VIII.-COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS AND DOCKS. BANK OF ENGLAND, THREADNEEDLE- STREET, CITY (West End Branch in Burlington Gardens). " The principal Bank of Deposit and Circulation ; not in this country only, but in Europe,"'--was founded in 1694, and grew out of a loan of 1,200,000l. for the public service. Its principal projector was William Paterson, a Scotch gentleman, en- couraged by Charles Montague, afterwards Chancellor ofthe Exchequer and Earl of Halifax. By the laws and regulations which he left, no Scotchman was eligible to fill the post of a Director. The business of the Bank was carried on in Grocers' Hall, in the Poultry, from 1694 to 1734, when it was removed to an establishment of its own. East and west wings were added by Sir Robert Taylor, between 1766 and 1786. Sir John Soane subsequently receiving the appointment of architect to the Bank, part of the old building was either altered or taken down, and the Bank, much as we now see it, covering an area of more than three acres, was completed by him. It is bounded N. by Lothbury, S. by Thread- needle- street, W. by Princess- street, and E. by Bartholemew- lane. For security's sake, it is without external windows, being lighted from skylights or inner courts. It has the merit of being well adapted for the purposes and business of the Bank. The corner towards Lothbury is copied from the Temple of the Sibyl, at Tivoli. The arch leading into the Bullion-yard is copied from that of Constantine, and Roman Baths are imitated in one of the Stock offices. The stone copings, or breast-work, behind the balustrade along the top ofthe wall, were added by C. R. Cockerell, R.A., as a defence after the Chartist meeting on the 10th of April, 1848. The area in the centre, planted with shrubs, and ornamented with a fountain , was the churchyard of St. Christopher Le Stocks. The management of the Bank is vested in a Governor, Deputy- Governor, and 24 Di- 1. Nightly watch. Entrance Stock . e. Lothbury . 2,2 Secretary's off and room. 3. Chief accountant parlour. 4. Secretary's house 5. Power of attorney office. 6. Private rooms Brauch banks offic 7. Deputyaccountant office. 8. Chief accountant' 9. Chief cashier's. 10. Governor's room. 11. Deputy governor'e 12, 12. Committee room GROUND PL OF THE BANK OF ENGLAN + + Transfer per cnt .3 Office .Dividend .Ofice ST .Office Bill Garden Court 17 Pay Hull . 15 Rotunda Dividend Pay .Office Vestibule . .cent per 31 Princes-street. Paved Court Gunnar Office Christopher S leStocks .Statue Wellington Mansion House . Entrance Royal Exchange .

VIII. BANK OF ENGLAND. 61 rectors, 8 of whom go out every year. The qualification for Governor is 4000l. Stock, Deputy-Governor 3000l. , and Director 2000l. The room in which the Directors meet is called the Bank Parlour. They meet every Thursday morn- ing 11 in their Court-room. The profits accrue from in- terest on Exchequer-bills, discounts, interest on capital lent to Government, an allowance for managing the Public Debt, and other sources. The dividend received by the proprietors is 7 per cent. In the lobby of the Parlour is a portrait of Abraham Newland, who rose from a baker's counter to be chief clerk of the Bank of England, and to die enormously rich. Madox, who wrote the History of the Exchequer, was the first chief cashier. The persons employed were at first only 54 ; they are now 900. The salaries, rising from 50%. to 1200l. a year, amount to 210,000l. a year. There is a valuable library, for the use of the clerks. The Bullion Office is at the side of Bartholomew-lane, in the basement story, and formed part of the original structure. It consists of a public chamber for the transaction of business, avault for public deposits, and a vault for the private stock. No one is allowed to enter the bullion vaults except in company of a Director. The amount of bullion in the possession of the Bank of England constitutes, along with their securities, the assets which they place against their liabilities, on account of circulation and deposits ; and the difference (about three millions) between the several amounts is called the " Rest," or guarantee fund, to provide for the contingency of possible losses. The Bank Revenue ought to bear the proportion of to its liabilities. Gold is almost exclusively obtained bythe Bank in the "bar form ; although no form of the deposit would be refused. A bar of gold is a small brick, weighing 16 lb. , and worth about 8001. The B. of E. is compelled, under the Bank Act of 1844, to pay for bullion at the rate of 31. 17s. 9d. per oz. "9 In the process of weighing, a number of admirably- con- structed balances are brought into operation. A large balance, invented by Mr. Bate, weighs silver in bars, from 50 lb. to 80 lb. troy ; -a balance, invented in 1820 by Sir John Barton, of the Mint, weighs gold coin in quantities varying from a few ounces to 18 lb. troy, and gold in bars of any weight up to 15 lb. These instruments are very per- fect in their action, admit of easy regulation, and are of durable construction. The balance made by Mr. Cotton, is furnished with glass weights, and weighs at the rate of 33 sovereigns a minute. The machine appears to be a square brass box, in the inside of which, secure from currents of air, is the machinery. This wonderful and ingenious mechan- 62 VIII.-ROYAL EXCHANGE. ism is so contrived, that, on receiving the sovereigns, it discriminates so as to throw those of full weight into one box, and to reject those of light weight into another. There are 10 of these machines in operation, and they weigh between 60,000 and 70,000 pieces daily. Do not omit to see the wonderful machinery, invented by John Oldham (d. 1840) , by which bank-notes are printed and num- bered with unerring precision, in progression from 1 to 100,000 ; the whole accompanied by such a system of regis- tration and checks as to record everything that every part of the machine is doing at any moment, and render fraud impossible. The value of Bank-notes in circulation is up- wards of 18,000,000l. , and the number of persons receiving dividends in one year is about 284,000. The Stock or Annuities upon which the Public Dividends are payable amount to about 774,000,000l. , and the yearly dividends payable thereupon to about 25,000,000l. The issue of paper on secu- rities is not permitted to exceed 14,000,000l. The bullion in the vaults, in 1871, reached the value of 26,000,0007. All the circulated Bank notes are cancelled when paid in, and a lady visitor is sometimes permitted to hold in her hands a million of money. The mode of admission to view the interior of the Bank, Bullion Office, &c. , is by special order from the Governor, or Deputy-Governor. For a list of Bank Directors for the current year, see any almanac or pocket- book. Strangers may walk through the public rooms, Hall, Rotunda, &c. , any day except holidays, from 9 to 3. Dividends on Consols (including reduced and new 3 per cent. Stock, ) are paid quarterly, since 1870, and to written order, instead of by personal application only. THE ROYAL EXCHANGE (a quadrangular edifice, with a portico on the W. side facing down Cheapside ; and the third building of the kind on the same site), erected for the convenience of merchants and brokers ; built from the designs of William Tite, and opened by Queen Victoria, Oct. 28th, 1844. The sculpture in the pediment was by R. Westmacott, R.A. (the younger). The Exchange consists of an open court or quadrangle, surrounded by a colonnade, with a marble statue of her Majesty, by Lough ; and statues of Sir Thomas Gresham, Sir Hugh Myddelton, and Queen Elizabeth, by Messrs. Joseph, Carew, and Wat- It is said to have cost 180,000l.; but is now much disfigured externally by shops, in opposition to the firmly expressed wishes of its architect. The hour of ' Change, the busy period, is from 3 to 4 P.M. The two great days on ' Change are Tuesday and Friday. The Rothschilds occupy a pillar on the S. side. son. VIII.- ROYAL EXCHANGE- LLOYD'S. 63 In the E. part, up-stairs, are Lloyd's Subscription Rooms (originally Lloyd's Coffee House), the centre and focus of all intelligence, commercial and political, domestic and foreign, where merchants, shippers, and underwriters attend to obtain shipping intelligence, and where the business of Marine Insurance is carried on through the medium of underwriters. There is no one engaged in any extensive shipping business in London who is not either a member or subscriber to Lloyd's ; and thus the collective body represents the greater part of the mercantile wealth of the country. The entrance to Lloyd's is in the area, near the eastern gate ofthe Royal Exchange. A wide flight of steps leads to a handsome vestibule, ornamented by marble statues of Prince Albert, by Lough; the late William Huskisson, by Gibson, R.A., presented by his widow. On the walls is the tablet, erected as a testimonial to the "Times" newspaper, for the public spirit displayed by its proprietor in the ex- posure of a fraudulent conspiracy. In this vestibule are the entrances to the three principal subscription- rooms- the Underwriters' , the Merchants', and the Captains' Room. The affairs of Lloyd's are managed by a committee of nine members. The chairman is elected annually : he is generally a merchant of eminence and a member of Parliament. There is a secretary and 8 clerks, 8 waiters, and 5 messengers. The expenses amount to upwards of 10,000l. per annum. The income is derived from the subscriptions of about 1900 members and subscribers, and substitutes ; the payments from the insurance and other public companies ; the adver- tising of ships' bills, and the sale of Lloyd's List. Each member pays 25l. admission, and an annual subscription of 4l. 48.; but if an underwriter, 107. 10s. Annual subscribers to the whole establishment pay four guineas, or if tothe Merchants' Room only, then two guineas. The admission is by ballot of the committee, on the recommendation of six subscribers. What is called Lloyd's Register of British and Foreign Shipping is in No. 2, White- Lion- court, Cornhill, and was established in 1834. The object of the Society was to obtain a knowledge of the condition of the mercantile shipping, by means of careful surveys to be made by competent surveyors, and thus to secure an accurate classification according to the real and intrinsic worth of the ship. The affairs of the Society which instituted this book are managed by a com- mittee consisting of 24 members, namely merchants, 8 shipowners, and 8 underwriters. Six members (2 of each of the description just mentioned) retire annually, but are eligible to be re-elected. The right of election rests equally 64 VIII. TRINITY HOUSE. -STOCK EXCHANGE. with the committee for Lloyd's and the committee of the General Shipowners' Society. 66 99 On the architrave of the N. façade of the Exchange are inscriptions in relief, divided by a simple moulding. "The Earth is the Lord's and the fulness thereof," was suggested by the Prince Consort. The one on the left of the spec- tator is the common City motto, " DOMINE DIRIGE NOS," and that on the right HONOR DEO. The motto in the central compartment, "" FORTVN. A. MY," was the motto of Sir Thomas Gresham, founder of the first Royal Exchange, 1566, which was opened by Queen Elizabeth, Jan. 23rd, 1570-1. Behind the Royal Exchange is a sitting statue, in bronze, by Story, an American sculptor, of the benevolent Geo. Peabody, raised by subscription 1869. TRINITY HOUSE, on the N. side of ToWER HILL, built by Samuel Wyatt, belongs to a company founded by Sir Thomas Spert, Comptroller of the Navy to Henry VIII. , and commander of the Harry Grace de Dieu, and was incor- porated (March 20th, 1529) by the name of "The Master, Wardens, and Assistants of the Guild, Fraternity, or Brother- hood, of the most glorious and Undividable Trinity, and of St. Clement, in the parish of Deptford Strond, in the county of Kent." The corporation consists of a Master, Deputy Master, 31 Elder Brethren, and an unlimited number of "younger brethren, " and has for its object the increase and encouragement of navigation, &c., the regulation of lighthouses, and sea-marks, the securing of a body of skilled and efficient pilots for the navy and mercantile service, and the general management of nautical matters not immediately connected with the Admiralty. The revenue of the corpora- tion, arising from tonnage, ballastage, beaconage, &c. , is applied (after defraying the expenses of light-houses, buoys, &c.) to the relief of decayed seamen, their widows and children. In the house are busts of Nelson, St. Vincent, Howe, and Duncan ; portraits of James I. and his Queen, of James II. and Sir Francis Drake ; also models of light- houses. STOCK EXCHANGE, CAPEL COURT. Re-built 1853 (Thomas Allason, architect). This, the ready-money market of the world, was removed hither in 1802 from Changealley. It stands immediately in front of the Bank of England. Capel- court was so called from the London residence and place of business of Sir William Capel, ancestor of the Capels, Earls of Essex, and Lord Mayor in 1504. The members of the Stock Exchange, about 850 in number, consist of dealers (called jobbers), brokers in British and foreign funds, VIII. -DOCKS. 65 66 railway and other shares exclusively; each member paying 107. yearly. A notice is posted at every entrance that none but members are admitted. A stranger is soon detected, and by the custom of the place is made to understand that he is an intruder, and turned out. The admission of a member takes place in committee, and by ballot. The election is only for one year, so that each member has to be re-elected every Lady- day. The committee, consisting of thirty, are elected by the members at the same time. Every new member of the 'house," as it is called, must be introduced by three members, each of whom enters into security in 300l. for two years. An applicant for admission who has been a clerk to a member for the space of four years has to provide only two securities for 2507. for twoyears. Foreigners must have resided five years before becoming eligible for election. A bankrupt member immediately ceases to be a member, and cannot be re- elected unless he pays 6s. 8d. in the pound from resources of his own. The usual commission charged by a broker is one- eighth per cent. upon the stock sold or purchased ; but on foreign stocks, railway bonds and shares, it varies according to the value of the securities. The broker generally deals with the "jobbers, " as they are called, a class of members who are dealers or middle men, who remain in the Stock Exchange in readiness to act upon the appearance of the brokers, but the market is entirely open to all the members. The fluctuations of price are produced by sales and pur chases, by continental news, domestic politics and finance ; and sometimes by a fraud or trick like that ascribed to Lord Cochrane and others, in 1814, when the members were victimised to a large amount. THE DOCKS OF LONDON ( of which six lie on the north and two on the south bank of the river, and occupy an area of 900 acres) , viz. , St. Katherine's Docks, nearest to London, London Docks, West India Docks, East India Docks, Victoria Docks, Millwall, Surrey, and Commercial Docks, have all been formed since 1800, previous to which time shipping in the Portof London had to discharge their cargoes intolighters. All these Docks have been constructed by joint-stock companies, and though not unprofitable to their promoters, have redounded more to the advantage of the Port of London than to that of their projectors. WEST INDIA DOCKS (William Jessop, engineer) cover 295 acres, and lie between Limehouse and Blackwall, on the left bank of the Thames. The first stone was laid by William Pitt, July 12th, 1800, and the docks opened for business, 1802. The northern, or Import Dock, is 170 yards long by F 66 VIII.-EAST INDIA-ST. KATHERINE'S DOCKS. 166 wide, and will hold 204 vessels of 300 tons each ; and the southern, or Export Dock, is 170 yards long by 135 yards wide, and will hold 195 vessels. South of the Export Dock is a canal nearly of a mile long, cutting off the great bend of the river, connecting Limehouse Reach with Blackwall Reach, and forming the northern boundary of the Isle of Dogs. The two docks, with their warehouses, are en- closed by a lofty wall five feet in thickness, and have held at one time 148,563 casks of sugar, 70,875 barrels and 433,648 bags of coffee, 35,158 pipes of rum and Madeira, 14,021 logs of mahogany, and 21,350 tons of logwood. Though they retain their old name, they belong to the East and West India Dock Company, and are used by every kind of shipping. The office of the Company is at No. 8, Billiter-square ; and the best way of reaching the docks is by the Blackwall Railway. The original capital of the Company was 500,000l. , afterwards raised to 1,200,0007. The revenues in 1809 amounted to 330,6237. , and in 1813, when they reached their climax, to 449,4217. In 1860, 1200 vessels of 498,366 tons discharged in these united docks ; the gross earnings were 404,162 . , the nett do. 110,5837. Capital of the East and West India Companies, 2 millions. EAST INDIA DOCKS, BLACKWALL, a little lower down the river thanthe West India Docks, and considerably smaller, were originally erected for the East India Company, but since the opening of the trade to India, the property of the East and West India Companies. The first stone was laid March 4th, 1805, and the docks opened for business Aug. 4th, 1806. The number of directors is 13, who must each hold 20 shares in the stock of the Company, and 4 ofthem must be directors of the East India Company. This forms the only connexion which the East India Company has with the Docks. The possession of five shares gives a right of voting. The Import Dock has an area of 19 acres, the Export Dock of 10 acres, and the Basin of 3, making a total surface of 32 acres. The gates are closed at 3 in the winter months, and at 4 in the summer months. The mode of admission for visitors is much stricter than at any of the other Docks. The best way of reaching the Docks is by the Blackwall Railway from Fenchurch-street. This is the head-quarters of White Bait, which may be had in the neighbouring Brunswick Tavern. ST. KATHERINE'S DOCKS, near the TOWER. First stone laid May 3rd, 1827, and the Docks publicly opened, Oct. 25th, 1828 ; 1250 houses, (nearly a whole parish, in fact, ) including the old Hospital of St. Katherine, were purchased and pulled down, and 11,300 inhabitants removed, in clearing the VIII.-LONDON DOCKS. 67 ground for this magnificent undertaking, of which Mr. Tel- ford was the engineer, P. Hardwick the architect, and Sir John Hall, the late secretary, the active promoter. The total cost was 1,700,000l. The area of the Docks is about 24 acres, of which 11 are water. The lock is sunk so deep that ships of 700 tons burden may enter at any time of the tide. The warehouses, vaults, sheds, and covered ways will con- tain 110,000 tons of goods. The gross earnings of the Com- pany in 1860 were 261,995l. , nett, 71,756l.; and 905 vessels entered. Capital 1861, 2,500,000l. The earth excavated at St. Katherine's, including the contents of the churchyard, when the Docks were formed was carried by water to Millbank, and employed to fill up the cuts or reservoirs of the Chelsea Waterworks Company, on which, under Mr. Cubitt's care, Eccleston- square, and much ofthe south side of Pimlico, has been since erected. In 1863 the St. Katherine's and London Docks amalgamated, and were placed under one management. This arrangement is likely to be followed by other Docks. THE LONDON DOCKS, situated on the left bank of the Thames, between ST. KATHERINE'S DOCKS and RATCLIFF HIGHWAY. The first and largest dock (John Rennie, engineer) was opened, Jan. 30th, 1805. This magnificent establishment comprises an area of 90 acres-34 acres of water, 49 acres of floor in warehouses and sheds, 20 acres of vault. There are 20 warehouses, 259 floors in these warehouses, 18 sheds, 17 vaults, and 6 quays, with three entrances from the Thames, viz. , Hermitage, 40 feet in width; Wapping, 40 feet ; and Shadwell, 45 feet. The Western Dock comprises 20 acres ; the Eastern, 7 acres ; and the Wapping Basin, 3 acres. The entire structure cost 4,000,0007. of money. In 1858, 2 new locks were made, 60 feet wide, and a new basin, 780 feet by 450 feet ; Rendall, Engineer. The wall alone cost 65,000l. The walled-in range of dock possesses water-room for 302 sail of vessels, exclusive of lighters ; warehouse- room for 220,000 tons of goods ; and vault- room for 60,000 pipes of wine. The tobacco warehouse alone covers 5 acres. The number of ships entered in 1860 was 1032, measuring 424,338 tons. Six weeks are allowed for unloading, beyond which period the charge of a farthing per ton is made for the first two weeks, and a halfpenny per ton afterwards. The business of the Docks is managed by a Court of Directors, who sit at the London Dock House, in New Bank-buildings. The capital of the shareholders is 5,000,0007. As many as 3000 labourers have been employed in these docks in one day. "The TobaccoWarehouses are rented by Government at 14,0007. a year. F 2 68 VIII.--LONDON DOCKS. They will contain about 24,000 hogsheads, averaging 1200 lb. each, and equal to 30,000 tons of general merchandise. Passages and alleys, each several hundred feet long, are bordered on both sides by close and com- pact ranges of hogsheads, with here and there a small space for the counting-house of the officers of customs, under whose inspection all the arrangements are conducted. Near the north-east corner of the ware- houses is a door inscribed ' To the Kiln, ' where damaged tobacco is burnt, the long chimney which carries off the smoke being jocularly called ' The Queen's Pipe."'" -Knight's London, iii . 76. This is the great depot for the stock of wines belonging to the Wine Merchants of London. Port is principally kept in pipes ; sherry in hogsheads. On the 30th of June, 1849, the Dock contained 14,783 pipes of port ; 13,107 hogsheads of sherry ; 64 pipes of French wine ; 796 pipes of Cape wine ; 7607 cases of wine, containing 19,140 dozen ; 10,113 hogsheads ofbrandy ; and 3642 pipes of rum. "As you enter the dock, the sight of the forest ofmasts in the distance and the tall chimneys vomiting clouds of black smoke, and the many- coloured flags flying in the air, has a most peculiar effect ; while the sheds, with the monster wheels arching through the roofs, look like the paddle-boxes of huge steamers. Along the quay, you see now men with their faces blue with indigo, and now gaugers with their long brass- tipped rule dripping with spirit from the cask they have been probing ; then will come a group of flaxen-haired sailors, chattering German ; and next a black sailor, with a cotton handkerchief twisted turban- like around his head. Presently a blue-smocked butcher, with fresh meat and a bunch of cabbages in the tray on his shoulder, and shortly afterwards a mate with green parroquets in a wooden cage. Here you will see, sitting on a bench, a sorrowful- looking woman, with new bright cooking tins at her feet, telling you she is an emigrant preparing for her voyage. As you pass along this quay the air is pungent with tobacco ; at that it overpowers you with the fumes of rum. Then you are nearly sickened with the stench of hides and huge bins of horns, and shortly afterwards the atmosphere is fragrant with coffee and spice. Nearly everywhere you meet stacks of cork, or else yellow bins of sulphur or lead-coloured copper ore. As you enter this warehouse, the flooring is sticky, as if it had been newly tarred, with the sugar that has leaked through the casks, and as you descend into the dark vaults you see long lines of lights hanging from the black arches, and lamps flitting about midway. Here you sniff the fumes of the wine, and there the peculiar fungous smell of dry-rot. Then the jumble of sounds as you pass along the dock blends in anything but sweet concord . The sailors are singing boisterous nigger songs from the Yankee ship just entering, the cooper is hammering at the casks on the quay ; the chains of the cranes, loosed of their weight, rattle as they fly up again ; the ropes splash in the water ; some captain shouts his orders through his hands ; a goat bleats from some ship in the basin ; and empty casks roll along the stones with a hollow drum- like sound. Here the heavy-laden ships are down far below the quay, and you descend to them by ladders, whilst in another basin they are high up out of the water, so that their green copper sheathing is almost level with the eye of the passenger, while above his head a long line of bowsprits stretch far over the quay, and from them hang spars and planks as a gangway to each ship. This immense establishment is worked by from one to three thousand hands, according as the business is either brisk ' or ' slack.' " -Henry Mayhew, Labour and the Poor. Mode of Admission. -The basins and shipping are open to VIJI. DOCKS-CORN EXCHANGE. 69 the public ; but to inspect the vaults and warehouses an order must be obtained from the Secretary at the London Dock House in NewBank-buildings ; ladies are not admitted after 1 p.m. COMMERCIAL DOCKS. Five ample and commodious docks on the south side of the river, the property ofthe Com- mercial Dock Company, with an entrance from the Thames nearly opposite King's-Arms-stairs in the Isle of Dogs. They were opened in 1807. The old Docks intended for Greenland ships are enlarged and provided with warehouses for bonding foreign corn. They comprise 49 acres, 40 of which are water ; and are principally used by vessels engaged in the Baltic and East Country commerce and importation of timber. The removal of the mud deposited in the Docks by the steam navigation of the Thames costs the Company, on an average, about 1000l. a year. VICTORIA DOCKS, on the Essex or left bank of the Thames below Blackwall, occupy 200 acres of Plaistow marshes, 8 feet below Trinity high- water mark. The largest of 3 pair of lock-gates is 80 feet span, entirely of iron, and well worth notice. Ships of 3000 tons are raised out of the water for repair by a hydraulic lift, are placed upon a gridiron andremovedonpontoons to berepaired, the invention of Edwin Clark, C.E. These Docks were begun 1850, opened 1856 ; cost one million ! Capital, one million, rates low. They are consequently able to compete with their rivals for the trade of London on very advantageous terms. They have town warehouses under the arches of the Blackwall Railway, at the very gates of the London and St. Katherine's Docks. Large quantities of guano from Peru are housed here. The SURREY DOCKS, adjoining the Commercial New Docks ; entrances and basins planned by Messrs. Bidder at a cost of 100,000%. MILLWALL DOCKS, near the West India Docks in the Isle of Dogs, opened 1868, 200 acres, of which about 33 are water. The basin is entered by lock-gates 80 feet wide and 450 long, the largest in London : the depth of water in centre, 28 feet. CORN EXCHANGE, MARK LANE, CITY, projected and opened 1747, enlarged and partly rebuilt 1827-28. Market days, Mon., Wed., and Fri. Hours of business 10 to 3; Monday is the principal day. Wheat is paid for in bills at one month, and all other descriptions of corn and grain in bills at two months. The Kentish " hoymen" (distinguished by their sailors' jackets) have stands free of expense, and pay less for rentage and dues than others, 70 VIII.-CORN EXCHANGE-RAILWAY STATIONS. COAL EXCHANGE, in LOWER THAMES STREET, nearly opposite Billingsgate, established pursuant to 47 Geo. III. , cap. 68. The building (J. B. Bunning, archt., ) was opened by Prince Albert, 1849. In making the foundations, a Roman hypocaust was laid open. It has been arched over, and is still visible. The interior decorations of the Exchange by F. Sang, represent the various species of ferns, palms, and other plants found fossilised amid strata of the coal forma- tion ; the principal collieries and mouths of the shafts ; portraits of men who have rendered service to the trade ; colliers' tackle, implements, &c. The floor is laid in the form of the mariner's compass, and consists of upwards of 40,000 pieces of wood. The black oak portions were taken from the bed of the Tyne, and the mulberry wood introduced as the blade of the dagger in the City shield was taken from a tree said to have been planted by Peter the Great when working in this country as a shipwright. In 1872 the coal supplied to London alone amounted to 5,007,006 tons -of which 2,548,000 tons were brought by rail. Some of the largest gas companies consume 100,000 tons, and there are brewers and sugar refiners who use from 5000 to 10,000 tons yearly. The Museum is open the 1st Monday of every month, 12 to 4. 20,000 seamen are employed in the carry- ing department alone of the London Coal Trade. RAILWAY STATIONS. -1. LONDON AND NORTH WESTERN, EUSTON SQUARE, approached by a Grecian Doric gateway, occupies 12 acres, and the neighbouring depôt at Camden Hill, 30 acres. The two cost £800,000. The great Hall (opened May, 1849) , was built from the designs of P. C. Hardwick, architect to the Company. In it is placed a statue of the late Robert Stephenson. The bas-reliefs of London, Liverpool, Manchester, &c. , are by John Thomas. Close at hand are the Euston and Victoria Hotels. 2. The LONDON BRIDGE STATION is the outlet for numerousCompanies, -Brighton, Dover (South Eastern), Crystal Palace, Greenwich, Mid Kent, North Kent, and is a more wonderful sight, from the complication of its rails, than any other station in London. 3. GREAT NORTHERN RAILWAY, KING'S CROSS, opened in 1852. 4. GREAT WESTERN RAILWAY, PADDINGTON (completed 1856) , with its vast hotel, is a grand architectural construction. VIII.-RAILWAY STATIONS. 71 5. LONDON, CHATHAM, AND DOVER TERMINI, LUDGATE HILL and VICTORIA STATION, PIMLICO . 6. MIDLAND RAILWAY, ST. PANCRAS. - Between the Great Northern and London and North- Western Stations ; the greatest roof in the world, 700 feet long, 240 feet span, unbroken by ties or braces ; it is a modified pointed arch, 150 ft. high. Each of the 25 ribs weighs 50 tons. The outer thrust is counteracted by ties connecting every pair of ribs below, passing under the floor. Under it run two stories of warehouses for Bass & Co., Burton Pale Ale, &c. The goods station, at AGAR TOWN, occupies 50 acres, cleared of houses to make room for it. 7. VICTORIA STATION, VICTORIA ROAD, PIMLICO, finished 1861, occupies in part the site of the Grosvenor Canal and Basin. It opens out a communication from the west end of London to the Railways leading to : a. Brighton, Dover, Croydon, Crystal Palace ; b. Chatham and Dover ; c. Great Western Railway. It covers nearly 12 acres. 8. CHARING CROSS STATION, on the site of Hungerford Market, for the S. E. Counties, Brighton, Folkestone, and Dover Lines, and Greenwich. Continental mail- trains twice a day. Baggage may be booked through to Paris. This railway is connected with the City at Cannon-street, crossing the Thames by two bridges. The upper part of the edifice is a colossal HOTEL. In front of it rises a stone Cross, an elegant reproduction, as far as possible, of that which once stood at Charing Cross, dedicated to Queen Eleanor. (E. Barry, archt. ) 9. GREAT EASTERN RAILWAY STATION, SHOREDITCH to Cambridge, Colchester, Norwich, Yarmouth, Peter- borough; to be extended to Broad- street. 10. CANNON STREET TERMINUS ofthe South- Eastern Railway, on the left bank of the Thames, accessible by an iron railway bridge over the river, is a vast structure ; its shed is 190 ft. span, each truss weighs 47 tons. It crosses Thames Street on a bridge, and occupies the site of the venerable Steelyard, or Hall of the Hanse, 1250-1550. It covers greater part of two parishes, Allhallows the Great and St. Mary Bothaw ! Part of it is a grand Hotel and City Dining Rooms. Its total cost was 505,3361. 11. NORTH LONDON and LONDON and NORTH WESTERN CITY TERMINUS, BROAD- STREET, CITY, leads to Dalston and Camden Town Stations. (See Metropolitan Railways in Introduction. ) 72 122 IX.-METROPOLITAN CATTLE MARKET . IX.-MARKETS. METROPOLITAN CATTLE MARKET, COPENHAGEN FIELDS (between Islington and Camden Town) —the modern Smithfield-the live-stock and meat market of Londonerected 1854-5, after a long parliamentary struggle with the Corporation of London, and publicly opened by Prince Albert, 13th June, 1855. Architect, Mr. Bunning. The market occupies 30 acres, and is said to have cost 440,000l. 15 acres are enclosed, furnishing room for 7,600 bullocks, 40,000 sheep, 1,400 calves, and 900 pigs ; there is also lairage or covered sheds for bullocks and sheep. In the centre rises a clock tower—a station of the Electric Telegraph Co. Round its base are banking- houses for the convenience of dealers. There are 8 slaughter houses, 2 of which are public. There are 34 more acres available for the extension of the market. The number of cattle, sheep, and pigs, sold in one year in this market is estimated at 4,000,000. About one- sixth of all the oxen come from Denmark, which receives for them 500,000l. a-year. The City takes a toll upon every beast exposed to sale , of 1d. per head, and of sheep at 2d. per score, and for every pen 18. Salesmen estimate the weight of cattle by the eye, and, from constant practice, are seldom out more than a few pounds. The sales are always for cash. No paper is passed, but when the bargain is struck, the buyer and seller shake hands and close the sale. Several millions are annually paid away in this manner. A foreign cattle-market was opened at Deptford, on the site ofthe old Dockyard, 1872. THE AGRICULTURAL HALL, ISLINGTON GREEN, a capacious building, covering nearly three acres, between Liverpool- road and Islington Green. An Italian façade, of brick, with two towers. The main hall, 384 by 217 ft. , covered with a glass roof supported on iron columns. More than 8000 tons of iron were used in its construction . Architect, - Peck, of Maidstone. Date, 1861. Cost, 40,000l. Here are held at Christmas, the Agricultural Show, exhibitions of Cattle of the Smithfield Club. THE METROPOLITAN MEAT MARKET, SMITHFIELD, approached by broad streets from Holborn and the Old Bailey, was begun 1862, after much opposition from the Cor- poration, and finished 1868. It is a handsome and appropriate building, in the Renaissance style, of red brick, IX. SMITHFIELD MARKET. 73 · flanked by four corner towers ( Horace Jones, architect). It is imposing from its extent and proportions, covering threc and a half acres, 630 ft. long, by 246 wide. Its roof of iron and glass, 30 ft. high, is supported on wrought iron pillars ; it is furnished with convenient stalls for the sale of meat, while underneath the entire basement, beneath the floor, equal to nearly 3 acres, is a Railway Depot including cool cellars for storing meat, provided with lifts and communicating with various Underground railways and with the Cattle Market. It includes a Poultry Market. The cost was nearly 200,000l. OLD SMITHFIELD MARKET was an irregular open area of 5 acres, surrounded by bone-houses, catgut manufactories, public-houses, and knackers' yards. The name would seem to have been originally Smoothfield, " campus planus." "Falstaff. Where's Bardolph? Page. He's gone into Smithfield to buy your worship a horse. "Falstaff. I bought him in Paul's, and he'll buy me a horse in Smithfield : an I could get me but a wife in the Stews, I were manned, horsed, and wived ." -Shakspeare, 2nd Part ofHenry IV., Act i ., sc. 2. Smithfield is famous for its jousts, tournaments, executions, and burnings. Here Wallace and the gentle Mortimer were executed. Here, Sir William Walworth slew Wat Tyler, June, 1381 ; the King standing near St. Bartholomew's Priory, and the Commons towards the west in form of battle. "For two days the commoners burnt, and ravaged , and beheaded in the city, but on the evening of the second day, the Mayor, Sir Wm. Walworthe, most manfully, by himself, rushed upon the captain of the said multitude, and as he was alter- cating with the king and his nobles, first wounded him in the neck with his sword and then hurled him from his horse, mortally pierced in the breast, and further so de- fended himself that he departed from thence unhurt. " -Riley. The stake, at which so many of the Marian martyrs died, was fixed immediately opposite the church of St. Bartholomew the Great (see Sect. XIV). In March, 1849, during excavations necessary for a new sewer, and at a depth of 3 ft. below the surface, immediately opposite the entrance to the church of St. Bartholomew the Great, the workmen laid open a mass of unhewn stones, blackened as if by fire, and covered with ashes, and human bones charred and partially consumed. This is supposed to have been the spot generally used for the Smithfield burnings-the face of the sufferer being turned to the east and to the great gate of St. Bartholomew, the prior of which was generally present on such occasions. Many bones were carried away as relics. There are records of 277 74 IX.-BILLINGSGATE MARKET. persons having thus perished. The fact has been marked by an appropriate monument, a slab of granite, framed and inscribed, let into the wall of the Hospital opposite ( March, 1870). A memorial church has also been built near. Here too, from Sept. 3rd to 6th, was held the far-famed Bartholomew Fair, once one of the leading fairs in England, established by a grant from Henry II. to the Black Canons of St. Bartholomew for the Sale of Cloth, whence an adjoin- ing street is still called Cloth Fair, but for a century and more (until its abolition in 1851 ) only a scene of licence and a nuisance. BILLINGSGATE, the great fish-market of London (of red brick, with stone dressings, ) lies a little below London Bridge on the left bank of the Thames (Bunning, architect) . Fish have been sold here since 1351. Queen Elizabeth appointed "this open place for the landing and bringing in of any fish, corn, salt, stores, victuals, and fruit, and for the carrying forth of the same, or the like, and for no other merchandizes." In the reign of William III. , 1699, it was made " a free and open market for all sorts of fish." It is now regu- lated pursuant to 9 & 10 Vict. c. 346. It yields the Corpo- ration 7000l. per annum. "How this gate took that name, or of what antiquity the same is, I must leave uncertain, as not having read any ancient record thereof more than that Geffrey Monmouth writeth, that Belin, a king of the Britons, about 400 years B.C., built this gate, and named it Belin's gate, after his own calling ; and that when he was dead, his body being burnt, the ashes in a vessel of brass were set upon a high pinnacle of stone over the same gate. It seemeth to me not to be so ancient, but rather to have taken that name of some later owner of the place, happily named Beling or Biling, as Somer's key, Smart's key, Frost wharf, and others thereby, took their names of their owners." -Stow, p. 17. The coarse language of the place has long been famous :— "There stript, fair Rhetoric languish'd on the ground ; His blunted arms by Sophistry are borne, And shameless Billingsgate her robes adorn." Pope, The Dunciad, B. iv. "One may term Billingsgate,” says old Fuller, “ the Esculine gate of London." The market opens at 5 o'clock throughout the year. All fish are sold by the tale except salmon, which is sold by weight, and oysters and shell-fish, which are sold by measure. The salmon imports are from Scotland, Ireland, Holland, and the north of Europe. The best cod is brought fromthe Dog- ger-bank, and the greater number of lobsters from Norway. The eels are chiefly from Holland. The oyster season com- IX.-MARKETS. 75 mences 4th August. Since the opening of railways, fish is conveyed to London chiefly by them. The Great Eastern has the largest share in this traffic. In 1869, 80,000 tons were brought by land, and only a small quantity by vessels. Salmon is sent in boxes on commission to agents, who charge 5 per cent. and take the risk of bad debts. Much fine fish is destroyed purposely, in order to keep up the price. This business is in few hands, and those engaged in it are the most wealthy of all dealers in fish. Here every day (at 1 and 4) , at the " Three Tuns Tavern," a capital dinner may be had for 1s. 6d. , including three kinds offish, joints, steaks, and bread and cheese. For Columbia Fish Market, built by Baroness Burdett Coutts, see Sect. XXIII.; is used for vegetables also. COVENT GARDEN MARKET, the great fruit, vegetable, and herb market of London, originated (circ. 1656) in a few temporary stalls and sheds at the back of the garden wall of Bedford-house on the south side of the square. The present Market-place (William Fowler, architect) was erected (1830) by the Duke of Bedford. The market is rated ( 1849) to the poor at 4800l. , rather under the amount derived from the rental and the tolls . The stranger in London who wishes to see what Covent-garden Market is like, should visit it on a Tuesday, Thursday, or Saturday morning in summer, between 3 and 7 o'clock. To see the supply of fruit and vegetables carted off, 7 A.M. is early enough. To enjoy the sight and smell of flowers and fruit, the finest in the world, any time from 10 A.M. to 4 or 5 P.M. will answer. LEADENHALL MARKET, Gracechurch-street, for but- chers' meat, poultry, game, leather, hides, bacon, &c. It is a mean structure or collection of sheds, stalls, and shops, only worth notice for its exuberant contents. The manor- house of Leadenhall, which gave the name to the market, belonged (1309) to Sir Hugh Neville, knight, and was converted into a granary for the City by Simon Eyre, draper, and Mayor of London, in 1445. The market escaped the Great Fire of 1666. "Would'st thou with mighty beef augment thy meal, Seek Leadenhall." -Gay, Trivia. Leadenhall is no longer celebrated for its beef, but is de- servedly esteemed as the largest and best poultry market in London. FARRINGDON MARKET is a general market for vegetables and fruit. It is the great water-cress market of London. The CORN MARKET is in Mark-lane ; see Sect . VIII. 76 IX. TATTERSALL'S. X.- BREWERIES. The greatest number of horses are sold at TATTERSALL'S, in Knightsbridge Green, near the end of Sloane- street, formerly in Grosvenor- place, a handsome structure, including ranges of stables of the best construction, lofty and airy, with court under glass roofs, accommodating 300 or 400 horses. This mart was called after Richard Tattersall (d . 1795) , originally a training groom to the last Duke of Kingston, who laid the foundation of his fortune by the purchase, for 2500l. , of the celebrated horse " Highflyer." All horses for sale must be sent on the Friday before the day of sale. The days of sale are Mondays throughout the year, and Thursdays in the height of the season. Here is a subscription-room, under the revision of the Jockey Club (who have rooms in Old Bond- street) , and attended by all the patrons of the turf, from noblemendown to stable-keepers. Days of meeting, Monday and Thursday throughout the year. Settling days, Tuesday after the Derby, Monday after the St. Leger. It is necessary to have an introduction from a subscriber. Annual subscription, 21. 28. The number of members is stated to be between three and four hundred. The betting at Tattersall's regulates the betting throughout the country. X.- BREWERIES. AMONG the many curiosities to be seen in London few will be found more interesting to the agriculturist than a visit to one or other of the great breweries. The following statement of the malt used by the most eminent London brewers in one year, is supposed to be an average of the consumption for some years past :- Barclay, Perkins, and Co., Park-street, Southwark Truman, Hanbury, Buxton, and Co., Brick-lane, Spitalfields. 140,000 Meux and Co., Tottenham Court Road • Qrs. 127,000 59,617 Reid and Co., Liquorpond- street, Gray's Inn-lane 56,640 Whitbread and Co., Chiswell- st . , Finsbury, St. Luke's 51,800 Combe and Co. , Castle- street, Long Acre 43,282 Late Calvert and Co., 89, Upper Thames-street . 29,630 Mann and Co., 172, Whitechapel- road 24,030 Charrington and Co., Mile-end- road 22,023 Thorne and Co., Horseferry-road, Millbank Taylor and Co., Holloway 21,016 15,870 At Barclay's (the largest, extending over 11 acres) 600 quar- ters of malt are brewed daily. Among the many vats, one is pointed out containing 3500 barrels of porter, which, at XI.-WATER COMPANIES. 77 the selling price, would yield 90007. The water used for brewing is taken from the Thames at Ditton , and costs 20007. per annum. To cool the wort in hot weather, water at 54° Fahr. is drawn from a well 367 feet deep ; 180 cart-horses are employed in the cartage of beer, &c. , principally of the Flanders breed, cost from 50l. to 80l. each, and are noble specimens. The head brewer has a salary of 1000l. a year. The founder of the firm was Henry Thrale, the friend of Dr. Johnson, whose house stands in Park-street (once Deadman's-place) . The business, at Thrale's death, was sold by Johnson and his brother executor, in behalf of Mrs. Thrale, to Messrs. Barclay, Perkins, and Co., for 135,000l. "We are not here, " said Johnson on the day of sale, " to sell a parcel of boilers and vats, but the potentiality of growing rich beyond the dreams of avarice." Robert Barclay, the first of the name in the firm (d. 1831), was a descendant of the famous Barclay who wrote the Apology for the Quakers, and Perkins was the chief clerk on Thrale's establishment. While on his tour to the Hebrides, in 1773, Johnson men- tioned that Thrale " paid 20,000l. a year to the revenue, and that he had four vats, each of which held 1600 barrels, above a thousand hogsheads." The amount at present paid to the revenue by the firm is nine times 20,0007. 66 Truman, Hanbury and Buxton's brewery is not inferior in extent or excellent management to Barclay's. The beer is here cooled in summer by ice brought from Norway, of which immense stores are kept. The visitor should exert his in- fluence among his friends to obtain an order of admission to one ofthe larger Breweries. XI.-WATER COMPANIES. THE cities of London and Westminster, and the borough of Southwark, and certain parishes and places adjacent thereto, are at present supplied with water by nine Com- panies, who exercise absolute and irresponsible discretion in the quality, price, and quantity, of the article they sell. These Companies are :-NEW RIVER COMPANY ; EAST LON- DON WATER WORKS COMPANY ; SOUTHWARK AND VAUXHALL WATER COMPANY ; WEST MIDDLESEX WATER WORKS COM. 78 XI.-WATER COMPANIES. PANY ; LAMBETH WATER WORKS COMPANY ; CHELSEA WATER WORKS COMPANY ; GRAND JUNCTION WATER WORKS COM- PANY ; KENT WATER WORKS COMPANY ; HAMPSTEAD WATER WORKS COMPANY. The daily supply is nearly 46 millions of gallons, of which 20 millions are from the Thames, and 26 millions from the New River and other sources. This supply is equal, it is said, to a river 9 feet wide and 3 feet deep, running at two miles an hour. The City is entirely supplied from the New River and the River Lea ; not by the Thames. The nine companies supply 271,795 tenements ; the New River supplying 83,206 of that number. The Thames has hitherto been at once our cistern and our cesspool ; but this great disgrace is in some degree remedied, as far as supply is concerned, by an Act passed in 1852 direct- ing that on and after 31st of August, 1855, no companies, except the Chelsea Company, shall take water from any part of the Thames below Teddington Lock. The new system of Main Drainage will, it is hoped, relieve the Thames from the second reproach of foulness. The NEW RIVER is an artificial stream, 38 miles in length, about 18 feet wide and 4 feet deep, projected 1608-9, and com- pleted 1620, by Sir Hugh Myddelton, a native of Denbigh, in Wales, and a member of the Goldsmiths' Company, for the pur- pose of supplying the City of London with water. Nearly ruined byhis scheme, Myddelton parted with his interest in it to a company, called the New River Company, in whose hands it still remains, reserving to himself and his heirs for ever an annuity of 100l. per annum. This annuity ceased to be claimed about 1715. The New River has its rise at Chadwell Spring, now a spacious basin with an islet, containing a monument to Myddelton, erected by Mylne, the architect and engineer, situated in meadows, midway between Hert- ford and Ware ; from this the Company obtains 500,000 gallons daily. The New River runs for several miles parallel with the river Lea, from which it borrows 18,500,000 gallons daily at Ware, and at last empties itself into 83,206 tene- ments, and down the throats of 800,000 persons, having run a very circuitous course from its source to London. The dividend for the year 1633, which is believed to have been the first, was 15l. 3s. 3d. The Company now receives 252,000l. per annum, from the sale of 26,500,000 gallons to London. A single share produces 1,500l. a year, and is worth 30,000l. There are 72 shares. The main of the New River at Islington was, it is said, shut down at the XII.-MAIN DRAINAGE. -SEWERAGE. 79 2 time of the Great Fire of London in 1666 ; and it was believed by some, that the supply of water had been stopped by Captain John Graunt, a papist ! One of the figures in Tempest's Cries of London, published in the reign ofJames II. , carries " New River Water." XII.-MAIN DRAINAGE.-SEWERAGE. A NEW System of Main Drainage for London was decided on in 1858, and begun 1859, by the METROPOLITAN BOARD OF WORKS, the object being to divert the impurities of the great City from the Thames, into which they had hitherto been poured. A series of large sewers, in fact, tunnels, carried under streets and buildings, whose aggregate length amounts to 85 miles, have been constructed on either side of the Thames, at right angles with the old sewers and a little below their levels, so as to intercept the sewage, and prevent its polluting the river in its passage through London. They discharge themselves by a general outfall channel at Barking Creek on the left bank of the Thames, and at Crossness, near Plumstead, on the right. The greater part of the sewage is carried away along with the rainfall by gravitation ; but the sewage of the low levels requires to be pumped up by steam-engines into the out- fall channels, and is previously subjected to a process of deodorising. The cost of executing this extensive design is 4,100,000l. paid by a tax levied on owners of property. On the S. side of the Thames the high level channels (10 miles long) begin at Clapham, the low level (11 miles) at Putney, both uniting at Deptford Creek ; thence proceeding to Erith, 7 miles. On the N. or City side of the Thames, three sys- tems of sewers, beginning at Hampstead, Kilburn, and the river embankment, meet together on the river Lea. The works at Bow Creek, below Blackwall, in bridges, aqueducts, culverts, and conduits, are on the most stupendous scale. The Pumping Station, at Abbey Mills, West Ham, a fanciful building, where the low level drainage is lifted, by steam, to the upper level, cost near 250,000l. The ordinary daily amount of London sewage thus discharged into the River Thames on the N. side has been calculated at 10,000,000 cubic feet, and on the south side 4,000,000 cubic feet. For- merly the sewers emptied themselves into the Thames at various levels. When the tide rose above the orifices of 80 XIII. TOWER OF LONDON. these sewers, the whole drainage of the district was stopped until the tide receded again, rendering the river- side system of sewers in Kent and Surrey a succession of cess- pools. Now their contents are received in reservoirs at the river bank, which are discharged into the river about the time of high water, thus both diluting the sewage and carry- ing it down by the ebb to a point 26 miles below London Bridge, where it is partly employed in fertilising barren land. The whole sewage of London is diverted away from the Thames into this gigantic cloaca maxima. The engineer ofthe Main Drainage is Mr. Bazalgette. XIII.-TOWER OF LONDON. TOWER OF LONDON, the most celebrated fortress in Great Britain, stands immediately without the ancient City walls, on the left or Middlesex bank of the Thames, and "below bridge," between the Custom House and St. Kathe- rine's Docks, "This Tower," says Stow, "is a citadel to defend or command the City; a royal palace ; a prison of state for the most dangerous offenders ; the armoury for warlike provisions ; the treasury of the ornaments and jewels of the Crown ; and general conserver of most of the records of the King's courts ofjustice at Westminster." -Stow, p. 23. Tradition has carried its erection many centuries earlier than our records warrant, attributing its foundation to Julius Cæsar :- "Prince. Where shall we sojourn till our coronation ? "Gloster. Where it seems best unto your royal self. IfI may counsel you, some day or two Your highness will repose you at the Tower. "Prince. I do not like the Tower, of any place.- Did Julius Cæsar build that place, my lord ? "Buck. He did, my gracious lord , begin that place, Which since succeeding ages have re-edified. "Prince. Is it upon record, or else reported Successively from age to age, he built it? "Buck. Upon record, my gracious lord." Shakspeare, King Richard III., Act iii. , sc. 1. "This is the way To Julius Cæsar's ill-erected Tower." Shakspeare, King Richard II., Act v., sc. 1 . "Ye towers of Julius, London's lasting shame, With many a foul and midnight murder fed." Gray, The Bard. XIII. TOWER OF LONDON. 81 The Government of the Tower has been entrusted since the days of the Conqueror to a high officer called the Constable. That office was filled by the Duke of Wellington, and is nowby Gen. Sir William Gomm. The Lieut. - Governor is Col. Lord de Ros, author of " Historical Memorials of the Tower," 1866-67. The Tower is entered from the side of Tower Hill by the Lions' Gate, on the W. side, where the lions and King's beasts were formerly kept. Here tickets are distributed- for the Armoury and White Tower, 6d. ; and for the Crown jewels, 6d. each person . Admission from 10 to 4. Strangers are conducted over the Tower by the Warders, commonly called Beefeaters, whose places were formerly bought ; but who are now all old soldiers, appointed on account ofgood services. They conduct visitors in parties of 12. Passing under two Gothic gateways through the Middle and Byward Towers, and over the broad and deep moat surrounding the fortress, once an eyesore and unwholesome, now drained and kept as a garden, though still capable of being flooded at high water, we enter the Outer Bail, and perceive before us the wall of the Inner Bail, 30 to 40 ft. high, surmounted by towers at intervals. At the S.W. angle rises the Bell Tower, forming part of the Governor's house, while, rt. , in the line of the outer rampart is St. Thomas Tower, and the Traitor's Gate, opening to the river beneath a fine wide arch, well restored and rebuilt in 1866, by Salvin. The Traitor's Gate- "That gate misnamed, through which before Went Sidney, Russell, Raleigh, Cranmer, More." Rogers's Human Life. is so called because prisoners, brought by water, were ad- mitted by it. It is now closed. Nearly opposite to it rises the Bloody Tower, gloomy and ominous name, so called because within it took place the murder of the princes, Edward V. and Duke of York, sons of Edward IV. , by order of Richard III. It was described by the Duke of Wellington as "the only place of security in which prisoners of State can be placed." Here the royal jewels are now placed (see below). Passing beneath the portcullis which still hangs above the gateway of the Bloody Tower, you enter the Inner Bail. In the corner of the square, on the left, is the Governor's lodgings in the Bell Tower (mentioned above, and notshown to the public). They contain the Council Chamber, in which Guy Fawkes was examined by the Lords and King James, with application oftorture ; also the Romish priests who were G 82 XIII. TOWER OF LONDON. accomplices inthe Powder plot. This event is commemorated by a tablet of parti- coloured marbles, with inscriptions in Latin and Hebrew. In another an inscription on an old mantel- piece relates to the Countess of Lenox, grandmother of James the First, " commitede prysner to thys Logynge for the Marige of her Sonne, my Lord Henry Darnle and the Queene of Scotlande." The Bell Tower was the prison of Queen Elizabeth, of Fisher, bishop of Rochester, and pro- bably of Lord Nithsdale, whose escape thence was so wonder- fully effected by his heroic wife. * Theoldest portion existing of the Toweris the isolated square Keep, or Donjon in the centre, called the White Tower, built by William the Conqueror (circ. 1078), Gundulph, bishop of Rochester, being architect. It was re-faced and the windows modernised by Wren, but within it is nearly unaltered . A winding stair at the corner, at the foot of which the bones of "the murdered princes " were found, leads to the Chapel of St. John, long used, as well as the other chambers, to hold Records ; now laid open. It is one of the best preserved and oldest specimens of Early Norman style in Britain ; plain and massive piers supporting round arches and a barrel vault. The E. end is an apse, and round it and the aisles runs a triforium gallery, in which the royal family may have heard mass. The Banqueting Hall and Council Chamber adjoining, have flat timber roofs supported on stout joists. They are nowfilled with 60,000 stand of rifles, kept in the most perfect order, and beautifully arranged. In the Council Chamber great events have been enacted. Here Crookback Richard burst in, before he became king, and turning upon Lord Hastings, called him traitor, and, striking the table with his fist, gave him over to the armed band, who entered at the signal, to be beheaded on Tower Green, upon a casual log. Outside the White Tower, on the S. side, are several inte- resting examples ofearly gunnery. Observe. -No. 7, a chamber gun of the time of Henry VI. No. 17, a portion of a large brass gun of the time of Henry VIII. , said to have belonged to the ship of war, the Great Harry, of which we have a representation in the picture at Hampton Court. No. 18, a gun of the same reign, inscribed, " Thomas Semeur Knyght was master of the King's Ordynance whan Iohn and Robert Owen Brethren made thys Pece Anno Domini 1546." Iron serpent with chamber, time of Henry VIII. , recovered from the wreck of the Mary Rose, sunk off Spithead, in 1545, Brass gun taken from the Chinese in 1842, inscribed,

  • See Lord De Ros' " Memorials of the Tower," 1866.

Entrance Gate. Site of Scaffold . TOWER HILL . 0 TOWER DITCH TOWER BITCH BEAUCHAMP TOWER BELL TOWER THE THAMES TRAITORS CATE IN THE ST PETERS TOWER BARRACKS E JEWELS BLOODY TR GATEWAY RECORD WAKEFIELD OR TOWER IRONCATE TOWER WHITE DITCH TOWER מ A Lion Tower. B Middle Tower. C Bell Tower. GROUND PLAN OF THE TOWER. D Lieutenant's Lodgings. E Bloody Tower. F Entrance to Armouries. G Salt Tower. H BrickTower, I Bowyer Tower,-Duke of Clarence murdered in. K Beauchamp Tower,-Prison of Anne Boleyn and Lady Jane Grey. L Entrance Gate. M Site ofthe Scaffold. G 2 84 XIII. TOWER OF LONDON. "RICHARD: PHILIPS : MADE : THIS PECE : AN: DNI : 1601." Two brass guns, called " Charles " and " Le Téméraire, " cap- tured from the French at Cherbourg, in 1758, bearing the arms of France and the motto of Louis XIV. , " Ultima ratio regum.' Large mortar employed by William III. , at the siege of Namur. دو The Beauchamp Tower, on the W. side, carefully restored in 1853 by Mr. Salvin, was the place of imprisonment of Anne Boleyn and Lady Jane Grey, whose name appears cut on the N. wall, which is scratched over with inscriptions by prisoners confined within it. It derives its name from Thomas de Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, imprisoned in it in 1397; the Develin Tower ; the Bowyer Tower, on the N. side, where the Duke of Clarence, it is traditionally believed, was drowned in a butt of Malmsey ; the Martin Tower, near the Jewel House ; and the Salt Tower, on the E. side, containing a curious sphere, with the signs of the zodiac, &c., engraved on the walls, May 30th, 1561 , by Hugh Draper, of Bristol, committed to the Tower in 1560, on suspicion of sorcery and practice against Sir William St. Lowe and his lady. The HorseArmoury is contained in a gallery 150 ft. longby 33 ft. wide, built in 1826 on the south side of the White Tower. The general assignment of the suits and arrange- ment of the gallery were made by the late Sir Samuel Meyrick, author of A Critical Inquiry into Ancient Armour, J. R. Planché, Esq. , Somerset Herald, and by Mr. Hewitt, the present intelligent custos. The centre is occupied by a line of equestrian figures, 22 in number, clothed in the armour of various reigns, from the time of Edward I. to James II. (1272-1688) . The wall, over the arches, which runs along the centre of the gallery, bears the names and dates of English Sovereigns from Henry II. to James II. , and is painted with the livery colours of each family. 1st Compartment.-Coats and fragments of mail, wea- pors, guisarmes, billhooks, helmets, from the Battle of Hastings. Observe. -Suit of the time of Edward I. (1272- 1307), consisting of a hauberk with sleeves and chausses, and hood with camail and prick-spurs ; the emblazoned surcoat and baudric are modern. 2nd Compartment displays arms such as were used in the French wars, Wars of the Roses, at Azincourt, and Poitiers, down to the Battle ofBosworth. Suit of the time of Henry VI. (1422-1461) ; the back and breast-plates are flexible, the sleeves and skirt of chain mail, the gauntlets fluted, the helmet a German salade armed with a frontlet and surmounted by a crest. This suit is of the fifteenth century, XIII.-THE HORSE ARMOURY. 8585 when armour was brought to perfection ; there is a long-toed foot- piece, or solleret, with long spurs attached. Suit of the time of Edward IV. ( 1461-1483) ; the vamplate or guard of the tilting-lance is ancient, the war-saddle is of later date. Suit of ribbed armour of the time of Richard III. ( 1483- 1485), worn by the Marquis of Waterford at the Eglinton Tournament. 3rd Compartment, painted with the Tudor colours, green and white, extends over nine arches, occupied with full suits of armour of the reigns of Henry VIII. and Elizabeth. Observe, a heart- shaped shield embossed with the Battle of Nancy, and two English long bows ofyew. Suit of fluted armour, of German fabric, of the time of Henry VII. ( 1485-1509), the knight dismounted ; the helmet is called a burgonet, and was invented by the Bur- gundians. Suit of fluted armour of the same reign ; the armour of the horse is complete all but the flanchards. Suit of damasked armour, known to have been worn by Henry VIII. (1509-1547) ; the stirrups are of great size. Two suits worn by Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk, and Edward Clinton, Earl of Lincoln. Grand suit for man and horse in central recess (behind you) of German workman- ship, very fine, and originally gilt, made to commemorate the union of Henry VIII. and Katherine of Aragon. The badges of this king and queen, the rose and pomegranate, are en- graved on various parts of the armour. Henry's badges, the Portcullis, the Fleur-de-lys, and the Red Dragon, also appear ; and onthe edge of the lamboys or skirts are the initials of the royal pair, " H.K.," united by a true-lover's knot. Observe, very curious scenes of martyrdoms of Saints engraved on the armour ofthe horse. This is supposed to have been a present from the Emperor Maximilian to Henry. Suit of the time of Edward VI. ( 1547–1553) , embossed and embellished with the badges of Burgundy and Granada. Suit assigned to Francis Hastings, Earl of Huntingdon (1555) . Suit actually worn by Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester ; the Earl's initials, R. D., are engraved on the genouillères, and his cognizance of the Bear and Ragged Staff on the chanfron of the horse. Suit assigned to Sir Henry Lea (1570) , and formerly exhi- bited as the suit of William the Conqueror. Suit assigned to Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex (1581), and worn by the King's champion at the coronation of George II. 4th Compartment. -Eight arches painted with the Stuart colours, yellow and red. Suit ofthe time of James I., formerly shown as the suit of Henry IV. Suits assigned to Sir Horace Vere and Thomas, Earl of Arundel, of the time of James I. 86 XIII. TOWER OF LONDON. Suit made for Henry, Prince of Wales, eldest son of James I. , richly gilt, and engraved with battles, sieges, &c. Suit assigned to George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham. Suit made for Charles I. when Prince of Wales. Suit assigned to Wentworth, Earl of Strafford. Richly gilt suit presented to Charles I. , when Prince of Wales ; this suit was laid on the coffin of the great Duke of Marlborough at his first interment in Westminster Abbey ; the face of the king was carved by Grinling Gibbons. Suit, with burgonet, assigned to Monk, Duke of Albemarle. Suit assigned to James II. , but evidently of William III.'s reign, from the W.R. engraved on several parts of it ; the face was carved by Grinling Gibbons for Charles II. Weapons used in Monmouth's rebellion. Observe, in other parts of the gallery, and in the cabinets, (ask the warder to showthem to you,) suit of the time of Henry VIII. , formerly exhibited as John of Gaunt's. Suit, " rough from the hammer," said in the old inventories to have belonged to Henry VIII. Asiatic suit (platform, north side) from Tong Castle, in Shropshire, probably of the age of the Crusades, and the oldest armour in the Tower collection. "Anticke head-piece, " with ram's horns and spectacles on it, assigned in the old inventories to Will Somes, Henry VIII.'s jester, and probably worn by him. The collection of Firearms and Artillery from an early period well deserves attention. From the Horse Armoury a short staircase leads into an antechamber filled with Oriental arms, weapons taken in the Indian campaigns from the Sikhs, Burmese, and Chinese, and a suit of armour, sent to Charles II. by the Great Mogul. Ancient warder's horn of carved ivory. Helmet, belt, straight sword, and scimitars of Tippoo Saib. Maltese cannon (of exquisite workmanship, " Philip Lattarellus, delin. et sculp. 1773 ") taken by the French in 1798, and, while on its passage from Malta to Paris, captured by Captain Foote, of the Seahorse frigate ; the barrel is covered with figures in alto relievo ; in one part is the portrait of the Grand Master of Malta ; the centre of each wheel represents the sun. Queen Elizabeth's Armoury is devoted to arms and armour really of her reign, figures of a bowman, billman, musqueteer, and pikeman--a knight in a tilting suit, ready for the lists. This interesting room (barbarously_cased with wood in the Norman style) is within the White Tower ; and the visitor would do well to examine the walls (14 ft. thick) , and to enter the cell, dark and small, the prison of Sir Walter Raleigh. On your left (as you enter it) are three inscriptions rudely carved in the stone by prisoners, in the reign of Queen Mary, concerned in the plot of Sir Thomas Wyatt. XIII. THE JEWEL- HOUSE. 87 "HE THAT INDVRETH TO THE ENDE SHALL BE SAVID M. 10. R. RVDSON GENT. ANO. 1553." " BE FAITHFUL VNTO THE DETH AND I WIL GIVE THEE A CROWNE OF LIFE. T. FANE, 1554." " T. CULPEPER OF DARFORD." Observe. Two white bows of yew, recovered in 1841 from the wreck of the Mary Rose, sunk off Spithead in 1545 ; they are fresh in appearance, as if they had been newly delivered out of the bowyer's hands. Spontoon of the guard of Henry VIII. "Great Holly Water Sprincle with thre gonnes in the top," of the time of Henry VIII. The " Iron Coller of Torment taken from ye Spanyard in ye year 1588." "The Cravat," an iron instrument for confining at once the head, hands, and feet. Matchlock petronel ornamented withthe badges of HenryVIII. , the rose surmounted by a crown and the fleur-de-lys, with the initials H.R. , and other devices. Partizan engraved with the arms of Sir Dudley Carleton, Viscount Dorchester, of the time of Charles I., and formerly exhibited as " the Spanish General's Staff. " Heading-axe, said to have been used in the execution of the Earl of Essex in the reign of Queen Eliza- beth. Block on which Lord Lovat was beheaded, in 1746 ; Lord Lovat was the last person beheaded in this country : it was a new block for the occasion. Thumbikins, or thumbscrews for torturing. A Lochaber axe. Matchlock arquebuse, time of Henry VIII. Shield of the sixteenth century, with the death of Charles the Bold in high relief upon it. The cloak on which General Wolfe died before Quebec. Sword and belt of the Duke of York, second son of King George III. The Jewel-house within the Bloody Tower was kept by a particular officer called " The Master of the Jewel- house," formerly esteemed the first Knight Bachelor of England. The treasures constituting the Regalia are arranged in a glazed iron cage in the centre of a well-lighted room, with passage for visitors to walk round. Observe. -St. Edward's Crown, made for the coronation of Charles II. , and used in the coronations of all our Sovereigns since his time. This is the crown placed by the Archbishop of Canterbury on the head of the Sovereign at the altar, and the lentical crown which Blood stole from the Tower on the 9th of May, 1671. -The Crown, made for the coronation of Queen Victoria ; a cap of purple velvet, enclosed by hoops of silver, and studded with a profusion of diamonds ; it weighs 1 lb. The large unpolished ruby is said to have been worn by Edward the Black Prince ; the sapphire is of great value, and the whole crown is estimated at 111,9007. -The Prince of Wales's crown, of pure gold, unadorned by jewels. -The Queen Consort's Crown, of gold, set with diamonds, pearls, &c. 88 XIII. TOWER OF LONDON. -The Queen's Diadem, or circlet of gold, made for the coronation of Marie d'Este, Queen of James II.-St. Ed- ward's staff, of beaten gold, 4 feet 7 inches in length, surmounted by an orb and cross, and shod with a steel spike. The orb is said to contain a fragment of the true Cross. -The Royal Sceptre, or Sceptre with the Cross, of gold, 2 feet 9 inches in length ; the staff is plain, and the pommel is orna- mented with rubies, emeralds, and diamonds. The fleurs-delys with which this sceptre was formerly adorned have been replaced by golden leaves bearing the rose, shamrock, and thistle. The cross is covered with jewels of various kinds, and has in the centre a large table diamond.-The Rod of Equity, or Sceptre with the Dove, of gold, 3 feet 7 inches in length, set with diamonds, &c . At the top is an orb, banded with rose diamonds, and surmounted with a cross , on which is the figure of a dove with expanded wings. -The Queen's Sceptre with the Cross, smaller in size, but of rich workmanship, and set with precious stones.-The Queen's Ivory Sceptre (but called the Sceptre of Queen Anne Boleyn) , made for Marie d'Este, consort of James II. It is mounted in gold, and terminated by a golden cross, bearing a dove of white onyx.-Sceptre found behind the wainscotting of the old Jewel Office, in 1814 ; supposed to have been made for Queen Mary, consort of William III.-The Orb, of gold, 6 inches in diameter, banded with a fillet of the same metal, set with pearls, and surmounted by a large amethyst sup- porting a cross of gold. -The Queen's orb, of smaller dimensions, but of similar fashion and materials.----The Koh-iNoor diamond, the prize of the army which conquered Lahore ; it belonged to Runjeet Singh . -The Sword of Mercy, or Curtana, of steel, ornamented with gold, and pointless. -The Swords of Justice, Ecclesiastical and Temporal.- The Armillæ, or Coronation Bracelets, of gold, chased with the rose, fleur-de- lys, and harp, and edged with pearls. -The Royal Spurs, of gold, used in the coronation cere- mony, whether the sovereign be King or Queen. - The Ampulla for the Holy Oil, in shape of an eagle. -The Gold Coronation Spoon, used for receiving the sacred oil from the ampulla at the anointing of the sovereign, and supposed to be the sole relic of the ancient regalia. -The Golden Salt Cellar of State, in the shape of a castle. -Baptismal Font, of silver gilt, used at the Christening of the Royal Children.— Silver Wine Fountain, presented to Charles II. by the corpo- ration of Plymouth. The first stone of the Wellington Barracks, a large build- ing of questionable castellated style, was laid by the Duke of Wellington, 1845, on the N. side of the White Tower, on the XIII.-ST. PETER'S CHURCH, TOWER. 89 site of the Grand Storehouse, built by William III. , and burned down Oct. 30th, 1841. The principal loss by that con- flagration was 280,000 stand of muskets and small arms, ready for use, but of antique make, " Brown Bess " with flint locks. The Ordnance stores in the Tower were estimated in 1849 at 640,0237. St. Peter's ad Vincula, the church of the Liberty of the Tower, consists of a chancel, nave, and N. aisle ; chiefly of the Perpendicular style, about the time of Henry VI.; but the whole structure has been disfigured so often by succes- sive alterations and additions, that little remains of the original building. General Lord de Ros, the present Lieut. - Governor, has done his best to remove some of those barbarous novelties, which, to use the words of Macaulay, " transformed this interesting little church into the likeness of a meeting-house in a manufacturing town. ... "In truth, there is no sadder spot on earth than this little cemetery. Death is there associated, not, as in Westminster Abbey and St. Paul's, with genius and virtue, with public veneration and with imperishable renown ; not, as in our humblest churches and churchyards, with every- thing that is most endearing in social and domestic charities ; but with whatever is darkest in human nature and in human destiny, with the savage triumph of implacable enemies, with the inconstancy, the in- gratitude, the cowardice of friends, with all the miseries of fallen great- ness and of blighted fame." -Macaulay's History of England, i. 628. Eminent Persons interred in St. Peter's Church. - -Queen Anne Boleyn (beheaded 1536) . "Her body was thrown into a common chest of elm- tree, that was made to put arrows in, and was buried in the chapel within the Tower before twelve o'clock." -Bishop Burnet. Queen Katherine Howard (beheaded 1542) .— Sir Thomas More. "His head was put upon London Bridge ; his body was buried in the chapel of St. Peter in the Tower, in the belfry, or as some say, as one entereth into the vestry, near unto the body of the holy martyr Bishop Fisher." -Cresacre More's Life of Sir Thomas More, p. 288. Thomas Cromwell, Earl of Essex (beheaded 1540) . Margaret, Countess of Shrewsbury (beheaded 1541). Thomas, Lord Seymour of Sudley, the Lord Admiral (beheaded 1549), by order of his brother, the Protector Somerset. The Protector Somerset (beheaded 1552) . John Dudley, Earl of Warwick and Duke of Northumberland (beheaded 1553) . "There lyeth before the High Altar, in St. Peter's Church, two Dukes between two Queenes, to wit, the Duke of Somerset and the Duke of Northumberland, between Queen Anne and Queen Katherine, all four beheaded."-Stow , by Howes, p. 615. Lady Jane Grey and her husband, the Lord Guilford Dudley (beheaded 1553-4) . Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex (be- 90 XIII.-TOWER OF LONDON. headed 1600). Sir Thomas Overbury, poisoned in the Tower, and buried, according to the register, Sept. 15th, 1613. Sir John Eliot died a prisoner in the Tower, Nov. 27th, 1632 ; his son petitioned the King (Charles I.) that he would permit his father's body to be conveyed to Cornwall for interment, but the King's answer at the foot of the petition was, " Let Sir John Eliot's body be buried in the church of that parish where he died." Okey, the regicide. Duke of Monmouth (beheaded 1685), buried beneath the communion- table. John Rotier (d. 1703) , the eminent medallist, and rival of Simon. Col. Gurwood, Editor of the Wellington Despatches (d. 1846) . Field Marshal Sir John Burgoyne (d. 1871, aged 90) . In the vestry may be seen the coffin plates of Balmerino ( 1746) , Kilmarnock and Lovat (1747) beheaded and buried on the site of the Barrack. See Altar-tomb, with effigies of Sir Richard Cholmondeley and his wife ; he was Lieutenant of the Tower in the reign of Henry VII. Monument, with kneeling figures, to Sir Richard Blount, Lieutenant of the Tower (d. 1564), and his son and successor, Sir Michael Blount. Monument in chancel to Sir Allen Apsley, Lieutenant of the Tower (d. 1630) , father of Mrs. Lucy Hutchinson. Inscribed stone on floor of nave, over the remains of Talbot Edwards (d. 1674) , Keeper of the Regalia when Blood stole the crown. Here, in the lieutenancy of Pennington (the_regicide Lord Mayor of London), one Kem, vicar of Low Leyton, in Essex, preached in a gown over a buff coat and scarf. Laud, who was a prisoner in the Tower at the time, records the circumstance, with becoming horror, in the History of the Troubles. Eminent Persons confined in the Tower.-Wallace , Mor- timer. John, King of France. -Charles, Duke of Orleans, father of Louis XII. , who was taken prisoner at the battle of Agincourt. He acquired a very great proficiency in our language. A volume of his English poems, preserved in the British Museum , contains the earliest known representation of the Tower, engraved in Lord De Ros' Memorials.— Queen Anne Boleyn, executed 1536, by the hangman of Calais, on a scaffold erected within the walls of the Tower. -Queen Katherine Howard, fourth wife of Henry VIII. , beheaded , 1541-2, on a scaffold erected within the walls of the Tower. Lady Rochford was executed at the same time. -Sir Thomas More.—Archbishop Cranmer. —Protector Somerset. -Lady Jane Grey, beheaded on a scaffold erected within the walls of the Tower. -Sir Thomas Wyatt, beheaded on Tower Hill. -Devereux, Earl of Essex, beheaded on a scaffold erected within the walls of the Tower. -Sir Walter Raleigh. (He XIII.-EMINENT PERSONS CONFINED IN THE TOWER. 91 was on three different occasions a prisoner in the Tower ; once in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, on account of his marriage, and twice in the reign of King James I. Here he began his History of the World ; here he amused himself with his chemical experiments ; and here his son, Carew Raleigh, was born. ) —Lady Arabella Stuart and her husband, William Seymour, afterwards Duke of Somerset. (Seymour escaped from the Tower. ) -Countess of Somerset, (for Over- bury's murder).- Sir John Eliot. (Here he wrote The Monarchy of Man ; and here he died, in 1632. ) -Earl of Strafford. -Archbishop Laud.-Lucy Barlow, mother of the Duke of Monmouth. (Cromwell discharged her from the Tower in July, 1656. ) -Sir William Davenant. -- Villiers second Duke of Buckingham. -Colonel Hutchinson, at the Restoration of Charles II. "His chamber was a room where ' tis said the two young princes, King Edward the Fifth and his brother, were murdered in former days, and the room that led to it was a dark great room, that had no window in it, where the portcullis to one of the inward Tower gates was drawn up and let down, under which there sat every night a court of guard. There is a tradition that in this room the Duke of Clarence was drowned in a butt of Malmsey ; from which murder this room and that joining it, where Mr. Hutchinson lay, was called the Bloody Tower." -Mrs. Hutchinson. (Mrs. Hutchinson was the daughter of Sir Allen Apsley, Lieutenant of the Tower, was herself born in the Tower, and, therefore, well acquainted with the traditions of the building. )—Sir Harry Vane, the younger. —Duke of Buck- ingham. -Earl of Shaftesbury. -Earl of Salisbury, temp. Charles II. (When Lord Salisbury was offered his attendants in the Tower, he only asked for his cook. The King was veryangry.)—William, Lord Russell. -Algernon Sydney. -Seven Bishops, June 8th, 1688. -Lord Chancellor Jefferies, 1688.-The great Duke of Marlborough, 1692.-Sir Robert Walpole, 1712. (Granville, Lord Lansdowne, the poet, was afterwards confined in the same apartment, and wrote a copy of verses on the occasion. )-Harley, Earl of Oxford, 1715. -William Shippen, M.P. for Saltash (for saying, in the House ofCommons, of a speech from the throne, by George I., "that the second paragraph of the King's speech seemed rather to be calculated for the meridian of Germany than Great Britain ; and that ' twas a great misfortune that the King was a stranger to our language and constitution. " He is the " downright Shippen " of Pope's poems) .- Bishop Atterbury, 1722. " How pleasing Atterbury's softer hour, How shone his soul unconquered in the Tower ! "-Pope. 92 XIII. TOWER OF LONDON. -Dr. Friend . (Here he wrote his History of Medicine. )- Earl of Derwentwater, Earl of Nithsdale, Lord Kenmuir. Derwentwater and Kenmuir were executed on Tower Hill. (Lord Nithsdale escaped from the Tower, Feb. 28th, 1715, dressed in a woman's clothes, cloak, and hood, provided by his heroic wife. The history of his escape, contrived and effected by his countess, with admirable coolness and intrepidity, is given by herself in an interesting letter to her sister, -see Mahon's "History of England," vols. i. and ii . )—Lords Kilmarnock, Balmerino, and Lovat, 1746. (The block on which Lord Lovat was beheaded is preserved in Queen Elizabeth's Armoury. ) -John Wilkes, 1762.- Lord George Gordon, 1780.-Sir Francis Burdett, April 6th, 1810.—Arthur Thistlewood, 1820, the last person sent a prisoner to the Tower. Persons murdered in. -Henry VI. -Duke of Clarence drowned in a butt of Malmsey in a room in the Bloody Tower. -Edward V. and Richard, Duke of York : their sup- posed remains (preserved in a cenotaph in Westminster Abbey) were found in the reign of Charles II. , while digging the foundation for the present stone stairs to the Chapel of the White Tower.-Sir Thomas Overbury. (He was committed to the Tower, April 21st, 1613, and found dead Sept. 14th following. The manner of his poisoning is one of the most interesting and mysterious chapters in English History. ) -Arthur Capel, Earl of Essex. (He was found with his throat cut, July 13th, 1638.) Persons born in. -Carew Raleigh (Sir Walter Raleigh's son) . -Mrs. Hutchinson, the biographer of her husband. -Countess of Bedford (daughter of the infamous Countess of Somerset, and mother of William, Lord Russell) . The high ground outside to the N.W. of the Tower is called Tower Hill. Here till within the last 150 years stood a large scaffold and gallows of timber, for the execution of such traitors or transgressors as were delivered out of the Tower, or otherwise, to the sheriffs of London for execution. Executions on Tower Hill. -Bishop Fisher, 1535. -Sir Thomas More, 1535. "Going up the scaffold, which was so weak that it was ready to fall, he said hurriedly to the Lieutenant, ' I pray you, Master Lieutenant, see me safe up, and for my coming down let me shift for myself. "-Roper's Life. Cromwell, Earl of Essex, 1540.-- Margaret, Countess of Shrewsbury, mother of Cardinal Pole, 1541.-Earl of Surrey, the poet, 1547.—Thomas, Lord Seymour of Sudley, the XIII. TOWER HILL. 93 Lord Admiral, beheaded, 1549, by order of his brother the Protector Somerset.-The Protector Somerset, 1552.- Sir Thomas Wyatt. -John Dudley, Earl of Warwick and Northumberland, 1553.-Lord Guilford Dudley, (husband of Lady Jane Grey,) 1553-4. - Sir Gervase Helwys, Lieutenant of the Tower (executed for his share in the murder of Sir Thomas Overbury).-Earl of Strafford, 1641.-Archbishop Laud, 1644-5. -Sir Harry Vane, the younger, 1662.-Viscount Stafford, 1680, beheaded on the perjured evidence of Titus Oates, and others.-Algernon Sydney, 1683.-Duke of Mon- mouth, 1685.--Earl of Derwentwater and Lord Kenmuir, implicated in the rebellion of 1715.-Lords Kilmarnock and Balmerino, 1746.-Simon, Lord Lovat, 1747, was not only the last person beheaded on Tower Hill, but the last person beheaded in this country. Llewellyn's head was placed on the walls of the Tower. Lady Raleigh lodged on Tower Hill while her husband was a prisoner in the Tower. William Penn, the founder of Pennsylvania, was born (1644) on the E. side of Tower Hill, within a court adjoining to London Wall. At a publichouse on Tower Hill, known by the sign of the Bull, whither he had withdrawn to avoid his creditors, Otway, the poet, died (it is said, of want) April 14th, 1685. At a cutler's shop on Tower Hill, Felton bought the knife with which he stabbed the first Duke of Buckingham of the Villiers family ; it was a broad, sharp, hunting knife, and cost 18. The second duke often repaired in disguise to the lodging of a poor person, " about Tower Hill," who professed skill in horoscopes. The area of the Tower, within the walls, is 12 acres and 5 poles ; and the circuit outside of the ditch is 1050 yards. 94 XIV.- CHURCHES-WESTMINSTER ABBEY. XIV.-CHURCHES. Of the 98 parish churches within the walls of the City of London, at the time of the Great Fire, 85 were burnt down, and 13 unburnt ; 53 were rebuilt, and 35 united to other parishes. "It is observed and is true in the late Fire of London," says Pepys in his Diary, " that the fire burned just as many parish churches as there were hours from the beginning to the end of the Fire ; and next that there were just as many churches left standing in the rest of the city that was not burned, being, I think, 13 in all of each. " There is a talk of removing many of the City churches to localities with larger Sunday population. The following is the Yearly Value of some of the Church Livings in London :- St. Botolph's, Bishopsgate £ 1650 St. Marylebone £1250 St. Giles's, Cripplegate 1580 St. Olave's, Hart- street 1891 St. George's, Hanover- square 700 St. James's, Westminster . 1163 St. Andrew's, Holborn 950 St. Martin's-in-the-Fields 830 550 All Souls' , Langham- place . 850 30 St. Mary's, Islington . 1155 Lambeth . . · 1500 St. Luke's, Chelsea . 1003 St. Catherine Coleman St. Bartholomew the Less The income of the Bishop of London is fixed at 10,000l. a-year. WESTMINSTER ABBEY, or the COLLEGIATE CHURCH OF ST. PETER'S, WESTMINSTER, * originally a Benedictine monas- tery-the " minster west " of St. Paul's, London. Here our Kings and Queens have been crowned, from Edward the Confessor to Queen Victoria ; and here very many of them are buried, some with and others without monuments. A new No A church existed here in the days of King Offa. one was erected by Edward the Confessor about 1065. part of the present church can be identified with that, but there are remains of his building in the substructure of the Dormitory, or Chapel of the Pix, in the dark cloister south ofthe south transept. The oldest portions ofthe present Abbey Church, the choir and transepts, date from the reign of Henry III. , and are early pointed in style. The four bays west of the transept are of Edward the First's time, and Early Decorated style ; the remainder, to the west door, of the fifteenth century, built under Sir Richard Whittington, Lord Mayor, as Commissioner. See Dean Stanley's " Memorials of Westminster Abbey," 2nd ed. with plates, 1870, a most interesting and comprehensiv work. XIV.-WESTMINSTER ABBEY. -CHAPELS. 95 Dimensions. -Length, 416 feet, ditto of transept, 203 feet, ditto of choir, 155 feet ; height from pavement, 101 feet 8 inches, height of towers, 225 feet. Henry VII.'s Chapel is Late Perpendicular, richly orna- mented with panelling, &c.; and the western towers, de- signed by Wren, are in a debased style of mixed Grecian and Gothic. The Abbey, including the Royal Chapel, is open to public inspection, on week days, from 11 to 3 generally ; and also in the summer months between 4 and 6 in the afternoon. The Nave, Transepts, and Cloisters are free. The charge for admission to the rest of the Abbey (through which you are accompanied by a guide) is 6d. each person. On Mondays it is open gratis. Entrances at the north transept, the west end door, and from the cloisters. As you stand in the centre of the Choir, under the great Towers, you occupy the place where the Sovereigns of England have received the Crown from the hands of the Archbishop since the Chapel was built. The point of view is very striking. The high altar has been provided since 1856 with a reredos, including a Mosaic of the Last Supper, designed by Clayton and Bell. Observe. -Tomb of Sebert, King of the East Saxons, erected bythe abbots and monks of Westminster, in 1308 ; tomb of Edmund Crouchback, Earl of Lancaster, second son of Edward III.; tomb of his countess ; tomb of Aymer de Valence, Earl of Pembroke (very fine-best seen from the N. aisle). "The monuments of Aymer de Valence and Edmund Crouchback are specimens of the magnificence of our sculpture in the reign of the two first Edwards. The loftiness of the work, the number of arches and pinnacles, the lightness of the spires, the richness and profusion of foliage and crockets, the solemn repose of the principal statue, the delicacy of thought in the group of angels bearing the soul, and the tender sentiment of concern variously expressed in the relations ranged in order round the basement, forcibly arrest the attention, and carry the thoughts not only to other ages, but to other states of existence."- Flaxman. Tomb of Ann of Cleves, one of King Henry VIII.'s six wives. The rich mosaic pavement is an excellent specimen of the Opus Alexandrinum, and was placed here at the expense of Henry III., in the year 1268. The black and white pavement was laid at the expense of Dr. Busby, master of Westminster School. The Choir stalls are modern. The public are not admitted to view the monuments on Sundays, Good Friday, Christmas Day, or Fast Days, or during the hours of Divine Service, viz. , Sundays, at 10 A.M., at 3 P.M. , and Evening Service in the Nave at 7 P.M., and daily at 7.45 A.M., 10 A.M., and 3 P.M. About 2000 people attend the Sunday evening services. 96 XIV.-WESTMINSTER ABBEY. The usual plan observed in viewing the Abbey is to examine Poets' Corner (see further on) , and wait till a sufficient party is formed for a guide to accompany you through the chapels. If you find a party formed, you will save time by joining it at once. You can examine the open parts of the building afterwards at your own convenience. Observe, in the chapel, at the end of the E. aisle of S. transept-Part of an altar-decoration of the 13th or 14th century, 11 feet long by 3 feet high, under glass. "In the centre is a figure of Christ, holding the globe, and in the act of blessing ; an angel with a palm branch is on each side. The single figure at the left hand is St. Peter. The compartments not occupied by figures were adorned with a deep-blue glass resembling lapis lazuli, with gold lines of foliage executed on it. The smaller spaces and mouldings were enriched with cameos and gems, some of which still remain. That the work was executed in England there can be little doubt." -Eastlake on Oil Painting, p. 176. See plan of the Abbey, p. 99. In every chapel are placed plans of its monuments, mounted on cards, very convenient for reference. First chapel, " Chapel of St. Benedict ; " several of the "Deans ofthe College," are buried here. The principal tombs are those of Langham, Archbishop of Canterbury (d. 1376) ; the Countess of Hertford, sister to the Lord High Admiral Nottingham, famous for his share in the defeat of the Spanish Armada (d. 1598) ; and Lionel Cranfield, Earl of Middlesex, and Lord High Treasurer in the reign of James I. (d. 1645). The second chapel is that of " St. Edmund," containing 20 monuments, of which that on your right as you enter, to William de Valence, Earl of Pembroke, half-brother to Henry III., and father of Aymer de Valence, Earl of Pem- broke (d. 1296) , is the most important ; the effigy exhibits the earliest existing instance in this country of the use of enamelling for monuments. The tomb of John of Eltham, son of Edward II.; tomb with miniature alabaster figures, representing William of Windsor and Blanch de la Tour, children of Edward III.; monumental brass (the best in the Abbey) , representing Eleanora de Bohun, Duchess of Gloucester, in her conventual dress, as a nun of Barking Abbey (d. 1399) ; monumental brass of Robert de Waldeby, Archbishop of York (d. 1397) ; effigy of Frances, Duchess of Suffolk, grand-daughter of Henry VII., and mother of Lady Jane Grey; and alabaster statue of Elizabeth Russell, ofthe Bedford family-foolishly shown for many years as the lady who died by the prick of a needle ; here was buried, in 1873, Lord Lytton. XIV.- WESTMINSTER ABBEY-CHAPELS. 97 The third chapel is that of " St. Nicholas," containing the monument of the wife of the Protector Somerset ; the great Lord Burghley's monument to his wife Mildred, and their daughter Anne ; Sir Robert Cecil's monument to his wife ; and a large altar-tomb in the centre, to the father and mother of Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, the Steenie of James I. 66 The fourth chapel is that of the " Virgin Mary," called Henry VII.'s Chapel," and entered bya flight oftwelve steps beneath the Oratory of Henry V. The entrance gates are of oak, overlaid with brass, gilt, and wrought into various de- vices-the portcullis exhibiting the descent of the founder from the Beaufort family, and the crown and twisted roses the union that took place, on Henry's marriage, of the White Rose of York with the Red Rose of Lancaster. The chapel consists of a central aisle, with five small chapels at the east end, and two side aisles, north and south. The banners and stalls appertain to the Knights of the Most Honourable Mili- tary Order of the Bath, an order of merit next in rank in this country to the Most Noble Order of the Garter ; the knights were formerly installed in this chapel ; the Dean of West- minster is Dean of the Order. The principal monuments in Henry VII.'s Chapel are-altar-tomb with effigies of Henry VII. and Queen (in the centre of the chapel) , the work of Peter Torrigiano, an Italian sculptor :-Lord Bacon calls it " one ofthe stateliest and daintiest tombs in Europe : " the Perp.-gothic screen is of brass ; perp.-tracery, richly gilt, and the work of an English artist. In the vault beneath, besides Henry VIII. , and Elizabeth of York, is the coffin ofJames I. In South Aisle. -Altar-tomb, with effigy of the mother of Lord Darnley, husband of Mary, Queen of Scots. Tomb, with effigy (by Cornelius Cure) of Mary, Queen of Scots, erected by James I. , who brought his mother's body from Peterborough Cathedral, and buried it here. The face is very beautiful, and is now generally admitted to be the most genuine likeness of the Queen. Altar-tomb, with effigy of brass gilt and enamelled (by Peter Torrigiano) of Margaret, Countess of Richmond, mother of Henry VII. Monument to George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, and his duchess ;-the duke was assassinated by Felton in 1628 : his younger son, Francis, who was killed in the Civil Wars, and his eldest son, the second and profligate duke, are buried with their father in the vault beneath. Statue of the first wife of Sir Robert Walpole, erected by her son, Horace Walpole, the great letter-writer. In North Aisle-Tomb with effigy (by Maximilian Coult) of Queen Elizabeth (the lion-hearted Queen) ; her sister, Queen Mary, is buried in the K 98 XIV.-WESTMINSTER ABBEY. same grave. Alabaster cradle, with effigy of Sophia, daughter of James I., who died when only three days old : James I. and Anne of Denmark, Henry Prince of Wales, the Queen of Bohemia, and Arabella Stuart are buried beneath. Monu- ment to Lodowick Stuart, Duke of Richmond and Lennox, and his duchess, of the time of James I. (La Belle Stuart is buried beneath this monument). Monument to George Monk, Duke of Albemarle, who restored King Charles II. Sarcophagus of white marble, containing certain bones acci- dentally discovered (1674) in a wooden chest below the stairs which formerly led to the chapel of the White Tower, and believed to be the remains of Edward V. and his brother Richard, Duke of York, murdered (1483) by order of their uncle, King Richard III. Monuments to Saville, Marquis of Halifax, the statesman and wit (d. 1695) ; -to Montague, Earl of Halifax, the patron of the men of genius of his time (d. 1715), (here Addison and Craggs are buried)-to Sheffield, Duke of Buckingham, the patron of Dryden, with its inscription, " Dubius, sed non Improbus, Vixi. " Recum- bent figure, by Sir R. Westmacott, of the Duke of Mont- pensier, brother to Louis Philippe, late King of the French. The statues in the architecture of this chapel are commended byFlaxman for " their natural simplicity and grandeur of cha- . racter and drapery." The recess at the E. end of the Chapel was the burial place of Oliver Cromwell, whose bones were speedily ejected at the Restoration. Charles II. , William and Mary, and Queen Anne are buried in a vault at the east end of the south aisle ;-George II. and Queen Caroline, -Frede- rick, Prince of Wales, the father of George III. , --and William, Duke of Cumberland, the hero of Culloden, in a vault in the central aisle. The remains of George II. and his Queen lie mingled together, a side having been taken by the King's own direction from each of the coffins for this purpose : the two sides which were withdrawn were seen standing against the wall when the vault was opened for the last time in 1837. The fifth chapel is " St. Paul's. " Observe. -Altar- tomb on your right as you enter to Lodowick Robsart, Lord Bourchier, standard-bearer to Henry V. at the battle of Agincourt. Altar-tomb of Sir Giles Daubeny (Lord Chamberlain to Henry VII. ) and his lady. Stately monument against the wall to Sir Thomas Bromley, Lord Chancellor of England in the reign of Queen Elizabeth ; he sat as Chancellor at the trial of Mary, Queen of Scots, at Fotheringay. Monuments to Viscount Dorchester, and Francis, Lord Cottington, of the time of Charles I. Colossal portrait-statue of James Watt, the great engineer, by Sir Francis Chantrey-cost 60007.; Elizabeth Q.. Chapel VII.'s Q.Mary . Henry . St. John heBptst . Ambulatory St. Paul . St.Nicls. St. Edmd, Ambulatory. Islip. Edward the Confessor's Chapel. St. Bendt St. Jn. St. Ml. St.And. Poets'Corner. North Transept. N.Aisle Nave of. N.Aisle ofChoir . NAVE CHOIR S.Aisle ofNav . S.Aisle ofChoir . .Cloister North GROUND PLAN OF WESTMINSTER ABBEY. н 2 West Cloister. South Transept. Entrance. Chapter House. East Cloister. Entrance. South Cloister . 100 XIV.-WESTMINSTER ABBEY. the inscription by Lord Brougham. Archbishop Usher is buried in this chapel ; -his funeral was conducted with great pomp by command of Cromwell, who bore half the expense of it ; the other half fell very heavily on his relations. The sixth chapel (the most interesting of all) occupies the space at the back of the high altar of the Abbey; is called the " Chapel of St. Edward the Confessor," or the " Chapel of the Kings," and is entered from the ambulatory by a tem- porary staircase. The centre of this chapel is taken up by the shrine of King Edward the Confessor, erected in the reign of Henry III. , and richly inlaid with mosaic work : of the original Latin inscription, only a few letters remain. The wainscot addition at the top was erected in the reign of Mary I., by Abbot Fekenham. Henry IV. was seized with his last illness while performing his devotions at this shrine. No part of this chapel should be overlooked. Observe.- Altar- tomb, with good bronze effigy of Henry III. (work ofWilliam Torell). Altar-tomb of Edward I. , composed of five large slabs of Purbeck marble, and carrying this appropriate inscription :- "L EDWARDVS PRIMVS SCOTORVM MALLEUS-HIC EST.' When the tomb was opened in 1774, the body of the King was discovered almost entire, with a crown of tin gilt upon his head, a sceptre of copper gilt in his right hand, and a sceptre and dove of the same materials in his left ; and in this state he is still lying. Altar-tomb, with effigy of Eleanor, Queen of Edward I.; the figure of the Queen was the work of Master William Torell, goldsmith, and citizen of London, and is deservedly admired for its simplicity and beauty ; the iron work (restored) was the work of a smith living at Leighton Buzzard, in Bedfordshire. Altar-tomb, with effigy of Edward III.; the sword and shield of state, carried before the King in France, are placed by the side of the tomb. Altar-tomb, with effigy of Philippa, Queen of Edward III. Altar-tomb, with effigies of Richard II. and his Queen. Altar-tomb and chantry of Henry V., the hero of Agincourt ; the head of the King was of solid silver, and the figure was plated with the same metal ; the head was stolen at the Reformation ; the helmet, shield, and saddle of the King are still to be seen on a bar above the turrets of the chantry. Grey slab, formerly adorned with a rich brass figure (a few nails are still to be seen), covering the remains of Thomas of Woodstock, youngest son of Edward III. , murdered by order of his nephew, Richard II. Small altar- tomb ofMargaret of York, infant daughter of Edward IV. Small XIV.-WESTMINSTER ABBEY- CHAPELS. 101 altar-tomb of Elizabeth Tudor, infant daughter of Henry VII. Brass, much worn, representing John de Waltham, Bishop of Salisbury, and Lord High Treasurer of England in the reign of Richard II.: Richard loved him so much, that he ordered his body to be buried in the Chapel of the Kings. The two Coronation Chairs, still used at the coronations of the Sovereigns of Great Britain-one containing the famous stone of Scone on which the Scottish Kings were crowned, and which Edward I. carried away with him, as an evidence of his absolute conquest of Scotland. This stone is 26 inches long, 16 inches wide, and 11 inches thick, and is fixed in the bottom of the chair by cramps of iron ; it is nothing more than a piece of reddish-grey sandstone squared and smoothed; -the more modern chair was made for the coronation of Mary, Queen of William III. The screen dividing the chapel from the Choir was erected in the reign of Henry VI.: beneath the cornice runs a series of 14 sculptures in basrelief, representing the principal events, real and imaginary, in the life of Edward the Confessor ; the pavement of the chapel, much worn, is contemporary with the shrine of the Confessor. The seventh chapel is that of " St. Erasmus," and through it you enter the eighth chapel, dedicated to " St. John the Baptist," containing the tombs of several early Abbots of Westminster ; William de Colchester (d. 1420) ; Mylling (d. 1492) ; Fascet (d. 1500) . Observe.-The very large and stately monument to Cary, Lord Hunsdon, first cousin and Cham- berlain to Queen Elizabeth. Large altar-tomb of Cecil, Earl of Exeter (eldest son of the great Lord Burghley) , and his two wives ; the vacant space is said to have been intended for the statue of his second countess, but she disdainfully refused to lie on the left side.. Monument to Colonel Popham, one of Cromwell's officers at sea, and the only monument to any of the Parliamentary party suffered to remain in the Abbey at the Restoration ; the inscription, however, was turned to the wall ; his remains were removed at the same time with those of Cromwell, Ireton, Bradshaw Blake, & c. The ninth chapel is that of “ Abbot Islip," containing his, altar-tomb (d. 1532) , and the monument to the great- nephew and heir of Sir Christopher Hatton, Queen Elizabeth's Lord Chancellor. The Hatton vault was purchased by William Pulteney, Earl of Bath, who is here interred, and whose monument, by the side of General Wolfe's, is without the chapel, in the aisle of the Abbey. The Wolfe monument wasthe work of Wilton, and cost 3000l.: the bas-relief (in 102 XIV.-WESTMINSTER ABBEYN. TRANSEPT. lead, bronzed over) representing the march of the British troops from the river bank to the Heights of Abraham, is by Capizzoldi. The E. aisle of the North Transept was formerly divided by screens into the Chapels of St. John, St. Michael, and St. Andrew. Observe two remarkable monuments-Four knights kneeling, and supporting on their shoulders a table, on which lie the several parts of a complete suit of armour ; beneath is the recumbent figure of Sir Francis Vere, the great Low Country soldier of Queen Elizabeth's reign, by Nicholas Stone. Monument by Roubiliac (one of the last and best of his works) to Mr. and Mrs. Nightingale ; the bottom of the monument represents a sheeted skeleton throwing open its marble doors, and launching his dart at the lady, who has sunk affrighted into her husband's arms. "The dying woman," says Allan Cunningham, " would do honour to any artist. Her right arm and hand are considered by sculptors as the perfection of fine workmanship. Life seems slowly receding from her tapering fingers and quivering wrist." When Roubiliac was erecting this monument, he was found one day by Gayfere, the Abbey mason, standing with his arms folded, and his looks fixed on one of the knightly figures which support the canopy over the statue of Sir Francis Vere. As Gayfere approached, the enthusiastic Frenchman laid his hand on his arm, pointed to the figure, and said, in a whisper, " Hush ! hush ! he vil speak pre- sently." In the North Transept, you will Observe-the inscribed stones covering the graves ofthe rival statesmen, Pitt and Fox. "The mighty chiefs sleep side by side ; Drop upon Fox's grave the tear, "Twill trickle to his rival's bier."-Sir Walter Scott. Grattan, Canning, Castlereagh, and Palmerston ; and the fol- lowing monuments-to the Duke and Duchess of Newcastle. of the time of Charles I. and II. Roubiliac's monument to Sir Peter Warren, containing his fine figure of Navigation ; Rysbrach's monument to Admiral Vernon, who distinguished himself at Carthagena ; Bacon's noble monument to the great Lord Chatham, erected by the King and Parliament— cost 60007. "Bacon there Gives more than female beauty to a stone, And Chatham's eloquence to marble lips." Cowper, The Task. Nollekens' large monument to the three naval captains who fell in Rodney's great victory of April 12th, 1782, erected by XIV.-WESTMINSTER ABBEY- NAVE. 103 the King and Parliament-cost 40007.; Flaxman's noble portrait-statue of the great Lord Mansfield, with Wisdom on one side, Justice on the other, and behind the figure of a youth, a criminal, by Wisdom delivered up to Justice- erected by a private person, who bequeathed 25007. for the purpose ; statue of Sir W. Follett, by Behnes ; small monu- ment, with bust, to Warren Hastings-erected by his widow; Sir R. Westmacott's Mrs. Warren and Child- one of the best of Sir Richard's works ; Chantrey's three portrait-statues of Francis Horner, George Canning, and Sir John Malcolm ; and Gibson's standing statue of Sir Robert Peel. The statue without an inscription is meant for John Philip Kemble, the actor. It was modelled by Flaxman, and executed by Hinchcliffe after Flaxman's death. It is very poor. In the N. aisle of the Choir (on your way to the Nave) , Observe— Tablets to Henry Purcell (d. 1695) , and Dr. Blow (d. 1708) , two of our greatest English musicians the Purcell inscrip- tion is attributed to Dryden ; portrait- statues of Sir Stamford Raffles, by Chantrey ; and of Wilberforce, by S. Joseph. Observe in Nave. -Small stone, in the middle of the N. aisle (fronting Killigrew's monument), inscribed, " O Rare Ben Jonson." The poet is buried here standing on his feet, and the inscription was done, as Aubrey relates, " at the charge of Jack Young (afterwards knighted), who, walking here when the grave was covering, gave the fellow eighteen- pence to cut it. " Whenthe nave was re-laid, about seventeen years ago, the true stone was taken away, and the present uninteresting square placed in its stead. Tom Killigrew, the wit, is buried by the side of Jonson ; and his son, who fell at the battle of Almanza, in 1707, has a monument imme- diately opposite. Monument, with inscriptions in Hebrew, Greek, Ethiopic, and English, to Sir Samuel Morland's wives ; --Morland was secretary to Thurloe, Oliver Cromwell's secretary. Monument to Sir Palmes Fairborne, with a fine epitaph in verse by Dryden. Monument to Sir William Temple, the statesman and author, his wife, sister-in- law, and child ; this was erected pursuant to Temple's will. Monu- ment to Sprat, the poet, and friend of Cowley. (Bishop Atterbury is buried opposite this monument, in a vault which he made for himself when Dean of Westminster, as far," he says to Pope, " from kings and kæsars as the space will admit of.") Monument, with bust, of Sidney, Earl of Godolphin, chief minister to Queen Anne " during the first nine glorious years of her reign. " Monument to Heneage Twysden, who wrote the genealogy of the Bickerstaff family in the Tatler, and fell at the battle of Blaregnies in 1709. "" 104 XIV. - WESTMINSTER ABBEY- NAVE. Monument to Secretary Craggs, with fine epitaph in verse by Pope. Sitting statue of Wordsworth, the poet, by Lough. Monument to Congreve, the poet, erected at the expense of Henrietta, Duchess of Marlborough, to whom, for reasons not known or mentioned, he bequeathed a legacy of about 10,000%. "When the younger Duchess exposed herself by placing a monument and silly epitaph of her own composing and bad spelling to Congreve in Westminster Abbey, her mother quoting the words said, ' I know not what pleasure she might have had in his company, but I am sure it was no honour.' "-Horace Walpole. In front of Congreve's monument Mrs. Oldfield, the actress, is buried, "in a very fine Brussells lace head," says her maid ; "a Holland shift with a tucker and double ruffles of the same lace ; a pair of new kid gloves, and her body wrapped up in a winding-sheet." Hence the allusion of the satirist :- "Odious ! in woollen ; ' twould a saint provoke ! (Were the last words that poor Narcissa spoke) — No, let a charming chintz and Brussels lace Wrap my cold limbs, and shade my lifeless face ; One would not, sure, be frightful when one's dead- And-Betty-give this cheek a little red."-Pope. Under the organ- screen-Monuments to Sir Isaac Newton, designed by Kent, and executed by Rysbrach-cost 500l. , and to Earl Stanhope. To Dr. Mead, the physician (d. 1754). Three monuments by Roubiliac, in three successive win- dows ; to Field-Marshal Wade, whose part in putting down the Rebellion of 1745 is matter of history ; to MajorGeneral Fleming, and Lieutenant- General Hargrave. The absurd monument, by Nicholas Read, to Rear-Admiral Tyrrel (d. 1766) its common name is "The Pancake Monument." Heaven is represented with clouds and cherubs, the depths ofthe sea with rocks of coral and madrepore ; the admiral is seen ascending into heaven, while Hibernia sits in the sea with her attendants, and points to the spot where the admiral's body was committed to the deep. Monument of Major- General Stringer Lawrence, erected by the East India Company, " in testimony of their gratitude for his eminent services in the command of their forces on the coast of Coromandel, from 1746 to 1756." Monument, by Flaxman, to Captain Montague, who fell in Lord Howe's victory of June 1st. Monument to Major André, executed by the Americans as a spy in the year 1780 :-erected at the expense of George III. The figure of Washington on the bas-relief has been renewed with a head on three different occasions, " the wanton mischief of some schoolboy,' XIV.- WESTMINSTER ABBEY-CHOIR. 105 says Charles Lamb, "fired, perhaps, with raw notions of transatlantic freedom. The mischief was done," he adds, -addressing Southey,-"about the time that you were a scholar there. Do you know anything about the un- fortunate relic ?" This sly allusion to the early political principles of the great poet caused a temporary cessation of friendship with the essayist. -Sir R. Westmacott's monument to Spencer Perceval, First Lord of the Treasury and Chan- cellor of the Exchequer, shot by Bellingham in the lobby of the House of Commons in 1812- cost 5250l. Monuments to William Pitt-cost 6300l.; and C. J. Fox (there is no inscrip- tion) ; both by Sir Richard Westmacott. Terminal busts to Zachary Macaulay, father of the historian, and Sir James Mackintosh. Monument by Baily, R.A., to Vassall Fox, Lord Holland. Observe. -In south aisle of Choir, recumbent figure of William Thynn, Receiver of the Marches in the reign of Henry VIII. Good bust, by Le Sœur, of Lord Chief Justice Richardson, in the reign of Charles I. Monu- ment to Thomas Thynn, of Longleat, who was barbarously murdered on Sunday the 12th of February, 1682 ; he was shot in his coach, and the bas-relief contains a representation of the event. "AWelshman bragging of his family, said his father's effigy was set up in Westminster Abbey: being asked whereabouts, he said, ' In the same monument with Squire Thynn, for he was his coachman.' "-Joe Miller's Jests. Monument to Dr. South, the great divine (d. 1716) ; hewas a prebendary of this church. Monument, by F. Bird (in the worst taste), to Sir Cloudesley Shovel (d. 1707). Monument to Dr. Busby, master of Westminster School (d. 1695), Honorary monument to Sir Godfrey Kneller, with fine epitaph in verse by Pope. Honorary monument, by T. Banks, R.A., to Dr. Isaac Watts (d. 1741 ), who was buried in Bunhill- fields. Bust, by Flaxman, of Pasquale de Paoli, the Corsican chief (d. 1807) . Monument to Dr. Burney, the Greek scholar ; the inscription by Dr. Parr. In Poets' Corner, a name given to nearly a half of the South Transept, from the tombs and honorary monu- ments of Chaucer, Spenser, Shakspeare, and several of our greatest poets, Observe-Tomb of Geoffrey Chaucer, the father of English poetry (d. 1400) ; erected in 1555, by Nicholas Brigham, a scholar of Oxford, and himself a poet.

  • The word honorary as here used, is meant to imply that the person to whom the monument is erected is buried elsewhere.

106 XIV.-WESTMINSTER ABBEY-POETS' CORNER. Monument to Edmund Spenser, author of the Faërie Queene, erected at the expense of ' Anne Pembroke, Dorset, and Montgomery,' and renewed in 1778 at the instigation of Mason, the poet ; -Spenser died in King- street, Westminster, "from lack of bread, " and was buried here at the expense of Queen Elizabeth's Earl of Essex. Honorary monument to Shakspeare ; erected in the reign of George II., from the designs of Kent ; -when Pope was asked for an inscription, he wrote :- "Thus Britons love me, and preserve my fame, Free from a Barber's or a Benson's name." We shall see the sting of this presently : Shakspeare stands like a sentimental dandy. Monument to Michael Drayton, erected by the same Anne Pembroke, Dorset, and Mont- gomery ; the epitaph in verse by Ben Jonson, and very fine. Tablet to Ben Jonson, erected in the reign of George II. , a century after the poet's death. Honorary bust of Milton, erected in 1737, at the expense of Auditor Benson : "In the inscription," says Dr. Johnson, " Mr. Benson has bestowed more words upon himself than upon Milton ; " so in the Dunciad- "On poets' tombs see Benson's titles writ." Honorary monument to Butler, author of Hudibras, erected in 1721, by John Barber, a printer, and Lord Mayor of London. Grave of Sir William Davenant, with the short inscription, " O rare Sir William Davenant." (May, the poet, and historian of the Long Parliament, was originally buried in this grave. ) Monument to Cowley, erected at the expense of the second and last Villiers, Duke of Buckingham ; the epitaph by Sprat. Bust of Dryden, by Schumakers, erected at the expense of Sheffield, Duke of Buckingham. "This Sheffield raised : the sacred dust below Was Dryden once : the rest who does not know." -Pope. Honorary monuments to Shadwell, the antagonist of Dryden, erected by his son, and to John Philips, author of The Splendid Shilling (d. 1708) . "Whenthe inscription for the monument of Philips, in which he was said to be uni Miltono secundus, was exhibited to Dr. Sprat, then Dean of Westminster, he refused to admit it ; the name of Milton was in his opinion too detestable to be read on the wall of a building dedicated to devotion. Atterbury, who succeeded him, being author of the inscription , permitted its reception. And such has been the change of public XIV. -WESTMINSTER ABBEY-POETS' CORNER. 107 opinion,' said Dr. Gregory, from whom I heard this account, that I have seen erected in the church a bust of that man whose name I once knew considered as a pollution of its walls.' "-Dr. Johnson. Monument of Matthew Prior, erected by himself, as the last piece of human vanity. "As doctors give physic by way of prevention, Mat, alive and in health, of his tombstone took care ; For delays are unsafe, and his pious intention May haply be never fulfill'd by his heir. "Then take Mat's word for it, the sculptor is paid : That the figure is fine, pray believe your own eye ; Yet credit but lightly what more may be said, For we flatter ourselves and teach marble to lie."-Prior. The bust, by A. Coysevox, was a present to Prior from Louis XIV. , and the epitaph written by Dr. Friend, famous for long epitaphs :- "Friend, for your epitaphs I griev'd ; Where still so much is said, One half will never be believ'd, The other never read." -Pope. Monument to Nicholas Rowe, author of the tragedy of Jane Shore, erected by his widow; epitaph by Pope. Monumentto John Gay, author of The Beggar's Opera ; the short and irreverent epitaph, Life is a jest, &c. , is his own composition ; the verses beneath it are by Pope. Statue of Addison, by Sir R. Westmacott, erected 1809. Honorary monument to Thomson, author of The Seasons, erected 1762, from the proceeds of a subscription edition of his works. Honorary tablet to Oliver Goldsmith, by Nollekens ; the Latin inscription by Dr. Johnson, who, in reply to a request that he would celebrate the fame of an author in the language in which he wrote, observed, that he never would consent to disgrace the walls of Westminster Abbey with an English inscription. Honorary monument to Gray, author of An Elegy in a Country Churchyard (the verse by Mason, the monument by Bacon, R.A.). Honorary monuments to Mason, the biographer of Gray, to Anstey, author of the Bath Guide. Inscribed gravestone over Richard Brinsley Sheridan. Bust of Robert Southey, by H. Weekes. Thomas Campbell, author of the Pleasures of Hope, a statue by W. C. Marshall, R.A. Here also are interred William Makepeace Thackeray ; Charles Dickens, d. June, 1870 ; bust of George Grote, Historian of Greece, d. June, 1871 ; grave of Lord Lytton (Bulwer), author and statesman. In that part of the South Transept not included in Poets' Corner, Observe-Monument to Isaac Casaubon (1614), editor of Persius and Polybius. Monument to Camden, the great 108 XIV. -WESTMINSTER ABBEY- S. TRANSEPT. English antiquary (d. 1623) ; the bust received the injury, which it still exhibits, when the hearse and effigy of Essex, the Parliamentary general, were destroyed in 1646, by some of the Cavalier party, who lurked at night in the Abbey to be revenged on the dead. White gravestone, in the centre of transept, over the body of Old Parr, who died in 1635, at the great age of 152, having lived in the reigns often princes, viz. , Edward IV. , Edward V. , Richard III. , Henry VII. , Henry VIII., Edward VI. , Mary, Elizabeth, James I., and Charles I. Gravestone over the body of Thomas Chiffinch, closet-keeper to Charles II. (d. 1666) . Monument to M. St. Evremont, a French epicurean wit, who fled to England to escape a government arrest in his own country (d. 1703). Bust of Dr. Isaac Barrow, the divine (d. 1677). Gravestone over the body of the second wife of Sir Richard Steele, the " Prue" of his correspondence. Monument, by Roubiliac, to John, Duke of Argyll and Greenwich (d. 1743) : the figure of Eloquence, with her supplicating hand and earnest brow, is very masterly ; Canova said it was "one of the noblest statues he had seen in England." Monument by Roubiliac (his last work) to Handel, the great musician, a native of Halle, in Lower Saxony, and long a resident in England (d. 1759). Honorary monument to Barton Booth, the original Cato in Addison's play. Honorary monument to Mrs. Pritchard, the actress, famous in the characters of Lady Macbeth, Zara, and Mrs. Oakley (d. 1768). Inscribed gravestones over the bodies of David Garrick and Samuel Johnson. Monument to David Garrick, by H. Webber, erected at the expense of Albany Wallis, the executor of Garrick. "Taking a turn the other day in the Abbey, I was struck with the affected attitude of a figure which I do not remember to have seen before, and which, upon examination, proved to be a whole-length of the celebrated Mr. Garrick. Though I would not go so far with some good Catholics abroad as to shut players altogether out of consecrated ground, yet I own I was not a little scandalised at the introduction of theatrical airs and gestures into a place set apart to remind us of the saddest realities. Going nearer, I found inscribed under this harlequin figure a farrago offalse thoughts and nonsense."-Charles Lamb. Inscribed gravestones over the remains of James Macpherson, translator of Ossian ; and of William Gifford, editor of Ben Jonson and the Quarterly Review. The painted glass in the Abbey will be found to deserve a cursory inspection ; the rich rose-window in the North Transept is old ; the rosewindow in the South Transept the work (1847) of Messrs. Thomas Ward and J. H. Nixon. The wax- work exhibition was discontinued in 1839. It originated in the old custom XIV. -WESTMINSTER ABBEY-CLOISTERS. 109 of making a lively effigy in wax of every great person de- ceased-to be carried in the funeral procession, and of leaving the effigy over the grave as a kind of temporary monument. On leaving the Abbey by the door in the S. aisle of the Nave you enter the Cloisters, which may also be reached from Dean's-yard . Adjoining the S.W. tower is the Jeru- salem Chamber, in which the Upper House of Convocation meets, and where King Henry IV. died. In it is an original whole length of Richard II. This chamber is not open to the public. "King Henry. Doth any name particular belong Unto the lodging where I first did swoon ? " Warwick. 'Tis called Jerusalem, my noble lord. "King Henry. Laud be to God ! -even there my life must end. It hath been prophesied to me many years, I should not die but in Jerusalem ; Which vainly I supposed the Holy Land :- But bear me to that chamber ; there I'll lie In that Jerusalem shall Harry die." Shakspeare, Second Part of King Henry IV. No one should quit the Abbey without seeing the Chapter House, entered from the Cloister on the S. side of the Abbey, which may be reached through Dean's-yard, or a door in the S. nave aisle. Observe.-In S. cloister effigies of several of the early abbots. In E. cloister, monument to Sir Edmundsbury Godfrey, murdered in the reign of Charles II.; tablet to the mother of Addison, the poet ; monument to Lieut. - General Withers, with epitaph by Pope. In W. cloister, monu- ment to George Vertue, the antiquary and engraver : monument, by T. Banks, R.A., to Woollett, the engraver. In the E. ambulatory, "under a blue marble stone, against the first pillar," Aphra Behn was buried, April 20th, 1689 and under stones no longer carrying inscriptions, are buried Henry Lawes, " one who called Milton friend ; " Betterton, the actor ; Tom Brown, the wit ; Mrs. Bracegirdle, the beautiful actress ; and Samuel Foote, the dramatic writer and comedian. At the S.E. corner of the cloister are remains of Edward the Confessor's buildings, including the Chapel of the Pix, where the instruments connected with the coinage of the realm, and the king's treasure itself, were kept in ancient times. A small wooden door, in the S. cloister, leads to Ash- burnham House, one of Inigo Jones's best remaining works. The staircase is the perfection of beautiful design in clas- 110 XIV.-WESTMINSTER ABBEY- CHAPTER HOUSE. sic style. The richly-ornamented doorway in the E. cloister leads to The Chapter-house (an elegant octagon, whose groined roof resting on a tall lythe shaft of marble, is in reality supported by massive external buttresses), a fine example of English-gothic ; built in 1250 by Henry III. It is historically interesting as " the first home of the House of Commons," to use the words of Dean Stanley. It was made over by the Convent of Westminster to their use in the reign of Edward I. , and they sat in it for 300 years, until, in that of Edward VI. , it was used as a repository for Public Records, until 1860. It has been judiciously restored, by Sir G. G. Scott, to its primitive elegance and splendour. In 1866, parliament made a grant of 7000l. for this purpose; but the work had cost 27,000l. in 1869. The central pier served as awhipping post when any ofthe monks transgressed. Observe. -In 5 compartments on the wall, an ancient paint- ing, not unlike an altar- piece, "Christ surrounded by the Christian Virtues," a mural decoration of the 14th century. There are later paintings of the Revelation, St. John the Evangelist, but poor. The floor heraldic tiles. The roof stood till 1740 ; Wren, it is said, refused to remove it. The following eminent persons are buried in Westminster Abbey. (Those without monuments are in italics. ) KINGS AND QUEENS. - King Sebert ; Edward the Confessor ; Henry III.; Edward I. and Queen Eleanor ; Edward III. and Queen Philippa ; Richard II. and his Queen ; Henry V.; Edward V.; Henry VII. and his Queen ; Anne of Cleves, Queen of Henry VIII.; Edward VI.; Mary I.; Mary, Queen of Scots ; Queen Elizabeth ; James I. and his Queen; Queen of Bohemia, daughter of James I. and mother of Prince Rupert Charles II.; William III. and Queen Mary; Queen Anne; George II. and Queen Caroline. STATESMEN. -Lord Chancellor Clarendon ; Savile, Lord Halifax ; Sir William Temple ; Craggs ; Pulteney, Earl of Bath ; the great Lord Chatham ; Pitt ; Fox, Canning, and Castlereagh. SOLDIERS. -Aymer de Valence, Earl of Pembroke ; Sir Francis Vere ; Prince Rupert ; Monk, Duke of Albemarle ; William, Duke ofCumberland, the hero of Culloden ; Marshal Wade. SEA- MEN.-Admiral Dean ; Sir W. Spragg ; Montague, Earl of Sandwich; Sir Cloudesley Shovel. POETS. -Chaucer, Spen- ser, Beaumont, Ben Jonson, Michael Drayton, Sir Robert Ayton, Sir W. Davenant, Cowley, Denham, Roscommon, Dryden, Prior, Congreve, Addison, Rowe, Gay, Macpher son, who gave "Ossian " to the public, R. B. Sheridan, and Thomas Campbell. ACTORS. -Betterton, Mrs. Oldfield, Mrs. · XIV.-ST. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL. 111 Bracegirdle, Mrs. Cibber, the second Mrs. Barry, Henderson, and David Garrick. MUSICIANS. -Henry Lawes, Purcell, Dr. Blow, Handel. DIVINES. -Dr. Barrow, Dr. South. ANTIQUA- RIES.-Camden, Spelman, Archbishop Usher. OTHER EMINENT PERSONS. -Mountjoy, Earl of Devonshire, of the time of Queen Elizabeth ; the unfortunate Arabella Stuart ; the mother of Henry VII.; the mother of Lady Jane Grey ; the mother of Lord Darnley ; Anne Hyde, Duchess of York, the mother of Queen Mary and Queen Anne ; the wife of the Protector Somerset ; the wife of the great Lord Burgh- ley ; the wife of Sir Robert Cecil ; the Duke and Duchess of Newcastle (the poet and poetess) ; Villiers, first Duke of Buckingham, and his two sons, the profligate second duke, and Francis, killed when a boy in the Civil Wars ; the Duchess of Richmond (La Belle Stuart) ; the second Duke ofOrmond, and Atterbury, Bishop of Rochester, both of whom died in banishment ; Sheffield, Duke of Buckingham ; Hak- luyt, who collected the early voyages which bear his name ; Sir Isaac Newton ; Dr. Busby, the schoolmaster ; Dr. John- son, the moralist and lexicographer ; Tom Killigrew and M. St. Evremont, the English and French epicurean wits ; Aubrey de Vere, the twentieth and last Earl of Oxford of the house of Vere ; and old Parr, who died (1635) at the great age of 152. "A Peerage or Westminster Abbey was the glorious alternative present in Nelson's mind on the day of Trafalgar ; and when we reflect on the many eminent persons buried within its walls, it is indeed an honour. وو ST. PAUL'S, THE CATHEDRAL church of the See of Loudon, the most marked feature in the architecture of London, and the noblest building in Great Britain in the Classic style, stands on the site of a Gothic church destroyed in the Fire of London. The principal approach to it is by Ludgate-hill, but it is too closely hemmed in by houses to be seen to much advantage. The best general view of it is from the Thames, or Blackfriars Eridge. There the graceful outline of its faultless dome may be thoroughly appreciated. Entrance at the N. door. Divine Service is performed daily at 8 in the morning in the chapel ; -at 10, and in the afternoon at past 3 or 4 in thechoir ; on Sundays 10.30 a.m. and 3.15 p.m. Since 1858 Evening Service is performed on Sunday, at 7 p.m., under the dome, an area affording seats for 3000 persons, while by the removal of the organ from the opening of the choir, the view extends from the west door to the altar. The doors are opened of an hour before the beginning of each service. 112 XIV. ST. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL. Visitors are admitted without fee to inspect the interior on week days, except during the time of Divine Service. CHARGES FOR INSPECTING PARTS OF THE CATHEDRAL NOT OPEN TO THE PUBLIC. Whispering, Stone, and Golden Galleries Ball . Library, Great Bell, and Geometrical Staircase Clock Crypt-Wellington's and Nelson's Monument s. d. • 0 6 1 6 0 6 0 2 0 6 3 2 General History.-The first stone was laid June 21st, 1675. Divine service was performed for the first time Dec. 2nd, 1697, on the day of thanksgiving for the peace of Ryswick, and the last stone laid in 1710, 35 years after the first. It deserves to be mentioned that the whole Cathedral was begun and completed under one architect, Sir Christopher Wren ; one master mason, Thomas Strong; and one bishop, Dr. Henry Compton. The whole cost, 747,9547. 2s. 9d. , was paid for by a tax on coals brought into the port of London, and the Cathedral, it is said, deserves to wear, as it does, a smoky coat in consequence. Exterior.-The ground-plan is that of a Latin cross, with lateral projections at the W. end of the nave, giving width and importance to the W. front. Length from E. to W., 550 feet ; breadth of the body of the church, 100 feet ; campanile towers at the W. end, each 222 feet in height ; and the height of the whole structure, from the pavement to the top of the cross, 370 feet. Immense as the building looks and is, it could actually stand within St. Peter's at Rome. The outer dome, in beauty of outline unequalled in the world, is of wood, covered with lead, and does not support the lantern on the top, which rests on a cone of brick raised between the inner cupola and outer dome. The course of balustrade at the top was forced on Wren by the commissioners for the building. " I never designed a balustrade," he says ; "ladies think nothing well without an edging." The sculp- ture on the pediment (the Conversion of St. Paul), the statues on the entablature (St. Paul, with St. Peter and St. James on either side), and the statue of Queen Anne (cost £1150) in front of the building, with the four figures at the angles, are all by F. Bird. The Phoenix over the S. door was the work of Cibber. The iron railing was cast at Lamberhurst, in Kent, at a cost of 11,2021. Os. 6d., and encloses upwards of two acres of ground. Observe. -The double portico at the W. end; the beautiful semicircular porticos, Ñ. and S.; the XIV.-ST. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL. 113 use of two orders of architecture (Composite and Corinthian) ; and the general breadth and harmony of the whole building. Interior. The cupola, with the paintings upon it, is of brick, 108 feet in diameter, with stone bandings at every rise of 5 feet, and a girdle of Portland stone at the base, con- taining a double chain of iron strongly linked together at every 10 feet, and weighing 95 cwt. 3 qr. 23 lb. The great defect of the interior is its nakedness, darkness, and want of coloured ornament. Wren's first design of St. Paul's was planned essentially for the Protestant worship and service, and consisted of a large central dome, surrounded by eight minor cupolas, prolonged to the W. by another cupola, and faced with a grand portico. This was rejected through the influence of the Duke of York (afterwards James II. ) , who insisted on having a church with the usual long nave and side aisles, adapted to the popish service. Sir Christopher shed tears in speaking of the change ; but it was all in vain. The eight paintings in the dome (by Sir James Thornhill), represent the principal events in the life of St. Paul. The wood carvings in the choir are by Grinling Gibbons, and are of exquisite beauty in design and finish. Observe-the canopy of Dean's Slab. The late eminent Dean Milman, who had greatly at heart the glory of the cathedral, set on foot various improvements, which have partly been carried out. To him are due the throwing open of the space under the dome for public worship, the partial gilding of the choir, the setting up of painted glass windows, gifts of companies or private persons, at the W. end, chiefly executed at Munich. It is a standing shame and disgrace to the merchants, bankers, trades- men, and citizens of London, the richest city in the world, that they should so long have allowed the interior to remain naked, black, and unfinished. In 1870 an effort was begun to raise 250,000l. to complete it according to Wren's wishes, and the work of embellishment is now proceeding as fast as funds will permit. The inscription to Wren, SI MONUMEN- TUM QUERIS, CIRCUMSPICE, set up by Mylne, engineer of old Blackfriars Bridge, now appears on the inner porch of the N. transept. Wren received a small salary of 2001. a year, as architect, while St. Paul's was in progress ; he was dis- missed from his office when his great work was barely finished. * The Monuments. Few of them, unfortunately, merit atten- tion as fine works of art, but all are interesting from the illus-

  • See Dean Milman's Annals of St. Paul's for the best account of this Cathedral.

I 114 XIV. ST. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL -MONUMENTS. trious persons they are designed to commemorate. Among the works of art, Observe-Statue of John Howard, the philanthropist, by Bacon, R.A. (cost 1300 guineas, and was the first monument erected in St. Paul's) ; of Dr. Johnson, by Bacon, R.A.; of Sir Joshua Reynolds, by Flaxman, R.A.; kneeling figure of Bishop Heber, by Chantrey, R.A. Among the monuments interesting from the persons they comme- morate-Observe-Those to Nelson, by Flaxman, R.A. (the loss of the right arm concealed by the union Jack) ;-to Lord Cornwallis, by Rossi, R.A. (supported by Indian river gods) ; to Sir Ralph Abercromby, by Sir R. West- macott, R.A.-to Sir John Moore, who fell at Corunna (Marshal Soult stood before it and wept) ; statue of Lord Heathfield, the gallant defender of Gibraltar ; monuments to Howe and Rodney, two of our great naval heroes ;-to Nelson's favourite, the brave and pious Lord Collingwood ; statue of Earl St. Vincent, the hero of the battle off Cape St. Vincent ; monuments to Picton and Ponsonby, who fell at Waterloo ; to Sir Charles Napier, conqueror at Meea- nee; statues of Sir William Jones, the Oriental scholar, Sir Astley Cooper, the surgeon, Dr. Babington, the physician, &c. In the Crypt, -Observe. -Grave of Sir Christopher Wren (d. 1723, aged 91).-Grave of Lord Nelson (d. 1805), beneath the centre of the dome. The sarcophagus, which contains Nelson's coffin, was made at the expense of Cardinal Wolsey, for the burial of Henry VIII. in the tomb-house at Windsor ; and the coffin, which contains the body (made of part of the mainmast of the ship L'Orient) , was a present to Nelson after the battle of the Nile, from his friend Ben Hallowell, captain of the Swiftsure. " I send it," says Hallowell, " that when you are tired of this life you may be buried in one of your own trophies." Nelson appreciated the present, and for some time had it placed upright, with the lid on, against the bulk- head of his cabin, behind the chair on which he sat at dinner. - Grave of Lord Collingwood (d. 1810), commander of the larboard division at the battle of Trafalgar. -Grave of the great Duke of Wellington, d. 1852. He lies in a sarcophagus of Cornish porphyry of excellent form, in the E. Crypt, adjoining Nelson. His Monument, provided by public subscription, a recumbent effigy under a marble canopy, de- signed and executed by E. Stephens, will occupy the W. chapel of the S. aisle. Near to his old leader lies Sir Thomas Picton, killed at Waterloo, interred here 1859. -Graves ofthe following celebrated English painters :-Sir Joshua Reynolds (d. 1792) ; Sir Thomas Lawrence (d. 1830) ; James Barry (d. 1806) ; John Opie (d. 1807) ; Benjamin West (d. 1820) ; 10 Choir . Z. Entrance to Whispering Gal., Outer Gallery, and Ball. Statue ofQueen Anne. GROUND PLAN OF ST. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL. E N- S 12 116 XIV. ST. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL. Henry Fuseli ( d. 1825) ; J. M. W. Turner (d. 1851).- Graves of eminent engineers :-Robert Mylne, who built old Blackfriars Bridge (d. 1811 ) ; John Rennie, who built Waterloo Bridge (d. 1821). Monumentsfrom Old St. Paul's, preserved in the crypt of the present building. -Dean Colet, founder of St. Paul's School ; Sir Nicholas Bacon, father of the great Lord Bacon ; Sir Christopher Hatton, Queen Elizabeth's Lord Chancellor ; Dr. Donne, the poet and dean, in his shroud, by Nicholas Stone, described by Izaak Walton in his Life of Donne. Of the tombs of Sir Philip Sydney, Sir Francis Walsingham, Sir A. Vandyk, and John of Gaunt, no trace remains. Ascent. The ascent to the ball, entrance in S.W. angle under dome, is by 616 steps, of which 260 easy and well- lighted steps lead to The Whispering Gallery, so called, because the slightest whisper is transmitted from one side of the gallery_to the other with great rapidity and distinctness. Clock Room. -In the S.W. tower is the clock, and the great bell on which it strikes. The length of the minute-hand of the clock is 8 feet, and its weight 75 lb.; the length of the hour-hand is 5 feet 5 inches, and its weight 44 lb. The diameter of the bell is about 10 feet, and its weight is 11,474 lb. , the hammer weighing 145 lb. , and the clapper 180 lb. It is inscribed, " Richard Phelps made me, 1716, " and is never used except for striking the hour, and for tolling at the deaths and funerals of any of the Royal Family, the Bishops of London, the Deans of St. Paul's, and the Lord Mayor, should he die in his mayoralty. The Stone Gallery is an outer gallery, and affords a fine view of London on a clear day. The Outer Golden Gallery is at the apex of the dome. Here you may have a still more extensive view of London if you will ascend early in the morning, and on a clear day. The Ball and Cross stand on the top of the concealed brick cone which supports the outer dome (see above) . The ball is in diameter 6 feet 2 inches, and will hold three or four persons. The weight of the ball is stated to be 5600 lb. , and that of the cross (to which there is no entrance) 3360 lb. In the public procession to St. Paul's, July 7th, 1814, the day of thanksgiving for the peace, the Duke of Wellington carried the sword of state before the Prince Regent. The next occasion of a public procession to St. Paul's was the Duke of Wellington's funeral, Nov. 18th, 1852. On February 27th, 1872, the day of thanks- giving for the recovery of the Prince of Wales, the Queen attended St. Paul's in state. Haydn said that the most powerful effect he ever felt from XIV.-ST. BARTHOLOMEW THE GREAT- ST. SAVIOUR, 117 music was from the singing of the charity children in St Paul's. Endeavour to attend at this festival, held on the first Thursday in June, when 5000 charity children of the metropolis are collected under the Dome. St. Paul's Church-yard is an irregular circle of houses en- closing St. Paul's Cathedral and burial-ground. The statue of Queen Anne, before the W. front of the church, was the work of Francis Bird, a poor sculptor. Mr. Newbery's shop at the corner of St. Paul's Church-yard is occupied by Messrs. Griffith and Farran, who deal, like their predecessor, in books for children. ST. BARTHOLOMEW THE GREAT, WEST SMITHFIELD, is the choir and transept of the church of the Priory of St. Bartholomew, founded in the reign of Henry I. (circ. 1102) , by Rahere, companion of Hereward, " the last of the Saxons in the defence of the Isle of Ely against William the Conqueror, and the King's minstrel." This unquestionably is the oldest and one of the most interesting of the London churches. It is chiefly good Norman work with Perp. insertions and additions, but its detached entrance gate from Smithfield is an excellent specimen of Early English with the toothed ornament in its mouldings. The tower is of brick, 1628, erected over the only bay of the nave remaining. This church was restored 1865-67 ; 12 feet of earth was dug out from within its walls. The chief feature is the Norman E. apse, four stilted round arches, resting on massive columns, and three larger columns and wider arches forming the choir. Above the altar protrudes a box-like, square construction, being the end of a neighbouring workshop-"elbowing God's altar," which the limited funds for the restoration do not avail to purchase and remove. Parts are of the Perp. period, and the rebus of Prior Bolton, who died in 1532 (a bolt through a tun), fixes the date when the alterations were made. The roof is of timber. The clerestory is Early English. On the N. side of the altar is the elegant cano- pied tomb, with effigy, of Rahere, the first Prior, much later than his decease. Over against it is the spacious monument to Sir Walter Mildmay, founder of Emmanuel College, Cambridge (d. 1589) . The bust (near Mildmay's monument) of James Rivers (d. 1641) , is probably the work of Hubert Le Soeur, who lived in Bartholomew-close, hard by. The parish register records the baptism (Nov. 28th, 1697) ofWilliam Hogarth, the painter. Inthe open space, just opposite St. Bartholomew's Gate, stood the stake at which the victims of Popish intolerance, during the reign of Bloody Queen Mary, were burned alive. See SMITHFIELD, page 73. 118 XIV. ST, SAVIOUR'S-THE TEMPLE CHURCH. ST. SAVIOUR, SOUTHWARK, was the church of the Priory of St. Mary Overy, and was first erected into a parish church by Henry VIII. in 1540. After Westminster Abbey, St. Saviour's, Southwark, contains the finest specimens of Early English in London. Nothing, however, remains of the old church but the choir and the Lady chapel. The nave was taken down 1840, to the disgrace of the parish, without due cause, and the present unsightly structure built. The altar-screen in the choir (much like that at Winchester) was erected at the expense of Fox, Bishop of Winchester (d. 1528), and bears his device, the pelican. The choir was restored in 1822, and the Lady chapel in 1832. In the reign of Mary I. the Lady chapel of St. Saviour's was used, during the Marian persecution, by Bishop Gardiner, (d. 1555) , as a court for the trial of heretics. Monuments. -Effigy of knight cross-legged, in north aisle of choir. To John Gower, the poet (d. 1402) ; a Perp. monument, originally erected on the N. side of the church, in the chapel of St. John, where Gower founded a chantry. "He [ Gower] lieth under a tomb of stone, with his image also of stone over him : the hair of his head, auburn, long to his shoulders but curling up, and a small forked beard ; on his head a chaplet like a coronet of four roses ; a habit of purple, damasked down to his feet ; a collar of esses gold about his neck ; under his head the likeness of three books which he compiled."-Stow, p. 152 . Lancelot Andrews, Bishop of Winchester (d. 1626) ; a black and white marble monument in the Lady chapel, with his effigy at full-length. John Trehearne, gentle- man porter to James I.; half-length of himself and wife (upright) . John Bingham, saddler to Queen Elizabeth and James I. (d. 1625) . Alderman Humble. Lockyer, the famous empiric in Charles II.'s reign (d. 1672) ; a rueful full-length figure in N. transept. Eminent Persons buried in, and graves unmarked.-Sir Edward Dyer, Sir Philip Sydney's friend ; he lived and died (1607) in Winchester House, adjoining. Edmund Shakspeare, " player " (the poet's youngest brother), buried in the church, 1607. Lawrence Fletcher, one of the leading shareholders in the Globe and Blackfriars Theatres, and Shakspeare's " fellow ; " buried in the church, 1608. Philip Henslowe, the manager, so well known by his curious Account Book or Diary ; buried in the chancel, 1615-16. John Fletcher (Beaumont's associate), buried in the church, 1625. Philip Massinger (the dramatic poet), buried in the churchyard, March 18th, 1638-9. The TEMPLE CHURCH, a little south of Temple Ear XIV. THE TEMPLE CHURCH, 119 was the church of the Knights Templar, and is divided into two parts, the Round Church and the Choir. The Round Church (transition Norman work) was built in the year 1185, as an inscription in Saxon characters, formerly on the stone- work over the little door next the cloister, recorded, and dedicated by Heraclius, Patriarch of Jerusalem ; the Choir (pure Early English) was finished in 1240. The restorations and alterations, made 1839-42, at a cost of 70,000l. , amounting nearly to the re- construction of the Choir, are in correct 12th and 13th century taste. The monuments to several dis- tinguished men, architecturally out of place, were removed from the arcades in which they were first erected, and are now placed in the Triforium. Off the cork-screw stairs leading to it is a cell, for the bell-ringer, with a squint (lychnoscope) bearing upon the high altar. Observe. -Entrance doorway (very fine) ; -two groups of monumental effigies, on the pavement in Round Church, of Knights Templar, cross-legged (names unknown, at least very un- certain) ; the figure between the two columns on the S.E. having a foliage- ornament about the head, and the feet resting upon a lion, represents, it is said, William Marshall, Earl of Pembroke ( d. 1119) , Earl Marshal and Protector of England during the minority of Henry III. On the left of the altar is the monument of white marble, to the learned Selden (d. 1654 ; he is buried beneath) ; and in the Trifo- rium the tombs of Plowden, the jurist, and Howell, the letter- writer (d. 1666). In the burial-ground east of the choir, lies Oliver Goldsmith. The place is undistinguished ; but a tablet erected in a recess on the north side of the Choir commemorates the circumstance. The Round of this church was used as a place where lawyers received their clients, each occupying his particular post, like a merchant upon ' Change. The incumbent at the Temple is called Master of the Temple -once an office of greater dignity and reputation than it is now. The learned and judicious Hooker, author of the Ecclesiastical Polity, was for six years Master of the Temple -" a place," says Izaak Walton, " which he accepted rather than desired. " Travers, a disciple of Cartwright, the Non- conformist, was then lecturer ; and Hooker, it was said, preached Canterbury in the forenoon, and Travers Geneva in the afternoon. The Benchers were divided ; and Travers being first silenced by the Archbishop, Hooker resigned, and in his quiet parsonage of Boscombe renewed the contest in print, in his Ecclesiastical Polity. In the S. W. angle of the choir is a bust of Hooker by Mr. Gatley, erected 1851 , at the expense of the benchers. In this church Archbishop 120 XIV. ST. HELEN'S, BISHOPSGATE STREET. Usher preached the funeral sermon of the learned Selden. The organ was made by Father Schmydt, or Smith, in honourable competition with a builder of the name of Harris. Blow and Purcell, then in their prime, performed on Father Smith's organ on appointed days ; and till Harris's was heard, every one believed that Smith's must be chosen. Harris employed Baptiste Draghi, organist to Queen Cathe- rine, "to touch his organ, " which brought it into favour ; and thus the two continued vieing with each other for near a twelvemonth. The decision at length was left to Judge Jefferies, who decided in favour of Father Smith. The choral services on a Sunday are well performed, and well attended. The Round of the church is open to all, but the Choir is reserved for the Benchers and students. Strangers are admitted by the introduction of a member of either Temple. The keys of the church are with the porter, at the top ofInner Temple-lane. ST. HELEN'S, BISHOPSGATE STREET, on the E. side of Bishopsgate-street Within, near its junction with Gracechurchstreet, the church of the Priory of the Nuns of St. Helen's, founded (circ. 1216) by " William, son of William the Goldsmith," otherwise William Basing, Dean of St. Paul's, one of the most interesting of old London churches-(a living of £40 a year!) The interior is divided into two aisles, with a small transept. There is little in the architecture to attract attention. The windows are irregular-the roof poor and heavy, but the monuments are old, numerous, and in- teresting. Observe. -Sir John Crosby, Alderman (d. 1475), and Ann, his wife, the founder of Crosby Hall ; a perfect altar- tomb, with two recumbent figures, the male figure with his alderman's mantle over his plate armour.- Sir Thomas Gresham, Kt., (d. 1579), the founder of the Royal Ex- change ; a plain altar-tomb, inscribed " Sir Thomas Gresham, Knight, buried Dec. 15th, 1579." Stow tells us that it was Gresham's intention to have built a new steeple to the church "in recompense of ground filled up with his monument." -John Leventhorp (d. 1510), in armour ; a brass.—Sir William Pickering, and his son (d. 1542, d. 1574) ; a recumbent figure of the father in armour, beneath an enriched marble canopy. Sir Andrew Judd, Lord Mayor (d. 1558) , founder of the Free Grammar School at Tunbridge ; with male and female figures kneeling at a desk.-- Sir Julius Cæsar (d. 1636) , Master of the Rolls, and Under-Chancellor of the Exchequer, in the reign ofJames I. , of whom Lord Clarendon tells the amusing story, " Remember Cæsar.". XIV.-ST. GILES-ST. PANCRAS. 121 "His epitaph is cut on a black slab, in front of a piece of parchment, with a seal appendant, by which he gives his bond to Heaven to resign his life willingly whenever it should please God to call him. ' In cujus rei testimonium manum meam et sigillum apposui . ” —Pennant. This monument was the work of Nicholas Stone, and cost 1107. Against the S. wall .-Sir John Spencer, Lord Mayor in 1594, from whom the Marquis of Northampton derives the Spencer portion of his name, Spencer-Compton. -Francis Bancroft, the founder of Bancroft's Almshouses. "He is embalmed in a chest made with a lid , having a pair of hinges without any fastening, and a piece of square glass on the lid just over his face. It is a very plain monument, almost square, and has a door for the sexton, on certain occasions, to go in and clear it from dust and cobwebs."-Noorthouck's Hist . of Lond., 4to, 1773, p. 557. ST. GILES, CRIPPLEGATE, one of the oldest and most venerable churches in London, interesting as the burial place of Milton, who composed " Paradise Lost " in a house in Barbican, in this parish (pulled down 1864). It was built in 1545, and escaped the fire. The tower is furnished with a peal of fourteen bells, one of the finest and sweetest in London, upon which chimes play every three hours. It was restored in 1864 as a memorial to Milton, see the tombs of Milton, of Foxe the Martyrologist, and of Speed, the Chronicler. Oliver Cromwell was married in St. Giles ; and the register records the burial of Defoe in this neigh- bourhood. ST. PANCRAS- IN - THE- FIELDS (old church) near the Midland Railway Terminus, is an interesting little church enlarged by Mr. A. D. Gough. The burial-ground, of less than 4 acres, has been used as a place of sepulture for six centuries, and contains the remains of at least twenty generations. The monuments deserve examination. Observe. -Against S. wall of chancel a tablet, surmounted by a palette and pencils, to Samuel Cooper, the eminent miniature painter to whom Cromwell sat so often (d. 1672) : the arms are those of Sir Edw. Turner, Speaker of the H. of Commons in the reign of Charles II. , at whose expense it is probable the monument was erected. In the churchyard, near the church door, and on your right as you enter, is a headstone to William Woollett, the engraver (d. 1785), and his widow (d. 1819). At the further end of the churchyard, on the N. side, is an altar- tomb to William Godwin, author of Caleb Williams (d. 1836), and his two wives ; Mary Wolstonecraft Godwin, author of A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, the mother of Mrs. Shelley (d. 1797), now removed to 122 XIV. SAVOY CHURCH. Bournemouth churchyard ; and Mary Jane (d. 1841) . Near the sexton's house is a headstone to John Walker, author of the Pronouncing Dictionary of the English Language (d. 1807). Here were buried, as the register records :-Jeremy Collier (d. 1726) , the writer against the immorality of the stage in the time of Dryden. -Ned Ward (d. 1731) , author of the London Spy. -Lewis Theobald (d. 1744), the hero of the early editions of the Dunciad, and the editor of Shak- speare. In ' this church (Feb. 13th, 1718-19) , Jonathan Wild was married to his third wife. THE CHAPEL OF SAVOY lies between the River and the Strand, and was the chapel of the Hospital of St. John the Baptist. A Perp. edifice, erected in the reign of Henry VII. on the site of the Palace of the Savoy, originally built in 1245 for Peter, Count of Savoy, uncle to Eleanor, Queen of Henry III. It is the property of the Crown, as part of the Duchy of Lancaster (though now used as a District Church) , and was restored by Queen Victoria, 1865, after a fire in 1864, which destroyed the roof, and all but the walls . Observe-The new wood ceiling is a copy of the old ; its 138 compartments being filled with sacred devices, or arms of the Dukes of Lancaster. The E. end is ornamented with Gothic niches, and a painted window of the Crucifixion by Willement, as a memorial, from the Queen, of the Prince Consort. The font and cover were given as a memorial of Peter de Wint and W. Hilton , R.A. , both buried in the churchyard, by the widow of the former. The pulpit was given by the family of Burgess, of the Strand. Here were, before the fire, a recumbent figure of the Countess Dow- ager of Nottingham (d. 1681). Brass, on floor of the chapel, marking the grave of Gawain Douglas, Bishop of Dunkeld (d. 1522), the translator of Virgil. Tablet, erected by his widow, to Richard Lander, the African traveller (d. 1834). Eminent Persons interred here without monuments.- George Wither, the poet (d. 1667), " between the E. door and S. end of the church." Lewis de Duras, Earl of Feversham (d. 1709) ; he commanded King James II.'s troops at the battle of Sedgemoor. -- At the Restoration of Charles II. the meetings of the commissioners for the revision of the Liturgy took place in the Savoy, at the lodgings of Dr. Sheldon, master of the Savoy; 12 bishops appearing for the Established Church ; and Calamy, Baxter, Reynolds, and nine others, for the Presby- terians. This assembly is known in English history as The Savoy Conference." Fuller, author of The Worthies, "6 XIV.-ST. PAUL'S, COVENT GARDEN- BOW CHURCH. 123 was at that time lecturer at the Savoy, and Cowley, the poet, a candidate at Court for the office of master. ST. PAUL'S, COVENT GARDEN, on the W. side of the market, was built by Inigo Jones, circ. 1633, at the expense of the ground landlord, Francis, Earl of Bedford ; repaired, in 1727, by the Earl of Burlington ; totally destroyed by fire, Sept. 17th, 1795 ; and rebuilt (John Hardwick, architect) on the plan and in the proportions of the original building. It was repaired 1872, and the interior re-seated and decorated in colour, by Butterfield, a gothic architect. The parish registers record the baptism of Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, and the burials of the following Eminent Persons.- The notorious Robert Carr, Earl of Somerset (d. 1645) .-- Samuel Butler ( d. 1680) , author of Hudibras. He died in Rose-street. "He dyed of a consumption, Sept. 25, and buried 27, according to his owne appointment in the church-yard of Covent Garden ; sc. in the N. part next the church at the E. end. His feet touch the wall . His grave, 2 yards distant from the pilaster of the dore (by his desire), 6 foot deepe. About 25 of his old acquaintance at his funerall : I myself being one."-Aubrey's Lives, ii. 263. Sir Peter Lely, the painter (d. 1680). His monument, with his bust by Gibbons, shared the fate of the church, 1795.-Edward Kynaston (d. 1712), the celebrated actor of female parts at the Restoration ; a complete female stage beauty. William Wycherley (d. 1715), the dramatist. He died in Bow- street. -Grinling Gibbons (d. 1721), the sculptor and carver in wood. -Susannah Centlivre (d. 1723), author of The Busy Body and The Wonder.-Dr. Arne, the composer of Rule Britannia (d. 1778) .-Dr. John Armstrong, author of the Art of Preserving Health, a poem (d. 1779).- Sir Robert Strange, the engraver (d. 1792).-Thomas Girtin, the father of the school of English water colours (d. 1802).— Charles Macklin, the actor (d. 1797), at the age of 107.-John Wolcot (Peter Pindar), d. 1819. In front of this church the Hustings are raised for the general elections for Westminster. Here, before the Reform Bill, raged those fierce contests of many days' duration, in which Fox, Sir Francis Burdett, and others were popular candidates. ST. MARY-LE-BOW, in CHEAPSIDE, commonly called "Bow Church," is one of Wren's masterpieces. "No other modern steeple," says Fergusson (Modern Architecture), can compare with this, either for beauty of outline or appropriate application of classical details." Observe.- The fine old Norman crypt : Wren used the arches of 124 XIV.-BOW CHURCH-ST. BRIDE. the old church to support his own superstructure. It is now a vault, and concealed in parts by piles of coffins ; the interior is poor. The Court of Arches (an Ecclesiastical Court so called) derives its name from the arched vault under Bow Church, or " bows " beneath it, in which the court was originally held. " Bow-bells " have long been and are still famous. "In the year 1469 it was ordained by a Common Council that the Bow Bell should be nightly rung at nine of the clock. Shortly after, John Donne, mercer, by his testament dated 1472, gave to the parson and churchwardens two tenements in Hosier Lane to the maintenance of Bow Bell, the same to be rung as aforesaid, and other things to be observed as by the will appeareth. This Bell being usually rung some- what late, as seemed to the young men, prentices, and others in Cheap, they made and set up a rhyme against the clerk as followeth : 'Clerk ofthe Bow Bell, with the yellow lockes, For thy late ringing thy head shall have knocks.' Whereunto the Clerk replying wrote 'Children of Cheape, hold you all still, For you shall have the Bow Bell rung at your will .' " Stow, p. 96. People born within the sound of Bow-bells are usually called Cockneys. Beaumont and Fletcher speak of " Bow-bell suckers," i. e., as Mr. Dyce properly explains it, "children born within the sound of Bow-bell." The present set of bells, 10, were cast 1762, the smallest weighing 8 cwt. 3 qr. 7 lb. , and the largest 53 cwt. 22 lb. Pope has confirmed the reputation of these bells in a celebrated line :- "Far as loud Bow's stupendous bells resound." The tower is 235 ft. high, the dragon on the top is 8 ft. 10 in. long. The balcony in the tower overlooking Cheap- side had its origin in the old seldam or shed in which our kings used to sit to see the jousts and ridings in Cheap- side. ST. BRIDE, or ST. BRIDGET, FLEET-STREET, one of Wren's architectural glories, was completed in the year 1703, at the cost of 11,4307. The steeple, much and deservedly admired, was, as left by Wren, 234 feet in height, but in 1764, when it was struck with lightning, and otherwise seriously injured, it was reduced 8 feet. Wren took the idea of its construction from the whorls of a particular species of univalve shell. The interior has many admirers-less airy perhaps than St. James's, Piccadilly, it is still extremely elegant. The stained XIV.-ST. MAGNUS, LONDON BRIDGE. 125 glass window (a copy from Rubens's Descent from the Cross) was the work of Mr. Muss. In the old church were buried : -Wynkin de Worde, the printer. — Sir Richard Baker, author of the Chronicle (d. 1644-5, in the Fleet Prison) .—Richard Lovelace, the poet (d. 1658) . In the present church were buried :-Ogilby, the translator of Homer. -Sandford, author of the Genealogical History. —Richardson, author of Clarissa Harlowe, and a printer in Salisbury- square (d. 1761) ; his grave (half hid by pew No. 8, on the S. side) is marked by a flat stone, about the middle of the centre aisle. ST. MICHAEL'S, CORNHILL, one of the handsomer city churches since its restoration and decoration under Sir G. G. Scott. Observe. The noble tower, the work of Wren, and yet Gothic in style, the carved portal ; the rich altar-piece of marble and granite, including figures of Moses and Aaron by Straiker (temp. Charles II . ) , sur- mounted by a wheel window,-filled, as well as 5 other windows, with modern painted glass (subjects, the history of our Lord).-The wood carvings of the pulpit, Royal pew, and bench ends, are by Rogers ; the pelican carved by G. Gibbons. ST. STEPHEN, WALBROOK, immediately behind the Man- sion House, is one of Wren's most celebrated churches. The exterior is unpromising, but the interior is all elegance and even grandeur. The lights are admirably disposed through- out. The arrangement is peculiar ; a circular dome on an octagonal base, resting on 8 pillars. The walls and columns are of stone, but the dome is formed of timber and lead. The east window, by Willement, was erected at the expense ofthe Grocers' Company. Sir John Vanbrugh, the architect and wit (d. 1726), lies buried in the family vault of the Vanbrughs, in this church. ST. MAGNUS, LONDON BRIDGE, is by Wren. The cupola and lantern are much admired. The foot-way under the steeple was made (circ. 1760) to widen the road to old London Bridge. Some difficulty was expected at the time, but Wren had foreseen the probability of a change, and the alteration was effected with ease and security. On the S. side of the communion-table is a tablet tothe memory of Miles Coverdale, rector of St. Magnus and Bishop of Exeter, under whose direction, Oct. 4th, 1535, " the first complete printed English version of the Bible was published. ” When the church of St. Bartholomew-by- the- Exchange was taken down, his remains were reverently taken care of and here interred. 126 XIV. ST. JAMES'S, PICCADILLY. ST. JAMES'S, PICCADILLY, WESTMINSTER. Was built (1682-84) by Sir Christopher Wren, and erected at the ex- pense of Henry Jermyn, Earl of St. Albans, the patron of Cowley, and the husband, it is said, of Henrietta Maria, the widow of Charles I. The exterior of the church is of red brick with stone quoins, and is mean and ugly in the extreme. Theinterior is a masterpiece, light, airy, elegant, and capacious -well worthy the study of an architect. It is Wren's chef- d'œuvre in this way-and especially adapted to the Protestant Church service. "I can hardly think it practicable to make a single room so capacious, with pews and galleries, as to hold above 2000 persons, and all to hear the service, and both to hear distinctly and see the preacher. I en- deavoured to effect this in building the parish church of St. James, Westminster, which I presume is the most capacious with these qualifications that hath yet been built ; and yet at a solemn time when the church was much crowded I could not discern from a gallery that 2000 persons were present in this church I mention, though very broad, and the nave arched up. And yet, as there are no walls of a second order, nor lantern, nor buttresses, but the whole roof rests upon the pillars, as do also the galleries, I think it may be found beautiful and convenient, and as such the cheapest form of any I could invent. ” —Sir Christopher Wren. The marble font, a very beautiful one, is the work of Grinling Gibbons. The missing cover (represented in Vertue's engraving) was stolen, and, it is said, subsequently hung as a kind ofsign at a spirit-shop in the immediate neighbourhood of the church. The beautiful foliage over the altar is also from the hand of Gibbons. The organ, a very fine one, was made for James II. , and designed for his popish chapel at Whitehall. His daughter, Queen Mary, gave it to the church. The painted window at the E. end of the chancel, by Wailes of Newcastle, was inserted in 1846. Eminent Persons interred in. -Charles Cotton, Izaak Walton's associate in The Complete Angler. -Dr. Sydenham, the physician. The elder and younger Vandervelde. On a grave-stone in the church is, or was, this inscription : " Mr. William Vandervelde, senior, late painter of sea- fights to their Majesties King Charles II. and King James, dyed 1693." -Tom d'Urfey, the dramatist (d. 1723). There is a tablet to his memory on the outer S. wall of the tower of the church.--Henry Sydney, Earl of Romney, the handsome Sydney of De Grammont's Memoirs (d. 1704). There is a monument to his memory in the chancel. -Dr. Arbuthnot (d. 1734-5), the friend of Pope, Swift, and Gay. - Mark Akenside, M.D., author of The Pleasures of Imagination. -Sir William Jones the Oriental Scholar. -Dodsley, the book. XIV. ST. MARTIN-IN-THE-FIELDS. 127 seller, and William Yarrell the Naturalist. -James Gillray, the caricaturist in the churchyard, beneath a flat stone on the W. side of the rectory. -Sir John Malcolm, the eminent soldier and diplomatist.-The register records the baptisms of the polite Earl of Chesterfield and the great Earl of Chatham . The portraits of the rectors in the vestry include those of Tenison and Wake, afterwards Archbishops of Canterbury, and of Samuel Clarke, author of The Attributes of the Deity. ST. MARY WOOLNOTH, LOMBARD STREET, was designed by Nicholas Hawksmoor (d. 1736), the " domestic clerk " and assistant of Sir Christopher Wren, and built in 1716, on the site of an old church of the same name, "the reason of which name," says Stow, " I have not yet learnt." This is the best of Hawksmoor's churches, and has been much admired. The exterior is bold, and at least original ; the interior effective and well-proportioned. Observe. -Tablet to the Rev. John Newton (Cowper's friend), rector of this church for 28 years (d. 1807) . It is thus inscribed :- "John Newton, clerk, once an infidel and libertine, a servant of slaves in Africa, was, by the rich mercy of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, preserved, restored, pardoned, and appointed to preach the faith he had Tong laboured to destroy." ST. MARTIN-IN-THE-FIELDS (now Trafalgar- square) was built by Gibbs, 1721-26, at a cost of 36,8917. 10s. 4d. , in- cluding 1500l. for an organ. The portico is one of the finest pieces of architecture in London. The interior is so constructed that it is next to impossible to erect a monument. The steeple is heavy, but well-proportioned ; its position, however, is awkward, since it appears to weigh down the portico. In the vaults may be seen the old parish whipping- post, and the Tombs of Sir Theodore Mayerne (physician to James I. and Charles I.), and of Secretary Coventry, from whom Coventry-street derives its name. St. Martin's-in-theFields originally included the several parishes of St. Paul's, Covent-garden ; St. James's, Westminster ; St. Ann's, Soho ; and St. George's, Hanover-square ; extending as far as Mary-le- bone to the N., Whitehall on the S., the Savoy on the E., and Chelsea and Kensington on the W. St. Paul's, Covent- garden, was taken out of it in 1638 ; St. James's, Westminster, in 1684 ; and St. Ann's, Soho, in 1686. About the year 1680 it was, what Burnet calls it, " the greatest cure in England, " with a population, says Richard Baxter, of 40,000 persons more than could come into the church, and " where neighbours," he adds, " lived, like Americans, without hearing a 128 XIV.—ST. GEORGE'S, HANOVER SQUARE. sermon for many years. " Fresh separations only tended to lessen the resources of the parish, and nothing was done to improve its appearance till 1826, when the mews and the churchyard were removed and the present Trafalgar- square commenced. Eminentpersons buried. -Hilliard, the miniature painter (d. 1619).-Paul Vansomer, the painter (d. 1621).—Sir John Davys, the poet (d. 1626).-N. Laniere, the painter and musician (d. 1646).--Dobson, called the English Van Dyck (d. 1646). Stanley, the editor of Eschylus (d. 1678) .— Nell Gwynne, in the church (d. 1687).-Hon. Robert Boyle, the philosopher (d. 1691).- Lord Mohun, who fell in a duel with the Duke of Hamilton ( d. 1712) .—Jack Sheppard (d. 1724).— Farquhar, the dramatist (d. 1707).- Roubiliac, the sculptor (d. 1762).-James Stuart, author of the Antiquities of Athens, &c. (d. 1788).-John Hunter, the surgeon (d. 1793) , removed to Westminster Abbey. -James Smith, one of the authors of the Rejected Addresses (d. 1839) . The register records the baptism of Lord Bacon, born, 1561, in York House, in the Strand, on the site of Buckingham- street. ST. GEORGE'S, HANOVER SQUARE, was built by John . James, uponground given by Gen. W. Stewart, of Garth, who also contributed to the structure : it was consecrated 1724. This was one of the fifty new churches raised at that time. It contains 3 good painted windows dating about 1520, brought from Mechlin, and purchased by subscription, re- presenting a Tree of Jesse. In this church (the most fashionable church for marriages in London, in which the Duke of Wellington gave away so many brides) Sir Wm. Hamilton was married, Sept. 6, 1791, to the Lady Hamil- ton, so intimately connected with the story of Lord Nelson. Her name in the register is Emma Harte. Here the late Duke of Sussex was married (1793) , as " Augustus Frede- rick," to Lady Augusta Murray. In the burial-ground on the road to Bayswater, belonging to this parish, and near the W. wall, Laurence Sterne, the author of Tristram Shandy, is buried. His grave is distin- guished by a plain headstone, set up with an unsuitable inscription, by a tippling fraternity of Freemasons. He died (1768) in Old Bond- street, in this parish. Here also was buried Sir Thomas Picton, who fell at Waterloo, but his remains were removed 1859 to St. Paul's Cathedral. In the modern classic style. -Churches of ST. MARYLE- BONE (in the Marylebone Road) and ST. PANCRAS (in the Euston Road). AGrecian portico, and at each side an un- meaning copy of the Erectheum at Athens. St. Marylebone XIV. ALL SAINTS' CHURCH. 129 was built 1813-17, by Thomas Hardwick, and cost 60,000l. St. Pancras was built, 1819-22, by the Messrs. Inwood, and cost 76,6797. 78. 8d. The church of ST. STEPHEN, WESTMINSTER, in Rochesterrow, nearTothill fields (a London purlieu), is a beautiful speci- men of modern Gothic, with a tall spire, built, 1847-49, by Benj . Ferrey, at the expense of Lady Burdett Coutts. The tower interferes within with the harmony of the building, but the details throughout are excellent. The stained glass by Willement is in his best style. The altar-cloth was pre- sented by the Duke of Wellington. ST. JAMES, Garden- street, Vauxhall-road, (Edmd. Street, arch.) , built 1861, at a cost of 9,000l. , by the Misses Monk, good in design and original in style, of coloured brick. It has a fine stately detached tower. The interior decorations should be seen. ALL SAINTS', Margaret-street, Regent-st. , one of the most original and sumptuous Gothic churches in London, consecrated 1859, though begun 1850, when Dr. Pusey laid the first stone. It is the result of private benefactions, to which Mr. Tritton, the banker, gave 30,000l. , Mr. Beresford Hope, 10,000l. , and it is said to have cost 60,000l. Butter- field is the architect. It is built of variegated brick, is partly concealed by two projecting houses, and is surmounted by a spire. Its size is not great, but the roof rises 75 feet. Observe. The rich internal decorations of marble, almost all British, the piers of polished granite, —the capitals of white alabaster admirably carved,-the low choir screen also of alabaster, the painted windows by Gerente, -the east end wall entirely painted in fresco by Dyce, in compartments,— the Nativity, the Crucifixion, the Saviour, Virgin, and 12 Apostles. The frescoes have suffered already severely, and have been retouched or painted. The font and baptistry, also of marble, were given by the Marquis of Sligo. ST. ALBAN'S, in a court near Gray's Inn-lane, also by Butterfield, and good in style. Here the Services of the Church of England may be witnessed in a form differing as little as possible from those of a popish chapel. Priests in silken robes turning their backs to the people, genuflexions, incense, and elevation of the host. CATHOLIC APOSTOLIC CHURCH (IRVINGITE), GORDON SQUARE, one of the best modern examples ofgood early Gothic character, designed by Brandon. It is cruci- form in plan, extending 180 feet, but is not yet finished. The choir rises in three stages ; on the lowest are various lecterns ; the second is allotted for the stalls of " the K 130 XIV. ROMAN CATHOLIC CATHEDRAL. Elders," and the throne of " the Angel ; " while on the highest stands the Altar. Behind it is a sort of vestry chapel. The tower is unfinished. There is some modern painted glass. WESLEYAN CHAPEL, in the CITY ROAD, over against the entrance to Bunhill-fields (described in Section xv. ). Be- hind the chapel is the grave of John Wesley (d. 1791). The tomb which covers it was reconstructed in 1840 during the centenary of Methodism. In the chapel is a tablet to Charles Wesley (d. 1788), " the first who received the name of Me- thodist. " WHITEFIELD'S CHAPEL, on the W. side of TOTTENHAM COURT ROAD, was built in 1756, by subscription, under the auspices ofthe Rev. George Whitefield, founder of the Calvi- nistic Methodists. Whitefield preached (Nov. 7th, 1756) the first sermon in the chapel to a very crowded audience. Mrs. Whitefield (d. 1768) is buried here ; and here, on a monument to her memory, is aninscription to her husband, who dying in New England, in 1770, was buried at Newbury Port, near Boston. John Bacon, R.A. , the sculptor, is buried under the N. gallery. A good specimen of his talents as a sculptor may be seen in a bas- relief in this chapel. It was nearly re- built about 1858-60, and two flanking towers erected. ROWLAND HILL'S, or " SURREY CHAPEL," is in the BLACKFRIARS ROAD. The chapel was built for Hill, a dis- tinguished follower of Whitefield, 1782-3, and here he preached for nearly 50 years. The Rev. Newman Hall is no unworthy successor. The lease having nearly expired, a new building, " Christ Church, " is now being erected in West- minster Road. SCOTTISH CHURCHES. NATIONAL SCOTCH CHURCH, CROWN COURT, LONG ACRE. Dr. Cumming, minister. Service 11 a.m. and 6.30 p.m. SWALLOW ST. , PICCADILLY. SCOTTISH (FREE) CHURCH, Regent-square. Built for Rev. Edward Irving, and where the unknown tongues he believed in were first heard. The principal ROMAN CATHOLIC Edifices in London are :- ST. GEORGE'S CATHEDRAL, at the angle of the St. George's and Westminster Roads, in the so-called Roman Catholic diocese of Southwark (the largest Roman Catholic church erected in this country since the Reformation) , built, 1840-48, from the designs of A. W. Pugin. It is without galleries, but heavy, dark and low, will hold 3000 people, XIV.-FOREIGN CHURCHES. 131 and is said to have cost 30,000l. The style is Decorated or Middle- pointed Gothic, and the material used hard yellow brick, with dressings of Caen stone. The Petre Chantry, founded for the repose of the soul of the Hon. Edward Petre (d. 1848) , the High Altar, the Pulpit, and the Font are rich in their architectural details. The tower is still unfinished. ROMAN CATHOLIC CHAPEL (ST. MARY'S), in Moorfields (East- street, Finsbury-circus), built 1826, service 11 a.m. Here Weber was buried till the removal of his remains to Dresden, in 1844. PRO- CATHEDRAL, Newland-terrace, Kensington- road. ORATORY, Brompton. BERKELEY MEWS CHAPEL-approached from South-street and Hill-street, Berkeley-square. BAVARIAN CHAPEL, Warwick- street, Regent- street, occupying the site of the Roman Catholic chapel destroyed in the riots of 1780. SARDINIAN CHAPEL, Duke-street, Lincoln's-Inn-fields. SPANISH CHAPEL, Spanish-place, Manchester- square. In York-street, St. James's-square, is the Chapel of former Embassies, with the arms of Castile still remaining on the building. FRENCH CHAPEL, Little George-st. , King-st. , Portman-sq. High Mass begins generally at 11 a.m. and Vespers at 6 p.m. Extra full Masses are performed on the first Sunday in the month, on High Feasts and Festivals, Christmas- day, Easter- day, &c. To secure a sitting, it is necessary to pay a shilling and attend about an hour before the service begins. In most of the Chapels, the music is very grand and impressive, and finely performed by eminent professional characters, the members of the Italian Opera Company assisting at their grand festivals. For further information, see "The Catholic Directory and Ecclesiastical Register." GERMAN LUTHERAN CHAPEL, ST. JAMES'S PALACE, between it and Marlborough House. GERMAN LUTHERAN CHURCH in the Savoy. GERMAN EVANGELICAL CHURCH, Walton- street, Islington, founded 1861. There are 60,000 Germans resid- ing in and about London. FRENCH EVANGELICAL CHURCH, St. James's, close to Marlborough House, 11 a.m. FRENCH PROTESTANT ANGLICAN CHURCH, for- merly in the Savoy, is now in Bloomsbury- street, Blooms- bury. Ambrose Poynter, arch. , 1845. Service 11 a.m., 3.30 p.m. K 2 132 XV. CEMETERIES. FRENCH PROTESTANT CHURCH, founded by Edward VI., and formerly in Threadneedle-street, is now in St. Martin's-le-grand, over against the General Post Office. The DUTCH CHURCH, in AUSTIN FRIARS, a fine Dec. Gothic building ( 1243) , given to the Dutch congregation by Edward VI. , 1550, has been admirably restored, since a fire which nearly destroyed it in 1862. It is the nave only of an Augustine Church, of which the choir and transepts were destroyed temp. Henry VIII. Open wood roof, 1864. GREEK CHAPEL, for the Russian Embassy, entered from a private house (No. 32), WELBECK-STREET, is in the Byzantine style, surmounted by a dome, and painted within, in that style. Former Greek Church, Crown- street, Soho, now part of St. Mary Church, begun, 1872. GREEK CHURCH, between 81 and 84, LONDON WALL. SWEDISH CHURCH, PRINCE'S SQUARE, RATCLIFFE HIGH- WAY. Here Baron Swedenborg (d. 1772) , founder of the sect ofSwedenborgians, is buried. JEWS' SYNAGOGUE, GREAT ST. HELEN'S, ST. MARY AXE, LEADENHALL STREET. Divine service here begins an hour before sunset every Friday. The most imposing ceremonies take place at the time of the Passover (Easter). In the Jews' Burial Ground, in Whitechapel-road, a continuation of Whitechapel High- street, N. M. Rothschild (d. 1836), long the leading stock-broker of Europe, and the founder of the Rothschild family, was buried. GREAT CENTRAL SYNAGOGUE, Great Portland Street. A handsome building, in Moresque style ; cost 25,000%. Opened 1870. For further information, see Low's Handbook to the places of Public Worship in London, price 1s. 6d. XV. -CEMETERIES. THE principal places of sepulture were, till 1855, our churches and churchyards. St. George's Chapel, in the Bays- water-road, contains 1120 coffins beneath its pavement- and the church of St. Martin-in-the-Fields a still greater number. For several years prior to 1848 there had been upwards of 1000 burials a year within St. George's burial ground. Yet this great nuisance is situated in the very heart of the ex- pensive houses in Hyde-Park-gardens. The Norman vault of St. Mary-le- Bow, in Cheapside (the great thoroughfare of London), is literally crammed with leaden coffins piled 30 feet high, all on the lean from their own immense XV.-KENSAL GREEN CEMETERY. 133 weight, and covered with cobwebs and fungi. The churchyard of St. Paul's, Covent-garden, (another central cemetery) , is the narrow place of sepulture of two centuries of the inhabitants of that parish. The more obnoxious graveyards were closed by order of the General Board of Health, pur- suant to Act of Parliament ; numerous cemeteries have been formed since 1852 in the environs of London. KENSAL GREEN CEMETERY is on the HARROWROAD, about 2 miles from the Paddington Station of the Great Western Railway. Omnibus to the Cemetery Gates, leaving the Oxford and Cambridge Terrace portion of the Edgeware- road, several times a day. Remember that the cemetery is closed on Sundays till morning service is over. It was formed by a joint-stock company in 1832, and yields a good dividend to the proprietors. It occupies 18 acres, and already contains the remains of 70,000 persons. It is divided into (a) a consecrated ground for the Church of Eng- land, and (b) anunconsecrated space for Dissenters. There is much bad taste in art exhibited in this cemetery, and four of the most conspicuous tombs are to St. John Long, the quack doctor ; Ducrow, the rider ; Morison, inventor of a pill ; and George Robins, the auctioneer. Eminent Persons in- terred in.-Duke of Sussex, son of George III. (d. 1843) , and the Princess Sophia, daughter of George III . (d. 1848). The whole of the Royal Family had been previously interred in the royal vault at Windsor, but the Duke of Sussex left particular directions that he should be buried in the cemetery at Kensal Green. The duke's grave is near the chapel, and is marked by an enormous granite tomb. Anne Scott and Sophia Lockhart, daughters of the Author of Waverley, and John Hugh Lockhart, the " Hugh Little- john" ofthe Tales of a Grandfather ; monument in inner circle. Allan Cunningham (d. 1842) , author of the Lives of British Painters, Sculptors, &c.; monument in the N.W. corner of the cemetery. John Murray, of Albemarle- street, the publisher, and friend of Lord Byron (d. 1843) ; monu- ment in inner circle. Rev. Sydney Smith, in the public vault, catacomb B. Thomas Barnes (d. 1841), for many years editor of " The Times " newspaper ; altar-tomb. Tom Hood, the poet and wit (d. 1845), a colossal bust near Ducrow's monument. John Liston, the actor, the original Paul Pry (d. 1846) ; altar-tomb, surmounted by an urn, on the left of the chapel. J. C. Loudon (d. 1843), celebrated for his works on gardening ; altar-tomb. Sir Augustus Callcott, the painter (d. 1844) ; flat stone. Dr. Birkbeck, the pro- 134 XV.-BUNHILL FIELDS. moter of Mechanics' Institutions (d. 1841 ). Sir William Beatty (d. 1842) , Nelson's surgeon at the battle of Trafalgar ; tablet in colonnade. Thomas Daniell, R.A., the landscape painter (d. 1840) ; altar-tomb. Sir Mark Isambard Brunel, Engineer of the Thames Tunnel, inventor of the Block Machinery, &c. , on left of the main avenue ; Sir William Molesworth (d. 1855) , Editor of Hobbes, &c.; and Sir Charles Lock Eastlake, P.R.A. The other modern Cemeteries are HIGHGATE, beautifully situated : fine view of London, well worth visiting : here lies Lord Lyndhurst (d. 1863), aged 92. Mich. Faraday, philosopher and chemist. In a vault under the chapel of the Grammar School (a modern building of red brick), are buried S. T. Coleridge the poet, his daughter, Sara, and his son-in-law. Abney PARK, 3 m. E. from Post-office, contain- ing a statue, by Baily, of Dr. Isaac Watts, who resided here with Sir Thomas Abney. BROMPTON, 2 miles from Hyde- Park-corner, on the road to Fulham. Here rests Sir Roderick Murchison, the eminent geologist, author of " The Silurian System ;" also several favourite actors -Keeley, T. P. Cooke, the sailor, Albert Smith ; and Jackson, the boxer (Byron's instructor). To the E. of London, VICTORIA CEMETERY, TOWER HAMLETS CEMETERY, the CITY OF LONDON CEMETERY, at Ilford, in Essex ; NUNHEAD CEMETERY, and NORWOOD CEMETERY, where David Roberts, landscape painter, is buried, both on the Surrey side. WOKING, near Guildford, a station on the S. W. Railway. COLNEY HATCH, a station on the Great Northern Railway. Of these cemeteries, Highgate and Norwood will best repay a visit. BUNHILL FIELDS BURIAL GROUND (i.e. bone hill), near FINSBURY SQUARE, called by Southey "the Campo Santo of the Dissenters," served in 1549 as a place of deposit for 1000 cartloads of human bones brought from the charnel- house of St. Paul's ; it was made use of as apest-field or common place of interment during the Great Plague of London in 1665. It then lay open to the fields, and is the "great pit in Finsbury" of De Foe's narrative. When the Plague was over, the pit was inclosed with a brick wall, "at the sole charges of the City of London," and subsequently leased by several of the great Dissenting sects, who objected to the burial-service in the Book of Common Prayer. Here all the interments of the Dissenters from this time forward took place. In 1867, all further burials being prohibited by Act of Parliament, this graveyard and its tomb-stones were set in XV.BUNHILL FIELDS. 135 order, and it was handed over to the Corporation of London for preservation. It is now planted and thrown open to the Public. Record Pillars were at the same time set up in different places. Eminent Persons interred in.-Dr. Thomas Goodwin (d. 1679), (altar-tomb, east end of ground,) the Independent preacher who attended Oliver Cromwell on his death-bed. Cromwell had then his moments of misgiving, and asked of Goodwin, who was standing by, if the elect could never finally fall. " Nothing could be more true," was Goodwin's answer. "Then am I safe," said Cromwell : "for I amsure that once I was in a state of grace. " -Dr. John Owen (d. 1683), Dean of Christ Church, and Vice- Chancellor of Oxford when Cromwell was Chancellor. He was much in favour with his party, and preached the first sermon before the Parliament after the execution of Charles I. John Bunyan, author of The Pilgrim's Progress, died 1688, at the house of his friend Mr. Strudwick, a grocer, at the Star on Snow-hill and was buried in that friend's vault. Modern curiosity has marked the place of his interment with a brief inscription, but his name is not recorded in the Register, and there was no inscription upon his grave when Curll published his Bunhill Field Inscriptions, in 1717, or Strype his edition of Stow, in 1720.-George Fox (d. 1690) , the founder ofthe sect of Quakers ; there is no memorial to his memory.- Lieut.- Gen. Fleetwood ( d . 1692) , Oliver Cromwell's son-in-law, and husband of the widow of the gloomy Ireton. -John Dunton, bookseller, author ofhis own Life and Errors. -Daniel de Foe (d. 1731 ) , author of Robinson Crusoe. He was born (1661) in the parish of St. Giles's, Cripplegate, and was buried in the great pit of Finsbury, which he has described in his "Plague Year " with such terrific reality. Susannah Wesley (d. 1742), mother of John Wesley, founder of the Methodists. -Dr. Isaac Watts (d. 1748). There is a monument to his memory, near the centre of the ground. -Joseph Ritson, the antiquary (d. 1803).—William Blake, painter and poet (d. 1828) ; at the distance of about 25 feet from the north wall in the grave numbered 80 ; no monument.--Thomas Stothard, R.A. (d. 1834), best known by his " Canterbury Pilgrimage," his "Robinson Crusoe," and his illustrations to the Italy and smaller poems of Rogers. -Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton, Bart. —John Horne Tooke. Inthis cemetery, consisting ofless than 4 acres, there have been interred, from April, 1713, to August, 1852, according to the registry, -in the earlier years, how- ever, very imperfectly kept-more than 124,000 dead bodies. A plan of the ground and a record of every nameand inscrip- tion were made, 1869, and are placed in the Guildhall. [See Places of Burial of Eminent Persons. ] 136 XVI. COURTS OF LAW AND JUSTICE. XVI.-COURTS OF LAW AND JUSTICE. It is intended to remove the Courts of Law, now divided between Guildhall and the Old Bailey, in the City, West- minster Hall and Lincoln's Inn (Court of Chancery), and to concentrate them in one grand edifice or Palace of Justice, to be erected between St. Clement's Church, Strand, and Fleet- street, near Temple Bar and Lincoln's Inn. The ground has been purchased by Parliament at a cost of 785,000l. , and the design of Geo. Edw. Street has been approved of. The foundations were laid 1871. Great part of the cost will be defrayed from the accumulations of the Suitors' Fund. WESTMINSTER HALL. The old Hall of the Palace of our Kings at Westminster, well and wisely incorporated by Sir Charles Barry into his Houses of Parliament. It was originally built in the reign of William Rufus (Pope calls it " Rufus' roaring Hall ") ; and during the refacing of the outer walls (1848-52), a Norman arcade of the time of Rufus was uncovered. The present Hall was built, or rather repaired, 1397-99 (in the last three years of Richard II. ), when the walls were raised two feet ; the windows altered ; and a stately porch and new roof constructed according to the design of Master Henry Zenely. The stone mould- ing or string- course that runs round the Hall preserves the white hart couchant, the favourite device of Richard II. The roof, with its hammer beams (carved with angels), is of oak, and the finest of its kind in this country. Fuller speaks of its "cobwebless beams," alluding to the vulgar beliefthat it was built ofa particular kind of wood (Irish oak) in which spiders cannot live. It is more curious, because true, that some of our early Parliaments were held in this Hall, and that the first meeting of Parliament in the new edifice was for deposing the very King by whom it had been built. The Law Courts of England, four in number, of which Sir Edward Coke observed that no man can tell which of them is most ancient, were permanently established in Westminster Hall in 1224 (9th of King Henry III.) ; and here, in certain courts abutting from the Hall, they are still held until the new Law Courts are erected. These courts are the Court of Chancery, in which the Lord Chancellor sits (salary 10,000l. a-year) ; the Court of Queen's Bench, in which the Lord Chief Justice of the Queen's Bench sits (salary, 8000l. a-year) ; the Court of Common Pleas, presided over by a Chief Justice (salary, 7000l. a- XVI.-WESTMINSTER HALL. 137 year), and the Court ofExchequer. The courts were origin- ally within the Hall itself, and the name Westminster Hall is not unfrequently used for the law itself. The highest Court of Appeal in the Kingdom is the House of Lords, presided over by the Lord Chancellor ; and it sometimes happens that the judgments of the Law Courts in Westmin- ster Hall are reversed in the Lords. Let the spectator picture to himself the appearance which this venerable Hall has presented on many occasions. Here were hung the banners taken from Charles I. at the battle of Naseby ; from Charles II. at the battle of Worcester; at Preston and Dunbar ; and, somewhat later, those taken at the battle of Blenheim. Here, at the upper end of the Hall, Oliver Cromwell was inaugurated as Lord Protector, sitting in a robe of purple velvet lined with ermine, on a rich cloth of state, with the gold sceptre in one hand, the Bible richly gilt and bossed in the other, and his sword at his side ; and here, four years later, at the top of the Hall fronting Palace- yard, his head was set on a pole, with the skull of Ireton on one side of it and the skull of Bradshaw on the other. Here shameless ruffians sought employment as hired witnesses, and walked openly in the Hall with a straw in the shoe to denote their quality ; and here the good, the great, the brave, the wise, and the abandoned have been brought to trial. Here (in the Hall of Rufus) Sir William Wallace was tried and condemned ; in this very Hall, Sir Thomas More and the Protector Somerset were doomed to the scaffold. Here, in Henry VIII.'s reign (1517), entered the City apprentices, implicated in the murders on " Evil May Day" of the aliens settled in London, each with a halter round his neck, and crying " Mercy, gracious Lord, mercy," while Wolsey stood by, and the King, beneath his cloth of state, heard their defence and pronounced their pardon-the prisoners shouting with delight and casting up their halters to the Hall roof, 66 so that the King," as the chroniclers observe, "might perceive they were none of the descreetest sort." Here the notorious Earl and Countess of Somerset were tried in the reign of James I. for the murder of Sir Thomas Over- bury. Here the great Earl of Strafford was condemned ; the King being present, and the Commons sitting bareheaded all the time. Here the High Court of Justice sat which condemned King Charles I., the upper part of the Hall hung with scarlet cloth, and the King sitting underneath, with the Naseby banners suspended above his head ; here Lilly, the astrologer, who was present, saw the silver top fall from the King's staff, and others heard Lady Fairfax exclaim, when her husband's 138 XVI.- OLD BAILEY SESSIONS HOUSE. namewas called over, "He has morewit than to be here." Here, in the reign of James II. , the seven bishops were acquitted. Here Dr. Sacheverel was tried and pronounced guilty by a majority of 17. Here the rebel Lords of 1745, Kilmarnock, Balmerino, and Lovat, were heard and condemned. Here Warren Hastings was tried, and Burke and Sheridan grew eloquent and impassioned, while senators by birth and election, and the beauty and rank of Great Britain, sat earnest spectators and listeners of the extraordinary scene. The last public trial in the Hall was Lord Melville's in 1806 ; and the last coronation dinner in the Hall was that of George IV. , when, according to the custom maintained for ages, and for the last time probably, the King's champion (Dymocke) rode into the Hall in full armour, and threw down the gauntlet, challenging the world in a King's behalf. Silver plates were laid, on the same occasion, for 334 guests. This noble Hall is 290 feet long, by 68 feet wide, and 110 feet high. It is the largest apartment not supported by pillars in the world. (See also Houses of Parliament, page 35). THE OLD BAILEY SESSIONS HOUSE, or CENTRAL CRIMINAL COURT, in the Old Bailey, adjoining Newgate, for the trial and conviction of prisoners for offences committed within 10 miles of St. Paul's, is regulated by Act of Parlia- ment, 4 & 5 Will. IV. , c. 36. In the " Old Court " sit one or more of the judges of Westminster Hall. In the New Court the presiding judges are the Recorder and Common Serjeant of the Corporation of London. Upwards of 2000 persons, annually, are placed at the bar of the Old Bailey for trial ; about one-third are acquitted, one-third are first offences, and the remaining portion have been convicted before. The stranger is admitted on payment of at least 1s. to the officer whose perquisite it is, but this perquisite is regulated by the officer himself, according to the importance of the trials that are on. Over the Court- room is a Dining- room, where the judges dine when the Court is over-a practice commemorated by a well-known line- "And wretches hang that jurymen may dine." Adjoining the Sessions House is the prison called " Newgate.” [See Index. ] The METROPOLITAN COUNTY COURTS, holding a summary jurisdiction over debts and demands not exceeding 50%. , are eleven in number. The judges are barristers appointed by the Lord Chancellor. The Bankruptcy Court is in Basinghall- XVI. POLICE COURTS. 139 street, in the City ; the Insolvent Debtors Court in Portugal- street, Lincoln's- Inn- Fields (for inquiry only). CLERKENWELL SESSIONS HOUSE, the next in importance to the Old Bailey, was originally Hicks's Hall. The Law Court was removed hither in 1782. A fine James I. chimney- piece from the old Hall is one of the interior deco- rations of the House. The CITY POLICE COURTS are at the Mansion House and Guildhall, where the Lord Mayor, or the sitting Alderman, are the magistrates who decide cases or send them for trial. The POLICE COURTS connected with the Metropolitan Police are eleven in number, under the control of the Secretary of State for the Home Department, presided over by 23 Barristers of at least seven years' standing at the bar. They sit daily, Sundays excepted. The Metropolitan Courts areBow- street, Clerkenwell, Great Marlborough- street, Greenwich and Woolwich, Hammersmith and Wandsworth, Lambeth, Marylebone, Southwark, Thames, Westminster, Worship- street ; and the amount of Fees, Penalties, and Forfeitures, levied and received by the Metropolitan Police in one year is about 10,000l. The expense of the Force is defrayed by an assessment limited to 8d. in the pound on the parish rates, the deficiency being made up by the Treasury. The Metropolitan Police Force consists of about 9000 men, paid at various rates averaging 20s. a-week, with clothing, and an allowance of coal. This Force is placed under the command of 4 District Superintendants and 25 Superintendants. The total cost for one year is 858,832 .; for the City alone, 48,172 . There are about 2,400 men on the superannuation list, from old age or injuries received in performance of their duty. Before 1829, when the present excellent Police Force (for which London is indebted wholly to Sir Robert Peel) was first introduced, the watchmen, familiarly called " Charlies, " who guarded the streets of London, were often incompetent and feeble old men, totally unfitted for their duties. The Police is now composed of young and active men, and the Force that has proved perfectly effective for the metropolis (having saved it more than once from Chartist and other rioters, and from calamities such as befel Bristol in 1831 ) has since been introduced with equal success nearly throughout the kingdom. The Policemen are dressed in blue, and have marked on their coat-collar the number and letter of their division. The 140 XVII.-INNS OF COURT-THE TEMPLE. City Police marking is in yellow ; the Metropolitan in white. Every man is furnished with a bâton, a rattle, a lantern, an oil-skin cape, and a great-coat, and carries on his right wrist a white band while on duty. It is estimated that each con- stable walks from 20 to 25 miles a day. During 2 months out of 3, each constable is on night duty, from 9 at night till 6 in the morning. FIRE BRIGADE. Since 1866, the protection of London from fire forms part of the duty of the Metropolitan Board ofWorks. The Fire Brigade has 70 stations in and around London, to which are attached 3 floating engines, 25 land steam-engines, and 61 hand fire engines, manned by a corps of 377 firemen. The annual cost, 53,000l. , of which 15,000l. is contributed by the Insurance Offices, 10,000l. by Govern- ment, nearly 1,2007. from chimney-fire penalties in twelve months, and the rest is raised by a rate. The moment an alarm of fire is given at a station, a hand-engine, drawn by two horses, starts at the rate of twelve miles an hour for the spot. The steam-engine follows, but at a slower pace, steam being raised while it moves along. The chief station is in Watling-street. XVII.-INNS OF COURT AND INNS OF CHANCERY. INNS OF COURT, "the noblest nurseries of Humanity and Liberty in the kingdom," are four in number-Inner Temple, Middle Temple, Lincoln's Inn, and Gray's Inn. They are called Inns of Court, from being anciently held in the "AulaRegia," or Court ofthe King's Palace. Their government is vested in " Benchers," consisting of the most successful and distinguished members ofthe English Bar-a numerous body, " composed of above 3080 Barristers, exclusive of the 28 Serjeants-at- Law." No person can be called to the bar at any of the Inns of Court before he is 21 years of age, and a standing of 5 years is understood to be required of every member before being called. The members of the several Universities, &c., may be called after 3 years' standing. Every student may, if he choose, dine in the Hall every day during term. A bottle of wine is allowed to each mess of four. The TEMPLE is a liberty or district, divided into the Inner Temple and Middle Temple. It lies between Fleet- street and the Thames, and was so called from the Knights Templar, who made their first London habitation in Holborn, in 1118, and removed to Fleet-street, or the New Temple, XVII. THE TEMPLE. 141 in 1184. Spenser alludes to this London locality in his beautiful Prothalamion : - "those bricky towers The which on Thames' broad aged back doe ride, Where nowthe studious lawyers have their bowers, There whilom wont the Templar Knights to bide, Till they decayed through pride." At the downfall of the Templars, in 1313, the New Temple in Fleet- street was given by Edward II. to Aymer de Valence, Earl of Pembroke, whose tomb, in Westminster Abbey, has called forth the eulogistic criticism of the classic Flaxman. At the Earl of Pembroke's death the property passed to the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, by whom the Inner and Middle Temples were leased to the students of the Common Law, and the Outer Temple to Walter Stapleton, Bishop of Exeter, and Lord Treasurer, beheaded by the citizens of London in 1326. No change took place when the Temple property passed to the Crown, at the dissolution of religious houses, and the students of the Inns of Court remained tenants of the Crown till 1608, when James I. conferred the Temple (now so called) on the Benchers of the two societies and their successors for ever. There are two edifices in the Temple well worthy of a visit : the Temple Church (See Churches), and Middle Temple Hall. Middle Temple Hall, 100 feet long, 42 feet wide, and 47 feet high, was built in 1572, while Plowden, the well-known jurist, was Treasurer of the Inn. The roof is the best piece of Elizabethan architecture in London, and will well repay inspection. The screen, in the Renaissance style, is said to have been made of the spoils of the Spanish Armada, but this is a vulgar error, since it was set up 1575. Here are marble busts of Lords Eldon and Stowell, by Behnes. The portraits are chiefly copies, and not good. The exterior was cased with stone, in wretched taste, in 1757. We first hear of Shakspeare's Twelfth Night in connexion with its performance in this fine old Hall. The principal entrance to the Middle Temple is by a heavy red-brick front in Fleet-street with stone dressings, built, in 1684, by Sir C. Wren, in place of the old portal which Sir Amias Paulet, while Wolsey's prisoner in the gate-house of the Temple, "had re-edified very sumptuously, garnishing the same," says Cavendish, on the outside thereof, with cardinal's hats and arms, and divers other devices, in so glorious a sort, that he thought thereby to have appeased his old unkind displeasure." The New Paper Buildings, to the river, built from the designs of Sydney 66 142 XVII. THE TEMPLE GARDENS. Smirke, A.R.A. are in excellent taste, recalling the " bricky towers " of Spenser's Prothalamion. Inner Temple Hall was rebuilt by Sydney Smirke, 1869. It is 94 feet long by 40 feet high, surmounted by an open roof. It is a very handsome structure. Under the N. end is an old crypt. Shakspeare has made the Temple Gardens a fine open space, fronting the Thames-the place in which the distinctive badges (the white rose and red rose) of the houses of York and Lancaster were first assumed bytheir respective partisans. "Suffolk. Within the Temple Hall we were too loud; The garden here is more convenient.

  1. * * 2

"Plantagenet. Let him that is a true-born gentleman, And stands upon the honour of his birth, Ifhe suppose that I have pleaded truth, From off this brier pluck a white rose with me. "Somerset. Let him that is no coward, nor no flatterer, But dare maintain the party of the truth, Pluck a red rose from off this thorn with me.

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"Plantagenet. Hath not thy rose a canker, Somerset? "Somerset. Hath not thy rose a thorn, Plantagenet ?


This brawl to-day, Grown to this faction in the Temple Gardens, Shall send, between the red rose and the white, A thousand souls to death and deadly night." Shakspeare, First Part of Henry VI., Act ii., sc. 4. It would now be impossible to revive the scene in the sup- posed place of its origin, for such is the smoke and foul air of London, that the commonest and hardiest kind of rose has long ceased to put forth a bud in the Temple Gardens. In the autumn, however, a fine display of Chrysanthemums, reared with great care, may be seen in them. The Temple is walled in on every side, and protected with gates. There is no poor-law within its precinct. The Cloisters, adjoining the Temple Church, were rebuilt by Sir Christopher Wren for students to walk in, and put cases in law for the consi- deration of one another. In No. 1 , Inner-Temple-lane, Dr. Johnson had chambers, and here Boswell paid his first visit after his introduction to him at Tom Davies's. The house was pulled down 1858, and the row called Johnson's Build- ings occupies the site. In No. 2, Brick- court, Middle-Temple- lane, up two pair of stairs, for so Mr. Filby, his tailor, informs us, lived and died Oliver Goldsmith : his rooms were on the right hand as you ascend the staircase. The great Earl of Mansfield, when Mr. Murray, had chambers in No. 5, King's- Bench-walk. XVII.-LINCOLN'S INN. 143 LINCOLN'S INN is an Inn of Court, with two Inns of Chancery attached, Furnival's Inn and Thavies' Inn, and so called after Henry de Lacy, Earl of Lincoln (d. 1312) , whose town-house, or inn, occupied a considerable portion of the present Inn of Court, which bears both his name and arms, and whose monument in old St. Paul's was one of the state- liest in the church. The Gatehouse of brick in Chancery-lane (the oldest part of the existing building) was built by Sir Thomas Lovell, and bears the date upon it of 1518. The chambers adjoining are of a somewhat later period, and it is to this part perhaps that Fuller alludes when he says that " He [ Ben Jonson] helped in the building of the new structure of Lincoln's Inn, when, having a trowel in one hand, he had a book in his pocket. " In No. 24, in the south angle of the great court leading out of Chancery-lane, formerly called the Gatehouse-court, but now Old-buildings, and in the apartments onthe left hand of the ground-floor, Oliver Cromwell's secretary, Thurloe, had chambers from 1645 to 1659. Cromwell must often have been here ; and here, by the merest accident, long after Thurloe's death, the Thurloe Papers were accidentally discovered, concealed in a false ceiling. Lincoln's Inn Chapel, in the Perp. style of Gothic, but much debased, was built by Inigo Jones, and consecrated on Ascension Day, 1623, Dr. Donne preaching the consecration sermon. The Roman Doric pilasters, creeping up the sides of the bastard Gothic of the crypt, deserve attention. The stained glass windows (very good for the period) were exe- cuted "by Mr. Hall, a glass-painter, in Fetter-lane, and in point of colour are as rich as the richest Decorated glass of the best period." Some of the figures will repay attention. The windows on the S. side are filled with the Twelve Apos tles ; on the N. by Moses and the Prophets, St. John the Baptist, and St. Paul. The St. John the Baptist was executed, as an inscription in the window records, at the expense of William Noy (d. 1634), the Attorney- General of Charles I. The crypt beneath the chapel on open arches, like the cloisters in the Temple, was built as a place for the students and lawyers "to walk in and talk and confer their learnings. " Here were buried Alexander Brome, the Cavalier song- writer ; Secretary Thurloe ; and William Prynne, the Puritan, who wrote against the " unloveliness of love locks. " On the stair is a marble tablet to the only daughter of Lord Brougham the inscription in Latin verse by Marq. Wel- lesley. The preacher at Lincoln's Inn, usually one of the most eminent divines of the Church of England, is chosen by the Benchers. 141 XVII.-GRAY'S INN. Lincoln's Inn Hall and Library, on the E. side of Lincoln's-Inn-fields (Philip Hardwick, R.A., architect), is a noble structure in the Tudor style, built, 1843-45, of red brick with stone dressings. The Hall is 120 ft. long, 45 ft. wide, and 62 ft. high, with a roof of carved oak. The total cost exceeded 55,000l. Observe. -In the Hall, Watts' grand fresco -The School of Legislation, occupying the whole N. wall, represents the lawgivers of the world, from Moses down to Edward I. - 30 figures, chiefly colossal. Above are Religion, with Mercy and Justice on either hand ; below, in the centre, Moses ; on left, Minos, Lycurgus, Draco, Solon, Numa ; right, Sesostris, Zoroaster, Pythagoras, Confucius, and Menu; 3rd row, in centre, Justinian and Theodora dic- tating the Pandects ; next Charlemagne ; near him a Druid priest ; Ina, King of the W. Saxons, and Alfred, ascending the steps. On the lowest step Stephen Langton and two other of the Magna Charta Barons, and Edward I. in armour, seated. In the Hall hangs Hogarth's picture of Paul before Felix, painted for the Benchers on the recommendation of the great Lord Mansfield, as the appropriation of a legacy to the Inn of 2007.; statue of Lord Erskine, by Sir R. West- macott, R.A. Observe in Drawing-room, &c. , portraits of Sir Matthew Hale, by Wright ; Lord Chancellor Bathurst, by Sir N. Dance ; and Sir William Grant, Master of the Rolls, by Harlowe. The Library contains the unique fourth volume of Prynne's Records, for which the Society paid 3351. at the Stowe sale in 1849 ; and the rich collection of Books and MSS. , the bequest of Sir Matthew Hale, " a treasure," says Hale, in his will, " that are not fit for every man's view." The Court of Chancery sits in " Term Time" at Westminster ; during the " Vacation " in Lincoln's Inn Old Hall, a mean building near the Chapel. Lincoln's Inn New Square (built on Little Lincoln's-Inn- fields) forms no part of the Inn of Court called Lincoln's Inn. GRAY'S INN is an Inn of Court, with two Inns of Chancery attached, Staple Inn and Barnard's Inn, and is so called after Edmund, Lord Gray of Wilton, of the time of Henry VII. The Hall was built in 1560, and the Gardens first planted about 1600. The great Lord Burghley and the great Lord Bacon, who dates the dedication of his Essays "from my chamber at Graies Inn, this 30 of Januarie, 1597," are the chief worthies of the Inn. Bradshaw, who sat as president at the trial of Charles I., was a bencher of the Inn. Gray's Inn Walks, or Gray's Inn Gardens, were in Charles XVII.-CLEMENT'S INN. 145 II.'s time, and the days of the Tatler and Spectator, a fashionable promenade on a summer evening. The great Lord Bacon is said to have planted some of the trees, but none now exist coeval with his time. As late as 1754 there was still in the gardens an octagonal seat, erected by Lord Bacon when Solicitor- General, to his friend Jeremiah Bettenham, of this Inn. The principal entrance from Holborn was by Fulwood's-rents, then a fashionable locality, now the squalid habitation of the poorest people of the Parish of St. Andrew. "Within Gray's Inn Gate, next Gray's Inn Lane, " Jacob Tonson first kept shop. The first turning on the right (as you walk from Holborn up Gray'sInn-lane) is Fox-court, in which, on the 10th of January, 1697-8, at 6 o'clock in the morning, the Countess of Maccles- field was delivered, wearing a mask all the while, of Richard Savage, the poet. The only toast ever publicly drunk by the Society of Gray's Inn is, " To the glorious, pious, and immortal memory of Queen Elizabeth." The INNS OF CHANCERY, attached to the four Inns of Court, are nine in number. To the Inner Temple belonged Clifford's Inn, Clement's Inn, and Lyon's Inn ; to the Middle Temple, New Inn and Strand Inn ; to Lincoln's Inn, Furnival's Inn and Thavies Inn ; and to Gray's Inn, Staple Inn and Barnard's Inn. They have now little or no connexion with the Inns of Court. Harrison, the regicide, was a clerk in the office of Thomas Houlker, an attorney in Clifford's Inn. Justice Shallow was a student of Clement's Inn. "Shallow. I was once of Clement's Inn ; where I think they will talk ofmad Shallow yet. "Silence. You were called lusty Shallow then, cousin. " Shallow. By the mass, I was called anything ; and I would have done anything indeed, and roundly too. There was I and Little John Doit of Staffordshire, and Black George Barnes of Staffordshire, and Francis Pickbone and Will Squele, a Cotswold man; you had not four such swinge-bucklers in all the Inns of Court again.

"Shallow. Nay, she must be old ; she cannot choose but be old ; certain she's old, and had Robin Nightwork by old Nightwork, before I came to Clement's Inn.

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"Shallow. I remember at Mile-end-green (when I lay at Clement's Inn) . I was then Sir Dagonet in Arthur's show.

"Falstaff. I do remember him at Clement's Inn, like a man mad, after supper of a cheese-paring."-Shakspeare, Second Part of Henry IV. "Withowt St. Clement's Inn back dore, as soon as you L 146 XVIII -NEWGATE PRISON. come up the steps and owt of that house and dore on your left hand two payre of stayres, into a little passage right before you," lived Wenceslaus Hollar, the engraver. The black figure kneeling in the garden of Clement's Inn was presented to the Inn by Holles, Earl of Clare, but when or by what earl no one has told us. It was brought from Italy, and is said to be of bronze. William Weare, murdered by Thurtell, at Gill's-hill, in Hertfordshire, lived at No. 2 in Lyon's Inn. "They cut his throat from ear to ear, His brains they batter'd in ; His name was Mr. William Weare He dwelt in Lyon's Inn." Contemporary Ballad, attributed to Theodore Hook. Isaac Reed (d. 1807) had chambers at No. 11, Staple Inn, Holborn. The yearly rental and the Inns of Court and Chancery is in round numbers as follows :- Lincoln's Inn £33,329 Clement's Inn £1,653 Inner Temple . 25,676 Clifford's Inn . 818 Gray's Inn . 16,035 Lyon's Inn 423 Middle Temple 12,640 New Inn . 1,646 Furnival's Inn 4,386 Serjeant's Inn 1,600 Staple Inn 2,553 Barnard's Inn 1,031 £101,790 XVIII.-PRISONS AND PENITENTIARIES. NEWGATE, in the OLD BAILEY, is a prison appertaining to the city of London and county of Middlesex, formerly for felons and debtors ; since 1815 (when Whitecross- street Prison was built) for felons only, and is now used as the gaol for the confinement of prisoners from the metropolitan counties, before and after their trial at the Central Criminal Court in the Old Bailey. It is the oldest prison in London, was so called because it was the tower of a gate of the same name. In Old Newgate were confined William Penn, Titus Oates, De Foe, Dr. Dodd, Jack Sheppard, &c. The present edifice was designed by George Dance, the architect of the Mansion House, and the first stone laid by Alderman Beck- ford, 1770. The works advanced but slowly, for in 1780, when the old prison was burnt to the ground in the Lord George Gordon riots of that year, the new prison was only in part completed. More rapid progress was made in con- XVIII.-BRIDEWELL- HORSEMONGER-LANE GAOL. 147 sequence of this event, and on December 9th, 1783, the first execution took place before its walls, the last at Tyburn occurring November 7th. At an execution the prisoner used to walk forth to the scaffold to his death through the door nearest Newgate- street. Executions now (since 1868) take place within the prison walls, before legal witnesses only, and the only sign on the outside is a black flag. The interior was rebuilt 1858 , on the cellular system. The prison will hold 192 persons. Here, in the prison he had emptied and set in flames, Lord George Gordon, the leader of the riots of 1780, died ( 1793) of the gaol distemper, and in front of this prison Bellingham was executed ( 1812) for the murder of Mr. Perceval, the Prime Minister. Admission to inspect the interior is granted by the Secretary of State for the Home Department, the Lord Mayor, and Sheriffs . Observe.- Opposite this prison, No. 68, Old Bailey, the residence of Jonathan Wild, the famous thief and thief- taker ; immediately behind his house is a good specimen of the old wall of London. BRIDEWELL-a City prison for refractory apprentices, in Bridge-street, Blackfriars, and behind the church of St. Bride, Fleet- street, now entirely removed, since the erection of the City House of Correction at Holloway. It derived its name from a manor or house, presented to the City of London by Edward VI., after a sermon by Bishop Ridley, who begged it of the King as a Workhouse for the poor, and a House of Correction " for the strumpet and idle person, for the rioter that consumeth all, and for the vaga- bond that will abide in no place. " Over the chimney in the Court-room there hung a large picture, certainly not by Holbein, representing Edward VI. delivering the Charter ofEndowment to the Mayor. HORSEMONGER LANE GAOL, HORSEMONGER LANE, SOUTHWARK, is the county gaol for Surrey. Here Mr. Leigh Hunt was confined for two years ( 1812-14) for a libel on the Prince Regent in the Examinernewspaper. The place of execution was the top of the prison. Executions in public were abolished 1868, conformably with a suggestion proposed in this work many years before. Death is now inflicted within the prison walls, before the police and properly appointed witnesses ; a black flag alone being exhibited for a short time before and after death, by which all the demoralizing excitement has been avoided. MILLBANK PRISON is a mass of brickwork equal to a fortress, on the left bank of the Thames, close to Vauxhall L 2 148 XVIlI.-MODEL, AND COLD BATH FIELDS. -PRISONS. Bridge ; erected on ground bought in 1799 of the Marquis of Salisbury, pursuant to Act of Parliament, Aug. 20th, 1812. It was designed by Jeremy Bentham, to whom the fee- simple of the ground was conveyed, and is said to have cost the enormous sum of half a million sterling. The external walls form an irregular octagon, and enclose upwards of sixteen acres of land. Its ground-plan resembles a wheel, the governor's house occupying a circle in the centre, from which radiate six piles of building, terminating externally in towers. The ground on which it stands is raised but little above the river, and was at one time considered unhealthy. It was first named " The Penitentiary," and was called " The Millbank Prison," pursuant to 6 & 7 Victoria, c. 26. It is one of the largest prisons in London, and contains accommodation for 1120 prisoners ; the number of inmates averaging about 700. The annual cost for 1000 prisoners is 28,643 , and the value of their labour in that time, 23751. So far as the accommodation of the prison permits, the separate system is adopted. The number of persons in Great Britain and Ireland condemned to penal servitude every year amounts to about 4000. Admission to inspect- order from the Secretary of State for the Home Department, or the Directors of Government Prisons, 25, Parliament Street, Westminster. THE MODEL PRISON, PENTONVILLE, Caledonian-road, near the new Cattle- market, built 1840, cost 84,1687. 128. 2d. It contains 1000 separate cells. The inmates are detained for two years, and are taught useful trades ; a most merciful and charitable provision, which it is to be hoped may prove successful. The cost of each prisoner is about 15s. a week. CLERKENWELL PRISON-Was the scene of the dastardly and atrocious outrage of certain mad Irish Fenians, 1867, who, in the desire to liberate certain of their comrades, blew down part of the wall with a barrel of gunpowder placed outside. The result was the death and maiming of more than 80 innocent persons. THE HOUSE OF CORRECTION, COLD BATH FIELDS, Will hold about 1200 prisoners, and is under the direction of the Middlesex Magistrates and the Secretary of State for the Home Department. There is a similar House of Correction at Westminster. The famous FLEET PRISON was pulled down in 1845. Its site is now occupied partly by a drug warehouse, and partly by the Nonconformists' Memorial XVIII.-PRISONS.-XIX.-BRITISH MUSEUM. 149 Hall. The site of WHITECROSS STREET DEBTORS' PRISON is occupied by the goods station of the Midland Railway. CITY OF LONDON PRISON, HOLLOWAY (Mr. Bunning, Architect, ) is a castellated building presenting a medieval character, erected 1853-5, to contain the class of prisoners formerly committed to Giltspur Street House of Correction, Bridewell, and the House of Correction for women at the Borough Compter : while, in the same way, the New House of Correction at Wandsworth has relieved the Surrey or Horsemonger Lane Gaol. Average number of prisoners, 320. XIX. PERMANENT FREE EXHIBITIONS. BRITISH MUSEUM, in GREAT RUSSELL STREET, BLOOMS BURY ; built 1823-54 from the designs of Sir Robert Smirke but completed by his younger brother, Sydney Smirke, R.A. The cost of the building exceeds one million sterling ! It is faced with a portico, whose columns are extended round the wings of the building, and are 44 in number. The sculpture in the pediment is by Sir Richard Westmacott. Admission. The Museum is open to public view on Mon- days, Wednesdays, and Fridays, from 10 till 4 during January, February, November and December ; from 10 till 5 during March, April, September and October ; and from 10 till 6 during May, June, July and August ; and in summer on Saturday afternoons. The Museum is closed from the 1st to the 7th of January, the 1st to the 7th of May, and the 1st to the 7th of September, inclusive, on Ash Wednesday, Good Friday, and Christmas Day, and also on any special fast or thanksgiving day, ordered by Authority. The Reading Room is open every day, except on Sundays, on Ash Wednesday, Good Friday, Christmas Day, and on any fast or thanksgiving days, ordered by Authority : except also between the 1st and 7th of January, the 1st and 7th of May, and the 1st and 7th of September, inclusive. The Room is open from 9 till 4 during November, December, January, and February ; from 9 till 5 during September, October, March and April ; and from 9 till 6 during May, June, July and August (except Saturdays, and then till 5). Persons desirous of admission must produce a recommendation from a householder in London satisfactory to a trustee or an officer of the house, and must send in their applications in writing (specifying their christian and surnames, rank or profession, and places of abode), to the Principal Librarian, or, in his 150 XIX.-BRITISH MUSEUM. absence, to the Secretary, or, in his absence, to the senior Under Librarian, who will either immediately admit such persons, or lay their applications before the next meeting of the trustees. Permission will in general be granted for six months ; and at the expiration of this term fresh application is to be made for a renewal. The tickets given to readers are not transferable, and no person can be admitted without a ticket. Persons under 21 years of age are not admissible. Artists are admitted to study in the Galleries of Sculpture, between the hours of 9 and 4, every day, except Saturday. The Print Room is closed on Saturdays. The Medal and Print Rooms can be seen only by a few persons at a time, and by particular permission. The British Museum originated in an offer to Parliament, made in the will of Sir Hans Sloane (d. 1753) , of the whole of his collection for 20,000l. -30,000l. less than it was said to have cost him. The offer was at once accepted, and an Act passed in 1753, " for the purchase of it, and of the Harleian Collection of MSS. , and procuring one general repository for the better reception and more convenient use of the said Collection, and of the Cottonian Library, and additions thereto." In pursuance of this Act the sum of 300,0007. was raised by a Lottery ; 20,000l. paid for the Sloane Museum, 10,000l. for the Harleian Collection of MSS. , and 10,250l. to the Earl of Halifax for Montague House in Bloomsbury-a mansion at that time perfectly well adapted for all the objects of the Museum. The collections increasing, new rooms were added to receive the Egyptian Antiquities, given by George III. in 1801. The government of the Museum is vested in trustees, and the chief Gifts and Bequests include the Cotton MSS.; a collection of Books, and the interest of 70007., bequeathed by Major Edwardes ; the Royal Library of the Kings of England ; Garrick's Collection of Old Plays ; Dr. Birch's Books and MSS.; Thomas Tyrwhitt's Books ; Rev. C. Cracherode's Books, Prints, &c. , valued at 40,000l.; Sir Wm. Musgrave's Books, MSS. , and Prints ; Payne Knight's Books, Bronzes, and Drawings ; Sir Joseph Banks's Books and Botanical Specimens ; Library formed by George III.; and Mr. Grenville's Library. The Additional Purchases include Sir William Hamilton's Collection, 84007.; Townley Marbles, 28,2007.; Phigalian Marbles, 19,000l.; Elgin Marbles, 35,000l.; Dr. Burney's MSS. , 13,500l.; Lansdowne MSS. , 49251.; Arundel MSS. , 35597.; Blacas Collection, 48,000 . Catalogue or synopsis of the contents of the Museum, price one shilling, compiled under the direction of the trustees. The total expenditure on the buildings and collections up to 1872 amounted to 34 millions. XIX. BRITISH MUSEUM. 151 WEST BAUSES OFFICERS Elgin Elgin Gallery В ролши EGYPT Kouyunjik Galler T OK € READING-ROOM. Royal HICEORGE Library LIBRARY Lycian Gallery Entrance Hall GRENVILLES LIBRARY Antiquities GROUND PLAN OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM. Corridor 152 XIX.-BRITISH MUSEUM-ANTIQUITIES. The ancient sculpture is superior to any other single col- lection in Europe, as furnishing a complete series from Egypt, Assyria, and Greece, as well as Rome. Antiquities. Turning to left out of the entrance hall you pass through a narrow gallery containing Roman pavements, pigs of lead bearing Roman inscriptions, &c. , found in London and other parts of England. In the adjoining rooms are arranged Roman and Græco- Roman sculptures, terra- cottas, &c. , chiefly from Charles Townley's collection : many of the best of these are works executed by Greek artists in Italy. Observe - The Townley Venus, a half-draped statue found near Ostia, 1775 ; -bust of Minerva, the bronze helmet and breast-plate modern ; -busts of Homer, Pindar, Sophocles, Periander, Hippocrates, Pericles, the Discobulus, or Quoit-player, from Hadrian's villa (a copy of the bronze statue by Myron) ; -bust of Clytie emerging from a sun-flower (now called a Roman Empress) ; statue of Hadrian in military costume ; bas-relief, the Apo- theosis of Homer. Lycian Room. -A series of tombs, bas-reliefs, and statues from the ruined city of Xanthus ; one group formed the ornaments of the Nereid monument of Xanthus--an Ionie peristyle on a basement surrounded with two bands of friezes, representing the conquest of Lycia by the Persians, and the fall of Xanthus as related by Herodotus. Harpy Tomb is a curious example of very early art. These marbles, some of them of an earlier date than those of the Parthenon, were discovered and brought to England by Sir Charles Fellows. The The Egyptian Antiquities, the earliest examples of ancient sculpture, are arranged in chronological order, beginning with the 4th Dynasty, in three large Halls, and comprise about 6000 objects. The largest saloon contains Sarcophagi, Columns, Statues, Colossi, Tablets of the Dead, Sepulchral Urns, &c. Observe.-Two Lions Couchant, in red granite (1 and 34), " perfect models of Architectonic Sculpture." -Waagen. Colossal Head, 9 feet high, of Rameses II. , but better known as the Young Memnon, found in the Memnonium at Thebes, by Belzoni, and deservedly regarded as the most celebrated monument of Egyptian art in any European collection. Colossal Head of a king wearing the pshent, discovered by Belzoni in Karnak. Statue in red granite of Menepthah II. Colossal Ram's Head. The stone Sarcophagus of King Nectanebo I. (B.C. 367-369), found by the French in the court-yard of the Mosque of S. Athanasius, at Alexandria. Dr. Clarke, XIX.-EGYPTIAN ANTIQUITIES. 153 the traveller, fancied that this was the identical sarcophagus which once contained the body of Alexander the Great. Colossal Scarabæus. The Rosetta Stone, containing an inscription three times repeated - 1, in hieroglyphics ; 2, in a written character called Demotic or Enchoreal ; and 3, in the Greek language. This celebrated stone furnished the late Dr. Young with the first clue towards the deciphering of the ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics. It was found (1799) by M. Bouchard, a French officer of engineers, in digging the foundation of a house, near the Rosetta mouth of the Nile, among the remains of an ancient temple dedicated by Pharaoh Necho to the god Necho, and came into the hands of the English by the sixteenth article of the capi- tulation of Alexandria, which required that all objects of art collected by the French Institute in Egypt should be delivered up to the English. The stone itself is a piece of black basalt, much mutilated, about 3 feet long, by 2 feet 5 inches broad, and from 10 to 12 inches thick, and contains a decree set up in the reign of Ptolemy V. (Epiphanes), probably about the year B.C. 196. The principal historical facts mentioned are the birth of the King, B.C. 209 ; the troubles in Egypt, and the decease of his father Philopator ; the attack of Antiochus by sea and land ; the siege of Lyco. polis ; the inundation of the Nile, B.C. 198 ; the chastisement of the revolters ; the coronation of the King at Memphis, B.C. 196 ; and the issue of the decree itself the following day. Between the Egyptian and Elgin Halls are a series of galleries filled with Assyrian Antiquities, from Nimroud, Koyunjik, Khorsabád, &c., acquired for this country by the exertions of Mr. Layard, Colonel Rawlinson, Mr. Loftus, and Mr. Rassam ; the most interesting series in Europe of statues, &c. , brought from ancient Nineveh, the latest not more modern than 700 B.C. The sculptured slabs lining the walls, as they did in the palace of the Assyrian king. These represent the wars and conquests, battles and sieges, lion hunts, &c. , of the Assyrian monarchs, also the construction of the very palace in which these marbles were found, the raising of the mound, and the planting on them of the colossal human-headed winged lions and bulls now deposited in the British Museum. Here may be seen the Fish-god (Dagon) -the Eagle-headed god (Nisroch) . In a hall on the sunk floor are placed the most remarkable bas-reliefs, repre- senting the siege and destruction of Lachish by Sennacherib, as described in the Bible. Sennacherib himself is seen on his throne, with Jewish captives before him. Observe. 154 XIX.-ASSYRIAN MARBLES-ELGIN MARBLES. Colossal statues of Human-headed Lions, and Bulls. In the glass cases are bronze wrought dishes of finest workmanship, in fact the plate chest of the King of Assyria ; a series of Lion weights, with Phoenician characters ; elaborate carved Ivories ; part of decorations of a throne of bronze ; arms, armour, iron, bronze, and flint weapons, arrows, saws, swords ; terra-cotta cylinders, and tiles, covered with arrow- head cha- racters, being records of the reigns of Tiglath Pileser, Sar- gon, Sennacherib, Esarhaddon, Sardanapalus, deciphered by Rawlinson and others. The Nimroud Obelisk, covered with small highly-finished bas-reliefs, with arrow-headed inscriptions, representing a conquered nation bearing tribute, animals, &c., to the king of Assyria, is one of the most curious objects. There are a great many Phoenician inscrip- tions, 50 Punic, from Carthage, very rare. The glory of the collections in the British Museum are those unequalled works of the best age of Greek sculpture, executed, without doubt, by PHIDIAS and his scholars, known as The Elgin Marbles, from the Earl of Elgin, Am- bassador to the Porte, who, in 1801, obtained firmans for their removal to England. Nos. 1 to 160, from the Parthenon at Athens. But before proceeding to examine these marbles, the visitor will do well to inspect the two models of the Parthenon restored, and the Parthenon after the Venetian bombardment, in 1687. These, along with " The Capital and a piece of the Shaft of one of the Dorie Columns of the Parthenon," will give a pretty complete notion of what the Parthenon was like. The Marbles are of four kinds :-1. Statues in the East Pediment ; 2. Statues in the West Pediment ; 3. The Metopes or groups which occupied the square intervals between the raised tablets or triglyphs of the frieze ; 4. The Frieze. The marbles of the two Pediments are on stages above the floor of the Saloon. 91 92 East Pediment, Representing the Birth of Minerva. 93. 94. 95 • 96 • 97 · 98 91. Upper part of the figure of Hyperion rising out of the Sea. His arms are stretched forward, in the act of holding the reins of his coursers. 92. Heads of two of the Horses belonging to the Car of Hyperion. 93. Theseus. " The Theseus is a work of the first order; but the surface is corroded XIX.-ELGIN MARBLES. 155 by the weather. The head is in that impaired state that I cannot give an opinion upon it ; and the limbs are mutilated. I prefer it to the Apollo Belvedere, which, I believe, to be only a copy. It has more ideal beauty than any male statue I know."-Flaxman. 94. Group of two Goddesses (Ceres and Proserpine) seated. 95. Statue of Iris, the messenger of Juno. She is represented in quick motion, as if about to communicate to distant regions the birth of Minerva. 96. A Torso of Vic- tory. 97. A group of the three Fates. Horse (very fine) from the Car of Night. 98. Head of a West Pediment, Representing the Contest of Minerva and Neptune for the Guardianship of Attica. 99 100 • 101 • 102 · 103 · 104 105 106 106. 99. The Ilissus (statue of a river-god, and, after the Theseus, the finest in the collection) . 100. Torso of a male figure, supposed to be that of Cecrops, the founder of Athens. 101. Upper part of the head of Minerva, originally covered with a bronze helmet, as appears from the holes by which it was fastened to the marble. 102. A portion of the chest of the same statue. 103. Upper part of the Torso of Nep- tune. 104. Another fragment of the statue of Minerva. 105. The Torso of Victoria Apteros : the goddess was represented driving the Car of Minerva, to receive her into it, after her successful contest with Neptune. Fragment of a group which originally consisted of Latona, with her two children, Apollo and Diana. The Metopes (1-16, bas-reliefs let into the wall) represent the battle of the Centaurs and Lapitha. The originals are 15 in num- ber : the 16th (No. 9) is a cast from the original in the Royal Museum at Paris. The Frieze (17-90, a series of bas- reliefs, which ran round the exterior frieze of the Cella of the Parthenon) represents the solemn procession called the Panathenæa, which took place at Athens, every six years, in honour of Minerva. East End (17-24), Nos. 20 and 23 are casts. The original of 23 is in the Royal Museum at Paris. North End, Nos. 25-46 ; West End, Nos. 47-61 ; all but 47 are casts ; the originals destroyed. Here is a noble head of Esculapius from the Blacas Collection. "We possess in England the most precions examples of Grecian Art. The horses of the Frieze in the Elgin Collection appear to live and 156 XIX. PHIGALIAN AND EGINA MARBLES. move, to roll their eyes, to gallop, prance, and curvet. The veins of their faces and legs seem distended with circulation ; in them are distinguished the hardness and decision of bony forms, from the elas- ticity of tendon and the softness of flesh. The beholder is charmed with the deer-like lightness and elegance of their make ; and although the relief is not above an inch from the back ground, and they are so much smaller than nature, we can scarcely suffer reason to persuade us they are not alive."-Flaxman. The earliest specimens of Greek art are the statues from the Sacred Way at Branchida, a female figure from Rhamnus, and a small Apollo. Phigalian Marbles. -23 bas-reliefs, found in the ruins of the Temple of Apollo Epicurius, built by Ictinus, an architect contemporary with Pericles, near the ancient city of Phigalia in Arcadia. 1 to 11 represent the Battle of the Centaurs and Lapitha. 12 to 23, the Battle of the Greeks and Ama- zons. Egina Marbles. -Casts of two groups which filled the pediments at the E. and W. Ends of the Temple of Jupiter Panhellenius, in the island of Ægina. The subject of the W. pediment is the contest between the Greeks and Trojans for the body of Patroclus. Marbles from Halicarnassus.- 11 bas-reliefs, brought to England, 1846-58, from Bodroum, in Asia Minor, the ancient Halicarnassus, and presented tothe British Museum by Lord Stratford de Redcliffe. Tothese have beenadded the products of excavations made by Charles Newton, who ascertained the site and laid open the foundations of the Mausoleum or sepulchre, built in the 4th year of the 106th Olympiad, B.C. 357, by Artemisia, Queen of Caria, in honour of her husband, King Mausolus. The bas-reliefs were built into the faces of the walls ofa fortress erected by the knights of Rhodes, circ. 1400, at the entrance of the harbour. The story represents a combat of Amazons and Greek warriors. The dignified colossal draped statue, supposed to be Mausolus himself, was broken into 65 pieces, now united ; along with it parts of the wheels of his chariot and of the colossal horses, which drew it, and noble lions. In 1864 a portion of the Farnese Marbles was purchased for 4000%. from the King of Naples ; of the Greek statues, the Mercury and the Diadumenos, or Athlete binding a fillet round his head, deserve especial attention ; the last is the only copy of a famous work of Polycletus. Passing through the great Egyptian Halls, you reach a staircase lined with Egyptian papyri MSS. , leading to a suite of rooms, on the upper floor, (See plan, p. 164). In 20 and 21 are placed the Minor Objects of Egyptian Antiquity, XIX.-EGYPTIAN AND ETRUSCAN ROOMS. 157 in glass cases, -Deities ; Sacred Animals ; small Statues ; Household Furniture ; objects of Dress and Toilette ; Jewels, Vases, Lamps, &c.; Bowls, Cups, &c.; Vases of Bronze, Agri- cultural Implements, Viands, &c.; Fragments of Tombs, Wea- pons, &c.; Inscriptions ; Instruments ofWriting, Painting, &c.; Baskets, Tools, Musical Instruments, Children's Playthings. Animal Mummies, Human Mummies, Coffins, Amulets, Sepulchral Ornaments, &c. , many of the greatest curiosity, and exhibiting the various modes of embalming practised by the Egyptians, and the various degrees of care and splen- dour expended on the bodies of different ranks. Observe -Models of Egyptian Boats ; Egyptian Wig and Box ; Model ofa House, &c.; Stand with Cooked Waterfowl ; Coffin and bones of Mycerinus, who lived 100 years before Abraham, from the 3rd Pyramid. 22 and 23. Vases and Etruscan Rooms, contain a collection ofvases discovered in Italy, and known as Etruscan, or Græco- Italian, beautifully painted. It is arranged chronologically, and according to the localities in whichthe several antiquities were found. Observe, in cases 1 to 5, Vases of heavy black ware, some with figures upon them in bas- relief, and princi- pally found at Cervetri or Care-in cases 6 and 7 the Nolan- Egyptian or Phoenician Vases, with pale backgrounds and figures in a deep reddish maroon colour, chiefly of animals. In cases 8 to 19 early Vases from Vulci, Canino, and the Ponte della Badia, to the north of Rome, with black figures upon red or orange backgrounds ; the sub- jects of these are generally mythological. The vases in Cases 20 to 30, executed with more care and finish, are for the most part from Canino and Nola. Those in the centre ofthe room, Cases 31 to 55, are of a later style, and chiefly from the province of the Basilicata, to the south of Rome ; their subjects are principally relative to Bacchus. Cases 36 to 51 contain Vases from Apulia, resembling in their colour and treatment those of Nola. Cases 56 to 60 are filled with terra-cottas, principally of Etruscan workmanship. The spe- cimens of Etruscan Jewellery, necklaces, armlets, wreaths of gold, bronze helmets, armour, &c. , should not be passed unnoticed. Over the cases are several copies of paintings from the walls of Etruscan Tombs at Tarquinii and Corneto. The bequest of Sir Wm. Temple, minister at Naples (d. 1856), of Antiquities chiefly found at Pompeii, and other parts of Magna Græcia, includes many fine antiques, bronzes, vases, some very large ones, also a celebrated rhyton in the form ofa mule's head, glass, armour, wall paintings, &c. 24. Bronze Room, chiefly occupied with the collections 158 XIX. PORTLAND VASE-BRITISH ANTIQUITIES. Hamilton, Townley, Payne Knight, &c. Observe-4 precious bas-reliefs from Paramythia, in Epirus. Fragments of a Grecian cuirass, dug up on the banks of the Siris, in Magna Græcia, known as the " Bronzes of Siris," of the very finest workmanship. Figures of gods and heroes in order ; bronze mirrors, ornaments, furniture, keys, weights, knives, spoons, styles (for writing) , Greek, Etruscan, and Roman. Silver bas-relief, part of an Etruscan chariot, found at Perugia. Two bronze helmets found at Olympia, one dedicated to Jupiter by Hiero, tyrant of Syracuse, the other by the people of Argos, out of spoils taken from their enemies. Certain collections -such as coins, medals, gems-not publicly exhibited, may be seen by artists and connoisseurs by special permission. The Barberini or Portland Vase (9 inches), discovered in a tomb 3 m. from Rome, on the road to Frascati (1623-44) . Sir William Hamilton bought it at the sale of the Barberini Library, and subsequently sold it to the Duchess of Port- land (for 10297). It is still the property of the Duke of Portland. The ground on which the figures are wrought is of a dark amethystine blue-semi-transparent ; but it has not as yet been clearly ascertained what the figures represent. This unique vase was smashed to pieces, 7th of Feb. , 1845, by a madman, but has since been wonderfully restored, con- sidering the number of fragments into which it was broken. Medal Room. The Greek coins are arranged in geogra phical order ; the Roman in chronological ; and the Anglo- Saxon, English, Anglo- Gallic, Scotch, and Irish coins, and likewise the coins of foreign nations, according to the respective countries to which the coins belong ; those of each country being kept separate. Gems and Cameos. -In these objects the Museum has been greatly enriched by the Blacas Collection (cost 48,0007. ) and by that of the Rev. Greg. Rhodes ; it includes the choicest specimens of the once famous Cabinets of Townley, Castellani, and many in their original settings. Among these the head of Augustus, 3 inches long ; ancient gold and silver jewellery from Nineveh, Babylon, Etruria ; Celtic torques and armlets of gold found in England. 25.-British and Medieval Room, devoted to antiquities found in Great Britain and Ireland, beginning with celts (stone axes) , flint knives, and arrow-heads, disks or whorls of jet of Kimmeridge coal, and other substances used to twirl the spindle ; bronze celts, daggers, knives ; bronze shields, found in the Isis and the Thames ; horse trappings, &c. , of bronze, some enamelled. Roman antiquities found in London and elsewhere. Mediaval. Astrolabes and watches, enamels ; XIX. BRITISH MUSEUM LIBRARY. 159 pottery and porcelain of Chelsea, Bow, Derby, &c.; Wedge- wood ware. The Medieval Collection includes the sword of state of the Earldom of Chester, made for Edward V. when Prince of Wales ; the signet ring of Mary, Queen of Scots ; and some interesting fragments of the fresco decorations in old St. Stephen's Chapel at Westminster. Mr. Slade's Bequest of Ancient Glass -Greek, Roman, Early Christian (from the Catacombs), Byzantine, Venetian, German, and other glass vessels-was added 1869. The Library of Printed Books exceeds 700,000 volumes, and about 75,000 volumes are added yearly. Compared with the great public libraries on the Continent, it ranks second to none except the Imperial library at Paris. It con- tains twice as many American books as any library in the United States ; also 1650 copies of the Bible in various edi- tions and languages, and more than 12,000 pamphlets, &c. , relating to the French Revolutions : such as does not exist in France. The Hebrew books form the largest collection in the world. Here is the library of the Kings of England, presented to the nation by George II. , containing exquisite examples of books bound in embroidered velvet for Queen Elizabeth, James I. , Charles I. , &c. George III's Library, consisting of upwards of 80,000 volumes, and kept in a separate hall, the finest in the building, was given to the nation by George IV. , in 1823, and is said to have cost 130,000l. It is one of the most noble libraries known, remarkable not only for the judicious selection of the works, and the discriminating choice of the editions, but for the bibliographical peculiarities and rarity of the copies. Book Rarities : the Mazarine Bible, the earliest printed book known, from the press of Gutenberg and Fust, at Mentz, about 1455 -it is in Latin and on vellum ; the first printed Psalter, in Latin, on vellum-Mentz, Fust and Schoeffer, 1457, the first book printed with a date ; Esop's Fables-Milan, about 1480 ; the first edition of the first Greek classic printed : the first edition of Homer-Florence, 1488 ; Virgil-printed at Venice, by Aldus, 1501 ; on vellum : the first book printed in Italic types ; it belonged to the Gonzaga family, and carries the autographs of the two Cardinals Ippolito and Ercole, as well as that of Vincenzo Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua. Of Caxton's press there are 88 specimens -11 unique : the only fragment of Tyndale's first Translation, printed 1525. The edition was destroyed. Of Shakspeare, all the four folios, and first editions of his 4to plays. His sonnets unique. The room to your right on entering from the hall contains the Grenville Library, a collection of 20,240 volumes, bequeathed to the 160 XIX.-READING ROOM. nation bythe Right Hon. Thomas Grenville, and said to have cost upwards of 54,000l. Other liberal donors have been Rev. C. M. Cracherode, David Garrick, Sir Joseph Banks, &c. The entrance to the Reading Rooms directly faces you as you pass under the great portico into the Hall of the Museum. The Reading Rooms and Libraries were built in compliance with a happy suggestion of Mr. Panizzi—in the vacant space formed by the inner quadrangle of the Museum, thus economising ground and money, and securing the fittest situation, close to the apartments in which the books are deposited. This was completed in three years, at a cost of 150,000 .-Sidney Smirke being architect, and Messrs. Baker and Fielder builders-and opened 1857. The Reading Room is circular, surmounted by an elegant dome, 140 feet in diameter (only two feet less than the Pantheon, and one foot more than St. Peter's, Rome) , and 106 feet high. It is constructed chiefly of iron, by which much space is saved, with brick arches between the main ribs, supported by 20 iron piers. It can receive with ease and comfort, at one time, 300 readers, each being provided with a separate desk. The general arrangements are sufficiently explained in the PLAN, page 162. The whole is thoroughly warmed and ventilated, and the floors are laid with Kamptulikon, to prevent noise and reverberation. There are 35 reading tables, and two are set apart for the exclusive use of ladies. The Book-presses under the gallery are filled with a large library of reference for the use of the readers, comprising most of the standard works on the various branches of learning, and an extensive collection of dictionaries of all languages, biographical works, encyclopædias, parliamentary histories, topographical works, &c. , &c. These books, which are about 20,000 in number, the readers can consult at pleasure without filling up tickets for them. Having consulted the catalogue, which extends to 977 MS. volumes, and found the title of the book you require, you transcribe the title, on a printed form given below, to be found near the catalogues, whence you derive your references. Press Mark. Title of the Work wanted. Size. Place. Date. (Date) - (Signature) to restore each volume of the Catalogue to its place, as soon as with XIX.-READING ROOM. -MANUSCRIPTS. 161 READERS ARE PARTICULARLY REQUESTED 1. Not to ask for more than one work on the same ticket. 2. To transcribe literally from the Catalogues the title of the Work wanted. 3. To write in a plain clear hand, in order to avoid delay and mistakes. 4. Before leaving the Room, to return the books to an attendant, and to obtain the corresponding ticket, the READER BEING RESPON- SIBLE FOR THE BOOKS SO LONG AS THE TICKET REMAINS UNCANCELLED. N.B.-Readers are, under no circumstances, to take any Book or MS. out of the Reading Rooms. The tickets for Printed Books are on white paper ; for MSS. on green paper. Manuscripts. - The manuscripts in the Museum are divided under several heads, of which the following are the chief : - the Cotton MSS.; the Harleian MSS.; the Lansdowne MSS.; the Royal MSS.; the Sloane and Birch MSS.; the Arundel MSS.; the Burney, Hargrave, and a large and Miscellaneous collection of " Additional MSS." in number about 30,000. The rarest MSS. are entitled " Select," and can only be seen and examined in the presence of an attendant. The contents oftwo cases alone are valued at above a quarter of a million. Among the more remarkable we may mention :-Codex Alexandrinus, a MS. of Gospels of 4th or 5th century, given to Charles I. by the Patriarch of Alexandria. Copy of the Gospels in Latin (Cotton MSS. , Tiberius A. II. , the only un- doubted relic of the ancient regalia of England), sent over to Athelstane by his brother-in-law the emperor Otho, between 936 and 940, given by Athelstane to the metropolitan church of Canterbury, and borrowed of Sir Robert Cotton to be used at the coronation of Charles I. The " Book of St. Cuthbert " or "Durham Book," a copy of the Gospels in Latin, written in the seventh century by Eadfrith, Bishop of Lindisfarne, and illuminated by Athelwald, the succeeding Bishop. The Bible, said to have been written by Alcuin for Charlemagne. The identical copy of Guiar des Moulix's version of Pierre le Mangeur's Biblical History, which was found in the tent of John, King of France, at the battle of Poictiers. MS. of Cicero's translation of the Astronomical Poem of Aratus. An Anglo-Saxon MS. ofthe ninth century. The Bedford Missal, executed for the Regent Duke of Bedford, brother of Henry V. Psalter written for Henry VI. Le Roman de Rou (Harl. MS. 4425). Henry VIII.'s Psalter, containing Portraits of Himself and Will Somers. Lady JaneGrey's Prayer Book. Queen Elizabeth's Prayer Book, written in a print-hand ; the cover is her own needlework. Harl. MS. (7334), supposed M ENTRANCE HALLHO O ROYAL !LIBRARY E IN 184 K E ດ H A Superintendent. B Catalogue Tables. C Readers' Tables. NORTH LIBRARY PLAN OF READING-ROOM, BRITISH D Access for Attendants. E Entrance from Royal Library. F Entrance from North Library. G For Registration of Copyrights. H Ladies' Cloak- Room. J Attendants' Room, MUSEUM. K Gentlemen's Cloak-Room. L For Gentlemen. M Umbrella Room. N Assistants' Room. -258 FEET ECYPTIAN CALLERY, XIX. PRINT ROOM- ZOOLOGY. 163 to be the best MS. of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. Portrait of Chaucer, by Occleve (from which Vertue made his engrav- ing) . Froissart's Chronicles, with many curious illustrations -often engraved. Matthew Paris, illuminated. A volume of Hours executed circ. 1490, by a Flemish Artist ( Hemme- linck ?), for Philip the Fair, of Castile, or for his wife Joanna, mother of the Emperor Charles V. Carte Blanche which Prince Charles ( Charles II. ) sent to Parliament to save his father's life. Oliver Cromwell's Letter to the Speaker, describing the Battle of Naseby. Milton's assignment of "Paradise Lost" to Simmonds the bookseller for 15l.; Dryden's assignment to Tonson of his translation of Virgil. Original MS. of Pope's Homer, written on the backs of letters. Stow's collections for his Annals and his Survey of London. 317 vols . of Syriac MSS. , obtained from Egyptian monasteries, near the Natron Lakes. Print Room. -Drawings, &c. -A small, but interesting, and valuable, collection, containing specimens of Fra Beato Angelico, Fra Filippo Lippi, D. Ghirlandajo, P. Perugino, Leo- nardo da Vinci, Fra Bartolommeo, Raphael, Mich. Angelo, Giovanni Bellini, Titian, and Correggio-of Albert Dürer, Hans Holbein, Rembrandt, Rubens, Van Dyck, Backhuysen, A. Ostade, &c. Niellos of the rarest kind-in silver-with 300 impressions on sulphur and paper from niellos. Observe. -Impression in sulphur of the famous Pax of Maso Finiguerra, cost 250 guineas. Silver Pax by the same master. Two unique niellos of Leon. da Vinci. Marvellous Carving in soapstone, in high relief, by Albert Dürer (dated 1510) , repre- senting the Birth ofJohn the Baptist. Prints.--Marc Antonio's (fine). Lucas van Leyden's (fine). Albert Dürer's (fine).. Rembrandt's (in 8 volumes, the finest known). Van Dyck etchings (good) . Early Italian School (numerous and fine) . Dutch etchings (the Sheepshanks collection, containing Waterloo, Berghem, P. Potter, A. Ostade, &c. , the finest known). Works of Sir Jos. Reynolds (not all proofs). Raphael Morghen, Faithorne (in 5 volumes, very fine). Hogarth (good) . Crowle's collections to illustrate Pennant's London (cost 70007.) . Works of Strange, Woollett, and Sharp (good). Stothard, in 4 volumes (fine). On a range of stands in the King's Library are framed some of the choicest specimens of drawings and engravings of all schools. Art will be removed to S. Kensington as soon as a proper building is prepared . The Collections of Natural History are arranged in galleries on the first floor of the buildings, and are reached from the entrance-hall by ascending the great staircase. M 2 164 XIX. BRITISH MUSEUM-ZOOLOGY. Rooms 1, 2, 3, and 4. - Zoology.-This collection is supe- rior to that at Berlin, and inferior only to that in the Museumn at Paris. In a case at the head of the stairs is a huge Gorilla, with its skeleton nearly 6 ft . high, shot by Mons. Du Chaillu ; the largest specimen in Europe ; also his wife and family. Mammalia Saloon. - In the wall- cases are specimens of Rapacious and Hoofed Beasts ; and over the cases, the NORTH GALLERY. 11 TO 16 FOSSILS AND MINERALS. 16. 15 14 13 12 11 19 10 9 8 7 ANTIQUITIES. EGYPTIAN20,1 W. 22,3 VASES. BRONZE. BRITISH AND MEDIEVAL. 25 24 20 21 BRITISH MUSEUM. Z LADIES 22 ZOOLOGY 4. CLOAK 4 E. ROOM. 23 FIRST FLOOR. 24 ZOOLOGY. STAIRS 18 4 1,23ZOOLOGY . 26 ETHNOLOGY. 17, 18 BOTANY. SOUTH GALLERY. different kinds of Seals, Manatees, and Porpoises ; and on the floor are placed the larger hoofed beasts, too large to be arranged in their proper places in the cases. Here, on the floor, is the Wild Ox from Chillingham Park, Northum- berland. Eastern Zoological Gallery. The wall- cases contain the collection of Birds ; the smaller table- cases in each recess contain birds' Eggs, arranged in the same series as the birds ; the larger table- cases, in the centre of the room, contain the collection of Shells of Molluscous Animals ; and on the top of the wall- cases is a series of Horns of hoofed quadrupeds. Here, among the Wading Birds (Case 108) , is a nearly perfect XIX.-MINERALOGY AND GEOLOGY. 165 skeleton dug up from a lake- bed in Mauritius, and a preserved specimen of the foot of the Dodo, a bird now extinct, known only by a few scanty remains, and bya painting here preserved, drawn from a living bird brought to Holland in the 17th century. Rooms 11 to 16. -Mineralogy and Geology, (in the N. Gallery) . The system adopted for the arrangement of the minerals, with occasional slight deviations, is that of Berzelius. The detail of this arrangement is partly supplied by the running titles at the outsides of the glass cases, and by the labels within them. Observe (in the Class of Native Iron, one of the largest collections known of meteoric stones or substances which have fallen from the sky, placed in chro- nological order).-The oldest a fragment of stone which fell at Ensisheim, in Alsace, Nov. 7th, 1492, when the Empr. Maximilian was on the point of engaging with the French army: weighs 270 lb. ; -meteorite from Melbourne, Australia : weighs 3 tons ! -one of the many stones which fell (July 3rd, 1753) at Plaun, in Bohemia, and which contain a great proportion of iron ; -specimens of those that were seen to fall at Barbotan, at Roquefort, and at Juliac, July 24th, 1790 ; -one of a dozen stones that fell at Sienna, Jan. 16th, 1794 ;-huge metallic block from Buenos Ayres, weighs 1400 lbs. ;-stone, weighing 56 lb., which fell near Wold Cottage, in the parish of Thwing, Yorkshire, Dec. 13th, 1795 ; fragment of a stone of 20 lb. , which fell at Sales, near Ville- franche, Dépt. du Rhône, 1798 ; stone which fell at Parnallee, Madras, Feb. 28, 1857. Observe, in Case 20, Dr. Dee's Magic Show- stone. Fossil Organic Remains in the North Gallery. Obs. I. Fossil plants, sea-weeds ; calamites, &c. , from the coal ; -Silicified palm-trees, tropical fruits, wood bored by the Ship- worm ;-Cycas (called petrified crows' nests) , from I. of Port- land ; -Fossil footmarks of animals. II. Extensive collec- tion of Fossil Fish from the chalk, Solenhofen Monte Bolca ; The Silurian and Devonian rocks, coal, and old red sandstone. III. and IV. Reptiles. -Ichthyosaurus (fish-lizard) ; Plesio- saurus and Scelidosaurus (unique) ; Crocodiliana from the lias of Whitby, from Sheppey, and the Sewalik Hills ; the Archeopteryx ( unique ), the oldest known fossil bird ! from the oolite of Solenhofen, with long lizard- like tail, bearing a pair of feathers in each joint ; the Iguanodon (colossal land lizard) ; Hylæosaurus and Deinosaurus, from Tilgate Forest (Mantells) . V. Mammalian Remains. -The fossil Fox, of Ehningen, the jaw-bones from Stonesfield slate, Oxford- shire ; the gigantic Marsupials of Australia ; the Sivatherium, stag- like animal with proboscis, Mastodon and Elephant, from 166 XIX. BRITISH MUSEUM-INSECTS. the Sewalik Hills in India, found by Major Cautly and Dr. Falconer ; Dinornis ; gigantic Moas (ostrich- like birds), from NewZealand. In thecentre of Room 15, is a complete skeleton of the large extinct Elk, met with in the bogs of Ireland, and the Isle of Man (Cervus megaceros and C. giganteus). In Room 16, is the entire skeleton of the American Mastodon (Mastodon Ohioticus), and suite of separate bones and teeth of the same animal : the jaws, tusks, molar teeth and other osseous parts of Elephas primigenius, the Siberian Mammoth : the crania and other parts of extinct Indian Elephants. Megatherium, or extinct sloth, from Buenos Ayres ; Glypto- don, or extinct armadillo, the shell measured 12 ft. in length. At the W. end of the same room is the fossil human skeleton from Guadaloupe, embedded in a limestone which is in pro- cess of formation at the present day. A case filled with remains of man and animals from a cave at Bruniquel, dept. of Aveyron, France ; human skulls enclosed in tufas ; flint implement ; bones of reindeer and other animals fashioned by the flint ; jaws and other bones of ox, split open for ex- tracting the marrow. Northern Zoological Gallery, Room 6. -The wall- cases con- tain a series of the Skulls of the larger Mammalia, to illus- trate the characters of the families and genera ; of the Nests of Birds, arbours of the two species of Bower Bird ; the one ornamented with fresh water shells and bones, and the other with feathers and land shells, &c. The table-cases : -the tubes of Annulose Animals, the casts of the interior cavities of Shells, and various specimens of shells, illustrative of the diseases and malformation of those animals. Room 7. - The wall- cases contain the collection of Reptiles and Batrachian Animals, preserved dry and in spirits ; and the table- cases the first part of the collection of the hard part of Radiated Animals, including Sea Eggs, Sea Stars, and Encrinites. Room 8. -The wall cases contain the Handed and Glirine Mammalia, and the table- cases the different kinds of Corals. Room 9. -The wall- cases contain the collection of Fish, and the table- cases a few specimens of Annulose Animals, to ex- hibit their systematic arrangement. The collection of Insects and Crustacea are preserved in cabinets. They may be seen by persons wishing to consult them for the purpose of study (by application to the Keeper of the Zoological Collection) every Tuesday and Thursday. Apply two days previous. Room 10.-The wall-cases contain the Molluscous and Radiated Animals in spirits. Over the wall- cases is a very large Wasps' Nest from India ; and some Neptune's Cups -a kind of sponge-from Singapore. Table cases -Sponges of different kinds, showing their various XIX.-BRITISH MUSEUM-NATIONAL GALLERY. 167 forms and structure, and some preserved in flint of the same character. Rooms 17, 18- The Botanical Collection is very large, and consists principally of the Herbaria of Sir Joseph Banks and Mr. Robert Brown ; 300 vols. of plants, collected by Sir Hans Sloane ; the Dutch Hortus Cliffortianus, described by Linnæus himself; Burmann's Ceylon Plants. Portraits—(onthe walls of the E. Zoological Gallery)—116 in number, and not very good. A few, however, deserve to be mentioned :-Vesalius, by Sir Antonio More. Captain William Dampier, by Murray (both from the Sloane Collection). Sir Robert Cotton, the founder of the Cottonian Library. Sir William Cotton, his son, Robert, Earl of Oxford, and Edward, Earl of Oxford (both presented by the Duchess Dowager of Portland). Humphrey Wanley. George Vertue (presented by his widow). Sir Hans Sloane, half-length, by Slaughter. Dr. Birch. Andrew Marvell. Alexander Pope. Matthew Prior, by Hudson, from an original by Richardson. Oliver Cromwell, by Walker (bequeathed, 1784, by Sir Robert Rich, Bart. , to whose great-grandfather, Nathaniel Rich, Esq. , then serving as a Colonel of Horse in the Parliamentary Army, it was presented by Cromwell himself) . Mary Davis, an inhabitant of Great Saughall in Cheshire, taken 1668, " ætatis 74 : " (at the age of 28 an excrescence grew upon her head, like a wen, which continued 30 years, and then grew into two horns, one of which the profile represents). Thomas Britton, the musical small- coal-man, "ætatis 61, 1703," by J. Woolaston. Miscellaneous Curiosities. -A gold snuff- box set with diamonds, and ornamented with a miniature portrait of Napoleon, by whom it was presented, in 1815, to the late Hon. Mrs. Damer. Another, less handsome, presented by Napoleon to Lady Holland. The NATIONAL GALLERY, of paintings of all schools, occupies the N. side of Trafalgar- square, the site of the King's Mews. The National Gallery was founded in 1824, and the present building erected , 1832-38, from the designs of W. Wilkins, R.A., at a cost of 96,000l. The columns of the portico were those of Carlton House. The Royal Academy was removed from the E. half of the building to Burlington Gardens, 1869, and the National Gallery retains its position. An entirely new edifice is projected, to be extended over the site of the Workhouse behind, which is bought for 67,000l. The National Gallery is open on Monday, Tues., Wed., and Sat. to the public ; on Thurs. and Fri. to artists ; from 10 till 5 from Nov. to April, -and from 10 till 6 in May, June, 168 XIX.-NATIONAL GALLERY- HISTORY. English Late Early Early Turner . Turner . Italian . Italian . Italian 1500 . Collection . Peel French &German . Dutch and Q 3 7 8 6 10 .Flemish 5 Earliest Entrance Hall Stairs and . Cabinet . .Italian GALLERY . Select . Office . NATIONAL July, August, and the first two weeks of September. The Gallery is wholly closed during the last two weeks of September and the month of October. The National Gallery originated in the purchase by Government, in 1824, of Mr. Angerstein's collection of 38 pictures, for 57,000l. In 1826, Sir Geo. Beaumont gave 16 pictures, valued at 7500 guineas. Important bequests by the Rev. W. Holwell Carr, Lord Farnborough, and others, followed, independently of the Tur- ner bequest and of Mr. Vernon's no- ble gift of 162 works of the English school. Though inferior in extent to the six great galleries on the Continent, at the present moment it is scarcely second to any in the value and choiceness of the works it contains, and in the number of paintings authenticated by the de- scriptions of Vasari and other con temporary authorities. Down to 1861 the nation expended in the purchase of 234 pictures, 104,5057.; 259 pictures have been given, and 240 bequeathed. The National Gal- lery owes much of its actual pre- eminence to the very important accessions it obtained during the ad- ministration of the late Sir Charles Eastlake ; especially in works ofthe Italian Schools, some of them from the Lombardi and Beaucousin Gal- leries. The total number of pictures is about 880-but many of these are exhibited at S. Kensing- ton from want of room here. Mr. Wornum's is the best catalogue of the pictures, and may be had in the Gallery. Beloware enumerated some of the best pictures by the greatest masters. The pictures have been most XIX.-NATIONAL GALLERY- ITALIAN SCHOOLS. 169 satisfactorily re-arranged by Sir Wm. Boxall since the removal of the Royal Academy from Trafalgar Square in 1869, in eleven apartments instead of five, and are now displayed, without crowding, to the greatest advantage. Observe-Room 1 , entered directly from the staircase, is devoted to the Earliest Efforts of the Italian School, very curious but interesting chiefly in an historical point of view.. P. UCCELLO (a rare master) : Battle of St. Egydio. -CIMABUE, 565 : Madonna and Child with Angels. Room 2, Early Italian School. BENOZZO GOZZOLI, 283 : Virgin and Child enthroned, five Saints, men- tioned by Vasari : the original contract for the painting, 1461 , exists.- PELLEGRINO DI SAN DANIELE, 773 : Virgin and Child enthroned, with St. James and St. George. -POLLAJUOLO, 292 : Martyrdom of St. Sebas- tian, praised by Vasari, and studied by Michael Angelo.-ORGAGNA, 569- 578, Coronation of the Virgin by the Saviour, with Angels and twenty- four Saints on either side, painted for the Church of St. Pietro Maggiore, Florence, and perhaps the finest work of Orgagna in any gallery.- AMBROG. BORGONONE, 298 : Marriage of St. Catherine ; 779-80, Portraits. -CARLO CRIVELLI : Madonna and Child with SS. Jerome and Sebastian, called M. della Rondine from the Swallow introduced in it. - LOR. DA CREDI, 648 : Virgin kneeling to the Infant laid on the ground. - FRA ANGELICO, 663 : Christ with the Banner of the Resurrection, with an army of Patriarchs, Saints, and Beati on each side ; 266 figures in all, " so beautiful ," says Vasari, " that they appear truly to be beings of Paradise."-FILIPPINO LIPPI, 293 : Virgin and Child : SS. Jerome and Dominic in adoration. Rooms 3, 4, and 5. Best works of Italian masters of the best period, hardly to be matched for excellence in the whole of Europe, and nearly all painted within the space of 50 years. Every picture here deserves study. No 1. SEBASTIAN DEL PIOMBO : the Raising of Lazarus . The most important Italian painting in England ; painted in competition with Raphael's Transfiguration. Michael Angelo assisted the painter with a sketch for the figure of Lazarus, which still exists. It was painted for a church at Narbonne and thence came into the Orleans_gallery (A. 3500 guineas).-TITIAN : Bacchus and Ariadne ; a marvel of harmo- nious design and richness of colouring. 4. A shepherd adoring the Holy Family. 35. Venus and Adonis, from the Colonna Palace. 273. Noli me tangere ; 636. Portrait of Ariosto.-CORREGGIO, 10 : Mercury teaching Cupid to read in the presence of Venus ; purchased along with the Ecce Homo in Room 4, from the late Marquis of Londonderry for 10,000l.; 23. Holy Family (Vierge au Panier) St. Joseph working as a carpenter. -FRANCESCO FRANCIA, 179 : Virgin and Child, with two Saints on either side, in front the infant St. John ; 180. The Entombment, a Lunette (Lucca Gallery, 35007. ) -Room 4. GIOV. BELLINI, 189 : The Doge Loredano in his cap and robe ; from Beckford collection . 726. The Agony in the Garden ; background, a view of Jerusalem ; 694. St. Jeromein his study, a work of marvellous finish and truth ; Virgin and Child.-PIETRO PERUGINO : Virgin adoring the Infant; Three Angels in the sky; on left St. Michael, on right St. Raphael, Archangels, painted for the Certosa at Pavia, purchased from the Duke Melzi, 4000.- 170 XIX. -NATIONAL GALLERY- FOREIGN SCHOOLS. CORREGGIO, 15 : cce Homo; MARCO BASAITI , Virgin and Child asleep : -PAUL VEENESE, 294 : The family of Darius at the feet of Alexander, " The fest work of the master in Italy." -Ruskin ; from the Pisani Palace, Venice ( 14,000l . ) . Room 5. Smaller Italian Pictures. RAPHAEL, 744 : The Garvagh, or Aldobrandini Holy Family, so called from two former possessors, a small picture (90001. ) . 168. St. Catherine of Alexandria, from the Beckford collection (50007. ) . 213. Vision of a Knight, with Raphael's original sketch ( 10501 . ).-ANTONELLO DA MESSINA, 173 : Head of the Saviour. FILIPPO LIPPI, 666 : The An- nunciation ; AND. DEL SARTO , 690 : His own Portrait ; MICH. ANGELO, 790 : The Entombment, a sketch of great rarity. -GIORGIONE, 269 A Knight in Armour. Room 6. Later Italian and Spanish . MURILLO, 13 : Holy Family ( 30007.) ; 176. Infant St. John and the Lamb (21007. )-VELASQUEZ, 197 : Wild Boar hunt, Philip IV. and his Court (22007.) ; 232. Adoration of the Shepherds.-SALVATOR ROSA : A Grand Landscape, figures of Mercury and the Woodman ( 16807 . ) - CANA- LETTI : Grand Canal, Venice. -GUIDO, 271 : Head of Christ ; Susannahı and the Elders ( 12607.) -ANN. CARRACCI, 9 : Christ bearing the Cross appearing to St. Peter. Room 7. French and German Schools. CLAUDE : Noble Landscape ; 5. Seaport at Sunset ; 6. Cave of Adul- lam, Chigi Claude ( 2705 guineas) ; 12. Marriage of Isaac and Rebecca ; 14. Seaport, Queen of Sheba (40007. ) ; 30. Embarkation of St. Ursula. In the midst of these Claudes are hung (by direction of his own last will) two of J. M. W. Turner's masterpieces, Sun rising in a Mist over the Sea, and Carthage. They will bear the comparison Turner was so anxious to challenge.-MARTIN SCHON : Death of the Virgin. -J . VAN EYCK ; 222 and 290. Two Men's Portraits ; 186. An Interior, J. Arnolfini and his wife (600 guineas) .- MEMLING, 686 : The Virgin and Child , small figures in a garden. -NIC. POUSSIN : Bacchanals. -GASPER POUSSIN : A Grand Landscape ; Abraham and Isaac : Land-storm : Dido and Æneas ; Italian Landscape ( F. 700 guineas). Room 8. Flemish and Dutch Schools. DIERICK BOUTS, 783 : Translation of St. Hubert.-ALB. CUYP : Por- trait of a gentleman ; 53. A Sunny Landscape on the Rhine. - RUBENS, 38: Rape of the Sabines ; 194. Judgment of Paris (42007.) ; 59. The Brazen Serpent ; 56. Long Landscape including his own Château ( 15007. ) -REMBRANDT, 757 : Christ blessing little children ; 775. Old woman's head ; Portrait of a Gentleman ; 45. Woman taken in Adultery.- RUYSDALL ; 3. Exquisite Landscape ( 52507. ) .—VAN DYCK, 52 : Portrait of Gevartius ; 50. St. Ambrose refusing the Emperor Theodosius admis- sion into the church. -DE HOOGHE: Courtyard of a Dutch house ( 1300 ) -TERBURG : Meeting of the Members of the Congress of Munster which led to the Signing of the Peace of Westphalia ; from the Demi- doff Collection, purchased for 7350l. by Lord Hertford and presented to the National Gallery by Sir R. Wallace. Room 9-is occupied with J. M. W. Turner's early works. Fort Roc, Val d'Aosta, an Alpine gorge ; 478. A Blacksmith's Forge in the manner of Wilkie ; 499. Decline of Carthage ; 480. Tra- falgar-Death of Nelson, a wonderful representation of a sea- fight, the ' Victory' between two French ships ; 472. Calais Pier, boats in a stormy sea; 476. A Shipwreck ; 481. Spithead ; 492. A Frosty Morning, in a ploughed field ; 497. Crossing the Brook. XIX.-NATIONAL GALLERY-ENGLISH SCHOOLS. 171 Room 10-is filled with Turner's later works. 305. Bay of Baiæ ; 512. Baie -Caligula's Bridge ; 516. Childe Harold ; -The Fighting Téméraire towed into her last berth ; 508. Polyphemus and Ulysses ; 528. The burial of Wilkie by night ; -The Sun of Venice going down ; -Van Tromp ; 538. Rain, Steam, and Speed ; 536, Fort Ruysdael. Room 11. Select Works of the English Schools. - - SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS, 162 : The Infant Samuel ; 182. Studies of Angels' heads ; 307. The Age of Innocence ; 79. The Graces, th ee daughters of Sir W. Montgomery ; Portrait of Lord Heathfield, Governor of Gibraltar during the siege ; Portrait of William Wind- ham. -LESLIE : Sancho and the Duchess ; My Uncle Toby and Widow Wadman.-WILKIE, 122 : The Village Festival ; 99. The Blind Fiddler; 331. The Newsmonger. -CONSTABLE , 150 ; The Cornfield.- COLLINS, 351 : Happy as a King. -GAINSBOROUGH : Orpen, the Parish Clerk of Bradford ; 683. Mrs. Siddons ; 789. The Baillie Family; 80. The Market Cart. -The Watering- Place. -HOGARTH : -Marriage à la Mode, a series of six pictures, Hogarth's greatest work, for which he received 110 guineas-Mr. Angerstein gave 13817. for them. -STEWART NEWTON, 353 : Yorick and the Grisette. -STODHART : -Antony and Cleopatra. -W. MULREADY : - The Last in ; Crossing the Brook.- EASTLAKE, SIR CHARLES : -Haidee, Greek Girl.-R. WILSON ; 301 ; Italian View. - In 1871 the National Gallery received an important acces- sion in the pictures , 72 in number, collected, with great judgment, by the 2nd Sir Robt. Peel, including 22 specimens of Dutch masters not before represented in the national collection. The price given by Parliament to his son was 75,000l. They include 3 by Rembrandt; 2 by Rubens, the well- known Chapeau de Paille, ( 3500 guineas), and the Triumph of Silenus, ( 11007.) ; 2 by Van Dyck, a Genoese Senator and his wife, bought at Genoa by Sir David Wilkie ; 7 by D. Teniers; 2 by Isaac Ostade, one a Village Scene, very fine ; 1 by Adrian Ostade ; 1 by Jan Steen ; 1 by Terburg ; 2 by G. Metzu ; 1 by F. Mieris ; 1 by W. Mieris ; 1 by G. Douw, the Poulterer's Shop, fine ; 3 by Cuyp, a moated ruined Castle, very fine; 4 by Hobbema, The Avenue of Middelharnis, wonderful, the ducks and geese by Wyntrank, and the figures by Lingelback ; 2 by De Hooghe ; 1 by Paul Potter ; 3 by Ruysdael ; 2 by Backhuysen ; 1 by Berghem ; 1 by Gon- zales Coques ; 3 by Karel du Jardin ; 6 by Wouvermans, one a cabinet piece with a white horse ; 2 by Vander Heyden ; 3 byA. Vandervelde, one a Calm, very fine ; 8 by W. Vander- velde ; 1 by F. Snyders ; 2 by Wynants ; 1 by Slingelandt; 1 by Jan. Lingelback ; 1 by Moucheron and A. Vandervelde ; 3 by Gaspar Netscher. The portraits of Dr. Johnson, and of Admiral Keppel, are two of the finest works of Sir Joshua Reynolds. The drawings by Rubens, which form a portion of the Peel collection, are unsurpassed . 172 .. XIX.-SOUTH KENSINGTON MUSEUM . Observe. In the Hall : Statue of Sir David Wilkie, by S. Joseph ; Wilkie's palette is let into the pedestal. Altorelievo, by T. Banks, R.A., Thetis and her Nymphs rising from the sea to condole with Achilles on the loss of Patroclus (fine). SOUTH KENSINGTON MUSEUM, BROMPTON, beyond Brompton Church, 1 mile from Hyde Park Corner, built upon the estate purchased with the surplus funds derived from the Exhibition of 1851. It is also approached from the Kensington Road and from Hyde Park by Exhibition Road, and is very near the S. Kensington station of the Metropolitan District Railway. (See Railway Map. ) Admission. Monday, Tuesday, and Saturday, free ; from 10 a.m. to 10 p.m. (N.B. the_galleries are lighted at night). Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday, students' days : admis- sion to public 6d. , from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. There are waiting and refreshment rooms, furnished with lavatories, near the entrance. This truly national museum of Art, and of Manufactures as allied to Art, has sprung up in the short space of seventeen years to be one of the most considerable and important in Europe. It originated , 1852, in a project of the Prince Consort, ably carried out by its courageous and persevering direc tor, H. Cole, Esq. , C. B. , supported by the liberality of Par- liament. Its collections of objects of medieval and modern art, partly obtained at great cost fromall parts ofthe globe, partly of contributions sent on loan by their owners, consist of paintings, sculptures, goldsmiths ' work, jewels and enamels, carved ivories, porcelain, pottery, terra-cotta and glass, metal-work, arms and armour, ornamental furniture, carvings in wood and stone, tapestries , embroideries, &c. These collections are arranged in a Building of red brick and terra cotta erected for the purpose, 1869-71 , and in two large glazed courts, in the style of the Crystal Palace, and the cloisters around them on the ground, and in galleries above. (See Plan.) The South Court is decorated along the upper part of its walls with whole length portraits in mosaic of the principal artists the world has produced. The court is divided by a passage through the middle, over which runs ( 12) Prince Albert Gallery. The W. division is occupied by the Loan Collec tion, of most valuable objects, lent for exhibition, by their owners, from the Queen downwards. These objects are, of course, liable to constant change. The E. division is filled with specimens of modern art manufactures purchased at the Paris, London, and other Great Exhibitions. The total cost down to 1872, including building, was 1,600,0007. XIX.--SOUTH KENSINGTON MUSEUM . -173 . ROAD EXHIBITION N.CLOISTERSTAIRS MALE SCHOOL ENTRANCE FEMALE SCHOOL ENTRANCE MUSEUM ENTRANCE 3 N.W.CLOISTERS STAIRS 2 RETIRING ROOM FORCENTLEMEN REFRESHMENT ROOMS RETIRING ROOM FORLADIES Temporary Entrance , ++ Stairs leading toPicture Galleries ,&c. FERNERY 8 N.E.CLOISTER Cromwell Road . STAIRS NORTH 1010 COURT +12 ,COURT SOUTH + + ORIENTAL COURT STAIRS Buildings 1New ' Hall , Keramic [over this Gallery ]. Refreshment 2Room , [over this Theatre ). ENTRANCE DOORS GROUND PLAN OFSOUTH KENSINGTON MUSEUM . 3N.Cloister . 4N.W Cloister . 5Food Collection . Science 6Naval and Schools . Library 7. Cloisters 8N.E. , Italian 9Sculpture . Cartoons [over this Raphael of]. Offices 10. 11Oriental . 12P.Albert Gallery above this 174 XIX. SOUTH KENSINGTON MUSEUM-LIBRARY. Adjoining this is (11) the Oriental Collection . Chinese and Japanese porcelain, bronze, enamels, carvings, lacquered ware, various textile fabrics, shawls, muslins, cloth of gold, &c. In the North Court are exhibited a marble gallery carved by Baccio d'Agnola, from Sta. Chiara, in Florence ( c. 1500) , and a pulpit from the same ch. 1520 ; a Moorish carved wood pulpit from Cairo, 15th century ; Sir Christopher Wren's original model for St. Paul's, arranged as a Greek cross with equal arms (see St. Paul's, p. 113) ; the Waterloo vase of a block of Carrara marble, taken from the French during the war, carved with bas- reliefs by Westmacott, representing the Battle of Waterloo, and George, Prince- Regent, leading a charge of the Life- Guards !!—several marbles and wax models ascribed to Mic. Angelo, from Florence. Wrought iron gates, with elegant scrolls, the work of Huntingdon Shaw, the Nottingham smith, 1694, brought from Hampton Court. Casts from Trajan's column ; the Biga, or Roman chariot of the Vatican, and of M. Angelo's David ; two pulpits by Giovanni and Nic. Pisano from Pisa ; the Shrine of St. Sebald at Nuremberg. In the cloisters round the court, casts from Cinque Cento sculpture ; numerous specimens of enamelled terra- cotta or Luca della Robbia ware. tique Musical instruments.- Lutes, mandolins, harps ; a finger organ (16th century) said to have belonged to Luther ; Handel's harpsichord. AnIn theW. cloister (7 ) adjoining this Court is the Art Library of 30,000 vols. , chiefly works of reference ; illustrations ; Galleries of painting and sculpture ; many works of great cost may be easily consulted here. The next compartment is filled with carved ivories, dyptichs, Roman and Byzantine, casts of ivories, six plaques of Cupidons by Du Quesnoy, &c. In the N.W., or School Cloisters, ( 4) near Exhibition Road, are specimens of Metal Work ; seals, art bronzes, locks, steel coffers ; weapons, swords, wheel- lock pistols ; carvings in lithographic stone, soapstone, boxwood ; articles of cuir bouillé ; Damascene work ; decorated pewter by Francis Briot ; altar- pieces or retables of carved wood ; state car- riages, and sedan- chairs. In the North Cloister, ( 3) electrotype casts of the regalia in the Tower, of rare armour in the Louvre, of the chair of Dagobert ; bronze gates in Cathedral of Pisa, and Baptistery of Florence ; seven-branched candlestick from Milan; French and Flemish Tapestry, 15th and 16th centuries ; old Furni- ture, sideboards , carved and inlaid with marquetry, cabinets, XIX. SOUTH KENSINGTON NEW MUSEUM. 175 wrought-iron gates, gratings, stove- irons ; priests' Robes and Embroidery ; the Syon cope, 13th century, covered with forty-five coats of arms of Roman Catholic families, originally at Syon Nunnery on the Thames ; also various other copes, chasubles, dalmatics of silk, needle-work, &c. The NewMuseum of red brick ( 1 & 2) , set off with rich and effective ornaments in terra- cotta ( Captain Fowke's design), forms three sides of a square. The Central division contains on the ground- floor excellent Refreshment Rooms, and, on either hand, Retiring Rooms for ladies and gentlemen. Above this is a Theatre for the delivery of popular lectures. From the W. end of the hall a handsome Staircase, appropriately lined with majolica, leads into the Keramic Gallery, the columns of which are also encased in majolica, each bearing the portrait of some distinguished " Potter," whose works are grouped around it. Among the fine works of china, majolica, and pottery here assembled, note-A plate bearing on it a painter of majolica at his work in his study ( Caffagiolo, c. 1515, 1507.). Lustred majolica plates by Maestro Giorgio of Gubbio ; plate with a girl's portrait ( Soulages coll. 1007. ) ; plateau of majolica, with bust of Perugino ( Soulages coll. , 2007. ) ; Henri Deux Ware, resembling ivory inlaid , made at Oiron near Thouars ; a high candlestick , ( 750., ) 1541 ; a large plateau, ( 1407., ) 1535 ; a salt- cellar ( 3007. ) ; tazza aud cover, (4507. , ) 1535 ; tazza, inlaid with black ( 1807. ) ; Italian Faenza vase and cover ( 1480) ; Plaque of the Resurrection 1267.; Virgin and Child under a Gothic arch ; Palissy ware, very choice, numerous specimens of Sèvres bleu du roi ; turquoise bleu ; Capo di Monte, Venetian, Doccia, and other china-ware; vases by Minton, Copeland, &c. , which gained medals at the great Exhibitions ; specimens of china from Chelsea, Bow, Derby, Worcester, Bristol, Plymouth, Leeds, Staffordshire ; small terra- cotta bust of Flaxman, modelled by himself, 1778, ( 1617. , ) is appropriately placed near a selection of his best works ; the Wedgwood vase, egg-shape, with Cupids, a black basalt vase ; plaques bearing classic bas- reliefs ; small cameos, white on blue ground. Here is a German stove covered with glazed terra- cotta tiles, bearing in relief the story of Mordecai ; two tall china vases from St. Petersburg given to the Museum by the Emperor of Russia after the 1862 Exhibition. From the Porcelain Gallery there is a ready entrance to the PICTURE GALLERIES ; but before entering them it is well to visit the Prince Albert Gallery, stretching like a bridge across the centre of the South Court (12), and containing many 176 XIX.-VERNON AND SHEEPSHANKS COLLECTION. veryprecious objects. Ametallic mirror of steel, damascened with gold and silver, made at Milan, 1550 ; Enamels of Limoges and Byzantine work ; shrine in the form of a ch. (12th century) ; casket with dancing figures by L. Limousin, 16th century (10007.) ; German tryptich, 13th century, with the Crucifixion and other Scripture subjects ; altar crosses, episcopal staffs, croziers, &c. , cups in crystal, agate, ivory, amber ; ivory tankard from Augsburg ; the Martelli bronze designed by Donatello, Florence ; clocks of early date; the Emperor Rudolph's astronomical globe ; bronze candlestick from Gloucester, 1104 ; ancient and modern watches ; cameos ; intaglios ; jewellery. In a suite of well-arranged Galleries are exhibited THE VERNON AND SHEEPSHANKS COLLECTION, BRITISH SCHOOLS, belonging to the National Gallery. HUYSMAN: Original Portrait of Izaak Walton, the angler,-HOGARTH : Portrait of Himself (the well- known engraved head) .-R. WILSON: Mæcenas' Villa ; Grand Landscape, with the story of Niobe and her children.-GAINSBOROUGH : the Market-cart. - LAWRENCE : John Philip Kemble, as Hamlet. -GILBERT STUART : Portrait of Woollett, the engraver. The Sheepshanks Collection . The late John Sheepshanks, Esq. , while yet alive, bestowed on the nation a collection of 234 Oil Paintings, chiefly of modern British artists, -formed by himself,-besides drawings, &c. , valued at 60.0007. It in- cludes some ofthe finest and most popular works of the English school: including Wilkie's Broken Jar, and Duncan Gray ; Mulready's Choosing the Wedding Gown, -Giving a Bite, - First Love; Sir Edwin Landseer's Jack in Office,-Highland Drovers,-the Shepherd's Chief Mourner,- Twa Dogs, &c.; C. R. Leslie's Uncle Toby and the Widow Wadman, - Catherine and Petruchio, and the Merry Wives of Windsor ; Rosa Bonheur, The Horse Fair. The Vernon Collection of the English School. 162 Pictures, presented to the nation in 1847 by Robert Vernon, Esq., who died in 1849.-GAINSBOROUGH : Landscape, Sunset-RICHARD WIL- SON: four small pictures.-LOUTHERBOURG : small Landscape -SIR A. W. CALLCOTT, R.A.: Littlehampton Pier; Coast Scene ; Crossing the Brook. WILKIE : the Bagpiper ; the First Ear-ring; the Whiteboy's Cabin. -E. BIRD, R.A.: the Raffle for the Watch. -CONSTABLE, R.A.: His Father's Mill.-COLLINS, R.A.: Prawn Fishers.-P. NASMYTH : small Landscape in the manner of Hobbema.-ETTY : the Bathers.- TURNER, R.A.: William III. landing at Torbay ; Composition Land- scape (fine ) ; Two Views in Venice. T. UWINS, R.A.: Claret Vintage. - F. R. LEE, R.A.: two Landscapes. -T. CRESWICK, R.A.: Landscape. -EDWIN LANDSEER, R.A.: Peace and War, companion pictures ; -Highland Piper and Dogs ; -Spaniels of King Charles's breed ; -the Dying Stag ; -High Life and Low Life. -T. WEBSTER, R.A.: the Dame's School . - D. MACLISE, R.A.: the Play Scene in Hamlet ; Malvolio and the Countess.-SIR C. L. EAST- LAKE, P.R.A.: Christ weeping over Jerusalem.-E. M. WARD, A.R.A.: XIX.--SOUTH KENSINGTON MUSEUM. -CARTOONS. 177 the Disgrace of Clarendon ; ' Change Alley during the South Sea Bubble -J. LINNELL : Landscape.-E. W. COOKE, A.R.A.: two Sea pieces. SIDNEY COOPER, A.R.A.: a Cattle piece. -F. DANBY, A.R.A. Landscape.-AUGUSTUS EGG, A.R.A.: Scene from Gil Blas.-F. GOODALL, A.R.A.: the Village Festival . THE CARTOONS OF RAPHAEL were brought from Hampton Court, 1865, and placed in a gallery expressly provided for them. There is a want of light to see them properly, blinds being drawn to prevent injury by the sun. But much greater injury is to be apprehended from the penetrating soot of the London atmosphere. These seven cartoons, justly regarded as the grandest pro- ductions of Christian art, were executed by Raphael at the command of Leo X. , 1514, as patterns for tapestries to adorn the lower part of the walls of the Sistine Chapel of the Vatican, the roof and E. end of which had been already painted by Michael Angelo. They are drawings on card- board (carton) in chalk, tinted with distemper. The sub- jects are -Christ's Charge to Peter ; -The Death of Ana- nias ; -Peter and John at the Beautiful Gate, Healing the Lame Man ;-Paul and Barnabas at Lystra ; -Elymas the Sorcerer Struck Blind ; -Paul Preaching at Athens ; -The Miraculous Draught of Fishes. The NATIONAL PORTRAIT GALLERY, founded 1858, at the suggestion of Earl Stanhope, who is the first President, is placed temporarily in South Kensington Museum. The collection, though at present in its infancy, contains about 350 interesting portraits, &c., of British worthies, among them Sir Walter Raleigh, Shakspeare (Chandos por- trait, from Stowe), Queen Elizabeth, Mary Queen of Scots, Archbishop Laud (by Old Stone) ; Bishop Warburton, Wesley, Whitefield preaching, Dr. Watts ; Lord Lovat, by Hogarth ; Jeremy Bentham as a boy, Erasmus Darwin, by Wright of Derby; by Reynolds, Himself, Adm. Keppel, and Sir William Chambers ; by Romney, Cumberland ; by Walker, Ireton ; by Kneller, Judge Jefferies ; by Lawrence, Wilberforce (a head) and Sir Jas. Mackintosh ; by Abbott, Nollekens ; by Beechey, Mrs. Siddons ; by Naysmith, Robt. Burns; by Wilkie, his own Portrait ; Princess Charlotte, Pope, Dryden, Waller, Steele, Prior, Byron -Lord Clive, Wolfe, Nelson, Gen. Picton, Pitt, Fox, Walpole, Sir Wm. Temple ; by Lely, Lord Wm. Russell :-Sam. Pepys, Dan. O'Connell, R. Cobden, and Nell Gwynne. George Scharf, Esq., is the learned keeper. MEYRICK COLLECTION OF ARMOUR. In the long Gallery skirting the Horticultural Gardens, entered from Exhibition Road, the collection of armour N 178 XIX. SOUTH KENSINGTON MUSEUM. -PATENTS. formed by Sir Samuel Meyrick, formerly at Goodrich Court, is well arranged in chronological order. In the first bay, works of early art ; an ancient British bronze shield ; found in the bed of the Witham, Lincolnshire ; the umbo or boss of shield set with cornelians ; British helmet, swords, &c.; jousting helmet of Sir Richard Pembridge, 1375 ; a saddle of German work. Here are twelve mounted figures in full armour, from the time of Henry VI. , the earliest date of any known suit of plate armour ; armour of Emperor Maximilian ; armour of Elector of Bavaria ; fluted suit ( 1495) ; puffed suit (1510) ; black armour of a Knight of Ravenna (1525) ; chain shirting and suits of mail ; specimens of early firearms ; a tube attached to an axe fired as a pistol by a match ; the sword of Battle Abbey ; one engraved in the style of A. Dürer ; targets of Charles V. and Francis I.; cross-bows of the time of Elizabeth ; a mounted trooper ofthe Civil Wars. All these collections are intended more or less to subserve the purpose of the School of Art, a branch of the Govern ment Department of Science and Art. Lessons in Drawing, Modelling, &c., are given by first-class masters to Male and Female pupils, (including many ladies, ) at a moderate cost. The Art Library of Reference, adjoining the N. Court, is a most useful collection of all the works on the subject, in- cluding Illustrations, all the European Galleries of Painting, Sculpture, &c., both public and private, which may be readily consulted. The Museum of Patents, deposited here temporarily, con- tains an accumulation of machines and models ; among them the original spinning and carding machine of Arkwright ; model of the First Locomotive (Trevethick's) ; the_Beam Engine model made by James Watt ; the first Steam Engine for ships (Millar of Dalswinton and Symington) ; also a col- lection of Portraits of Great Inventors. At a short distance from the Museum rises the Royal Albert Hall of Arts, or South Kensington Amphitheatre, between Hyde Park and the Horticultural Gardens ; a vast structure, capable of holding 10,000 persons, in the form of an ancient circus, but roofed over by a glass dome. The design was suggested by the Prince Consort, carried out by Capt. Scott ; the first stone was laid by the Queen, May 20, 1868, and it was opened by Her Majesty, March 29, 1871. It is designed for exhibitions of art and science, for concerts. public meetings, and balls. The shell of the building, whose exterior is richly decorated with coloured brick and terra-cotta ornaments of good design, surmounted by a XIX. -ALBERT HALL OF ARTS. -COL. OF SURGEONS. 179 frieze of coloured mosaic representing the various peoples of the globe, by Minton, consists of two concentric walls, between which are the staircases, corridors, &c. It measures 200 feet in length, and 160 feet across, and is 140 feet high, lined with seats rising step fashion around an oval arena, in the manner of a Roman circus, but one end is occupied by an organ and Orchestra, holding 2000 performers. On the ground is an oval arena holding 1000 persons, and two tiers of boxes form a girdle midway. Above these run a balcony for 2300, and a Gallery for 2000 spectators. Access and egress are facilitated by wedge-shaped corridors opening outwards. The oval hemispherical dome is formed of huge iron ribs ingeniously supported in a central ring. The cost of the building, about 200,000l. , has been defrayed by a sort of Joint Stock Company arrangement, by selling boxes on the first tier to hold 10, for 1000l. each, and on the second to hold 5, at 5001. each. BETHNAL GREEN MUSEUM. -The exhibition is open from 10 A.M. to 10 P.M., free on Mondays, Tuesdays, and Saturdays ; on other days, to students and others, at a charge of 6d., closing at 6 P.M. INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITIONS. -In 1871 , aseries of Halls and Galleries were constructed, continuously, around the Horticultural Gardens, communicating on the N. with the Royal Albert Hall, to serve for Annual Exhibitions of the products of all Nations. It has two entrances from Ex- hibition Road, two from Prince Albert Road, and one from Kensington Road, through the Royal Albert Hall. The Exhibition is open from May 1, to September 30. The ground S. of this, being the site of the Great Exhibi- tion of 1862, is occupied by extensive constructions now in progress to contain the Collections of Natural History from the BRITISH MUSEUM. MUSEUM OF THE ROYAL COLLEGE OF SURGEONS (HUNTERIAN MUSEUM) , LINCOLN'S-INN-FIELDS, South side, marked by its handsome portico, was built from Sir Charles Barry's design, 1835, and is said to have cost 40,000l. The Museum is open to the Members of the College, to the Trustees of the Hunterian Collection, and to Visitors introduced by them personally or by written orders on the public days, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday, from 12 to 5 from Marchto August, and from 12 to 4 from the 1st of October to February 28. During the month of Septem- ber the Museum is closed . The Museum is also open as above to Peers and Members of Parliament ; to all Fellows and Licentiates of the Royal Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons N 2 180 XIX. COLLEGE OF SURGEONS.-MUSEUM, in the United Kingdom ; to the Officers in the Public Service ; to the Members of all the Learned and Scientific Bodies in the United Kingdom, and to persons introduced by them respec- tively; and to all Learned and Scientific Foreigners. The Secretary and Conservator exercise their discretion in the case of applications for admission from other persons. The Collection of the Royal College of Surgeons is de- signed to facilitate the study of the phenomena of life, both in health and disease, as the true foundation upon which the rational practice of the healing art is based. With this view, the Collection is divided into two chief departments. The first, the Physiological Series, contains examples of every im- portant modification of the different structures or organs by which the functions of life are carried on, throughout the whole range of organized beings, in a natural condition. The second, the Pathological Series, exhibits the same structures or organs, under the influence of injury, disease, or malformation. The Hunterian Collection, which forms the basis, and a large proportion of the contents of the Museum, was originally arranged in a building which its founder, JOHN HUNTER, erected for it in 1785, behind his house in Leicester Square. He died October 16, 1793, aged 64. By his will, he directed his Museum to be offered, in the first instance, to the British Government, and in case of refusal, to be sold in one lot, either to some Foreign State or as his executors might think proper. In 1799, Parliament voted 15,000l. for the Museum, and an offer of it being made to the College of Surgeons, it was accepted by that body. Subsequent grants have been made by Parliament, amounting altogether to 42,500l. , towards the erection and enlargement of the edifice which contains it. It is now unquestionably not only the largest, but the best arranged anatomical Museum in the world. The Collection is contained in three apartments, named the Western, the Middle, and the Eastern Museums. The ground floor of each apartment is devoted to skeletons and hard parts of animals, and other preparations in a dry state, those of large size being placed on pedestals in the body of the room, the others in glazed cases round the walls, and in cabinets on the floor. The Galleries are appropriated to the preparations contained in bottles. The apartment first entered is the WESTERN MUSEUM. The Ground Floor is assigned to the Pathological Preparations in a dried state, consisting chiefly of diseases and injuries of bone, as well as injected preparations, anatomical models in wax, mummies, &c. It also contains a portion of the series of Natural XIX. COLLEGE OF SURGEONS. -MUSEUM. 181 Structures, viz. , the Zoological Series of Invertebrate Animals, and the illustrations of Normal Human Osteology, of which the series is very extensive, embracing upwards of 800 skulls of various races of men. The two Galleries are devoted exclusively to the Pathological Preparations in bottles, including monstrosities and malformations. In the rail- case around the Lower Gallery is placed the collection of Calculi and other Concretions, and the Toynbee Collec- tion of Diseases of the Ear. In that around the Upper Gallery is a collection of models illustrating Diseases of the Skin. Observe. -In the middle of the room, supported on columns, is the skeleton of a Greenland Right-Whale ( Balana mysticetus), taken at the Danish settlement of Holsteinberg, in South Greenland, in the winter of 1861-62. This is the only complete skeleton of this species in England. The statue of John Hunter, the founder of the Collection, erected by public subscription in 1864, is by H. Weekes, R.A. In one of the wall-cases, at the further end of the room, is the skeleton , 8 feet high, of Charles Byrne or O'Brian , the Irish Giant, who died in 1783, aged 22. The MIDDLE MUSEUM Contains on the Ground Floor the fossil remains of extinct Vertebrated Animals ; and in its two Galleries, part of the physiological collection, and an instructive series of Entozoa, or Parasitic animals. Observe. -The skeleton of the gigantic extinct Deer (Cervus megaceros), commonly called the " Irish Elk," which was dug up from a bed of shell-marl, beneath a peat-bog, near Limerick. The span of the antlers, between the extreme tips, is 8 feet, and their weight upwards of 70lbs. The skeleton of the extinct huge Ground Sloth (Megatherium Cuvieri) , from near Buenos Ayres, presented by Sir Woodbine Parish, is in part a restoration, the supplied portions (taken from authentic sources), being marked with a red star. The skeletons of the Mylodon and the Glyptodon, also from the vicinity of Buenos Ayres. Remains of the Moa or Dinornis, the gigantic wingless bird from New Zealand. The EASTERN MUSEUM is entirely appropriated to the Physiological series. The Ground Floor is devoted to illus- trations of the Osteology of the Vertebrate Animals, and the Galleries contain preparations in spirit, exhibiting the most remarkable modifications of every other portion of the organization throughout the animal kingdom. In the rail- cases attached to the Galleries, dried specimens belonging to the series are placed. Observe. Suspended from the middle of the ceiling is the skeleton of a Sperm- Whale or Cachalot (Physeter macrocephalus) , taken off the coast of Tasmania, in 1864. Its length is 50 feet and 1 inch, of which the 182 XIX. COLLEGE OF SURGEONS. -LIBRARY. skull occupies 16 feet 9 inches, and it weighs nearly 24 tons. The immense cavity on the upper surface of the head is filled during life by a quantity of oleaginous matter, which, when purified, yields the " spermaceti " of commerce. The oil from the thick layer of fat or blubber, which everywhere surrounds the body of the animal immediately beneath the skin, is the much valued " sperm oil." Around this majestic specimen of the cetaceous order are suspended, on a level with the Lower Gallery of the Museum, eight skeletons of smaller members of the same group, all called " whales " in ordinary language, though presenting considerable variations in structure, as an inspection of their bony framework will show. Among the large skeletons in the floor of the room, is that of the Elephant Chunee, which was exhibited at Exeter Change, from 1814 to 1826, when becoming ungovernable, it was found necessary to destroy it, but it was not until upwards of 100 bullets had been fired into various parts of its head and body, that the poor beast finally succumbed. The wall- cases around this room contain a very large series of skeletons of Vertebrated Animals, arranged in order from the lowest Fish up to Man, and including nearly all the most interesting forms known to naturalists. A general account of the objects of interest in the Museum is contained in a " Synopsis, " which may be obtained from the principal attendant, price Sixpence, and the greater number of the specimens are fully described in the 25 quarto volumes of the printed catalogue, which are placed in the Museum for the use of visitors. The College of Surgeons possesses a Library of 33,000 vols. of works on Anatomy, Surgery and the allied Sciences, and a Collection of Portraits and busts of eminent Surgeons, including the well-known " John Hunter," by Sir Joshua Reynolds. The Conservator of the Museum is Prof. Flower, F.R.S. SOANE MUSEUM, 13, LINCOLN'S INN FIELDS, north side ; formed by Sir John Soane, son of a bricklayer at Reading, and architect of the Bank of England (d . 1837) . This very interesting and valuable collection of Art is open to general visitors on Thursdays and Fridays from 10 to 4 during April, May, and June. In February, March, July, and August, on Wednesdays only. Tickets are obtained on application at the hall and entering the name in a book. Access to the Books, Drawings, MSS. , or permission to copy Pictures or other Works of Art, is to be obtained by special application to the Trustees or the Curator. XIX.-SOANE MUSEUM. 183 The house was built in 1812, and the collection is dis- tributed over 24 rooms. Every corner and passage is turned to account. On the north and west sides of the Picture-room are Cabinets, and on the south are Moveable Shutters, with sufficient space between for pictures. By this arrangement, the small space of 13 feet 8 inches in length, 12 feet 4 inches in breadth, and 19 feet 6 inches high, is rendered capable of containing as many pictures as a gallery of the same height, 45 feet long and 20 feet broad. Observe -The Egyptian Sarcophagus, discovered by Belzoni, Oct. 19th, 1816, in a tomb in the valley of Biban el Malook, near Gournou. It is formed of one single piece of alabaster, or arragonite, measuring 9 feet 4 inches in length by 3 feet 8 inches in width, and 2 feet inches in depth, and covered internally and externally with elaborate hieroglyphics. When a lamp is placed within it, the light shines through, though it is 2 inches in thickness. On the interior of the bottom is a full- length figure, representing the Egyptian Isis, the guardian of the dead. It was purchased by Soane, from Mr. Salt, in 1824 , for 20007. The raised lid or cover, broken into nineteen fragments, lies beneath it. Sir Gardner Wilkinson considers that it is a cenotaph rather than a sarcophagus, and the name inscribed to be that of Osirei, father of Rameses the Great. - Sixteen original sketches and models, by Flaxman, including a cast of the Shield of Achilles. Six original sketches and models by T. Banks, R.A. , including the Boothby Monument, one of his finest works. A large collection of ancient gems, intaglios, &c. , under glass, and in a very good light. Set of the Napoleon medals, selected by the Baron Denon for the Empress Josephine, and once in her possession. Sir Christopher Wren's watch. -Carved and gilt ivory table and four ivory chairs, formerly in Tippoo Saib's palace at Seringapatam. -Richly mounted pistol, said to have been taken by Peter the Great from the Bey, Commander of the Turkish army at Azof, 1696, and presented by the Emperor Alexander to Napoleon, at the Treaty of Tilsit in 1807 : Napoleon took it to St. Helena, whence it was brought by a French officer, to whom he had presented it -The original copy of the Gerusalemme Liberata, in the handwriting of Tasso. -First four folio editions of Shakspeare (J. P. Kemble's copies). A folio of designs for Elizabethan and James I. houses by John Thorpe, an architect. -Fauntleroy's Illustrated copy of Pennant's London ; purchased by Soane for 650 guineas. -Commentary on St. Paul's Epistles, illu- minated by Giulio Clovio for Cardinal Grimani. —Three Canalettis- one A View on the Grand Canal of Venice, - 184 XIX. -SOANE MUSEUM-EAST INDIAN MUSEUM. extremely fine. -The Snake in the Grass, or Love unloosing the Zone of Beauty, by Sir Joshua Reynolds ; purchased at the sale of the Marchioness of Thomond's pictures, for 500l. -The Rake's Progress, by Hogarth, a series of 8 pictures ; purchased by Soane in 1802 for 5987.-1 . The Rake comes to his Fortune ; 2. The Rake as a Fine Gentleman ; 3. The Rake in a Bagnio ; 4. The Rake Arrested ; 5. The Rake's Marriage ; 6. The Rake at the Gaming Table ; 7. The Rake in Prison ; 8. The Rake in Bedlam. - The Election, by Hogarth, a series of four pictures ; purchased by Soane, at Mrs. Garrick's sale in 1823, for 17327. 10s. -Admiral Tromp's Barge entering the Texel, by J. M. W. Turner, R.A.-Portrait of Napoleon in 1797, byFrancesco Goma. —Miniature of Napoleon, painted at Elba in 1814 , by Isabey.—In the Dining- room is a portrait of Soane, by Sir T. Lawrence ; and in the Gallery under the dome, a bust of him by Sir F. Chantrey. The EAST INDIAN MUSEUM, INDIA OFFICE, DOWNING STREET, is placed temporarily in an Attic Story. (See Index.) It is to be hoped that a separate building may be raised for collections of such great interest, some ofwhich cannot be displayed for want of space. Open every week-day, except Thursday and Friday, 10 to 4. It contains not only antiquities and historical relics, but also an assemblage of the chief natural productions of India, with specimens of the arts and manufactures, and illustrations of the industry, manners, and customs of the various races. In the Entrance- hall Stairs are statues of Wellington (by Noble), Clive, Hastings, Coote, Wellesley, and others distinguished in India (by Flaxman). Among the Natural productions are gums, dyes, drugs, teas and coffees, cotton and other fibreyielding plants, oils, spices, starches, perfumes, raw silks, wools, timber and woods, feathers, horns, minerals, jade, agates of Cambay, metals, marbles, gems and half- precious stones. Its Manufactures include pottery, marbles, inlaid and wrought, carvings in jade, crystal, ivory, sandal and other woods, mosaics of Rajpoot, and inlaid work of Bombay and Surat, japanned and lacquer work ; cutlery, brass and iron work. In the Model Room are implements, tools, dwellings, machinery, a Kutcherrie, or Law Court. Among indus- trial products are paper made of different fibres and leaves , metal- work, jewelry, Trichinopoly chains and filigree-work, from Cuttack silver armlets and bangles, lacquered ware. In arms and armour the collection is rich and curious : the Ghoorkas' knives, the Rajpoots' swords, the Santals' spears and shields, native artillery, ancient wall pieceson the plan ofColt's revolver, camel-guns, cannon. Among textile fabrics are the shawls ofCashmere( ofgoats' wool) ; Delhi embroidery XIX.-EAST INDIAN MUSEUM. 185 muslins of Dacca ; Kincob fabrics from Ahmedabad and Tan- jore ; embroideries and brocades in gold and silver thread. The arts of India are exhibited in carvings of ivory, (including mats and rugs made of cut fibres of elephants' tusks, ) figures of ivory, costumes, chessmen of most elaborate workmanship, articles of buffalos' and other horns. Carvings in wood. The golden chair of state of Runjeet Singh. A model of the Car of Juggernaut. Sculptured images of Hindoo Worship. Observe. -Large drawing of old East India House. Hindu idols in silver and gold, and stone. Pair of gauntlets made at Lahore, sometimes used by the native chiefs and horsemen in India (beautifully elaborate). The " Tiger's Claws " of steel, made to be worn on the fingers and concealed within the closed hand, with which the Mahratta chief Sivagee tore to pieces his enemy Afzal Khan, in the act of embracing him. Sword of the executioner attached to the palace of the King of Candy (taken at the capture of Candy). Piece of wood of the ship "Farquharson," penetrated throughthe copper sheathing and outside lining into one of the floor timbers by the horn ofa monodon or narwal. An emblematic organ (a tiger devouring an Englishman), contrived for the amusement of Tippoo Sultan. Surya, the Sun, in his seven-horse car. Buddhist idols and relics. The state howdah of Durgan Sal, usurper of Bhurtpore. Babylonian inscription on stone, in cuneiform characters ! Buddhist sculptures from Amravati on the Khistna. The collection of the birds of India, properly classified, is very complete. The coins (a most valuable collection) can only be seen by special permission. Hoole, the translator of Tasso ; Charles Lamb, author of Elia ; andJames Mill, the historian of British India ; were clerks inthe East India House. "Myprinted works, " said Lamb, "were my recreations-mytrue works may be found on the shelves in Leadenhall-street, filling some hundred folios." This turns out to have been a fiction or a joke. The East Indian records show not the least trace of any work done by Charles Lamb. The Indian Library of the East India House is both ex- tensive and valuable, including 8000 vols. of MSS. (3000 Sanscrit), formerly at Haileybury ; Warren Hastings ' copy of the Shah Nama ; Tippoo Sultan's Koran, his Autobio- graphy, and interpretation of his own dreams : Miniature Korans, Koran in Cufic characters, one taken to India by Tamerlane ; seals and autograph of oriental sovereigns . UNITED SERVICE MUSEUM, MIDDLE SCOTLAND YARD, WHITEHALL. Founded 1830, as a central repository for objects ofprofessional arts, science, natural history, books and documents relating to the military and naval profession, and for 186 XIX.-MUSEUM OF GEOLOGY. the delivery of lectures on appropriate subjects. Admission, by Member's order, April to September, from 11 to 5 ; winter months, from 11 to 4. The Museum contains much that will repay a visit. Observe. -Basket-hilted cut-and-thrust sword, used by Oliver Cromwell at the siege of Drogheda (1649) , - the blade bears the marks of two musket-balls ; sword worn by General Wolfe when he fell at Quebec (1759) ; sash used in carrying Sir John Moore from the field, and lowering him into his grave on the ramparts at Corunna ; model of battle of Trafalgar, sword, and other relics of Nelson ; part of the deck of the Victory on which Nelson fell ; rudder of the Royal George sunk at Spithead ; skeleton of Marengo, the barb-horse which Napoleon rode at Waterloo. On the first floor are Captain Siborne's elaborate and faithful model of the field and battle of Waterloo, containing 190,000 metal figures ; Col. Hamilton's model of Sebastopol ; the signal- book of the United States' ship Chesapeake, captured by the Shannon ; Captain Cook's chronometer ; Sir Francis Drake's walking- stick ; Arctic relics of Sir John Franklin. The members are above 4000 in number. Entrance-fee, 17.; annual subscription, 10s. ; life subscription, 61. MUSEUM OF PRACTICAL GEOLOGY, Nos. 28 to 32, JERMYN STREET, established 1835, in consequence of a representation to the Government by Sir Henry de la Beche, C.B. , that the geological survey, then under the Ordnance, and in progress in Cornwall, offered great opportunities of illustrating the application of geology to the useful purposes of life. The present handsome and well- contrived Museum (Sir J. Pennethorne, architect) was opened in 1851. The best use has been made of the space, and a building better fitted for its purposes could not have been devised. It cost 30,000l. The Museum is a School of Mines, similar, as far as circumstances permit, to the École des Mines and other institutions of the like kind on the Continent. The pupils receive instruction from competent professors on metallurgy, chemistry, natural history, applied mechanics, geology, mineralogy, and mining, having access to the labora- tories. Fee for students, 301. A very valuable collection of mining records has been formed. The collections illustrate the mineral products of every part of the United Kingdom and Colonies, including the marbles, porphyries, building-stones, &c. , &c. , with complete series of fossils, ores, and minerals. There are beautiful specimens of polished vases, statues, inlaid floors of mosaics, of native substances and manufacture. They illustrate the application of geology to the useful purposes of life ; numerous models of mining works, mining machinery, metallurgical processes, XIX.-MISSIONARY SOCIETY'S MUSEUM. 187 including those of Bessemer for making steel, and other operations, with needful maps, sections, and drawings, aiding a proper and comprehensive view of the general subject. Pottery and porcelain, a very good collection, historically arranged. The Lecture Theatre holds 450 persons, and evening lectures to working men, illustrative of the collec- tions in the Museum, are delivered in it every season. The Museum is gratuitously open to public inspection every week-day (except Fridays), 10 to 4. MUSEUM OF LONDON MISSIONARY SOCIETY, BLOOMFIELD STREET, MOORFIELDS, comprises a collection of objects of Natural History, and the original idols of the natives ofthe South Seas, prior to the introduction of Chris- tianity also other curiosities from the various regions to which the influence of the Missionary Society extends ; the club with which Williams, the missionary, was slain. The Museum is open for public inspection, free, on Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays, from 10 to 4, from March 25th to September 29th; the rest of the year from 10 to 3. XX.-THEATRES AND PLACES OF AMUSEMENT. HER MAJESTY'S THEATRE, or the OPERA HOUSE, in the HAYMARKET. The actual building was erected in 12 months, May, 1868-69, after a fire , which destroyed all but the 4 walls, in December 1867. (Messrs. Trollope, builders. ) Having been twice burned, every effort has been made to render the present building fire- proof. There are 4 fire- proof staircases from top to bottom. It is one of the largest theatres in Europe, and the third theatre on the same site. The second was built (1790) from the design of Michael Novosielski, enlarged by Nash and Repton in 1816-18. The first theatre on the site was built (1705) by Sir John Vanbrugh, and burnt down in 1789. Many of the double boxes on the ground tier have sold for as much as 70007. and 80007.; a box on the pit tier has sold for 4000%. All the first singers in Europe during the past century have per- formed here. It will hold 1800 persons. Closed since 1867. COVENT GARDEN THEATRE, or THE ROYAL ITALIAN OPERA, on the west side of Bow-street, Covent-garden, is the third theatre on the same spot. The second of these was opened (1809) at " new prices : " hence the O. P. (Old Prices) Row. In 1847, it was converted into an Italian Opera. This noble theatre (the finest in London) was destroyed, 5th March, 1856, by accidental fire. The present building (E. M. Barry, architect) was finished in the space of 6 months, 1858. It is nearly as capacious as the Scala Theatre in 188 XX.-DRURY LANE- HAYMARKET-ADELPHI. Milan, the largest in Europe. It will hold 2000 persons. Italian Operas are performed here in summer, commencing at 8.30 p.m. The statues of Tragedy and Comedy, and the two bas-reliefs on the Bow-street front, are by Flaxman. DRURY LANE THEATRE (Mr. B. Wyatt, son of James Wyatt, architect), is the oldest existing theatre in London. The present edifice, the fourth on the same site, was erected and opened, 1812, with a prologue by Lord Byron. The portico towards Brydges-street was added during the lessee- ship of Elliston (1819-26), and the colonnade in Little Russell-street a few years after. Within the vestibule is a marble statue of Edmund Kean as Hamlet, by Carew. It is like-but the attraction of Kean in Hamlet was the witchery of his voice. The HAYMARKET THEATRE (over against the Opera House in the HAYMARKET) was built by Nash, and publicly opened July 4th, 1821. It stands on a piece of grouud immediately adjoining a former theatre of the same name. The lessee is Mr. Buckstone, the well-known actor. The ADELPHI THEATRE, over against ADAM STREET, in the Strand, was re-built (1858) . The original edifice was a speculation of one Mr. John Scott, a colour- maker. The entertainments consisted of a mechanical and optical exhi- bition, with songs, recitations, and imitations ; and the talents of Miss Scott, the daughter of the proprietor, gave a profitable turn to the undertaking. The old front to- wards the Strand was a mere house-front. When " Tom and Jerry," by Pierce Egan, appeared for the first time (Nov. 26th, 1821 ), Wrench as "Tom," and Reeve as "Jerry," the little Adelphi, as it was then called, became a favourite with the public. Its fortunes varied under different manage- ments. Terry and Yates became (1825) the joint lessees and managers. Terry was backed by Sir Walter Scott and his friend Ballantyne, the printer, but Scott, in the sequel, had to pay for both Ballantyne and himself. Charles Mathews, in conjunction with Yates, leased the theatre, and gave here (1828-31) his series of inimitable " At Homes.' Here John Reeve drew large houses, and obtained his reputa- tion ; and here Mr. Benjamin Webster (the present lessee) , maintains the former character of the establishment. The ROYAL LYCEUM THEATRE, is in the STRAND, at the corner of Upper Wellington- street ; it was built, 1834, by S. Beazley, architect (d . 1851 ) . The interior decorations were made in Madame Vestris's time (1847), and are very beautiful. The theatre derives its name from an academy or exhibition room, built 1765, for the Society of Arts, by Mr. James Payne, architect. It was XX. LYCEUM-PRINCESS's---ASTLEY'S. 189 first converted into a theatre in 1790, and into an English Opera House by Mr. Arnold in 1809. The preceding theatre (also the work of Mr. Beazley) was destroyed by fire, Feb. 16th, 1830. The PRINCESS'S THEATRE is in OXFORD STREET, nearly opposite the Pantheon. Built 1830 ; let on lease at 2,600l. per annum ; is one of the best theatres in London for the purposes of a manager and the interests of the public. The property is held under the Duke of Portland for a term of 60 years, from July, 1820, at a very low ground rent. SADLER'S WELLS THEATRE, long a well-known place of public amusement : first a music-house, and so called from a spring of mineral water, discovered by one Sadler, in 1683, in the garden of a house which he had opened as a public music-room, and called " Sadler's Music House." Here Grimaldi, the famous clown, achieved his, greatest triumphs. This house, under the management of Mr. Phelps, acquired great celebrity for the admirable manner in which the plays of Shakspeare and the OldDramatists were placed onthe stage. ASTLEY'S THEATRE, WESTMINSTER BRIDGE ROAD, originally an equestrian circus, the fourth building of the same nature on the same site. The first amphitheatre on this spot was a mere temporary erection of deal boards, built (1774) by Philip Astley, a light-horseman in the 15th or General Elliot's regiment. It stood on what was then St. George's Fields, through which the New Cut ran. Astley himself, said to have been the handsomest man in England, was the chief performer, assisted by a drum, two fifes, and a clown of the name of Porter. At first it was an open area. In 1780, it was converted into a covered amphitheatre. It has been thrice destroyed by fire-in 1794, in 1803, and in 1841. "Base Buonapartè, fill'd with deadly ire, Sets, one by one, our playhouses on fire. Someyears ago he pounced with deadly glee on The Opera House, then burnt down the Pantheon ; Thy hatch, O Halfpenny ! pass'd in a trice, Boil'd some black pitch, and burnt down Astley's twice." Rejected Addresses. Mr. Ducrow, whohad been one of Astley's riders, and became manager, died insane soon after the fire in 1841. The only equestrian Circus at present is the ROYAL AMPHITHEATRE, HOLBORN. Opens 8 p.m. ROYAL ALFRED, or MARYLEBONE THEATRE, NEW CHURCH STREET, EDGWARE ROAD. ROYAL COURT THEATRE, SLOANE SQUARE, CHELSEA. GLOBE THEATRE, NEWCASTLE STREET, STRAND. 190 XX.-VICTORIA-SURREY-ST. JAMES' -OLYMPIC. GAIETY THEATRE, STRAND. ROYALTY THEATRE, DEAN STREET, Sоно. The VICTORIA THEATRE, WATERLOO BRIDGE ROAD, LAMBETH, was originally The Coburg, and called The Victoria soon after the accession of William IV. , when her present Majesty was only heir presumptive to the crown. The gallery is one of the largest in London. It will hold from 1500 to 2000 people. The SURREY THEATRE, in BLACKFRIARS ROAD, was built ( 1806 and 1866) on the site of former edifices destroyed by fire. Elliston leased it for a time. John Palmer, the actor (d. 1798), played here while a prisoner within the Rules of the King's Bench. The large sums he received, and the way in which he squandered his money, is said to have suggested the clause in the then Debtors' Act, which made all public- houses and places of amusement out of the Rules. This house is chiefly supported by the inhabitants of Southwark and Lambeth. The ST. JAMES'S THEATRE is a small neat edifice, on the south side of KING STREET, St. JAMES's, built by Beazley for Braham, the singer. During the summer it is often appropriated to the performances of a French company of actors, and in the height of the London season is well frequented. The prices of admission vary every season. The OLYMPIC THEATRE, in WYCH STREET, near the STRAND. This theatre, under the management of Madame Vestris, achieved a great success ; and it was during her reign here that the present Charles Mathews was introduced to the stage under the auspices of the celebrated Liston. STANDARD THEATRE, SHOREDITCH, rebuilt, 1867, on site of old Curtain Theatre, in which Ben Jonson acted. THE QUEEN'S THEATRE, originally ST. MARTIN'S HALL, LONG ACRE, originally built, 1850, for monthly con- certs for Mr. Hullah, was burned down 1860. It has since been rebuilt, and opened as a theatre. PRINCE OF WALES' , OPERA COMIQUE, VAUDEVILLE, HOLBORN, KING'S CROSS, ST. GEORGE'S OPERA HOUSE, &c. EXETER HALL, STRAND. A large proprietary building on the N. side of the Strand, built (1831-50) from the designs of J. P. Deering. The Hall is 131 feet long, 76 feet wide (i. e. 8 feet wider than Westminster Hall ) , and 45 feet high ; and will contain more than 3000 persons. It is let for the annual " May Meetings " of the several re- ligious societies, and for the concerts of the Sacred Harmonic XX.-EXETER HALL-ST. JAMES' HALL. 191 Society, in which the unrivalled music of Handel is at times performed, with a chorus of 700 voices accompanying it. Tickets at the music-sellers, and at the Hall. The staircase and means of egress are quite inadequate to the size of the building, and in the event of alarm of fire fatal consequences might ensue. ST. JAMES'S HALL, PICCADILLY and REGENT'S QUADRANT, contains a sumptuous Hall for public meetings, religious services, concerts, or dinners , 139 feet long and 60 feet high, designed and decorated by Owen Jones. The lighting, by means of pendant gas drops from the roof, is very elegant. A restaurant occupies the lower story of the building. WILLIS'S ROOMS, is a suite of Assembly and Dining- rooms in KING STREET, ST. JAMES'S, built (1765) by Robert Mylne, architect, and called Almack's after the original, and "Willis's Rooms," after the present proprietor. The balls called " Almack's," for which these rooms are famous, were managed by a Committee of Ladies of high rank ; and, set apart most exclusively for the aristocracy, were carried on down to 1863, when the barrier began to be broken through by plebeian invasions, the prestige was lost, and they were given up. Almack kept the Thatched House Tavern, St. James's-street, on the site of which stands the Conservative Club. The rooms are let for concerts, general meetings, public balls, and public and private dinner parties. The house is well managed, and the cuisine is very good. The ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS, in REGENT'S PARK, belong to the Zoological Society of London, instituted in 1826, for the advancement of Zoology, and the introduction and exhibition of the Animal Kingdom alive or properly preserved. The principal founders were Sir Humphry Davy and Sir Stamford Raffles. Visitors are admitted to the Gardens of the Society without orders on Monday in every week, at 6d. each ; on the following days at 1s. each ; children at 6d. The Gardens are open from 9 in the morning till sunset. On Sundays they are open to Members only, and two friends introduced personally, or by special order. The rooms of the Society are at No. 11, Hanover-square. A member's fee on admission is 57. , and his annual subscription 31. These Gardens are among the best of our London sights, and should be seen by every stranger in London. They con- tain the largest and most complete series of living animals in the world : amounting commonly to more than 500 quadrupeds, 1000 birds, and 100 reptiles. Many species have been first shown alive in these Gardens. The Monkey-house, in the form of a conservatory of iron and 192 XX.-ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS. glass, and the Antelope and Zebra sheds, are very popular; but the great attractions of the Gardens have been a pair of Hippopotami, presented by the Viceroy of Egypt, the first ever brought to this country, and their child born in the gardens, November 5, 1872 ; the Elephant Calf ; the Apteryx from New Zealand ; and the Vivarium, or Aqua- rium, of living fishes and other marine and freshwater animals, is a very interesting exhibition. The sea bear is one of the latest attractions. The collection of living snakes is the largest ever formed in Europe. The band of the Life Guards is to be heard here in summer on Saturday at 4 p.m. The lions and tigers are fed at 4 p.m. The annual expenditure for Gardens and Museum amounts to 25,000l.: the income exceeds 20,000l.; in the Exhibition year 26,000l.; ofthis, about 5000l. is derived from subscribers, the rest admission fees. THE GERMAN GYMNASIUM, OLD ST. PANCRAS ROAD, KING'S CROSS. A spacious hall for the practice of Gymnastic Exercises, upon the system of the German Herr Jahn. It was built in 1866 bya company for the use of a private association. XXI.-SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES-LEARNED INSTITUTIONS. New Burlington House, the Palace of the Learned Societies, Piccadilly-an Italian edifice erected from designs of Messrs. Banks and Barry, 1871-2, in front of the old Burlington House, forms three sides of a square, of which the main façade, facing Piccadilly, occupies the site of the famous Gateway and Colonnade, designed by Lord Burlington, and re- moved 1869. The new building accommodates on the E. side of the Quadrangle, the Royal, Geological, and Chemical ; on the W. side the Antiquarian, Astronomical, and LinnæanSocieties. 58,000l. has been granted by Parliament for the building. GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON, BURLINGTON HOUSE. Established 1807. (By Charter 1826.) Rev. Dr. Buckland, Messrs. Greenough and Warburton , Founders. The Museum of geological specimens, fossils, &c. , not only British, but from all quarters of the globe, is extensive, though not perfectly arranged. It may be seen by the intro- duction of a member. The museum and library are open every day from 11 till 5. The number of Fellows is about 875. They meet for perusal of papers and for scientific discussions, at half- past 8 o'clock in the evening of alternate Wednesdays, from November to June inclusive. The Society publishes its Transactions, which now assume the form of a quarterly journal. Entrance money, guineas ; annual subscription, 3 guineas. The ROYAL SOCIETY, was incorporated by royal XXI.-ROYAL SOCIETY. 193 · charter, 1663, Charles II. and the Duke of York entering their names as members. This celebrated Society (boasting of the names of Newton, Wren, Halley, Herschel, Davy, and Watt, among its members) originated in a small attendance of men engaged in the same pursuit of science, and in weekly meetings held in London, 1645. The merit of suggesting such meetings is assigned by Wallis to Theodore Haak, a German of the Palatinate, then resident in London. The Civil War interrupted their pursuits for a time ; but with the Resto- ration a fresh accession of strength was obtained, new members enlisted, and the charter of incorporation granted. The Society consists of about 766 " Fellows," and the letters F.R.S. are generally appended to the name of a member. The entrance money is 10l. and the annual subscription 47.; members are elected by ballot, upon the nomination of six or more Fellows. The reception- rooms, where the President holds his soirees in March and April, are on the 1st floor, and include the Library, rich in works of science. The meetings of the Society are held once a week, from the 3rd Thursday in Nov. to the 3rd Thursday in June, on the ground floor. The patron saint of the Society is St. Andrew, and the anniversary meeting is held every 30th of November, being St. Andrew's Day. The Society possesses some in- teresting portraits. Observe. -Three portraits of Sir Isaac Newton-one by C. Jervas, presented by Newton himself, and properly suspended over the President's chair-a second in the Library, by D. C. Marchand—and a third by Vander- bank; two portraits of Halley, by Thomas Murray and Dahl ; two of Hobbes-one taken in 1663 by, says Aubre, "a good hand" and the other by Gaspars, presented by Aubrey ; Sir Christopher Wren, by Kneller ; Wallis, by Soest ; Flamstead, by Gibson ; Robert Boyle, by F. Kerseboom (Evelyn says it is like) ; Pepys, by Kneller, presented by Pepys ; Lord Somers, by Kneller ; Sir R. Southwell, by Kneller ; Sir H. Spelman, the antiquary, by Mytens (how it came here I know not) ; Sir Hans Sloane, by Kneller ; Dr. Birch, by Wills, the original of the mezzotint done by Faber in 1741, be- queathed by Birch ; Martin Folkes, by Hogarth ; Dr. Wollas- ton, by Jackson ; Sir Humphry Davy, by Sir T. Lawrence. Observe also. The mace of silver gilt (similar to the maces of the Lord Chancellor, the Speaker, and President of the College of Physicians), presented to the Society by Charles II. in 1662. The belief so long entertained that it was the mace or " bauble," as Cromwell called it, of the Long Parlia- ment, has been completely refuted bythe original warrant of the year 1662, for the special making of this very mace. -A solar dial, made by Sir Isaac Newton when a boy ; a 194 XXI. SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES . reflecting telescope, made in 1671, by Newton's own hands ; MS. of the Principia, in Newton's own hand- writing ; lock of Newton's hair, silver white ; MS. of the Parentalia, by young Wren ; Charter Book of the Society, bound in crimson velvet, containing the signatures of the Founder and Fellows ; a Rumford fire- place, one of the first set up ; original model of Sir Humphry Davy's Safety Lamp, made by his own hands ; marble bust of Mrs. Somerville, by Chantrey. The Society possesses a Donation Fund, established to aid men of science in their researches, and distributes four medals : a Rumford gold medal, two Royal medals, and a Copley gold medal, called by Davy "the ancient olive crown of the Royal Society." The Society removed from Somerset House to Burlington House in 1856. SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES has apartments in NEW BURLINGTON HOUSE, W. side, since 1871, when it migrated from Somerset House. The Society was founded in 1707, by Wanley, Bagford, Stukely, Vertue, Browne Willis, and a Mr. Talman. George II. , in 1751, granted them a charter ; and in 1777, George III. gave them the apartments they oc- cupied in Somerset House. The terms are, 5 guineas admis- sion, and 2 guineas annually. Members are elected by ballot on the recommendation of at least three Fellows. The letters F.S.A. are generally appended to the names of members. Their Transactions, called the Archæologia, commence in 1770. Days of meeting, every Thursday at 8 p.m., from November to June. Anniversary meeting, April 23rd. The Society pos- sesses a Library and Museum. Observe. -Household Book of Jocky of Norfolk. -A large and interesting Collection of Early Proclamations, interspersed with Early Ballads, many unique.-T. Porter's Map of London (temp. Charles I. ) , once thought to be unique.-A folding Picture on Panel of the Preaching at Old St. Paul's in 1616.-Early Portraits of Edward IV. , Marchioness of York, his sister, and Richard III. —Of Mary I. , with the monogram of Lucas de Heere, and the date 1554.-Portrait of Marquis of Winchester (d. 1571 ) - Portrait by Sir Antonio More of his master John Schoreel, the Flemish painter. Of General Fleetwood. · · Portraits of Antiquaries : Burton, the Leicestershire antiquary ; Peter le Neve ; Humphrey Wanley ; Baker, of St. John's College ; William Stukeley ; George Vertue ; Edward, Earl of Oxford, presented by Vertue. -A Bohemian Astronomical Clock of Gilt Brass, made byJacob Zech in 1525, for Sigismund, King of Poland, and bought at the sale of the effects of James Ferguson, the astronomer. -Spur of Brass Gilt, found on Towton Field, the scene of the conflict between Edward IV. and the XXI.-ROYAL ACADEMY. 195 66 Lancastrian Forces. Upon the shanks is engraved the fol- lowing posy :— en loial amovr tout mon coer." For admission to the Museum apply by letter to the Secretary. ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, founded 1820, by Rev. Dr. Pearson, Francis Baily, Professor Airy, Captain W. H. Smyth, consists of 500 members. The LINNEAN SOCIETY, an offset from the Royal Society, was founded for the study of Natural History, 1788, by Sir Jos. Banks, Robert Brown, &c. It has a good Library and Collections of Natural History, including the Herbaria of Linnæus and of Sir J. E. Smith. ROYAL ACADEMY OF ARTS, BURLINGTON HOUSE, PICCADILLY, (removed, 1868-69, from Trafalgar Square). In 1868 Old Burlington House was granted on a lease of 999 years, at a nominal rent, to the Royal Academy, in exchange for the rooms they previously occupied in Trafalgar Square. The Council Room, Office, Schools of Drawing, &c. , are in this building, while in the rear of it a very suitable and grand Gallery, or range of 13 Halls, was erected, 1868-69, from designs of Sydney Smirke, for the Annual Exhibition of Modern Artists in Painting and Sculpture. Besides a Central Octagon for Sculpture it includes a Great Room where the Annual Banquet is held, and a Theatre for Lec- tures and for Distribution of Prizes, all on the first floor. The basement is devoted to Schools of Art, for male and female Students, & c. The Royal Academy was constituted 1768. Its principal objects are-1. The establishment of a well- regulated "School, or Academy of Design," for the gratuitous in- struction of students in the art ; and, 2. An " annual exhibition," open to all artists of distinguished merit, where they may offer their performances to public inspection, and acquire that degree of reputation and encouragement which they may be deemed to deserve. It is "a private society, supporting a school that is open to the public, " from its own resources, without any grant of public money. The members are under the superintendence and control of the Queen only, who confirms all appoint- ments ; and the society itself consists of 42 Royal Acade- micians (including a President) , at least 20 Associates, and 6 Associate Engravers. The Royal Academy derives the whole of its funds from the produce of its annual exhibition, to which the price of admission is 1s. , and the catalogue 1s. The average annual receipts are 60001. The annual Exhibition of Pictures by Living Artists opens 0 2 196 XXI.-ROYAL ACADEMY.-EXHIBITIONS. the first Monday in May, and works intended for exhibition must be sent in a month before. No works which have been already exhibited ; no copies of any kind (excepting paintings on enamel) ; no mere transcripts of the objects of natural history ; no vignette portraits, nor any drawings without backgrounds (excepting architectural designs), can be received. No artist is allowed to exhibit more than 8 different works. Honorary exhibitors (or unprofessional artists) are limited to one. All works sent for exhibition are submitted to the approval or rejection of the Council, whose decision is final, and may be ascertained by application at the Academy in the week after they have been left there. The Exhibition closes the end ofJuly. Winter Exhibition of Old Masters. In 1869 the Royal Academy Council wisely determined to open their handsome Hall in January and February, for an Exhibition of the Art Treasures in Painting, belonging to private persons in Great Britain, which are liberally lent for the purpose of being shown to the public. Few exhibitions of the year exceed this in interest. No country in the world can show, year after year, such precious master-pieces of painting. Admission of Students. -Any person desiring to become a student of the Royal Academy presents a drawing or model of his own performance to the keeper, which, if con- sidered by him a proof of sufficient ability, is laid before the Council, together with a testimony of his moral character, from an Academician, or other known person of respectability. If these are approved by the Council, the candidate is per- mitted to make a drawing or model from one of the antique figures in the Academy, and the space of three months from the time of receiving such permission is allowed for that purpose ; the time of his attendance is from 10 o'clock in the morning until 3 in the afternoon. This drawing or model, when finished, is laid before the Council, accompanied with outline drawings of an anatomical figure and skeleton, not less than two feet high, with lists and references, on each drawing, of the several muscles, tendons, and bones contained therein, together with the drawing or model originally presented for his admission as a probationer : if approved, the candidate is accepted as a student of the Royal Academy, and receives in form the ticket of his admission from the hand of the keeper in the Antique School. If the specimen presented be rejected by the Council, he is not allowed to continue drawing in the Academy. The rule for architectural students is of a like character. The first president was Sir Joshua Reynolds--the present president is Sir Francis Grant. The election of Associates XXI.-ROYAL ACADEMY OF MUSIC. 197 takes place in January, of Academicians in June and De- cember ; and the 10th of December is the day for the annual distribution of prizes. The Royal Academy possesses a fine library of books and prints, open to the students, and a large collection of casts from the antique, and several interesting pictures by Old Masters. Each member on his election presents a picture, or a work of art, of his own design and execution, to the collection of the Academy. The series thus obtained, so interesting in the history of British art, contains Portraits of Sir William Chambers, the architect, of George III. , and of Reynolds in his Doctor's Robes, by Reynolds (all very fine) ; Boys digging for a rat, by Sir David Wilkie. Other Works of Art. - 1 . Cartoon of the Holy Family, in black chalk, by L. Da Vinci ; executed with extreme care, the Holy Virgin is represented on the lap of St. Anne, her mother ; she bends down tenderly to the infant Christ, who plays with a lamb. 2. Bas-relief, in marble, of the Holy Family, by Michael Angelo ; presented by Sir George Beaumont. St. John is presenting a dove to the child Jesus, who shrinks from it and shelters himself in the arms of his mother, who seems gently reproving St. John for his hastiness, and putting him back with her hand. The child is finished and the mother in great part the St. John is only sketched, but in a most masterly style. 3. Copy, in oil, of Da Vinci's Last Supper (size of the original) , by Marco d'Oggione, perhaps represents more exactly Lionardo's grand design than the original itself in its present mutilated state at Milan. This was formerly in the Certosa at Pavia. 4. A very fine Giorgione, a fresco by Paul Veronese. 5. Marble bust of Wilton, the sculptor, by Roubiliac. Admission to view these pictures, &c. , is obtained by a written application to the keeper. Here will be a Gallery for the exhibition of the works of Gibson the sculptor, bequeathed by him to the R. A. George III. gave rooms to the R. A. soon after its foundation in 1780, in his Palace of Somerset House. They quitted these, 1834. ROYAL ACADEMY OF MUSIC, 4, TENTERDEN STREET, HANOVER SQUARE. Founded ( 1822) by the late Earl of Westmoreland, who confided its organisation and general direction to Bochsa, the composer and harpist, at that time director to the Italian Opera in London. This is an academy for teaching all branches of Music. Some previous know. ledge is required, and candidates have to pass an examina- tion before being admitted as Students. The annual fee for the entire course of study is £30, or £10 per term, with an entrance fee of £5. There is a large Musical Library. 198 XXI.-ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS, in PALL MALL EAST, corner of TRAFALGAR SQUARE, was built by Sir R. Smirke, for 30,000l. , and opened ( 25th June, 1825) with a Latin oration by Sir Henry Halford . The College was founded by Linacre, physician to Henry VIII. The members, at its first institu- tion, met in the founder's house in Knightrider Street on the site of No. 5, still (by Linacre's bequest) in the possession of the College. (From the founder's house they moved to Amen Corner, where Harveyread his lectures on the discovery of the circulation of the blood) ; thence ( 1674 ) , after the Great Fire, to Warwick Lane (where Wren built them a college, pulled down 1866) , and from Warwick Lane to the present Collation. Observe. In the gallery above the library seven preparations by Harvey, discoverer of the circulation of the blood, and a very large number by Dr. Matthew Baillie. The engraved portrait of Harvey, by Jansen ; head of Sir Thomas Browne, author of " Religio Medici ; " Sir Theodore Mayerne, physician to James I.; Sir Edmund King, the physician who bled King Charles II. in a fit, on his own responsibility ; head of Dr. Sydenham, by Mary Beale ; Dr. Radcliffe, by Kneller ; Sir Hans Sloane, by Richardson ; Sir Samuel Garth, by Kneller ; Dr. Freind ; Dr. Mead ; Dr. Warren, by Gainsborough ; William Hunter ; Dr. Heberden. Busts.-George IV. , by Chantrey (one of his finest) ; Dr. Mead, by Roubiliac ; Dr. Sydenham, by Wilton (from the picture) ; Harvey, by Scheemakers (from the picture) ; Dr. Baillie, by Chantrey (from a model by Nollekens); Dr. Babington, by Behnes. - Dr. Radcliffe's gold-headed cane, successively carried by Drs. Radcliffe, Mead, Askew, Pitcairn, and Matthew Baillie, and a clever little picture, by Zoffany, of Hunter delivering a lecture on anatomy before the members of the Royal Academy-all portraits. Mode of Admission.-Order from a Fellow. Almost every physician of eminence in London is a Fellow. - ROYAL COLLEGE OF SURGEONS, LINCOLN'S INN FIELDS. See Permanent Free Exhibitions, pp. 179–182. HERALDS' COLLEGE, or COLLEGE OF ARMS, removed from DOCTORS' COMMONS, to Queen Victoria Street. Here is the Earl Marshal's Office, once an important court, but now of little consequence. It was sometime called the Court of Honour, and took cognisance of words supposed to reflect upon the nobility. The College con- sists of 3 Kings-Garter, Clarencieux, and Norroy ; of 6 Heralds-Lancaster, Somerset, Richmond, Windsor, York, and Chester; and of 4 Pursuivants-Rouge Croix, Blue XXI. -HERALDS' COLLEGE. 199 Mantle, Portcullis, and Rouge Dragon. The several appointments are in the gift of the Duke of Norfolk, as hereditary Earl Marshal. Celebrated Officers of the College. - William Camden, Clarencieux ; Sir William Dugdale, Garter ; Elias Ashmole, founder of the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford, Windsor Herald ; Francis Sandford, author of the Genealogical History of England, Lancaster Herald ; John Anstis, Garter; Sir John Vanbrugh, the poet, Claren- cieux ; Francis Grose, author of Grose's Antiquities, Rich- mond Herald ; William Oldys, Norroy King at Arms ; Lodge (" Lodge's Portraits " ) , Clarencieux. Two escutcheons, one bearing the arms (and legs) of the Isle of Man, and the other the eagle's claw, ensigns of the house of Stanley, still to be seen on the S. side of the quadrangle, denote the site of old Derby House, in which the Heralds were located before the Great Fire of London. Observe. -Sword, dagger, and turquoise ring, belonging to James IV. of Scotland, who fell at Flodden-field, presented to the college by the Duke of Norfolk, temp. Charles II. "They produce a better evidence of James's death than the iron belt -the monarch's sword and dagger, which are still preserved in the Heralds' College in London." -Sir Walter Scott (Note to Marmion) . Portrait of Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury (the great warrior) , from his tomb in old St. Paul's. Roll of Arms (temp. Henry III.) , copied 1586 by Glover (Somerset Herald) , and said to be the earliest record we possess relative to English Heraldry. The arms are blazoned or described in words, not pictured. Roll of the Tournament holden at Westminster, in honour of Queen Katherine, upon the birth of Prince Henry (1510) : a most curious roll, engraved in the Monumenta Vetusta, Vol. I. —The Rous or Warwick roll : a series of figures of all the Earls of Warwick, from the Conquest to the reign of Richard III. , executed by Rous, the antiquary of Warwick, at the close of the fifteenth century. -Pedigree of the Saxon Kings, fromAdam, illustrated with manybeautiful drawings in pen-and-ink (temp. Henry VIII. ) of the Creation, Adam and Eve in Paradise, the Building of Babel, Rebuilding of the Temple, &c. -MSS. , consisting chiefly of Heralds' visitations ; records of grants of arms and royal licences ; records of modern pedigrees (i. e. since the discontinuance ofthe visitations in 1687) ; a most valuable collection of official funeral certificates ; a portion ofthe Arundel MSS.; the Shrewsbury or Cecil papers, from which Lodge derived his Illustrations of British History ; notes, &c. , made by Glover, Vincent, Philipot, and Dugdale ; a volume in the handwriting of the 200 XXI.-INSTITUTION OF ENGINEERS-ARCHITECTS. venerable Camden ; the collections of Sir Edward Walker, Secretary at War (temp. Charles I.) . INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS, 25, GREAT GEORGE STREET, WESTMINSTER. Established 1818 ; incorporated 1828. The Institution consists of Members resident in London, paying 4 guineas annually, and Members not resident, 3 guineas annually ; ofAssociates resident in London, paying 3 guineas annually, and Associates not resident, 2 guineas ; of Graduates resident in London, paying 23 guineas annually, and Graduates not resident, 2 guineas ; and of Honorary Members. The ordinary General Meetings are held every Tuesday at 8 p.m., from the second Tuesday in January to the end of June. The first president was Thomas Telford (1820-34) ; the second, James Walker (1835-45) ; the third, Sir John Rennie ; and the present one, J. M. Rendle, Esq. Observe.-Portrait of Thomas Telford, engineer of the Menai Bridge, and President of the Institution for 14 years. ROYAL INSTITUTE OF BRITISH ARCHITECTS, 16, LOWER GROSVENOR STREET, GROSVENOR SQUARE. Founded 1834, for the advancement of architecture, and incorporated 1837. There are three classes ofMembers :-1. Fellows : architects engaged as principals for at least seven years in the practice of civil architecture. 2. Associates : persons engaged in the study of civil architecture, or in practice less than seven years, and who have attained the age of 21. 3. Honorary Fellows. The Meetings are held every alternate Monday at 8 p.m., from the first Monday in November till the end of June inclusive. Associate's admission fee, 1 guinea ; Fellow's admission fee, 5 guineas. There is a good library of books on architecture. THE ARCHITECTURAL MUSEUM of this Institute is in BOWLING ST. , DEAN'S YARD, WESTMINSTER. It consists of collections of Casts and Specimens. ROYAL INSTITUTION OF GREAT BRITAIN, a Library, Reading, and Lecture Room, 21 , ALBEMARLE STREET, PICCADILLY. Established 1799, at a meeting held at the house of Sir Joseph Banks, for diffusing the knowledge and facilitating the general introduction of useful mechanical inventions and improvements, &c. Count Rumford was its earliest promoter. The front a row of Corinthian columns half-engaged—was designed by Mr. Vulliamy, architect, from the Custom House at Rome ; and what before was little better than a perforated brick wall, was thus converted into an ornamental façade. Here is an excellent library of general reference, and a good reading room, with weekly courses of lectures, throughout the season, on Chemical Science XXI.-ROYAL INSTITUTION. -SOCIETY OF ARTS. 201 Philosophy, Physiology, Literature, Art, &c. Members (can- didates to be proposed by four members) are elected by ballot, and a majority of two- thirds is necessary for election. The admission fee is 5 guineas, and the annual subscription 5 guineas. Subscribers to the Theatre Lectures only, or to the Laboratory Lectures only, pay 2 guineas ; subscribers to both pay 3 guineas for the season ; subscribers to a single course of the Theatre Lectures pay 1 guinea. A syllabus of each course may be obtained of the Secretary at the Institution. The Friday Evening Meetings (8 to 10 p.m.) , at which some eminent person is invited to deliver a popular lecture on some subject connected with science, art, or literature, are well attended. Non- subscribers may be admitted to them by a ticket signed by a member. In the Laboratory, Davy made his great discoveries on the metallic bases of the earths, aided by the large galvanic apparatus of the establishment. Hence sprung also Fara- day's remarkable researches. SOCIETY OF ARTS, in JOHN STREET, ADELPHI, an old society, for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures, &c., by the Distribution of Prizes, delivery of Lectures, & c. , is trying to regain strength and to accomplish greater good than it seems likely to effect. Many of the directors were energetic promoters of the Great International Exhibitions, in 1851 and 1862. In the Great Room are temporary exhibitions of manufactures, and six pictures by James Barry, painted 1777-83, and creditable to the then state of art in England. ROYAL SOCIETY OF LITERATURE, 4, ST. MARTIN'S PLACE, CHARING CROSS. Founded in 1823, " for the advancement of literature," and incorporated 1826. George IV. gave 1100 guineas a-year to this Society, which has the merit of rescuing the last years of Coleridge's life from complete dependence on a friend, and of placing the learned Dr. Jamieson above the wants and necessities of a man fast sinking to the grave. The annual grant of 1100 guineas was dis- continued by William IV. , and the Society has since sunk into a Transaction Society, with a small but increasing library. LONDON INSTITUTION, FINSBURY CIRCUS, MOOR- FIELDS. A proprietary institution, established in 1806, in Sir William Clayton's house, Old Jewry. The first stone of the present edifice was laid May 4, 1815, and the building (which is handsome and very suitable to its pur- pose) was opened 1819. Architect, W. Brooks, who also built Finsbury Chapel, &c. The library, consisting of up- wards of 60,000 volumes, is particularly rich in topogra 202 XXI. -GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY, ETC. phical works. The collector and antiquary, William Upcott, was one of its librarians. ROYAL GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY, SAVILLE ROW, established 1830, for the improvement and diffusion of geographical knowledge. Elections by ballot. Entrance fee, 37.; annual subscription, 2l. There is a good geogra- phical library, and large collection of maps. Under Sir Roderick I. Murchison, late President, it has become the most popular and instructive society in London. Meetings where papers on geographical discoveries are read in the spacious theatre of the University of London, Burlington Gardens- every other Monday, from November to July, at 8 p.m. ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY, 22, ALBEMARLE STREET, (founded 1823, ) contains an extensive and valuable library of Oriental works and MSS. The Society usually meets on the 1st and 3rd Saturdays in every month, from Nov. to June in- clusive. Admission fee, 5 guas.; annual subscription, 2 guas. SION COLLEGE. A Hall, Library, and Almshouse, close to St. Alphage, and to almost the only fragment left of London Wall, was founded temp. Charles I. , to provide a home for a few Bedesmen, and a reading- room for the bene- ficed clergy of London. At the time of the Civil Wars the Puritan divines met within its walls. The Library is large and curious, chiefly occupied by Divinity. ROYAL HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY, South Kensington, Exhibition Road, opposite to the South Kensington Museum, has here Ornamental and Experimental Gardens, laid out at a cost of 70,000l. , including a Hall, where meetings and flower exhibitions are held. On the N. rises a great Glass Winter Garden and other conservatories, elegant parterres varied with shrubberies, and single trees transplanted from a distance. The whole is surrounded by acolonnade and cloister of good architectural design ; finished, 1861, at the cost of the Government, who agreed to expend on it 50,000l. The grounds were laid out by Nesfield ; the buildings designed by Digby Wyatt. Their extent is 22 acres, forming part of the Kensington Gore estate, purchased out of the surplus fund arising from the Great Exhibition of 1851. The Society retains an Experimental Garden at Chiswick. Each Fellow can introduce personally two friends to the Garden at S. Kensington, except on Exhibition Days. Open daily 9 to dusk. Sundays from 2 p.m. The Statistical Society, 12, St. James's Square ; and Ethno- logical Society. There are also Societies for printing books connected with particular subjects, such as the Camden and Hakluyt, and The Arundel, Old Bond Street, for engraving the works of early Italian and German masters. XXI.-ROYAL HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 203 PRINCE ALBERT'S ENTRANCE STRUCTURE The Patent-Office Library, Southampton Buildings, Chan- cery Lane, 40,000 vols. , perhaps the finest collection of Scientific Works in Britain, is open free to the Public daily. At No. 12, St. James's Square, is the admirably managed London Library, a public subscription Circulating Library, of valuable standard works, possessing 60,000 volumesentrance fee, 67.; annual subscription, 27. There is a printed catalogue ofthe library. MEMORIAL KENSINGTON ROAD ROAD ENTRANCE XHIBITION CAL XHIBITION ENTRANCE ROYAL ENTRANCE EXHIBITION CONSERVATORY ROYAL HORTICULTURAL GARDENS -HBITLON X FRENCH COURT ENTRANCE REFRESHMENTS MEYRICK ENTRA SITE OF EXHIBITION 1862. TO BE USED FOR THE NATURAL HISTORY OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM. CROMWELL RAILWAY KENSINGTON SOUTH MUSEUM XXII. -COLLEGES AND SCHOOLS. UNIVERSITY OF LONDON, BURLINGTON GARDENS, between Bond Street and Regent Street, is a Board of Examiners, paid by Government, established 1837, for con- ferring degrees on graduates of various Colleges in London ROAD 204 XXII -UNIVERSITY-UNIVERSITY COLLEGE. and elsewhere, previously matriculated at this University. In the words of its Charter, it is established " for the advancement of religion and morality, and the promotion of useful knowledge without distinction of rank, sect, or party." There are several scholarships attached, each with 50l. a year. The salary of the Registrar and Treasurer is 500l. a year, The institute has nothing to do with the business of education, being constituted for the sole purpose of ascertaining the pro- ficiency of candidates for academical distinctions. The exami- nations, including those for Matriculation, occur twice a year. The Building is one of the handsomest and most original modern edifices in London, completed 1869 , from designs of Pennethorne. Its bold and picturesquely varied Palladian façade is decorated with statues. Over the portico Milton, Newton, Harvey, and Bentham, English representatives of the 4 faculties, by Durham. Along the central cornice 6 An- cient Philosophers : on the E. wing Galileo, Laplace, Goethe, by Wyon ; Cuvier, Leibnitz, and Linnæus, by Mac Dowell : on the W. wing -Locke, Bacon, Adam Smith, by W. Theed ; Hume, Hunter, Sir H. Davy, by M. Noble. The building contains a Theatre, Examination Rooms, Council Rooms, &c. The Library though of recent formation is large and rich in works of science and classical literature, chiefly owing to the liberal donations of Lord Overstone, and the late George Grote, historian of Greece. UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, LONDON, on the east side of UPPER GOWER STREET. A proprietary institution, " for the general advancement of literature and science, by affording to young men adequate opportunities for obtaining literary and scientific education at a moderate expense ; " founded (1828) bythe exertions of Lord Brougham, Thomas Campbell, the poet, and others, and built from the designs of W. Wilkins, R.A., architect of the National Gallery. Everything is taught in the College but divinity. The school of medicine is deservedly distinguished . The Junior School, under the government of the Council of the College, is entered by a separate entrance in Upper Gower Street. The hours of attendance are from a quarter past 9 to three- quarters past 3 ; in which time one hour and a quarter is allowed for recreation. The yearly payment for each pupil is 187. The subjects taught are reading, writing ; the English, Latin, Greek, French, and German languages ; Ancient and English history ; geography ; arithmetic and book-keeping, the elements of mathematics and of natural philosophy. The discipline of the school is maintained without corporal punishment. Several of the professors, and some of the mas- ters, receive students to reside with them ; and in the office XXII.-FLAXMAN MUSEUM-KING'S COLLEGE. 205 ofthe College there is kept a register of parties unconnected with the College who receive boarders into their families : among these are several medical gentlemen. The Registrar will afford information as to terms, and other particulars. The Flaxman Museum.-In the hall under the cupola of the College the original models are preserved of the prin- cipal works, monuments, bas-reliefs, statues, &c. , of John Flaxman, R.A., the greatest of our English sculptors. The Pastoral Apollo, the St. Michael, and some of the bas- reliefs , are amazingly fine. The clever portrait statue in marble of Flaxman, by the late M. L. Watson, purchased by public subscription, is placed on the stairs as you enter the Gallery. A fine collection of Flaxman's original drawings is well displayed. The whole deserves the attention of every lover of art. In the cloister below is another fine work of art, in marble niello, the outline coloured, of subjects from Homer. The artist is Baron de Triqueti, of Paris. Mr. Grote, the historian, presented this Marmor Homericum to the college. Open on Saturdays. Tickets given at the Lodge on presenting a card. KING'S COLLEGE AND SCHOOL. A proprietary institution, occupying the east wing of Somerset House, which was built up to receive it, having been before left incomplete. The College was founded in 1828, upon the following funda- mental principle :-"That every system of general education for the youth of a Christian community ought to comprise instruction in the Christian religion as an indispensable part, without which the acquisition of other branches of knowledge will be conducive neither to the happiness of the individual nor the welfare of the state." The general education of the College is carried on in five departments : -1. Theological Department ; 2. Department of General Literature and Science ; 3. Department of the Applied Sciences ; 4. Medical Department; 5. Department of Evening Classes . The School forms a sixth department. Persons wishing to place a pupil in the school must produce, to the head-master, a certificate of good conduct, signed by his last instructor. The age for admission is from 9 to 16 years. Rooms are provided within the walls of the College for the residence of a limited number of matriculated students. Each proprietor has the privilege of nominating two pupils to the School, or one to the School and one to the College at the same time. The Museum contains the Calculating Machine of Mr. Babbage, deposited by the Commissioners of the Woods and Forests ; and the collection of Mechanical Models and Philosophical Instruments formed by George III. , presented by Queen Victoria. 206 XXII.-ST. PAUL'S SCHOOL. ST. PAUL'S SCHOOL. On the E. side of St. Paul's Churchyard, founded in 1512, for 153 poor men's children, by Dr. John Colet, Dean of St. Paul's, the friend of Erasmus, and son of Sir Henry Colet, mercer, and Mayor of London in 1486 and 1495. The boys were to be taught, free of expense, by a master, sur-master, and chaplain, and the oversight of the school was committed by the founder to the Mercers' Company. The number is limited to 153, the number of fishes taken by St. Peter. The school was dedicated by Colet to the Child Jesus, but the saint, as Strype remarks, has robbed his master of his title. The lands left by Colet to support his school were estimated, in 1598, at the yearly value of about 1201. Their present value is upwards of 5000l. The education is entirely clas- sical, and the presentations to the school are in the gift of the Master of the Mercers' Company for the time being. Scholars are admitted at the age of 15, but at present none are eligible to an exhibition if entered after 12 ; and none are expected to remain in the school after their nineteenth birthday, though no time for superannuation is fixed by the statutes. The head-master's salary is 6187. per annum ; the sur-master's, 3071.; the under-master's, 272l.; and the assistant-master's, 2571. Lilly, the grammarian, and friend of Erasmus, was the first master, and the grammar which he compiled, is still used. Eminent Scholars. -John Leland, our earliest English antiquary ; John Milton, the great epic poet of our nation ; the great Duke of Marlborough ; Nelson, author of Fasts and Festivals ; Edmund Halley, the astronomer ; Samuel Pepys, the diarist ; John Strype, the ecclesiastical historian ; Lord Chancellor Truro, and Sir Frederick Pollock, Chief Baron. The present school was built in 1823, from a design by Mr. George Smith, and is the third building erected on the same site. Colet's school was destroyed in the Great Fire, " but built up again," says Strype, "much after the same manner and proportion it was before." WESTMINSTER SCHOOL, or ST. PETER'S COLLEGE, DEAN'S YARD, WESTMINSTER, founded as a publique schoole for Grammar, Rethoricke, Poetrie, and for the Latin and Greek languages," by Queen Elizabeth, 1560, and attached to the collegiate church of St. Peter at Westminster. The College consists of a dean, 12 prebendaries, 12 almsmen, and 40 scholars ; with a master and an usher. This is the foundation, but the school consists of a larger number of masters, and of a much larger number of boys. The 40 are called Queen's scholars, and after an examination, which takes place on the first Tuesday after Rogation Sunday, 4 are elected to Trinity College, Cambridge, and 4 to Christ Church, 66 XXII.-WESTMINSTER SCHOOL. 207 Oxford. A parent wishing to place a boy at this school will get every necessary information from the head master ; boys are not placed on the foundation under 12 or above 13 years of age. Eminent Masters. -Camden, the antiquary ; Dr. Busby; Vincent Bourne ; Jordan (Cowley has a copy of verses on his death). Eminent Men educated at. -Poets: Ben Jonson ; George Herbert ; Giles Fletcher ; Jasper Mayne ; William Cartwright ; Cowley, who published a volume of poems while a scholar ; Dryden ; Nat Lee ; Rowe ; Prior ; Churchill ; Dyer, author of Grongar Hill ; Cowper ; Southey. Other great Men. -Sir Harry Vane, the younger ; Hakluyt, the collector of the Voyages which bear his name ; Sir Christopher Wren ; Locke ; South ; Atterbury ; Warren Hastings ; Gibbon, the historian ; Cumberland ; the elder Colman ; Lord John Russell. The boys on the foundation were formerly separated from the town boys when in school by a bar or curtain. The Schoolroom was a dormitory belonging to the Abbey, and retains certain traces of its former ornaments. The name " Shell " arose from an apsidal recess at one end of it. The College Hall, originally the Abbot's Refectory, was built by Abbot Litlington, in the reign of Edward III. , and the old louvre is still used for the escape of the smoke. The Dormitory was rebuilt by the Earl of Burlington, in 1722. It is about 160 feet long, and the walls are covered with the names of former scholars. In conformity with old custom, the Queen's scholars here perform a play of Terence every year at Christmas, with a Latin prologue and epilogue relating to current events. The performers have worn classic costume since 1839. CHARTER HOUSE, (a corruption of Chartreuse, ) upper end of ALDERSGATE STREET. "An hospital, chapel, and school-house," founded, 1611, by Thomas Sutton, of Camps Castle, Cambridge, for the free education of 40 poor boys and for the sustenance of 80 ancient gentlemen, captains, and others, brought to distress by shipwrecks, wounds, or other reverse of fortune. It was so called from a priory of Carthusian monks, founded in 1371 on a Pest-house field by Sir Walter Manny, knight of the garter in the reign of Edward III. The last prior was executed at Tyburn, May 4th, 1535- his head set on London Bridge, and one of his limbs over the gateway of his own convent-the same gateway, it is said, a Per- pendicular arch, which is still the entrance from CharterHouse Square. The priory thus sternly dissolved, was sold by Thomas Howard, Earl of Suffolk, to Thomas Sutton for 13,000l. , and endowed as a charity by the name of "the 208 XXII.-CHARTER HOUSE. ― Hospital of King James." Sutton died before his work was complete, and was buried in the chapel of the hos pital beneath a sumptuous monument, the work of Nicholas Stone and Mr. Jansen of Southwark. This " triple good," as Lord Bacon calls it - this " masterpiece of Protestant English charity," as it is called by Fuller is under the direction of the Queen, 15 governors, selected from the great officers of state, and the master of the hospital, whose income is 800l. a year, besides a capital residence within the walls. The most eminent master of the house was Dr. Thomas Burnet, author of the Theory of the Earth, 1685-1715 ; and the most eminent schoolmaster, the Rev. Andrew Tooke (Tooke's Pantheon). Eminent Scholars. -Richard Crashaw, the poet, author of Steps to the Temple. -Isaac Barrow, the divine ; he was celebrated at school for his love of fighting. -Sir William Blackstone, author of the Commentaries. -Joseph Addison and Sir Richard Steele were scholars at the same time.-John Wesley, who imputed his after-health and long life to the strict obedience with which he performed an injunction of his father's, that he should run round the Charter House playing-green three times every morning. -Lord Chief Justice Ellenborough.- Lord Liverpool (the Prime Minister). Bishop Monk.- W. M. Thackeray. -Sir C. L. Eastlake, P.R.A.- The two eminent historians of Greece, Bishop Thirlwall and George Grote, Esq., were both together in the same form under Dr. Raine. -General Sir Henry Havelock. - John Leech, the genial artist and illustrator of Punch. Poor Brethren. -Elkanah Settle, the rival and antagonist of Dryden ; he died here in 1723-4. - John Bagford, the antiquary (d. 1716) ; was originally a shoemaker in Turnstile. - Isaac de Groot, by several descents the nephew of Hugo Grotius ; he was admitted at the earnest intercession of Dr. JohnAlexander Macbean (d. 1784), Johnson's assistant in his Dictionary. Observe. The great hall ; parts of old Howard House (for such it was once called), with the initials T. N. (Thomas, Duke of Norfolk) ; the great staircase ; the governor's room, with its panelled chimney-piece, ceiling, and ornamental tapestry ; the chapel (repaired in 1842 under the direction of Blore) ; the founder, Sutton's tomb, with recum. bent effigy, in the chapel. On opening the vault in 1842, the body was discovered in a coffin of lead, adapted to the shape of the body, like an Egyptian mummy-case. Chief Justice Ellenborough is buried by the side of Sutton. In the Master's lodge are several portraits. The Founder, engraved by Vertue for Bearcroft's book ; Izaak Walton's good old Bishop Morley ; Charles II.; Villiers, second son. -- XXII.- CHRIST'S HOSPITAL. 209 Duke of Buckingham ; Duke of Monmouth ; Lord Chancellor Shaftesbury ; William, Earl of Craven (the Queen of Bohemia's Earl) ; Sheldon, Archbishop of Canterbury; Sheffield, Duke of Buckingham; Talbot, Duke of Shrewsbury; Lord Chancellor Somers ; and Dr. Thomas Burnet ; one of Kneller's finest works. The income ofthe Charter House, was in 1853-4, £28,908 78. 74d. , arising from Estates in Cam- bridgeshire, Essex, Wilts, and Lincoln, and from funded property. The atmosphere of the city not being congenial to boyish nature and the confinement within walls being detrimental to health, the school was removed, 1872, to Godalming in Surrey, where a handsome edifice, on a grand site, has been erected from Ph. Hardwick's designs. The old school and play- green were sold, 1867, to the Merchant Taylors' Company for their school for 90,000l. The old Pensioners remain. A wall of partition has been built to separate the new inmates from the old. CHRIST'S HOSPITAL, NEWGATE STREET, marked by its great hall, visiblethrough adouble railing from Newgate Street. This noble charity was founded on the site of the Grey Friars Monastery, by Edward VI. , June 26th, 1553, ten days before his death, as an hospital for poor fatherless children and found- lings. It is commonly called " The Blue Coat School," from the dress worn by the boys, which is of the same age as the foundation of the hospital. The dress is a blue coat or gown, a yellow petticoat, a red leather girdle round the waist, yellow stockings, a clergyman's band round the neck, and a flat black cap of woollen yarn, about the size of a saucer. Blue was a colour originally confined to servant-men and boys, nor, till its recognition as part of the uniform of the British Navy, was blue ever looked upon as a colour to be worn by gentlemen. The first stone of the New Hall was laid by the Duke of York, April 28th, 1825, and the Hall publicly opened May 29th, 1829. The architect was James Shaw, who built the church of St. Dunstan's in Fleet Street. It is better in its proportions than in its details . __Observe. —At the upper end of the Hall, a large picture of Edward VI. granting the charter of incor- poration to the Hospital. It is improperly assigned to Holbein. -Large picture, by Verrio, of James II. on his throne (surrounded by his courtiers, all curious portraits), receiving the mathematical pupils at their annual presenta- tion at Court : a custom still kept up. The painter presented it to the Hospital.-Full-length of Charles II., by Verrio. -Full-length of Sir Francis Child (d. 1713), from P 210 XXII. CHRIST'S HOSPITAL. whom Child's Banking-house derives its name. - Full- lengths of the Queen and Prince Albert, by Sir Francis Grant, P.R.A. -Brook Watson, when a boy, attacked by a shark, by J. S. Copley, R.A., the father of Lord Lyndhurst. - The stone inserted in the wall behind the steward's chair ; when a monitor wishes to report the misconduct of a boy, he tells him to " go to the stone. " In this Hall, every year on St. Matthew's Day (Sept. 21st), the Grecians, or head-boys, deliver a series of orations before the Lord Mayor, Corporation, and Governors, and here every Thursday, from Quinquagesima Sundayto Good Friday, the "Suppings in Public," as they are called, are held ; a picturesque sight, and always well attended. Each governor has tickets to give away. The bowing to the president, and procession of the trades, are extremely curious. The two chief classes in the school are called " Grecians and "Deputy- Grecians." Eminent Grecians.-Joshua Barnes (d. 1712) , editor of Anacreon and Euripides. Jeremiah Markland (d. 1776), an eminent critic, particularly in Greek literature. S. T. Coleridge, the poet (d. 1834). Mitchell, the translator of Aristophanes ( d. 1845) . Thomas Barnes, for many years, and till his death (1841) , editor of the Times newspaper. Eminent Deputy- Grecians.--Charles Lamb (Elia), whose delightful " Recollections of Christ's Hospital" give a special interest to the school (d. 1834). Leigh Hunt. Eminent Scholars whose standing in the School is unknown.— William Camden, author of the " Britannia." Bishop Stillingfleet. Samuel Richardson, author of " Clarissa Harlowe. " Thomas TheMathematical-school was founded by Charles II. , in 1672, for forty boys, called " King's boys," distinguished by a badge onthe right shoulder. The school was afterwards enlarged, at the expense of a Mr. Stone. The boys on the new founda- tion wear a bage on the left shoulder, and are called " The Twelves," on account of their number. To "The Twelves " was afterwards added " The Twos," on another foundation. "As I ventured to call the Grecians the muftis of the school, the King's boys, as their character then was, may well pass for the janissaries. They were the constant terror to the younger part ; and some who may read this, I doubt not, will remember the consternation into which the juvenile fry of us were thrown, when the cry was raised in the cloister that 'the First Order ' was coming, for so they termed the first form or class of those boys. " -Charles Lamb. The Writing- school was founded in 1694, and furnished at the sole charge of Sir John Moore, Lord Mayor in 1681. The school has always been famous for its penmen. There are 17 Wards or Dormitories in which the boys sleep. Each boy makes his own bed ; and each ward is managed by a nurse and two or more monitors. The school is eminently healthy, XXII.-MERCHANT TAYLORS' SCHOOL. 211 and though an infirmary is set apart for the sick it is rarely occupied. The Counting-house contains a good portrait of Edward VI., after Holbein very probably by him. The dress of the boys is not the only remnant of bygone times, peculiar to the school. The open ground in front of the Grammar- school is still distinguished as " the Ditch," because the ditch of the City ran through the precinct. The Spital sermons are still preached before the boys. Every Easter Monday they visit the Royal Exchange, and every Easter Tuesday the Lord Mayor, at the Mansion-house. Christ's Hospital owes nothing to State endowment, and its maintenance rests on the Corporation of London and the bounty of those who, in consideration of their donations, are elected Governors. Mode of Admission. -Boys whose parents may not be free of the City of London are admissible on Free Presentations, as they are called, as also are the sons of clergymen of the Church of England. The Lord Mayor has two presentations annually, and the Court of Aldermen one each. The rest of the governors have pre- sentations once in three years. By right, children whose parents have an income of 300l. a-year are excluded. A list of the governors who have presentations for the year is printed every Easter, and may be had at the counting- house of the Hospital. No boy is admitted before he is seven years old, or after he is nine : and no boy can remain in the school after he is fifteen-King's Boys and Grecians alone excepted. Qualification for Governor.-Payment of 5007. An Alderman has the power of nominating a governor for election at half-price. The revenues of the hospital in 1859 were 63,930 . The number of children varies from 1200 to 1000 ; of these 800 are in London, and the rest at the Preparatory School at Hertford, founded in 1683. The management is vested in foundation and donation governors , who have contributed not less than 200,000l. to its funds. The Duke of Cambridge was chosen President in 1854, and thus for the first time since its foundation has Christ's Hospital been without an Alderman for its President. In 1872 £600,000 was offered for the buildings and ground to raise a railway station on the site. MERCHANT TAYLORS' SCHOOL, SUFFOLK LANE, ward of Dowgate, founded in 1561 , by the Merchant Taylors' Company. Sir Thomas White, who had recently founded St. John's College, Oxford, was then a member of the Court ; and Richard Hills, master of the Company, gave 500l. towards the P 2 212 XXII.-MERCHANT TAYLORS' SCHOOL. purchase of a portion of a house, called the " Manor of the Rose," sometime belonging to Stafford Duke of Buckingham. "The Duke being at the Rose, within the Parish St. Lawrence Poultney, did of me demand What was the speech among the Londoners Concerning the French journey." SHAKSPEARE.-Henry VIII. , Act i ., sc. 1 . "The Rose" had been formerly in the possession of the De la Pole or Suffolk family, and was originally built by Sir John Poultney, knt. , five times Lord Mayor of London, in the reign of Edward III. Traces of its successive owners are still found in the name of the parish of " St. Laurence Pountney" in which the school is situate ; in " Duck's- foot-lane " (the Duke's foot-lane, or private road from his garden to the river) which is close at hand ; and in " Suffolk-lane, " by which it is approached. The Great Fire destroyed this ancient pile. The present school (a brick building with pilasters), and the head-master's residence adjoining, were erected in 1675. The former consists of the large upper schoolroom, two writing-rooms, formed, in 1829, out of part of the cloister ; a class-room, and a library. The school consists of260 boys. The charge for education has varied at different periods, but it is now 107. per annum for each boy. Boys are admitted at any age, andmayremain untiltheMonday after St. John the Baptist's Day preceding their 19th birthday. Presentations are in the gift of the members of the Court of the Company in rotation. Boys who have been entered on or below the third form are eligible to all the school prefer- ments at the Universities ; those who have been entered higher, only to the exhibitions. The course of education since the foundation of the school has embraced Hebrew and classical literature ; writing, arithmetic, and mathematics were introduced in 1829, and French and modern history in 1846. There is no property belonging to the school, with the exception of the buildings above described ; and it is supported by the Merchant Taylors' Company out of their several "funds, without any specific fund being set apart for that object ;" it was, therefore, exempt from the inquiry of the Charity Commissioners ; but like Winchester, Eton, and Westminster, it has a college almost appropriated to its scholars. Thirty- seven out of the fifty fellowships at St. John's, Oxford, founded by Sir Thomas White, belong to Merchant Taylors' ; 8 exhibitions at Oxford, 6 at Cambridge, and 4 to either University, averaging from 30l. to 70l. per annum, besides a multitude of smaller exhibitions, are also attached to it. The election to these preferments takes place annually, on St. Barnabas' Day, June 11th, with the sanction of the President or two senior Fellows of St. John's. This is the XXII. CITY OF LONDON SCHOOL, ETC. 213 chief speech-day, and on it the school prizes are distributed ; but there is another, called " the doctors' day," in December. Plays were formerly acted by the boys of this school, as at Westminster. The earliest instance known was in 1665. Garrick, who was a personal friend of the then Head-Master of his time, was frequently present, and took great interest in the performances. Eminent Men educated at Merchant Taylors' School.-Bishop Andrews, Bishop Dove, and Bishop Tomson (three of the translators of the Bible) : Edwin Sandys, the traveller, the friend of Hooker ; Bulstrode Whitelocke, author of the Memorials which bear his name ; James Shirley, the dramatic poet ; the infamous Titus Oates ; Charles Wheatley, the ritualist ; Neale, the author of the History of the Puritans ; Edmund Calamy, the nonconformist, and his grandson of the same name ; Edmund Gayton, author ofthe Festivous Notes on Don Quixote ; John Byrom, author of the Pastoral, in the Spectator, " My time, O ye Muses, was happily spent ; " Luke Milbourne, Dryden's antagonist ; Robert, the celebrated Lord Clive ; Charles Mathews, the comedian ; and Lieut. -Col. Dixon Denham, the African traveller. CITY OF LONDON SCHOOL, MILK STREET, CHEAPSIDE, established 1835, for the sons of respectable persons engaged in professional, commercial, or trading pursuits ; and partly founded on an income of 900l. a-year, derived from certain tenements bequeathed by John Carpenter, town-clerk of London, in the reign of Henry V., "for the finding and bringing up of four poor men's children with meat, drink, apparel, learning at the schools, in the universities, &c. , until they be preferred, and then others in their places for ever." The school year is divided into 3 terms ; and the charge for each pupil is 21. 5s. a term. The printed form of application for admission may be had of the secretary, and must be filled up by the parent or guardian, and signed by a member of the Corporation of London. The general course of instruction includes the English, French, German, Latin, and Greek languages, writing, arithmetic, mathematics, book-keeping, geography, and history. Besides 8 free scholarships on the foundation, equivalent to 35l. per annum each, and available as exhibitions to the Universities, there are the following exhibitions belonging to the school : -The " Times " Scholarship, value 30l. per annum ; 3 Beaufoy Scholarships, the Salomons Scholarship, and the Travers Scholarship, 50l. per annum each ; the Tegg Scholarship, nearly 20l. per annum ; and several other valuable prizes. The first stone of the School was laid by Lord Brougham, October 21st, 1835. THE GOVERNMENT SCHOOL OF DESIGN - South 214 XXIII.-CHARITABLE INSTITUTIONS. Kensington Museum-was established (1837) by the Board of Trade for the Improvement of Ornamental Art, with regard especially to the staple manufactures of this country. Mode of Admission. -The recommendation of a householder. The Library of Works of Art and Design is very accessible not only to artists but to poor workmen, who can take down and consult any illustrated work (and in these the library is very rich), however expensive, on payment of one penny. The course of instruction comprehends Elementary drawing, colouring ; drawing the figure after engraved copies from casts ; painting the figure from casts ; geometrical drawing applied to ornament ; perspective ; model- ling from engraved copies, design, &c. There is also a class for wood-engraving. The greatest number of students of the same calling are the ornamental painters and house-decorators ; the next most numerous are draughtsmen and designers for various manufactures and trades. In connection with the head- school at Brompton, schools have been formed in many of the principal manufacturing districts throughout the country. (See S. Kensington Museum . p. 178. ) Besides these, the visitor curious about modes of education should visit the " Wesleyan Normal College," Horseferryroad, Westminster, established 1850 (James Wilson, architect), forthe training of school-masters and mistresses, and the edu- cation of the children residing in the locality ; and the " Ragged School," in South Lambeth, founded by the late Mr. Beaufoy (d. 1851 ) ; also the Normal School, in the Fulham-road. XXIII.-HOSPITALS AND CHARITABLE INSTITUTIONS. IN London there exist nearly 1000 Charitable Institutions which may be divided into General Medical Hospitals . Medical Charities for special purposes ; such as Small Pox, Con- sumption, Cancer, &c. General Dispensaries. Institutions for the preservation of life and public morals . Societies for reclaiming the fallen and staying the progress of crime. Societies for the relief of general destitution and distress. Societies for aiding the resources of the industrious (exclusive of loan funds and savings' banks) . Societies for the deaf and dumb and the blind. Colleges, Hospitals, and Institutions of Almshouses for the aged. Pension Societies . Provident Societies chiefly for specified classes . Asylums for orphan and other necessitous children. Educational Foundations. School Societies, Religious Books, Church- aiding, and Christian Visiting Societies. Bible and Missionary Societies. Their united income has been computed at Four Millions XXIII. ST. BARTHOLOMEW'S HOSPITAL. 215 Sterling, spent on the spot, of which 2,110,0007. is given in the shape offood and clothing, 646,000l. in the relief of disease and sickness, and 1,426,000l. for educational and religious purposes. Besides all this, a quarter million is supposed to be given in private alms, including street beggars ! The leading institutions which the stranger or resident in London will find best worth visiting are :- ST. BARTHOLOMEW'S HOSPITAL, in SMITHFIELD, the earliest institution of the kind in London, occupying part of the Priory of St. Bartholomew, founded A.D. 1102, by Rahere, the first Prior ; repaired and enlarged by the executors of Richard Whittington, Lord Mayor ; and founded anew, at the dissolution of religious houses, by Henry VIII. , 1547, "for the continual relief and help of an hundred sore and diseased ; " the immediate superintendence of the Hospital being committed by the king to Thomas Vicary, Serjeant Surgeon to Henry VIII. , Edward VI., Mary, and Elizabeth, and author of "The Englishman's Treasure," the first work on anatomy published in the English language. The great quadrangle of the present edifice was built (1730-33) byJames Gibbs, architect of the church of St. Martin-in-the- Fields. The gate towards Smithfield was built in 1702, and the Enlarged Surgery in 1842. This Hospital has increased more than five fold its original extent during its 300 years' existence. It gives relief to all poor persons suffering from accident or diseases, either as in-patients or out-patients . Accidents, or cases of urgent disease, may be brought without any letter of recommendation or other formality at all hours of the day or night to the Surgery, where there is a person in constant attendance, and the aid of the Resident Medical Officers can be instantly obtained . General admission for ordinary cases, Thursday, at 11 o'clock. Forms of petition for admission obtained at the Steward's Office, any day between 10 and 2. The Reception Hall measures 94ft. by 32ft. , and is crowded with hundreds of patients , many from idleness more than from ailment. The Hospital contains 676 beds, in constant occupation , attended by 120 nurses, and relief is afforded to 6,000 in- and 100,000 out-patients annually. The in-patients are visited daily by the 4 resident Physicians and 4 Surgeons : and, during the summer session, four Clinical Lectures are delivered weekly. A limited number of students can reside within the Hospital walls, subject to the rules of the Collegiate system, estab- lished under the direction of the Treasurer and a Committee of Governors of the Hospital. Between 2001. and 300l. are spent every year for strong sound port wine, for the sick poor in Bartholomew's Hospital. Nearly 2000 lbs. weight of castor 216 XXIII. BETHLEHEM HOSPITAL. oil ; 200 gallons of spirits of wine, at 17s. a gallon ; 12 tons of linseed meal; 1000 lbs. weight of senna ; 27 cwt. of salts, are items in the annual account for drugs ; the grand total spent upon physic, in a twelvemonth, being 2,6007.; 5000 yards of calico are wanted for rollers for bandaging ; to say nothing of the stouter and stiffer fabric used for plasters. More than half a hundred weight of sarsaparilla is used every week, a sign how much the constitutions of the patients require improvement. In a year, 29,700 leeches were bought for the use of the establishment. A ton and a half of treacle is annually used in syrup. Harvey, the discoverer of the circulation of the blood, was Physician to the Hospital for 34 years (1609-43). St. Bartholomew's enjoys a high reputation as a School of Medicine, and is resorted to by a large number of pupils. Edward Nourse, Drs. William and David Pitcairn, and Abernethy have in turn lectured here. Lectures on Anatomy and Surgery, Physiology, and other branches of medicine, are given in a large Theatre, well adapted for the purpose. Students have access to the Museums of Anatomy, Materia Medica, Botany, and to a well-furnished Library ; also to rooms for practical Anatomy and a chemical laboratory. Prizes and honorary distinctions are yearly given to the most deserving pupils, and several scholarships worth 45l. to 50l. per annum are obtainable by competition. In 1843, the Governors founded a Collegiate Establishment, to afford the Pupils the moral advantages, together with the comfort and convenience, of a residence within the walls of the Hospital, and to supply them with ready guidance and assistance in their studies. The chief officer of the College is called the Warden. The President of the Hospital must have served the office of Lord Mayor. The qualification of a Governor is a donation of 100 guineas. The greatest individual benefactor to St. Bartholomew's was Dr. Radcliffe, physician to Queen Anne, who left the yearly sum of 5001. for ever, towards mending the diet of the Hospital, and the further sum of 100l. for ever, for the pur- chase of linen. Observe. -Portraits : Henry VIII. in the Court- room, by a contemporary painter but not by Holbein ; of Dr. Radcliffe, by Kneller; Perceval Pott, by Sir J. Reynolds ; Abernethy, by Sir T. Lawrence. The Good Samaritan, and The Pool of Bethesda, on the grand staircase, were painted gratuitously by Hogarth; for which he was made a governor for life. The income of the Hospital is about 40,000l. a year derived from funded property and land rents. BETHLEHEM HOSPITAL (vulg. BEDLAM), in ST. GEORGE'S FIELDS. An hospital for insane people, founded (1547) in the reign of Henry VIII. On the dissolution, that king XXIII. -ST. THOMAS'S HOSPITAL. 217 bestowed the suppressed priory of Our Lord of Beth- lehem, founded 1246 by Simon Fitz Mary, Sheriff of London, on the City of London, by whom it was first con- verted into an hospital for lunatics. Fitz-Mary's Hospital which stood in Bishopsgate Without (where now is Bethlem Court), was taken down in 1675, and a second Hospital built in Moorfields (Robert Hooke, architect). There is a view of it in Strype. It was taken down in 1814, and the first stone of the present Hospital (James Lewis, architect) laid April 18th, 1812. The cupola was added by Sydney Smirke. The first Hospital could accommodate only 50 or 60, and the second 150. The building in St. George's Fields was originally constructed for 198 patients, but this being found too limited for the purposes and resources of the Hospital, a wing was commenced for 166 additional patients, 1838. Two remote wings are devoted to noisy patients, male and female. The whole building (the House of Occupations included) covers 14 acres. In one year the Governors admitted more than 200 patients, of whom 106 were cured, and 13 died : 244 ( 136 criminal lunatics) remained. The income is about 16,0007. per annum. The expenses exceed 14,000l. The way in which the comfort of the patients is studied by every one connected with the Hospital cannot be too highly com mended. The women have pianos, and the men billiard and bagatelle-tables. There are, indeed, few things to remind you that you are in a mad-house beyond the bone knives in use, and a few cells lined and floored with cork and india-rubber, and against which the most insane patient may knock his head without the possibility of hurting it. Among the unfortu nate inmates have been-Peg Nicholson, for attempting to stab George III.; she died here in 1828, after a confinement of 42 years. -Hatfield, for attempting to shoot the same king in Drury-lane Theatre. -Oxford, for firing at Queen Victoria in St. James's Park. -M'Naghten, for shooting Mr. Edward Drummond at Charing- cross ; he mistook Mr. Drum- mond, the private secretary of Sir Robert Peel, for Sir R. Peel himself. Visitors interested in cases of lunacy should see HanwellAsylum, onthe Great Western Railway (74 miles from London), and the Colney Hatch Asylum onthe Great Northern Railway (6 miles from London) , the latter covering 119 acres, and erected at a cost of 200,000l. ST. THOMAS'S HOSPITAL, NEW ROAD, LAMBETH, rebuilt, on 84 acres of ground partly gained from the river on the right bank of the Thames, between Lambeth Palace and Westminster Bridge, for which 90,000l. were paid. The first stone was laid by Queen Victoria, May, 1868. It was opened by Her Majesty, June, 1871. It consists of seven detached " 218 XXIII. GUY'S HOSPITAL. blocks ofbuilding ofred brick four storeys high, 125 feet apart, raised on lofty foundations which alone cost 48,000l. ( H. Currey, Architect) . The total cost was 500,000l. The isola- tion of the parts of the building is of great importance to secure perfect ventilation. The central pavilion contains the Hall and Chapel. A corridor or cloister runs along the whole length of the building, giving access to the different wards. It can receive 608 patients in its wards. This Hospital for sick and diseased poor persons, owes its origin to an Almonry, &c. , founded (1213) by Richard, Prior of Ber- mondsey, and augmented (1215) for canons regular by Peter de Rupibus, Bishop of Winchester ; bought at the dissolution of religious houses by the citizens of London. It was re- founded by charter from Edward VI. as a Hospital for poor, impotent, and diseased people, Nov. 1552. The building having fallen into decay, a new one was built (1701-6) in High Street, Southwark. In 1862 the South- Eastern Railway Co. gave by award 296,000l. for this building and ground on which it stood, close to their London Bridge Terminus, to enable them to carry past one corner of it their branch line to Charing Cross. Admission, Tuesday morning, at 10. Pa- tients stating their complaints mayreceive a form of petition at the steward's office, to be signed bya housekeeper, who must engage to remove the patient on discharge or death, or pay 17. 18. for funeral. It is managed by a Court of Governors. The qualification of a governor is a donation of 50%. More than 6,000 in- and 64,000 out- patients are received and treated in one year. The income has risen to 39,000l. per annum. GUY'S HOSPITAL, near London Bridge, in SOUTHWARK, for the sick and lame, built by Dance (d. 1768), and endowed by Thomas Guy, a bookseller in Lombard- street, who is said to have made his fortune ostensibly by the sale of Bibles, but more, it is thought, by purchasing seamen's tickets, and by his great success in the sale and transfer of stock in the memorable South Sea Bubble year, 1720. Guy was a native of Tamworth, in Staffordshire, and died (1724) at the age of 80. The building of the Hospital cost 18,7937. 16s. 1d. , and the endowment amounted to 219,4997. Os. 4d. The founder, though 76 when the work began, lived to see his Hospital covered with the roof. In the first court is his statue in brass, dressed in his livery gown, and in the chapel (" shouldering God's altar ") another statue of him in marble, by the elder Bacon. Sir Astley Cooper, the eminent surgeon (d. 1841), is buried in the chapel. In 1867 the patients relieved amounted to 80,334, XXIII.-ST. GEORGE'S AND CHELSEA HOSPITALS. 219 of whom 5245 were in-patients. The average number of in- patients is 502 throughout the year. Gentlemen who desire to become Students must give satisfactory testimony as to their education and conduct. They are required to pay 401. for the first year, 401. for the second year, and 10. for every succeeding year of attendance. This admits to the Lectures, Practice, and all the privileges of a Student. The Apothecary to the Hospital is authorised to enter the Names of Students, and to give further particulars if required. ST. GEORGE'S HOSPITAL, HYDE PARK CORNER, at the top of Grosvenor- place. A Hospital for sick and lame people, supported by voluntary contributions ; built by William Wilkins, R.A. , architect of the National Gallery, on the site of Lanesborough House, the London residence of "Sober Lanesbro' dancing with the gout; " converted into an Infirmary in 1733. John Hunter, the physician, died ( 1793) in this Hospital. He had long suf- fered from an affection of the heart ; and in an altercation with one of his colleagues, he suddenly stopped, retired to an ante- room, and immediately expired. CHELSEA HOSPITAL. A Royal Hospital for old and disabled soldiers, of which the first stone was laid by Charles II. in person, March, 1681-2. It has a centre, with two wings ofred brick, with stone dressings, faces the Thames, and shows more effect with less means than any other of Wren's buildings. The history of its erection is contained on the frieze of the great quadrangle :- "In subsidium et levamen emeritorum senio, belloque fractorum condidit Carolus Secundus, auxit Jacobus Secundus, perfecere Gulielmus et Maria Rex et Regina, MDCXC." The total cost is said to have been 150,000l. Observe.-- Portrait of Charles II. on horseback (in hall) , by Verrio and Henry Cooke ; altar-piece (in chapel) by Sebastian Ricci ; bronze statue of Charles II. in centre of the great quadrangle, executed by Grinling Gibbons for Tobias Rustat. IN THE HALL, General Whitelocke was tried, and the Courts of Inquiry into the Convention of Cintra, and into the mortality among the troops in the Crimean campaign, sat. Here, where the Duke of Wellington's body lay in state, are hung, modestly out of sight, 46 colours ; and in the Chapel, 55 (all captured by the British army in various parts oftheworld) , including 34 French, 13 American, 4 Dutch; 11 eagles taken from the French, -2 at Waterloo, 1 by Sergt. Ewart, of the Scots Greys, the other by Colonel Clark- Kennedy (for Mons. Thiers' information, 1862) ; 2 Salamanca ; 2 Madrid; 4 Martinique ; 1 Barrosa ; and a few staves of the 220 XXIII.-GREENWICH HOSPITAL. 171 colours taken at Blenheim. At St. Paul's, where the Blenheim colours were suspended, not a rag nor a staff re- mains. Eminent Persons interred here.-William Cheselden, the famous surgeon (d. 1752) ; Rev. William Young (d. 1757), the original Parson Adams in Fielding's Joseph Andrews, Dr. Arbuthnot filled the office of Physician, and the Rev. Philip Francis (the translator of Horace) the office of Chaplain to the Hospital. The building is calculated to accommodate 530 in-pensioners, who are liberally provided for by annual votes. The Hospital is always full, the number of appli- cants for admission being generally in the proportion of two and three for every vacancy. As a general rule, no appli- cant is admitted at a lower rate of in-pension than 1s. a day, but all applications for admission are decided on by the Commissioners solely with reference to "the man's cha- racter and merits as a soldier," without considering his period of service. The number of out-pensioners is about 63,000, at rates varying from 14d. to 3s. 10d. There is a pleasant tradition that Nell Gwynne materially assisted in the foundation of Chelsea Hospital. The Hospital is managed by a Governor, Commissioners, &c. The Governor is ap- pointed by the Sovereign, acting on the advice of the Commander-in- Chief. GREENWICH HOSPITAL, on the right bank of the Thames, 6 m. below London Bridge, intended as an Asylum for old and disabled seamen (not officers) of the Royal Navy, was founded byWilliam III. (at the desire of his Queen, Mary) , anxious to provide for the wounded seamen who returned from the battle of La Hogue, and erected on the site of the old Manor House of our kings, in which Henry VIII. and his daughters Mary and Elizabeth were born. Charles II . meant to erect a new palace on the site ; the west wing was commenced in 1664, from the designs of Webb, the kinsman of Inigo Jones ; indeed, it forms part of the present building. The first stone, in continuation of the unfinished palace, was laid 3rd June, 1696 ; and the building was opened for pensioners January, 1705. The river front is doubtless Webb's design. The colonnades, the cupolas, and the great hall, are by Wren. The chapel was built by Athenian Stuart, in place of the original by Ripley, which was destroyed by fire, 1779. The brick buildings to the west are by Vanbrugh. The house seen in the centre of the great square was built by Inigo Jones for Queen Henrietta Maria, and is nowthe Royal Naval School. The statue, by Rysbrack, in the centre of the quadrangle, George II. , was cut from a block ofmarble taken from the French by Sir George Rooke. The well-proportioned Hall, 106 feet long, 56 feet wide, XXIII -GREENWICH HOSPITAL. 221 and 50 feet high, is the work of Wren. The emblematical ceiling and side-walls were by Sir James Thornhill, 1708-27, and cost 66851. , or 3l. per yard for the ceiling, and 17. for the sides. The Picture Gallery was formed by George IV. at the suggestion of Ed. Hawke Locker. Amongthe portraits, observe, full- length of the Earl of Nottingham, Admiral of England against the Spanish Armada, Vansomer; half-lengths, painted for the Duke of York (James II. ) , of Monk, Duke of Albemarle; Montague, Earl of Sandwich; Admirals Ayscue, Lawson, Tyddeman, Mings, Penn, Harman (fine), and Vice- Admirals Berkeley, Smith, and Jordan, by Sir P. Lely,—all celebrated commanders at sea against the Dutch in the reign of Charles II.; Russell, Earl of Orford, victor at La Hogue, Bockman; Sir George Rooke, who took Gibraltar, Dahl ; Sir Cloudesley Shovel, Dahl ; several Admirals, Kneller; Captain Cook, by Dance (painted for Sir Joseph Banks) ; Sir Thomas Hardy, Evans. The other portraits are principally copies by inferior artists. Among the subject-pictures, observe, Death of Captain Cook, Zoffany ; Lord Howe's Victory ofthe 1st of June, Loutherbourg (fine) ; Battle of Trafalgar, J. M. W. Turner. The statues, erected by vote of Parliament, represent Sir Sydney Smith, by Kirk of Dublin, Lord Exmouth, by Mac Dowell, and Lord De Saumarez, by Steel of Edinburgh, and cost 1500l. each. In Upper Hall, observe, the Astrolabe pre- sented to Sir Francis Drake by Queen Elizabeth ; coat worn by Nelson at the Battle of the Nile ; coat and waistcoat in which Nelson was killed at Trafalgar. "The coat is the undress uniform of a vice-admiral, lined with white silk, with lace on the cuffs, and epaulettes . Four stars-of the Orders of the Bath, St. Ferdinand and Merit, the Crescent, and St. Joachim - are sewn on the left breast, as Nelson habitually wore them ; which disproves the story that he purposely adorned himself with his decorations on going into battle ! The course of the fatal ball is shown by a hole over the left shoulder, and part of the epaulette is torn away ; pieces of the bullion and pad of the epaulette adhered to the ball, which is now in Her Majesty's possession . The coat and waistcoat are stained in several places with the hero's blood." -Sir Harris Nicolas. The Chapel, built 1779-89, by Athenian Stuart, contains an altar- piece, "The Shipwreck of St. Paul," by B. West, P. R. A., and monuments, erected by King William IV. , to Admiral Sir Richard Goodwin Keats, and Admiral Sir Thomas Hardy (Nelson's captain at Trafalgar); the former by Chantrey, and the latter by Behnes. Keats, as the inscription sets forth, was the shipmate and watchmate of William ÏV. , on board the Prince George, 1779-81 ; the commoner serving as lieutenant, and the king as midshipman. The income of the Hospital for 1870 was 191,570%. de- rived from an annual Parliamentary grant of 20,000l.; from 222 XXIII.-GREENWICH HOSPITAL. fines levied against smuggling, 19,5007.; effects of Captain Kidd, the pirate, 6472l.; forfeited and unclaimed shares of prize and bounty money, granted in 1708 ; 6000l. a year, granted in 1710, out of the coal and culm tax ; various pri- vate bequests ; particularly one of 20,000l. from Robert Osbaldeston, andfrom the valuable estates forfeited, in 1715, by the Earl of Derwentwater. The funded property and cash is estimated at 2,800,000l. In 1865 most of the sailors inhabit ing the hospital quitted it, preferring to live at home with their friends, on an allowance from its funds of 2s. a-day, in addition to their service pension. Since 1870 the building has been closed to its original inmates, the old sailors, who are treated as out-pensioners. Royal Naval College. -The East, or K. Charles's wing, is nowset apart for the students of the Naval College, Portsmouth. The School of Naval Architec ture will probably occupy Queen Anne's wing. A limited number of naval officers of all ranks are instructed in Mathematics and Gunnery. The buildings are still, in part, available as a Mdical Hospital for wounded seamen during time of war. The Infirmary has been given over to the Directors of the Merchant Seamen's Hospital.

    • The Painted Hall is open every Week-day from Ten to Seven during the Summer months, and from Ten to Three in the Winter ; and on Sundays after Divine Service in the

Morning. On Monday and Friday it is open free to the public ; and on the other days, on payment of threepence. Soldiers and sailors are admitted free at all times. The Chapel is open under the same regulations as the Painted Hall. Other Hospitals.-Among the noble institutions of a like nature with which London abounds may be mentioned : -- 1. The London Hospital. 2. Westminster Hospital, Broad Sanctuary, Westminster, relieves about 16,000 patients annu ally, ofwhom more than one-half are admitted on no other claim than (the greatest) the urgency of their cases. 3. Middlesex Hospital. 4. Royal Free Hospital, Gray's- Inn-road. 5. King's College Hospital. 6. University College Hospital. 7. Charing-cross Hospital. 8. St. Mary's Hospital, Padding- ton. 9, 10. Hospitals for Consumption, Brompton and Vic- toria Park. Hospital for Sick Children, Great Ormond- street, Blooms- bury. The Cancer Hospital ( Free) at Chelsea ; Office, 167, Pic- cadilly ; an excellent institution, has 400 constant patients. The FRENCH HOSPICE, VICTORIA PARK, SOUTH HACKNEY, originally founded for the succour of Protestant refu gees driven from France by the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, 1686, endowed with sums of money by M. Gastigny, Ph. Hervart, Baron de Huningue, and the Duchesse de la XXIII.-FOUNDLING HOSPITAL. 223 Force, was removed from its original site, Old- street, St. Luke's, 1866, and rebuilt in the picturesque style of a French château, with extinguisher turrets of brick and stone, at a cost of 20,000l. , Mr. Roumieu, architect. Within its walls 60 inmates are lodged and provided for. Many Spitalfields and Norwich Silkweavers, descendants of French refugees, have been succoured from its fund. In the court-room are portraits of benefactors (see Smiles' " Huguenots "). The FOUNDLING HOSPITAL, GUILFORD STREET, was founded in 1739, by Captain Thomas Coram, as ' an hospital for exposed and deserted children." The ground was bought of the Earl of Salisbury for 7000l. , and the Hospital built by Theodore Jacobson (d. 1772), architect of the Royal Hospital at Gosport. The design and object was changed, in 1760, from a Foundling Hospital to what it now is, an Hospital for poor illegitimate children whose mothers are known. The committee requires to be satisfied of the previous good character and present necessity of the mother of every child proposed for admission. The Committee meets on a Saturday. The annual expenditure is about £14,000 ; it maintains about 500 children. It has two nurseries for infants, at Chertsey and Tunbridge Wells. The qualification of a governor is a donation of 50%. Among the principal benefactors to the Foundling Hospital, the great Handel stands unquestionably the first. The original organ in the chapel was his gift ; he frequently performed on it. Observe. -In the chapel, an altar- piece, by West, Christ Blessing Little Children, and in the Girls' Dining Room, Portrait of Captain Coram, full-length, a first-class work, by Hogarth. "The portrait I painted with the most pleasure, and in which I par- ticularly wished to excel, was that of Captain Coram for the Foundling Hospital ; and if I am so wretched an artist as my enemies assert, it is somewhat strange that this, which was one of the first I painted the size of life, should stand the test of twenty years' competition, and be generally thought the best portrait in the place, notwithstanding the first painters in the kingdom exerted all their talents to vie with it ." — Hogarth. On the walls of the Committee Room hang the March to Finch- ley, by Hogarth; Moses brought to Pharaoh's Daughter, by Hogarth ; Dr. Mead, by Allan Ramsay ; Lord Dartmouth, by Sir Joshua Reynolds ; George II . , by Shackleton ; View of the Foundling Hospital, by Richard Wilson ; St. George's Hospital, by Richard Wilson ; Sutton's Hospital (the Char- ter House), by Gainsborough ; Chelsea and Bethlehem Hos- pitals, by Haytley ; St. Thomas's, and Greenwich, and Christ's Hospitals, by Wale ; three sacred subjects, by Hayman, Highmore, and Wills ; also a bas-relief, by Rysbrack. These pictures were chiefly gifts, and illustrate the state of art in 224 XXIII.-MAGDALEN AND LOCK HOSPITALS, ETC. England about the middle of the last century. The music in the chapel of the Hospital on Sundays--the children being the choristers-is fine, and worth hearing. Lord Chief Justice Tenterden (d. 1832) is buried in the chapel. The Foundling is open for the inspection of strangers every Sunday after morning service-when the children are at dinner-an interesting sight, and every Monday from 10 to 4. The juvenile band of the establishment perform from 3 to 4. The services of the chapel on Sundays commence in the morning at 11 o'clock, and in the afternoon at 3, pre- cisely. The servants are not permitted to receive fees, but a collection is made at the chapel doors to defray the expenses of that part of the establishment. MAGDALEN HOSPITAL, a handsome building opened 1869, in LEIGHAM COURT ROAD, STREATHAM. Instituted 1758, chiefly by the exertions of Mr. Dingley, Sir John Fielding, Mr. Saunders Welch, and Jonas Hanway. A subscription of 20 guineas or more at one time, or of 5 guineas per annum forfive successive years, is a qualification of a governor for life, LOCK HOSPITAL CHAPEL, and ASYLUM, HARROW ROAD, WESTBOURNE GREEN. Supposed to be so called from the French loques, rags, from the rags (lint) applied to wounds and sores ; so lock of wool, lock of hair. The Hospital (the only one of the kind in London) was established in 1746, for the cure of females suffering from disorders contracted by a vicious course of life ; the Chapel in 1764, as a means of income to the Hospital ; and the Asylum in 1787, for the reception of penitent females recovered in the Hospital. A subscription of 3 guineas annually entitles to one recommendation ; 50%. donation, or 5 guineas annually, constitutes a governor. The Loke, or Lock, in Kent-street, in Southwark (from which the present Hospital derives its name) , was a lazar-house, or ' spital for leprous people, from a very early period. There was a second betwixt Mile End and Stratford-le- Bow ; a third at Kingsland, betwixt Shoreditch and Stoke Newington ; and a fourth at Knightsbridge. St. Giles's-in-the- Fields, and St. James's Hospital in West- minster (now the Palace), were both instituted for the reception of lepers. The SEAMEN'S HOSPITAL, formerly in an old hulk (Dreadnought), moored in the Thames, now occupying the Infirmary of Greenwich Hospital, by permission of the Ad- miralty, at a nominal rent, for Sick and Diseased Seamen of all Nations ; who, on presenting themselves, are immediately received, without a recommendatory letter. The Hospital is supported by voluntary contributions. The original Dread- XXIII.-MODEL LODGING HOUSES. 225 nought (removed 1872) fought at Trafalgar under Captain Conn, and captured the Spanish three-decker the San Juan. Amongthe leading Societies for the Preservation of Human Life, Health, and Morals, may be mentioned :— The ROYAL HUMANE SOCIETY, for the recovery of persons from drowning, founded by Dr. Hawes ; instituted 1774 ; and still maintained by voluntary contributions. The Receiving House, a tasteful classic building, by J. B. Bunning, is close to the Serpentine River, in Hyde Park, and the Society's office at 3, Trafalgar-square. During a severe frost the Society has 50 icemen in its employ, at an expense of48. 6d. a day for each man. The MODEL BATHS and WASH-HOUSES, in GOULSTONSQUARE, WHITECHAPEL ( P. P. Baly, Engineer and Architect) ; ST. MARTIN'S- IN-THE-FIELDS, behind the National Gallery ; MARYLEBONE ; WESTMINSTER ; ENDELL STREET, LONG ACRE. That in Goulston- square was the fearliest in point of time (1847). Efforts are in progress for its resusctitation. They are self-supporting, and have contributed materially to the comfort and health of the lower and middle classes of London. The Baths are scrupulously clean. The Charities for the Blind, the Deaf, and the Dumb are important and well deserving attention. The leading insti- tutions of this nature are :- LONDON SOCIETY FOR TEACHING THE BLIND TO READ, 1 , Avenue-road, St. John's-wood ; instituted 1839. SCHOOL FOR THE INDIGENT BLIND, St. George's-fields, Surrey; instituted 1799. ASYLUM FOR THE SUPPORT AND EDUCATION OF DEAF ANDDUMB CHILDREN, Old Kent-road, Surrey ; instituted 1792. ROYAL NATIONAL LIFEBOAT INSTITUTION, John- street, Adelphi. For further information, see Mr. Sampson Low's excellent volume on the " Charities of London." MODEL LODGING- HOUSES. In 1864, Mr. George Peabody, a generous American merchant in London, gave 150,000l. to the poor of London, augmented by him, 1868, to 350,000l. This has been laid out in buying land or build- ing Model Lodging Houses for the poor, which are let at sums varying from 5s. for 3 rooms, to 2s. 6d. a week for 1 room. The buildings already erected, 5 storeys high, are in Essex-road, Islington ; Love- lane, Shadwell ; Commercialstreet, Spitalfields-others are in progress in Westminster, Chelsea, and other convenient situations, under the direction of the Trustees. The corporation of London have devoted 120,000l. and a piece of ground in Ray-street, Farringdon- 226 XXIII . -BRITISH AND FOREIGN BIBLE SOCIETY. road, for the erection of a large block of dwellings for working-men and their families. COLUMBIA SQUARE MARKET, close to Shore- ditch Church, is a building of considerable architectural beauty. The good deeds of Mr. Peabody are rivalled, if not surpassed, by those of an Englishwoman, Baroness Burdett Coutts, who, largely endowed with the means, has shown herself to possess the heart and the will to benefit the poor of London. On the side of Bethnal Green nearest Shoreditch, existed a seat of foulness and disease, moral and physical, called Nova Scotia Gardens, where amidst pestilential drains and refuse heaps, were some of the most miserable hovels, occupied by the most squalid and wicked of the population of London. By the benevolence of Lady Coutts, all this has been removed, and in its place rise four lofty well-built blocks of lodging houses forming a square called Columbia Buildings, now occupied by an orderly and healthy set of people. On the site of the "dust heap a very handsome Market was erected, 1869, by the same benevolent lady, for the convenience of the neighbourhood, and was turned into a Fish Market, 1871. The chief feature of it is a noble Gothic Hall divided into seven bays by lofty granite piers for the accommodation of dealers and salesmen. It is 50 feet high, its exterior richly decorated : the entire space occupied by the market is two acres. The architect is Mr. H. A. Darbishire. BRITISH AND FOREIGN BIBLE SOCIETY occupies a large building erected, 1868 , in Queen Victoria Street, leading from Mansion House to BLACKFRIARS BRIDGE. It has printed the Bible in 100 languages, and distributes yearly nearly two and a half million copies. Annual income, 171,9237. The GERMAN HOSPITAL, DALSTON, for the benefit of Germans suffering from disease, and of English in case of accidents , is ahandsome building. In 1868, 18,000 in and out patients received relief. There are 30,000 Germans in London, many working-men, sugarbakers . skin dressers and skin dyers. MENDICITY SOCIETY, RED LION SQUARE, for the suppression of professional beggars and for furnishing work to the poor.. The Society distributes to its members tickets to be given to street beggars instead of money, which, on being presented at the Society's house, will obtain for the bearers food and work if they desire it. The society also devotes its attention to begging- letter impostors, seeking them out and exposing their frauds. In 1868 more than 8,000 relief tickets were distributed, and more than 35,000 meals given to poor applicants. XXIV. -CLUBS. 227 XXIV.-CLUB HOUSES. PRINCIPAL CLUBS IN LONDON. Those marked with an asterisk ( *) admit Strangers to dine in the Strangers' Room. Number of Mem- Name. Entrance bers Fee. li- Annual Sub- scription. Where Situate. mited to. £ s. £ s. Alpine

  • Army and Navy 1450 30 0 6 11 Arthur's 600 21 0 10 10 Athenæum 1200 31 10 7 7

Athenæum, junior . Boodle's Brooks's . 575 9 9 11 11 Carlton 800 15 15 10 10 Carlton, junior 1590 10 10 City of London 26 5- 6 6 Civil Service (Thatched House) . Clarence Cocoa Tree 8 8 Conservative 26 5 E. India United Ser. 1500 *Garrick 21 0 Gresham Guards St. James's Club Junior Army and Navy Junior Naval and Military Junior Conserva- tive Junior Oxford and Cambridge *Junior United Serv. 2000 35 0 6 6 Marlborough . Naval and Military Oriental 800 #Oxford &Cambridge 1170 21 0 26 5 Pall Mall Club Raleigh Club . Reform 1400 26 5 10 10 Travellers' 700 21 0 10 10 Union . 1000 32 11 United Service 1500 30 0

  • University Club 1000 26 5

New University St. Stephen's Club. White's 550 Whittington

  • Windham 600 27 6
  • Whitehall Club

8, St. Martin's- pl . , Trafalgar- sq. 36-39, Pall-mall. St. James's- st. 107 , Pall-mall. Down- st. , Piccady. 28, St.James's- st. 60, St. James's- st. 94, Pall-mall. 30-35, Pall-mall. 30, Old Broad- st., City. 86, S. James's- s . 1 , Rogent-street. 64, St. James's- st. 71, St. James's- st. 14-15 , St. Jas.'s- sq. 13& 15, Garrick- st. Covent.-garden Gresham- pl. City. Ofs of3 Regts.ofFt . Gds. only 70 , Pall-mall. Camb. House, Pic. 9, Pall- mall. Pall-mall. King-street. Grafton- street. Regent- street. 52, Pall-mall. Camb. House, Pic. Hanover-square. 71-76, Pall-mall. 7, Waterloo- place. 14, 16, Regen -st. 104, Pall-mall. 106, Pall-mall. Trafalgar-square. 116-117, Pall-mall. Pall-mall East. 57, 58, St. Jas ' s- st Westminster, 37. St. James's- st. 37. Arundel- street, Strand. 11, St. James's-sq. Parliament- street, Westminster. Q 2 6 6 8 0 6 6 6 6 6 0 6 0 2 2 8 0 228 XXIV.- CLUBS. UNITED SERVICE CLUB, at the corner of PALL MALL andthe opening into St. JAMES'S PARK, erected 1826, by John Nash, architect, for officers not under the rank of Major in the Army and of Commander in the Navy. This is considered to be one of the most commodious, economical, and best managed of all the London Club-houses. The pictures, though numerous, are chiefly copies. JUNIOR UNITED SERVICE CLUB, N. corner of CHARLES STREET and E. side of REGENT STREET, rebuilt and enlarged 1857, from the designs of Messrs. Nelson and Innes. The ARMY AND NAVY CLUB, in PALL MALL, corner of GEORGE STREET, St. JAMES'S SQUARE, was built 1847-50, from the designs of Messrs. Parnell and Smith. The carcase or shell of the building cost 18,500l.; the interior 16,500.- in all 35,000l. , exclusive of fittings. The comparatively small plot of land on which it stands has cost the Club 52,5001. , and the total expenditure may be called in round numbers 100,000l. The largest apartment is the " Morning- room." The "Library " is larger than the Drawing-room. The enrichments of the ceilings throughout are in carton- pierre and papier-mâché. The principal furniture is of walnut-wood. The Kitchen is one of the successful novelties of the building, and will repay a visit. There is even a separate cook for chops, steaks, and kidneys, who dedicates his whole time and skill to these favourite articles of consumption. The Smoking-room, with its balcony commanding a noble prospect of cats and chimneys, is the best Club Smoking- room in London, the rooms at the Union and Garrick, per- haps, excepted. The GUARDS' CLUB, PALL MALL, built 1848-50 (H. Har- rison, archt. ). The Club is restricted to the Officers of the three Regiments of Foot Guards who served so nobly at Waterloo and in the Crimea. WHITE'S CLUB-HOUSE, 38, ST. JAMES'S STREET, an aristocratic Club, whose members are chosen without re- ference to politics ; originally White's Chocolate- house, under which name it was established circ. 1698. As a Club it dates from 1736, when the house ceased to be an open chocolate- house, that any one might enter who was prepared to pay for what he had. It was then restricted to the chief frequenters of the house, whose annual subscriptions towards its support were paid to the proprietor, by whom the Club was XXIV.-CLUBS. 229 farmed. With reference to the great spirit of gaming which prevailed at White's, the arms of the Club were designed by Horace Walpole and George Selwyn. The blazon is vert (for a card-table), three parolis proper ; on a chevron sable ( for a hazard-table), two rouleaus in saltier, between two dice proper ; on a canton sable, a white ball (for election) , argent. The supporters are an old and young knave of clubs ; the crest, an arm out of an earl's coronet shaking a dice-box ; and the motto, " Cogit Amor Nummi. " Round the arms is a claret bottle ticket by way of order. A book for entering bets is still laid on the table. The Club, on June 20th, 1814 , gave a ball at Burlington House to the Emperor of Russia, the King of Prussia, and the allied sovereigns then in England, which cost 98491. 2s. 6d. Covers were laid for 2400 people. Three weeks after, the Club gave a dinner to the Duke of Wellington, which cost 2480l. 10s. 9d. BROOKS'S CLUB, 60, ST. JAMES'S STREET. A Whig Club-house, founded in Pall-mall, 1764, by 27 noblemen and gentlemen, including the Duke of Roxburghe, the Duke of Portland, the Earl of Strathmore, Mr. Crewe, afterwards Lord Crewe, and Mr. C. J. Fox. It was originally a gaming Club, and was farmed at first by Almack, but afterwards by Brooks, a wine merchant and money-lender, who retired from the Club soon after it was built, and died poor about 1782. The present house was built, at Brooks's expense (from the designs of Henry Holland, architect), and opened in 1778. Sheridan was black-balled at Brooks's three times by George Selwyn, because his father had been upon the stage; and he only got in at last through a ruse of George IV. (then Prince of Wales), who detained his adversary in con- versation in the hall whilst the ballot was going on. Club is restricted to 575 members. Entrance, 9 guineas ; annual subscription, 11 guineas ; two black balls exclude. The Club (like White's) is still managed on the farming principle. The CARLTON CLUB, PALL MALL (S. side). A Conservative Club-house, originally built by Sir Robert Smirke, but rebuilt, 1850-6, and in every sense improved, by his brother, Mr. Sydney Smirke. It presents a noble and striking façade conspicuous for its polished granite pillars. It contains on the ground floor a coffee-room, 92 feet by 37 feet, and 21 feet high ; 28 feet high in the centre, where there is a glazed dome. Onthe first floor are a draw- ing-room, billiard-room, and a private, or house, dinner-room. 230 XXIV.-CLUBS. Above are smoking-rooms and dormitories for servants. The exterior is built of Caen stone, except the shafts of the columns and pilasters, which are of Peterhead granite, polished by machinery, which renders its use possible at moderate ex- pense. The façade is of Italian architecture, of two orders : Doric and Ionic ; and each inter-columniation is occupied by an arched window, the keystones of which project so as to contribute towards the support of the entablature over them. The design is founded on the E. front of the Library of St. Mark's, at Venice, by Sansovino and Scamozzi. The chief object of the architect in introducing here a coloured material was to compensate, in some measure, for the loss of strong light and shadow in an elevation facing the N. JUNIOR CARLTON CLUB, another handsome and extensive building between PALL MALL and ST. JAMES'S SQUARE ; Brandon, architect, built 1869. CONSERVATIVE CLUB HOUSE, on the W. side of ST. JAMES'S STREET. Founded, 1840, as a Club of ease to the Carlton. Built from the designs of the late George Bassevi and Sydney Smirke, 1843-45, on the site of the Thatched House Tavern, and opened Feb. 19th, 1845. The total cost ofbuilding and furnishing was 73,2117. 4s. 3d. , the architects' commission being 34581. 6s. The encaustic paintings of the interior are by Mr. Sang, and were executed at an expense of 26971. 158. There are 6 public rooms, viz. , a morning and evening-room, library, coffee-room, dining-room, and card- room, In addition to these there are committee-rooms, billiard-rooms, &c. The most striking feature of the house is the Hall, coved so as to allow a gallery to run round it, and the staircase, both richly ornamented in colour. The most stately room is that for evening occupation, extending from N. to S. of the building, on the first floor. It is nearly 100 feet in length, 26 in breadth, and 25 in height, with coved ceiling, supported by 18 lofty Scagliola Corinthian columns. The library occupies nearly the whole of the upper part of the N. of the building. The coffee- room, in the lower division of the northern portion of the building, is of the same proportions as the library. The Club is worked by a staff of 50 servants, male and female. The election of members is made by the committee, 5 being a quorum, and two black balls excluding. XXIV.-CLUBS. 231 REFORM CLUB, on the S. side ofPALL MALL, between the Travellers' Club and the Carlton Club, was founded by the Liberal members of the two Houses of Parliament, about the time the Reform Bill was canvassed and carried, 1830-32. The Club consists of 1000 members, exclusive of members of either House of Parliament. Entrance fee, 25 guineas ; annual subscription for the first five years of election, 107. 10s. , subsequently, 81. 88. The house was built from the designs of Sir Charles Barry, R.A. The exterior is greatly admired. The interior, especially the large square hall covered with glass, occupying the centre of the building, is in excellent taste. The water supply is from an Artesian well, 360 feet deep, sunk at the expense of the Club. The cooking establishment, when under the late M. Soyer, was excellent, and is now very good. ATHENÆUM CLUB, PALL MALL. Instituted in 1823, by the late Right Hon. J. W. Croker, Sir T. Lawrence, Sir F. Chantrey, Mr. Jekyll, &c. , " for the Association of individuals known for their literary or scientific attainments, artists of eminence in any class of the Fine Arts, and noblemen and gentlemen distinguished as liberal patrons of Science, Literature, and the Arts." The members are chosen by ballot, except that the committee have the power of electing yearly, from the list of candidates for admission, a limited number of persons " who shall have attained to distinguished eminence in Science, Literature, and the Arts, or for Public Services ; " the number so elected not to exceed nine in each year. The number of ordinary members is fixed at 1200 ; entrance fee, 30 guineas ; yearly subscription, 7 guineas. One black ball in ten excludes. The present Club-house (Decimus Burton, architect) was built 1829, and opened 8th February, 1830. " The only Club I belong to is the Athenæum, which consists of twelve hundred members, amongst whom are to be reckoned a large proportion of the most eminent persons in the land, in every line-civil, military and ecclesiastical, peers spiritual and temporal (ninety-five noblemen and twelve bishops), commoners, men of the learned professions, those connected with Science, the Arts, and Commerce in all its principal branches, as well as the distinguished who do not belong to any par- ticular class. Many of these are to be met with every day, living with the same freedom as in their own houses. For six guineas a year every member has the command of an excellent library, with maps, of the daily papers, English and foreign, the principal periodicals, and every material for writing, with attendance for whatever is wanted. The 232 XXIV.-CLUBS. building is a sort of palace, and is kept with the same exactness and comfort as a private dwelling. Every member is a master without any of the trouble of a master. He can come when he pleases, and stay away as long as he pleases, without anything going wrong. He has the command of regular servants without having to pay or to manage them. He can have whatever meal or refreshment he wants, at all hours, and served up with the cleanliness and comfort of his own house. He orders just what he pleases, having no interest to think of but his own. In short, it is impossible to suppose a greater degree of liberty in living." -Walker's Original. The Library is the best Club Library in London. There is a Smoking-room since 1860. UNIVERSITY CLUB HOUSE, SUFFOLK STREET, and PALL MALL EAST, was built by W. Wilkins, R.A., and J. P. Gandy, and opened Feb. 13th, 1826. The members belong to the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge. Entrance fee, 30 guineas ; annual subscription, 6 guineas. The upper storey (built for a Smoking- room) is an addition made in 1852 to Mr. Wilkins' design. OXFORD AND CAMBRIDGE CLUB, PALL MALL. Built 1838 (Sydney Smirke, R.A. , architect). Entrance-money, 31 guineas ; annual subscription, 7 guineas. Number of members, 1000, being 500 from each University. UNION CLUB HOUSE, COCKSPUR STREET, and S.W. end of TRAFALGAR SQUARE (Sir Robert Smirke, R.A., architect) . The Club is chiefly composed of merchants, lawyers, members of parliament, and, as James Smith, who was a member, writes, " ofgentlemen at large." The stock of wine in the cellars is said to be the largest belonging to any Club in London. Entrance-money, 30 guineas ; annual subscription, 6 guineas. The Smoking-room at the top was built (1852) from the designs of Decimus Burton. GARRICK CLUB, 13 & 15, GARRICK ST. , COVEnt Garden, named after David Garrick, the actor, and instituted 1831 "for the general patronage of the Drama ; for the purpose of combining a club on economical principles with the ad- vantages of a Literary Society ; for the formation of a Theatrical Library and Works on Costume ; and also for bringing together the patrons of the Drama and gentlemen eminent in their respective circles." A lover of the English Drama and stage may spend an hour very profitably in viewing the collection of theatrical portraits, the property of the Club, and chiefly collected by the late Charles Mathews, the distinguished actor, whose portrait, XXIV.-CLUBS. 233

by Lonsdale, is over the fire-place in the drawing- room. Observe. -Male Portraits. Nat Lee ( curious ) ; Doggett ; Quin ; Foote ; Henderson, by Gainsborough ; elder Colman, after Sir Joshua ; head of Garrick, by Zoffany ; Macklin, by Opie ; J. P. Kemble, drawing by Lawrence; Moody ; Elliston, drawing by Harlowe ; Bannister, by Russell ; Tom Sheridan ; King, by R. Wilson, the landscape painter ; Emery ; elder Dibdin ; Mr. Powel and Family, by R. Wilson Liston, by Clint (good). Female Portraits. -Nell Gwynne (a namby-pamby face, not genuine) ; Mrs. Oldfield (half-length), by Kneller ; Mrs. Bracegirdle (three-quarter) ; Mrs. Pritchard (half- length) ; Mrs. Cibber (also a characteristic drawing of her) ; Peg Woffington, by Mercier, (also a miniature threequarter) ; Mrs. Abington, as Lady Bab, by Hickey (small full-length) ; Mrs. Siddons, by Harlowe ; Mrs. Yates ; Mrs. Billington ; Miss O'Neil, by Joseph (full length) ; Nancy Dawson, dancing a hornpipe ; Mrs. Siddons, drawing by Lawrence ; Mrs. Inchbald, by Harlowe ; Miss Stephens ; Mrs. Robinson, after Sir Joshua. Theatrical Subjects.- Joseph Harris, as Cardinal Wolsey (the Strawberry Hill picture ; Harris was one of Sir W. Davenant's players, and is commended by Downes for his excellence in this character) ; Anthony Leigh, as the Spanish Friar (half- length) ; Colley Cibber, as Lord Foppington, by Grisoni (very good) ; Griffin and Johnson, in The Alchemist, by P. Van Bleeck (ex- cellent) ; School for Scandal (the Screen Scene), as originally cast ; Mrs. Pritchard, as Lady Macbeth, by Zoffany ; Mr. and Mrs. Barry, in Hamlet ; Rich, in 1753, as Harlequin ; Garrick, as Richard III. , by the elder Morland ; King, as Touchstone, by Zoffany (small full- length) ; Weston, as Billy Button, by Zoffany; King, and Mr. and Mrs. Baddeley, in The Clandestine Marriage, by Zoffany (fine) ; Moody and Parsons, in the Committee, by Vandergucht; Garrick and Mrs. Cibber, byZoffany; Macklin, as Sir Pertinax Macsycophant, by De Wilde ; Love, Law, and Physic (Mathews, Liston, Blanchard, and Emery) , by Clint (fine); Mathews, as Monsieur Mallet, by Clint; Mathews in five characters, by Harlowe; Farren, Farley, and Jones, in The Clandestine Marriage, by Clint; C. Kemble and Fawcett, in Charles II., by Clint;. Munden, E. Knight, Mrs. Orger, and Miss Cubitt, in Lock and Key, by Clint (fine) ; Powell, Bensley, and Smith, by Mortimer ; Dowton, in The Mayor of Garratt ; busts, by Mrs. Siddons-of Herself and Brother. Bust of Shakspeare discovered! (bricked up) in pulling down (1848) old Lincoln's Inn Fields Theatre. The Smoking- room is decorated with paintings by Staufield, Roberts, and Louis Haghe, all three members of the Club. The pictures are on 234 XXV. THE CITY AND THE CITIZENS. view every Wednesday (except in September) , between 11 and 3, on the personal introduction of a member. WHITTINGTON CLUB AND METROPOLITAN ATHENÆUM, ARUNDEL STREET, STRAND. Classes are established for the study and practice of languages, chemistry, vocal music, elocution, mathematics, historic and dramatic litera- ture, discussion, fencing, dancing, &c. XXV. THE CITY AND THE CITIZENS. THE entire civil government of the City of London, within the walls and liberties, is vested, by successive charters of English sovereigns, in one Corporation, or body of citizens ; confirmed for the last time by a charter passed in the 23rd of George II. As then settled, the corporation consists of the Lord Mayor, 26 aldermen (including the Lord Mayor), 2 sheriffs for London and Middlesex conjointly, the common councilmen of the several wards, 206 in number, and a livery ; assisted by a recorder, chamberlain, common serjeant, comptroller, remembrancer, town- clerk, &c. The number of liverymen is about 10,000, and of freemen above 20,000. The City is divided into 26 Wards bearing the same relation to the City that the Hundred anciently did to the Shire, each represented by an alderman, and divided into precincts, each precinct returning one common council- man. The common councilmen and Ward officers are elected annually, and the meetings of the aldermen and common council are called Wardmotes. The senior alderman represents Bridge-Ward Without, and is popularly known as "the Father of the City." The alder- men are chosen by such householders as are freemen and pay an annual rent of 107.; each alderman is elected for life. The civic offices are chiefly filled by second- class citizens in point of station the principal bankers and merchants uniformly declining to fill them, and paying, at times, heavy fines to be exempted from serving. - The first Mayor of London was Fitz Alwyn. The title of "Lord " was prefixed probably about 1327, when by charter of Edward III. he was made, ex officio , one of the Justiciars for Gaol Delivery at Newgate. The City arms are the sword of St. Paul and the cross of St. George. The City was commonly called Cockaigne, and the name Cockney--one cockered and spoilt-is generally applied to people born within the sound of the bells of the XXV.-MANSION HOUSE. 235 church of St. Mary-le-Bow, in Cheapside. Minsheu, who com- piled a valuable dictionary of the English language in the reign of James I. , says, " Cockney is applied only to one born within the sound of Bow bells, i.e. within the City of London, which term came first out ofthis tale, that a citizen's son riding with his father out of London into the country, and being a novice, and merely ignorant how corn or cattle increased , asked, when he heard a horse neigh, ' what the horse did ? ' his father answered, ' the horse doth neigh ; ' riding farther he heard a cock crow, and said, ' doth the cock neigh too ? ' and therefore, Cockney by inversion thus, incock q . incoctus, i.e., raw or unripe in countrymen's affairs." Every person of full age and not subject to any legal incapacity may become a freeman of the City of London on the payment of 6l. 58. 4d. MANSION- HOUSE, the heart of the City, from which radiate Cornhill, Queen Victoria-street, Threadneedle- street, Cheapside, Lombard- street, and King William street -the residence of the Lord Mayor during his term of office - was built 1739-41, from the designs of George Dance, the City surveyor. Lord Burlington sent a design by Palladio, which was rejected by the City on the inquiry of a Common Councilman: "Who was Palladio ?-was he a freeman of the City, and was he not a Roman Catholic ? " It is said to have cost 71,000l. The principal room is the Egyptian Hall, so called because in its original construction it exactly corresponded with the Egyptian Hall described by Vitruvius. It is decorated with statues by modern British artists, on which 8000l. are said to have been laid out - Caractacus and Egeria, by Foley ; Genius and the Morning Star, by Bailey ; Comus, by Lough ; and Griselda, by Marshall. In this Hall, on Easter Monday, the Lord Mayor gives a great banquet and ball to 300 or 350 persons. The Lord Mayor of London is chosen every 29th of September, from the aldermen below the chair, who have served the office of sheriff ; and he is installed in office every 9th of November, when " The Show " or procession between London and Westminster takes place. This, since 1867, has been pared of its former pomp ; its men in armour, standard bearers, &c. , which excited the emulation ofgood Apprentices of former days, The procession starts from Guildhall about noon, proceeds, escorted by Cavalry, along Cannon Street, Victoria Street, the Thames Embank- ment, to Westminster, returning by Charing Cross, Strand, Fleet Street, and Cheapside. He is sworn in at Westminster 236 XXV. -MANSION-HOUSE. -GUILDHALL. Hall before one of the Barons of the Exchequer, and then returns to preside at the great mayoralty dinner in Guild- hall. The procession of gilt barges up the river ceased in 1858. The Lord Mayor's Coach, a large lumbering carved and gilt vehicle, was painted and designed by Cipriani, in 1757. Its original cost was 1065l. 38.; and an expendi- ture of upwards of 100l. was every year incurred to keep it in repair. The chief magistrate is robed in red cloak, and collar of SS. , attended by his chaplain, and sword and mace bearers. The sword-bearer carries the sword in the pearl scabbard, presented to the Corporation by Queen Eliza- beth upon opening the Royal Exchange, and the mace-bearer the great gold mace given to the City by Charles I. The annual salary of the Lord Mayor is 8000l.; and the annual income of the Corporation of London, about 400,000l. , arising from-Coal * and Wine Dues ; Rents and Quit Rents ; Markets ; Brokers' Rents and Fines ; Admissions to the Freedom of the City ; Renewing Fines for Leases. The Lord Mayor generally spends more than his income, but more than 25 per cent. of the Corporation income is paid away in salaries. Thus the Mace-bearer and Sword-bearer each receives 550l. a-year. The administration of justice at the Central Criminal Court in the Old Bailey costs about 12,1827. a-year ; the City Police, about 10,1187. a-year ; New- gate, about 92237. a-year ; the House of Correction, about 76027. a-year ; the cost of the Debtors' Prison was about 49551. a-year. The Conservancy ofthe Thames and Medwayis entrusted to the Lord Mayor, and six other members of the Cor- poration, jointly with seven members appointed by Govern- ment. The income from Tonnage, Tolls, Pier Dues, &c. , amounts to about 60,000l. , and is expended chiefly on improving and maintaining the navigation. The Lord Mayor, as the chief magistrate of the City, has the right of pre- cedence in the City before all the Royal Family ; a right disputed in St. Paul's Cathedral by George IV. , when Prince ofWales, but maintained by Sir James Shaw, the Lord Mayor, and confirmed at the same time by King George III. At the Sovereign's death he takes his seat at the Privy Council, and signs before any other subject. The entire City is placed in his custody, and it is usual to close Temple Bar at the approach of the Sovereign, not in order to exclude her, but in order to admit her in form. The GUILDHALL of the City of London is at the foot of

  • 13d. aton is paid on all coals sold in London, within the range of the Metropolitan police.

XXV.-GUILDHALL- LORD MAYOR'S DINNER. 237 KING STREET, CHEAPSIDE, in the ward of Cheap, and was first built in 1411 (12th of Henry IV. ), prior to which time the Courts were held in Aldermanbury. Ofthe original building there is nothing left but the stone and mortar of the walls ; two windows ; and a crypt, about half of the length of the present Hall. The front towards King-street was seriously injured in the Great Fire, and the mongrel substitute erected 1789, from the designs of the younger Dance, was, 1865-68, replaced by a more correct front. In 1867, when the building was repaired, a fine open- work gothic roof of wood was added to the Hall, at a cost of near 30007. The Great Hall, 153 feet long, 50 feet broad, and 55 high, used for public meetings of the citizens, elections, &c. , contains a few monuments of very ordinary character. Observe. -Pyramidical monument to the great Lord Chatham, by the elder Bacon ; the inscription by Burke. Monument to William Pitt, by Bubb ; the inscription by Canning. Monument to Nelson, by Smith ; the inscription by Sheridan. Monument to the Duke of Wellington has replaced that to Lord Mayor Beckford (the father of the author of Vathek) inscribed with his intended speech (which was never spoken) to King George III. The two giants at the lower end of the Hall-some- times carried in the pageant of a Lord Mayor's Day-are known as Gog and Magog, though antiquaries differ about their proper appellation, some calling them Colbrand and Brandamore, others Corinous and Gogmagog. They were carved by Richard Saunders, and set up in the Hall in 1708. In the Common Council Chamber, abutting from the Hall, observe : -Standing statue of George III. (Chantrey's first statue) ; fine bust, by the same artist, of Granville Sharp ; bust of Lord Nelson, by Mrs. Damer ; The Siege of Gibraltar, by Copley, R. A. (father of Lord Lyndhurst) ; Death of Wat Tyler, by Northcote, R.A.; whole-length of Queen Anne, by Closterman ; Portraits of Judges (Sir Matthew Hale and others) who sat at Clifford's Inn after the Great Fire, and arranged all the differences between landlord and tenant during the great business of rebuilding, by Michael Wright. A public dinner is given in this Hall, every 9th of November, by the new Lord Mayor for the coming year. The Hall on this occasion is divided into two distinct but not equal portions. The upper end or dais is called the Hustings (from an old Court of that name) ; the lower the Body of the Hall. Her Majesty's ministers and the great Law officers of the Crown invariably attend this dinner. At the upper end or dais the courses are all hot ; at the lower 238 XXV. -GUILDHALL LIBRARY-TEMPLE BAR. end only the turtle. The scene is well worth seeing-the loving-cup and the barons of beef carrying the mind back to mediæval times and manners. The following is a Bill of Fare :- tle, containing 5 pints each. 250 Tureens ofReal Tur- 13 Sirloins , Rumps, and Ribs of Beef. 6 Dishes ofAsparagus 60 Ditto of Mashed and other Potatoes. 200 Bottles of Sherbet. 6 Dishes of Fish. 30 Entrées. 4 Boiled Turkeys and Oysters . 60 Roast Pullets. 60 Dishes of Fowls. 46 Ditto of Capons. 6 Do. of Capt. White's Selim's true India Curries. 50 French Pies. 60 Pigeon Pies. 53 Hams ornamented. 43 Tongues. [Lamb. 2 Quarters of House- 2 Barons of Beef. 3 Rounds of Beef. 40 Dishes ofPartridges 15 Dishes ofWildFowl 2 Pea Fowls. ᎠᎬᏚᏚᎬᎡᎢ. 44 Ditto of Shell Fish. 100 Pine Apples, from 4 Ditto of Prawns. 140 Jellies. 50 Blancmanges. 40 Dishes of Tarts, creamed. [ Pastry. 40 Dishes of Almond 30 Ditto of Orange and other Tourtes. 20 Chantilly Baskets. 60 Dishes of Mince Pies 56 Salads. THE REMOVES. 80 Roast Turkeys. 6 Leverets. 2 Stewed Rumps of 80 Pheasants. Beef. 24 Geese. 2 to 3 lbs. each. 200 Dishes of Hot-house Grapes. 250 Ice Creams. 50 Dishes of Apples . 100 Ditto of Pears. 60 Ornamented Savoy Cakes. 75 Plates of Walnuts. 80 Ditto of dried Fruit and Preserves. 50 Ditto of Preserved Ginger. 60 Ditto of Rout Cakes and Chips. 46 Ditto of Brandy Cherries. The cost of the Banquet and Procession is about 2200l. , of which the Lord Mayor pays 1000l. , and the two Sheriffs 6001. each. The " Guildhall or City of London Library " and Reading Room, a handsome and useful suite of rooms, built 1871-2, behind the Guildhall, on a site given by the Corporation, along with a sum of 25,000l. for the building. The Library contains near 40,000 vols. , a large collection of early printed plays and pageants, and other works, connected with the City; - Shakspeare's signature, attached to a deed of con- veyance ; the Corporation of London gave for it 1477. Open Daily, gratis, 10-5, except on holidays. The reading room is largely supplied with dictionaries and other books of reference. Antiquities, &c. , discovered in making the excavations for the Royal Exchange ; a group of the Dex Matres, found in Crutched Friars ; a hexagon Column, erected by Anancletus Provincialis and his wife ; a fluted marble Sarcophagus, 4th century, from Clapton ; also a large collection of Pilgrim tokens of the Middle Ages. The Court of Aldermen holds its meetings in Guildhall. TEMPLE BAR. A gateway of Portland stone, separating the Strand fromFleet- street, and the City from the shire; built by Wren (1670). On the E. side, in niches, are statues of XXV.-TEMPLE BAR-THE MONUMENT. 239 Queen Elizabeth and James I., and on the W. side, those of Charles I. and Charles II. , all by John Bushnell (d. 1701 ) . The gates are invariably closed by the City authorities when- ever the sovereign has occasion to enter the City, and at no other time. The visit of the sovereign is, indeed, a rare occurrence confined to a thanksgiving in St. Paul's for some important victory, or the opening of a public build- ing like the New Royal Exchange. A herald sounds a trumpet before the gate-another herald knocks -a parley ensues the gates are then thrown open, and the Lord Mayor for the time being makes over the sword of the City to the sovereign, who graciously returns it to the Mayor. The mangled remains of Sir Thomas Armstrong, concerned in the Rye House Plot, the head and quarters of Sir William Perkins and Sir John Friend, implicated in the attempt to assassinate William III. , were among the early ornaments of the present Bar. The last of this character on the Bar were the heads of the victims of the fatal " 45." " I have been this morning at the Tower," Walpole writes to Montagu, Aug. 16th, 1746, " and passed under the new heads at Temple Bar, where people make a trade of letting spying- glasses at a half- penny a look. " "I remember," said Johnson, once being with Goldsmith in Westminster Abbey. While he surveyed Poets' Corner, I said to him :- 66 ' Forsitan et nostrum nomen miscebitur istis .' When wegot to the Temple Bar he stopped me, pointed to the heads upon it, and slily whispered me : 'Forsitan et nostrum nomen miscebitur istis." " Johnson was a Jacobite at heart. The last heads which remained on the Bar were those of Fletcher and Townley. The interior of the Bar is leased from the City, by Messrs. Child, the oldest London bankers, as a repository for the ledgers and cash books of their house. It seems not improbable that when the new Law Courts (see Index) are built, Temple Bar may be relieved from the buildings on either side, so as to admit the traffic to pass round it. The MONUMENT, on FISH STREET HILL, is a fluted column of the Doric order, erected to commemorate the Great Fire of London (2-7 Sept. 1666). The design was made by Sir Christopher Wren ; the bas-relief on the pedi- ment carved by Caius Gabriel Cibber, the father of Colley Cibber ; the four dragons at the four angles by Edward Pierce, for which he had, as Walpole tells us, 50 guineas piece ; the Latin inscriptions, written by Dr. Gale, Dean of 240 XXV. THE CITY COMPANIES. York ; and the whole structure erected in six years (1671-77), for the sum of 13,7007. It is 202 feet high, and stands at a distance of 202 feet from the site of the house in Puddinglane, in which the fire originated. It is hollow, and contains a staircase of 345 steps . Admittance from 9 till dark ; charge, 3d. each person. The urn on the top is 42 feet high. Wren's first design was a pillar invested by flames, sur- mounted by a phoenix ; "but, upon second thoughts," he says, " I rejected it, because it will be costly, not easily understood at that height, and worse understood at a distance, and lastly dangerous, by reason of the sail the spread wings will carry in the wind." He then designed a statue of Charles II., and showed it to that King for his approbation ; but Charles, "not that his Majesty," says Wren, "disliked a statue, was pleased to think a large ball of metal, gilt, would be more agreeable ; " and the present vase of flames was in consequence adopted. The following inscription was at one time to be read round the plinth, beginning at the west :- W.] "THIS PILLAR WAS SET VP IN PERPETVALL REMEMBRANCE OF THAT MOST DREADFUL BURNING OF THIS PROTESTANT [s. ] CITY, BEGUN AND CARRYED ON BY YE TREACHERY AND MALICE OF YE POPISH FACTIO, IN YE BEGINNING OF SEPTEM. IN YE YEAR OF [ E. ] OUR LORD 1666, IN ORDER TO YE CARRYING ON THEIR HORRID PLOTT FOR EXTIRPATING [N.] YE PROTESTANT RELIGION AND OLD ENGLISH LIBERTY, AND YE INTRODUCING POPERY AND SLAVERY." And the inscription on the north side concluded as follows : - " SED FVROR PAPISTICVS QVI TAM DIRA PATRAVIT NONDUM RESTINGVITVR." These offensive paragraphs formed no part of the original inscription, but were added in 1681, by order of the Court of Aldermen, when Titus Oates and his plot had filled the City with a fear and horror of the Papists. They were obliterated in the reign of James II. , re- cut deeper than before in the reign of William III. , and finally erased (by an Act of Common Council) Jan. 26th, 1831. Six persons have thrown themselves off the Monument. This kind of death becoming popular, it was deemed advis- able to encage and disfigure the Monument as we now see it. Goldsmith, when in destitute circumstances in London, filled for a short time the situation of shopman to a chemist, residing at the corner of Monument or Bell Yard, on Fish- street-hill. The CITY COMPANIES of importance include " The XXV. - MERCERS' HALL-GROCERS' HALL. 241 Twelve Great Companies," so called, and about six others, though the total number of City Companies still existing is 82 : forty of whom, however, are without halls. Many of these are very rich, but very few exercise any of their old privileges. The following are the Halls of the Twelve Great Companies, arranged in the order of precedence ; and such was the importance attached to the Twelve that it was formerly necessary for a citizen, if a mem- ber of any other than the Twelve Great Companies, to quit his own Company on becoming an alderman, and enter into one of the Twelve. The precedence of the twelve is thought to have originated in the selection of twelve citizens to attend the Lord Mayor in his office of Butler at the Coronation Feast. 1. MERCERS' HALL and CHAPEL, CHEAPSIDE, between Ironmonger-lane and Old Jewry. The Cheapside front is a characteristic specimen of the enriched decoration em- ployed in London immediately after the Great Fire. Observe. -Portrait of Dean Colet, founder of St. Paul's School (his father was a mercer, and Colet left the management of the school to the Mercers' Company) ; portrait of Sir Thomas Gresham, also a member. Another eminent member was Whittington, four times Lord Mayor of London. Thomas Becket, the archbishop and saint, was born in a house on the site of the Mercers' Chapel, originally an hospital of St. Thomas of Acon or Acres, founded by the sister of Becket, and at the dissolution of religious houses bought by the Mercers. Guy, the bookseller and founder of the hospital which bears his name, was bound apprentice to a bookseller, Sept. 2nd, 1660, “in the porch of Mercers' Chapel. " That part of Cheapside adjoining the Mercers' Chapel was originally called the Mercery. Queen Elizabeth was free of the Mercers' Company,-King James I. was a Clothworker. The usual entrance to the Hall is in Ironmonger-lane. The Mercers' is the oldest of the City guilds. On it depend the Whittington Almshouses, St. Paul's School, and the Mercers' School. Among the plate which the Mer- cers possess is a silver-gilt, chased cup, gift of Sir Th. Leigh, 1558, and a tun on wheels, reputed to be a present from Sir Richard Whittington. 2. GROCERS' HALL, in the POULTRY, next No. 35. The Company was incorporated by Edward III., in 1345, under the title of " The Wardens and Commonalty ofthe Mystery of the Grocers of the City of London. " Theyhad previously R 242 XXV. -DRAPERS' HALL. existed under the primitive name of Pepperers, and were subsequently united with the Apothecaries. The first Hall of the Grocers of which we have any account was built in 1427. Their second was built after the Great Fire ; and their third, the present edifice (Thomas Leverton, architect), was commenced in 1798, and opened 1802. Their patron saint is St. Anthony. The Committee of the House of Commons, for resisting Charles I.'s attempt to seize the five members, met here in Jan. 1647. The City dinners to the Long Parliament were given in Grocers' Hall, and here the Governors and Company of the Bank of England held their Courts from the establishment of the Bank in 1694 to 1734. Sir Philip Sidney was free of the Grocers' Company, and the Grocers rode in procession at his funeral. Abel Drugger, the Tobacco Man in Ben Jonson's Alchemist, is " free of the Grocers." The most distinguished warden in the Company's list is Sir John Cutler, most unjustly represented as penurious by the poet Pope. A portrait and statue of Cutler adorn the Hall of the Company. He was in reality a liberal man and benefactor, * not only to his own Company but to various charities, and to science by founding a Gresham Lectureship. 3. DRAPERS' HALL, THROGMORTON STREET, CITY, re- built from a grand design, 1869, has a handsome Hall for banquets. The Company was incorporated in 1439, and settled in Throgmorton-street in 1541, on the attainder of Thomas Cromwell, Earl of Essex, whose house and garden- ground they acquired by purchase of Henry VIII. "This house being finished, and having some reasonable plot ofground left for a garden, he[Cromwell] caused the pales of the gardens adjoining to the north part thereof, on a sudden to be taken down ; twenty- two feet to be measured forth right into the north of every man's ground ; a line there to be drawn, a trench to be cast, a foundation laid, and a high brick wall to be built. My father had a garden there, and a house standing close to his south pale ; this house they loosed from the ground, and bare upon rollers into my father's garden twenty-two feet, ere my father heard thereof; no warning was given him, nor other answer, when he spake to the surveyors of that work, but that their master, Sir Thomas, com- manded them so to do. No man durst go to argue the matter, but each man lost his land, and my father paid his whole rent, which was 6s. 6d. the year for that half which was left." -Stow, p. 68. Cromwell's house was destroyed in the Great Fire of 1666 ; and the new Hall of the Company was erected in the suc- ceeding year from the designs of Jarman, architect of the second Royal Exchange. Drapers'-gardens extended N. as far as London Wall, and must have commanded formerly a

  • See Account of the Company of Grocers, by John Benjamin Heath,

Esq. 1854. XXV.- FISHMONGERS' HALL-GOLDSMITHS' HALL. 243 fine view of Highgate and the adjoining heights. Ward commends them in his " London Spy" as a fashionable promenade " an hour before dinner time." Observe. Portrait by Sir William Beechey of Admiral Lord Nelson, and a curious picture, attributed to Zucchero, and engraved by Bartolozzi, of Mary, Queen of Scots, and her son, James I. , when four years old. 66 4. FISHMONGERS' HALL, at the north foot of LONDON BRIDGE, erected 1831 , on the site of the old Hall built after the Great Fire by Jarman, the City surveyor. The earliest extant charter of the Company is a patent of the 37th of Edw. III.; while the acting charter of incorporation is dated 2nd of James I. The London Fishmongers were divided formerly into two distinct classes, " Stock-fishmongers " and Salt- fishmongers." Then Thames-street was known as "Stock- Fishmonger-row," and the old Fish-market of London was "above bridge, " in what is now called Old Fish- street- hill, in the ward of Queenhithe, not as now, " below bridge," in Thames-street, in the ward of Billingsgate. The Company is divided into liverymen (about 350 in number), and free- men (about 1000). The ruling body consists of 34-the prime warden, 5 wardens, and 28 assistants. The freedom is obtained by patrimony, servitude, redemption (for defective service), or gift. The purchase-money of the freedom is 1057. Eminent Members. -Sir William Walworth, who slew Wat Tyler; Isaac Pennington, the turbulent Lord Mayor ofthe Civil War under Charles I.; Dogget, the comedian and whig, who bequeathed a sum of money for the purchase of a " coat and badge " to be rowed for every 1st of August from the Swan at London Bridge to the Swan at Chelsea, in remembrance of George I.'s accession to the throne. Observe. - A funeral pall or hearse-cloth of the age of Henry VIII. , very fine, and carefully engraved by Shaw ; original drawing of a portion of the pageant exhibited by the Fishmongers' Company, Oct. 29th, 1616, on the occasion of Sir John Leman, a member of the Company, entering on the office of Lord Mayor of the City of London ; statue of Sir William Wal- worth, by Edward Pierce ; portraits of William III. and Queen, by Murray ; George II. and Queen, by Shackleton ; Duke of Kent, by Beechey ; Earl St. Vincent (the Admiral), by Beechey ; and Queen Victoria, by Herbert Smith. 5. GOLDSMITHS' HALL, FOSTER LANE, CHEAPSIDE, be- hind the General Post Office, built by Philip Hardwick, R.A., and opened with one of those splendid banquets for which this Company is so renowned, July 15th, 1835. TheGoldsmiths R 2 244 XXV.-SKINNERS' HALL. existed as a guild from a very early period, but were not incorporated before 1327, the 1st of Edward III. Henry Fitz-Alwin, the first Mayor of London, and who continued Mayor for upwards of 24 years, was a goldsmith of the guild. The Goldsmiths' Company possess the privilege of assaying and stamping all articles of gold and silver manu- facture, pursuant to acts 12 Geo. II. c. 26, 24 Geo. III. c. 53, 38 Geo. III. c. 59, and 8 Vict. c. 22. The assays in one day are about 150, and are conducted as follows :-They scrape a portion from every piece of plate manufactured, and send it to their assay master. If found true to the standard quantities, the articles are passed ; if what is called of " deceitful work," they are destroyed. These standard scrapings are afterwards melted down and assayed by the Company, to whom they belong. This last assay is a sort of "pix" by the Company on the practice of its assayers. The Hall mark, stamped on the several articles assayed, consists of the Sovereign's head, the royal lion, the leopard of the old royal arms of England, and the letter in the alphabet which marks the year of the Sovereign's reign when the assay was made. The allowance to the Company is 2 per cent. , and the receipts for stamping are paid over to the Inland Revenue Office. Observe. The exterior of the Hall itself, a noble specimen of Mr. Hardwick's abilities -bold and well-propor- tioned in every part. On the staircase, full-length portraits of George IV. , by Northcote; William IV. , by Shee; George III. , and his Queen, by Ramsay. In the Livery Tea Room, a Conversation-piece, by Hudson (Sir Joshua Reynolds's master). In the Committee Room, the original portrait, by Jansen, of a liveryman of the Company, the celebrated Sir Hugh Myddelton, who brought the New River to London : portrait of Sir Martin Bowes, with the cup he bequeathed to the Goldsmiths' Company, standing on the table before him ; (Queen Elizabeth is said to have drunk out of this cup at her coronation ; it is still preserved) : Roman altar, exhi- biting a full-length figure of Apollo, in relief, found in digging the foundations for the present Hall : full-length portraits of Queen Victoria, by Hayter ; Queen Adelaide, by Shee ; Prince Albert, by Smith ; and marble busts, by Chantrey, of George III. , George IV. , and William IV. 6. SKINNERS' HALL, DoWGATE HILL. The Company was incorporated in 1327, and the government vested in a master, 4 wardens, and 60 assistants, with a livery of 137 members. The Hall was destroyed in the Great Fire, and immediately rebuilt. The present front was added by an XXV. - MERCHANT TAYLORS' HALL. 245 architect of the name of Jupp, about 1808. The mode of electing a master is curious. A cap of maintenance is carried into the Hall in great state, and is tried on by the old master, who announces that it will not fit him. He then passes it on to be tried by several next him. Two or three more misfits occur, till at last the cap is handed to the intended new master, for whom it was made. The wardens are elected in the same manner. The gowns of the liverymen were faced, in former times, with budge. Budge-row, in Watling-street, was so called of budge-fur, and of the skinners dwelling there. Observe.-Portrait of Sir Andrew Judd, Lord Mayor of London in 1551 , and founder of the large and excellent school at Tunbridge, of which the Skinners' Company have the patronage and supervision. 7. MERCHANT TAYLORS' HALL, in THREADNEEDLE STREET, a little beyond Finch-lane, but concealed from the street. Company incorporated 1466. It has the honour to enumerate among its members several of the Kings of England and many of the chief nobility. The Hall was built, after the Great Fire, by Jarman, the City architect, and is the largest of the Companies' Halls. The Merchant Taylors' is the great Tory Company, as the Fishmongers' is the great Whig Company. Here, in 1835, a grand dinner was given to Sir Robert Peel, at which the whole body of Conservative Members of the House of Commons were present, and Sir Robert announced the new principles of his party ; and here, in 1851 , a similar dinner was given to Lord Stanley, at which 200 Members of the House of Commons were present, and Lord Stanley explained the prospects of the party. A few portraits deserve inspection. Observe.-Head of Henry VIII. , by Paris Bordone ; head of Charles I.; three- quarter portrait of Charles II.; full-length of Charles IF ; full-length of James II.; full-length of William III.; full-length of Queen Anne ; full- lengths of George III. and his Queen, by Ramsay (same as at Gold- smiths' Hall) ; full-length of the late Duke of York, by Sir Thomas Lawrence ; full-length, seated, of Lord Chancellor Eldon, by Briggs ; full-length of the Duke of Wellington, by Wilkie (with a horse by his side, very spirited but not very like) ; three-quarter of Mr. Pitt, by Hoppner. Also the following among portraits of old officers of the Company (artists unknown), Sir Thomas White, master, 1561, founder of St. John's College, Oxford. Stow, the chronicler, and Speed, the historian, were Merchant Taylors. Mode of Admission. -Order from the master ; for the master's address, 216 XXV. -VINTNERS' HALL. apply to the clerk, at his office in the Hall. When Dr. South was appointed Chaplain to this Company, he took for the text of his inauguration sermon, " A remnant of all shall be saved." 8. HABERDASHERS' HALL, at STAINING LANE end, CHEAPSIDE, behind the Post- office, the Hall of the Haber- dashers, the eighth on the list of the Twelve Great Companies. The Hall was destroyed in the Great Fire, and rebuilt, it is said, by Wren. It was again rebuilt, 1855, The Hall contains a miscellaneous collection of portraits, but not one of any consequence or merit. The Haberdashers were originally called Hurrers and Milaners, and were incorporated 26th of Henry VI. 9. SALTERS' HALL, OXFORD COURT, ST. SWITHIN'S LANE, the Hall of the Master, Wardens, and Commonalty of the Art or Mystery of Salters. The present Hall was built by Henry Carr, architect, and opened 1827. Oxford-court, in which the Hall is situated, was so called from John de Vere, the sixteenth Earl of Oxford of that name, who died in 1562, and was originally the site of the inn or hostel of the Priors of Tortington, in Sussex. Empson and Dudley, notorious as the unscrupulous instruments of Henry VII.'s avarice in the later and more unpopular years of his reign, lived in Walbrook, in " two fair houses," with doors leading into the garden of the Prior of Tortington (now Salters' - garden). " Here they met," says Stow, " and consulted of matters at their pleasures." Observe. - Portrait of Adrian Charpentier, painter of the clever and only good portrait of Roubiliac, the sculptor. 10. IRONMONGERS' HALL, on the north side of FENCHURCH STREET. The present Hall was erected by Thomas Holden, architect, whose name, with the date 1748, appears on the front. The Ironmongers were incorporated for the first time in 1464-3rd of Edward IV. Observe.- Portrait of Admiral Lord Viscount Hood, by Gainsborough ; presented by Lord Hood, on his admission into this Com- pany in 1783, after the freedom of the City had been con- ferred upon him for his eminent naval services. The great Banqueting-hall has been decorated in the Elizabethan style, in papier mâché and carton pierre. 11. VINTNERS' HALL, on the river side of UPPER THAMES STREET. It is a modern building of small preten- XXV. -APOTHECARIES' HALL. 247 sions, but the Company is of great antiquity. In the Court- room are full-length portraits of Charles II. , James II. , Marie D'Este, and Prince George of Denmark. The patron saint of the Company is St. Martin, and one of the churches in the ward of Vintry was called St. Martin's-in-the- Vintry. men 12. CLOTHWORKERS' HALL, on the east side of MINCING LANE, FENCHURCH STREET. A handsome building, re-erected 1860, Angell, architect. The Clothworkers were originally incorporated temp. Edw. II. (1482) as Shermen (shearers) and were united with the Fullers, 1528. King James I. joined himself unto the Clothworkers, as dealing in the principal and noblest staple ware of all these Islands. "Beeing in the open hall, he asked who was master of the company, and the Lord Mayor answered, Syr William Stone ; unto whom the King said, Wilt thou make me free of the Clothworkers ?' ' Yea, ' quoth the master, and thinke myselfe a happy man that I live to see this day." Then the King said, Stone, give me thy hand, and now I am a Clothworker.' " Pepys, who was Master in 1677, presented a richly-chased silver “ Loving Cup, " still in the possession of the Company, and used on all festive occasions.. Of the other Halls of Companies the most important areAPOTHECARIES' HALL, WATER LANE, BLACKFRIARS. A brick and stone building, erected in 1670 as the Dispen- sary and Hall of the Incorporated Company of Apothecaries. "Nigh where Fleet Ditch descends in sable streams, To wash his sooty Naiads in the Thames, There stands a structure on a rising hill, Where tyros take their freedom out to kill." Garth, The Dispensary. The Grocers and the Apothecaries were originally one Com- pany ; but this union did not exist above eleven years, King James I., at the suit of Gideon Delaune (d. 1659), his own apothecary, granting ( 1617) a charter to the Apothecaries as a separate Company. In the Hall is a small good portrait of James I., and a contemporary statue of Delaune. In 1687 commenced a controversy between the College of Physicians and the Company of Apothecaries, the heats and bicker- ings of which were the occasion of Garth's poem of The Dispensary. The Apothecaries have a Botanic Garden at Chelsea ; and still retain the power of granting certificates to competent persons to dispense medicines. In the Hall is a well-supported retail-shop, for the sale of unadulterated medicines. 248 XXV. -STATIONERS' HALL. STATIONERS' HALL, STATIONERS' HALL COURT, LUDGATE. HILL. The Hall of the " Master and Keepers or Wardens and Commonaltyofthe Mystery or Art ofthe Stationers of the City of London." the only London Company entirely restricted to the members of its own craft. The Company was incorporated in the reign of Philip and Mary, and the present Hall erected on the site of Burgaveny House, belonging to Henry Nevill, sixth Lord Abergavenny (d. 1587). The Hall was destroyed in the Great Fire of 1666, when the Stationers of London (the greatest sufferers on that occasion) lost property, it is said, to the amount of 200,000l. Observe. -Portraits of Prior and Steele (good) ; of Richardson, the novelist, Master of the Company in 1754, and of his wife (both by High- more) ; of Alderman Boydell, by Graham ; of Vincent Wing, the astrologer ; Wing died in 1668, but his name is still continued as the compiler of the sheet almanacks ofthe Stationers' Company. Printers were obliged to serve their time to a member of the Company, and every publication, from a Bible to a ballad, was required to be "Entered at Stationers' Hall. " The service is now unnecessary; but under the actual Copyright Act, the proprietor of every published work is required, for his own protection, to register in the books of the Stationers' Company, its title, owner, and date of publication, in order to secure it from piracy. The fee is 58. The number of Freemen is between 1000 and 1100, and ofthe livery, or leading persons, about 450. The Company's capital is upwards of 40,000l. , divided into shares varying in value from 40l. to 400l. each. The great treasure of the Company is its register of works entered for publication, commencing in 1557, published_by_the Shakespeare Society. The only publications which the Com- pany continues to make are almanacks, of which they had once the entire monopoly, and a Latin Gradus. Almanack day at Stationers' Hall (every 22nd of November, at 3 o'clock) is a sight worth seeing, for the bustle of the porters anxious to get off with early supplies. The celebrated Bible of the year 1632, with the important word " not " omitted in the seventh commandment, "Thou shalt commit adultery," was printed by the Stationers' Company. The omission was made a Star-Chamber matter by Archbishop Laud, and a heavy fine laid on the Company for their neglect. In the Hall of the ARMOURERS' COMPANY, Coleman- street, is a noble collection of mazers, hanaps, and silver-gilt cups, not to be matched by any other company in London, besides some curious old armour. BARBER-SURGEONS' HALL, Monkwell-street, City, has been XXV.- CITY HALLS.-ARTILLERY COMPANY. 249 pulled down except the Council Chamber, retaining a beauti- ful roof designed by Inigo Jones. It contains the picture, by Holbein, of Henry VIII. presenting the charter to the Company, perhaps the most important work of Holbein's in England, but injured and painted over. Here are two silvergilt cups, one presented by Henry VIII., the other by Charles II. At WEAVERS' HALL, 22, Basinghall-street, is an old picture of William Lee, the Cambridge scholar, who invented the loom for weaving stockings : the picture represents him pointing out his loom to a female knitter. At SADDLERS' HALL, Cheapside, is a fine Funeral Pall of 15th century work, inferior, however, to the Pall at the Fishmongers'. At CARPENTERS' HALL, Carpenters' Buildings, London Wall, were to be seen four paintings in distemper, of a date as early as the reign of Edward IV.; ancient caps and crowns of the Master and Wardens. At PAINTERSTAINERS' HALL, Little Trinity Lane, is a portrait of Camden, the antiquary (son of a painter-stainer), and a Loving Cup, bequeathed by him to the Company, and used every St. Luke's Day. CROSBY HALL, BISHOPSGATE STREET. Built at end of 15th century by Sir John Crosby, alderman ; was sold by his widow, 1476, to Richard, Duke of Gloucester, who resided here, and here received the offer of the crown from the Lord Mayor and Alderman. Shakspeare makes it the scene of Richard's plots for the assassination of the young Princes. "When you have done, repair to Crosby Place," Act. III. In the reign of Henry VIII. it passed into the hands of Sir Thos. Moore. It has since been by turns a Methodist meet- ing, an auction room, a literary institution, a wine- store, and is now a city Dining- room and Restaurant and may be recom- mended. It preserves its original oaken roof, and has some painted glass. The ARTILLERY GROUND (FINSBURY SQUARE, west side) has been the exercising ground since 1622 of the Honourable Artillery Company of the City of London. The old City Trained Band was established 1585, during the fear of a Spanish invasion ; new formed in 1610, and a weekly exercise in arms was adhered to with strict military discipline. When the Civil War broke out, the citizens of London (then carefully trained to war) took up arms against the King ; and on all occasions, more especially at the battle of Newbury, behaved with admirable conduct and courage. Since the Restoration, they have led a peaceable life, and, except in 1780, when their promptness preserved the Bank of England, have only been 250 XXVI. EMINENT PERSONS BORN IN LONDON. called out on state occasions, such as the public thanksgiving (1705) for the victories of the Duke of Marlborough, when Queen Anne went to St. Paul's, and the Westminster Militia lined the streets from St. James's to Temple Bar, and the City Trained Bands from Temple Bar to St. Paul's. The musters and marchings of this most celebrated Company are admirably ridiculed by Fletcher in The Knight of the Burning Pestle ; and the manner in which their orders were issued, by Steele, in No. 41 of the Tatler. I need hardly add, that John Gilpin was a Train-band Captain. "A Train-band Captain eke was he Of famous London town." The Colonel of the Company is always a person of rank and position, and the force is 400 or 500 men, many of them sons ofgentlemen, armed with rifles, and good shots. They have 4 pieces of cannon. XXVI.-EMINENT PERSONS BORN IN LONDON. ST. THOMAS BECKET, Archbishop of Canterbury, behind the Mercers' Chapel in the Poultry. SIR THOMAS MORE, Lord Chancellor, in Milk-street, Cheapside. LORD BACON, Lord Chancellor, in York House, on the site of Buckingham-street in the Strand. THOS. WENTWORTH, EARL OF STRAFFORD, in Chancery-lane. THE GREAT EARL OF CHATHAM, in the parish of St. James's, Westminster. WILLIAM CAMDEN, author of " Britannia," in the Little Old Bailey, near St. Sepulchre's Church. JOHN STOW, the historian of London. CHAUCER, the father of English Poetry. SPENSER, in East Smithfield, near the Tower, it is said. BEN JONSON, in Hartshorne-lane, near Northumberland- street, Charing- cross, it is said. MILTON, in Bread- street, Cheapside, where his father was a scrivener at the sign of the Spread Eagle. COWLEY, in Fleet-street, near Chancery-lane, where his father was a grocer. XXVI.-EMINENT PERSONS BORN IN LONDON. 251 POPE, in Plough Court, Lombard- street, where his father was a linen-merchant. The house was pulled down, 1872. GRAY, at 41 , Cornhill, where his father was a linen-draper. LORD BYRON, at No. 16 (not 24), Holles- street, Cavendish- square, where his mother lodged, 1788. INIGO JONES, in or near Cloth Fair, Smithfield, where his father was a clothworker. HOGARTH, in Bartholomew-close, Smithfield. His father was corrector of the press to the booksellers in Little Britain. BP. LANCELOT ANDREWS, 1565, in Tower-street. His father was a seaman attached to the Trinity House. PENN, the founder of Pennsylvania, in the house of his father the Admiral, on Great Tower-hill, on the E. side, within a court adjoining to London Wall. LADY MARYWORTLEY MONTAGU, in the Piazza, Covent-garden. HORACE WALPOLE, 24, Arlington- street, Piccadilly, residence of Sir Robert Walpole. H. W. lived here 51 years. C. J. Fox, in Conduit- street, Bond- street. LORD CORNWALLIS, in Grosvenor- square, 1738. DAN. DE FOE, Son of a butcher in St. Giles's, Cripplegate, 1661. SIR WILLIAM TEMPLE, at Blackfriars, 1628. MICHAEL T. FARADAY, chemist, at Newington Butts, 1791. 252 XXVII.-BURIAL PLACES OF GREAT PERSONS. XXVII.-EMINENT PERSONS BURIED IN LONDON AND ITS IMMEDIATE VICINITY. KINGS AND QUEENS :- Edward the Confessor . Edward I. • Westminster Abbey. • Ditto. • Ditto. Henry V., and VII. and Queen • Ditto. Edward III. James IV. of Scotland Anne Boleyn Lady Jane Grey Queen Elizabeth Mary, Queen of Scots James I. SOLDIERS :- [Cheapside. . St. Michael's, Wood- street, • Aymer de Valence, Earl of Pembroke, Sir Francis Vere Lord Herbert of Cherbury General Wolfe Sir Thomas Picton Duke of Wellington SEAMEN:- Sir Walter Raleigh Nelson . Collingwood HISTORICAL CHARACTERS:- Cromwell, Earl of Essex Protector Somerset . · St. Peter's-ad- Vincula, Tower. Ditto. Westminster Abbey. Ditto. Henry VII.'s Chapel. Westminster Abbey. Ditto. St. Giles's-in-the-Fields. Greenwich old Parish Ch. . St. Paul's, 1859. • Villiers, 1st &2d Dukes ofBuckingham, Duke of Monmouth STATESMEN:- Sir Thomas More Sir William Temple Savile, Lord Halifax Bolingbroke Chatham Pitt • Fox Canning DIVINES :- Miles Coverdale Bishop Andrews Fuller, author of" Worthies " Barrow South Archbishop Tillotson Bishop Burnet Nelson, author of " Fasts and Fes- tivals" Fox, founder ofthe Quakers Wesley Isaac Watts Rev. John Newton Swedenborg . · • St. Paul's. St. Margaret's, Westminster. St. Paul's. Ditto. St. Peter's- ad-Vincula, Tower. Ditto. Westminster Abbey. St. Peter's-ad-Vincula, Tower. Chelsea Old Church. Westminster Abbey. Ditto. Battersea Church. Westminster Abbey. St. Magnus, London Bridge. St. Saviour's, Southwark. Cranford, near Hounslow. Westminster Abbey. Ditto. St. Lawrence, Jewry. St. James's, Clerkenwell. St. George the Martyr, Queen Square. Bunhill-fields' Burial-ground Wesley's Chapel, City- road. Bunhill-fields . [street. St. Mary Woolnoth, Lombard- Swedish Church, Prince's- square, Ratcliff Highway. XXVII.-BURIAL PLACES OF GREAT PERSONS. 253 POETS, &c. :- Chaucer Gower Spenser Sir Philip Sidney Chapman Ben Jonson Beaumont Fletcher Massinger Kit Marlowe Milton Cowley . Butler Otway Dryden Pope Congreve . Gay Prior Addison Thomson Dr. Johnson Chatterton R. B. Sheridan Campbell . Rogers Tom Dibdin MUSICIANS :- Purcell Handel .. NOVELISTS :- Bunyan De Foe . Richardson Sterne Goldsmith Dickens Lytton • ACTORS AND ACTRESSES :- Tarlton . Burbadge Ned Alleyn Betterton . Colley Cibber Garrick Mrs. Oldfield Mrs. Bracegirdle Mrs. Siddons PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS :- Sir Hans Sloane Dr. Mead Cheselden John Hunter Sir Astley Cooper • Westminster Abbey. St. Saviour's, Southwark. Westminster Abbey. Site of St. Paul's. St. Giles's-in-the-Fields. Westminster Abbey. Ditto. St. Saviour's, Southwark. Ditto. Deptford Old Church. St. Giles's, Cripplegate. Westminster Abbey. St. Paul's, Covent-garden. St. Clement's Danes. Westminster Abbey. Twickenham. Westminster Abbey. Ditto. Ditto. Ditto. Richmond. Westminster Abbey. Site of Farringdon Market. Westminster Abbey. Ditto. Hornsey. St. Martin's-in-the-Fields Bu- rial-ground, Camden- town. Westminster Abbey. Ditto. Bunhill-fields. Ditto. St. Bride's, Fleet- street. Bayswater Burial- ground. Ground of Temple Church. Westminster Abbey. Ditto. St. Leonard's, Ditto. Shoreditch. Dulwich College. Westminster Abbey. Danish Church, Wellclose- square. Westminster Abbey. Ditto. Ditto. Old Paddington Churchyard. Chelsea Churchyard (Old). Westminster Abbey. Chapel of Chelsea College. St. Martin's-in-the-Fields Chapel ofGuy's Hospital. 254 XXVII.-BURIAL PLACES OF GREAT PERSONS. PHILOSOPHERS :- Sir Isaac Newton LAWYERS :- Plowden Sir William Follett HISTORIANS AND ANTIQUARIES :- Foxe, author of ' Acts and Monuments' Camden Stow . Spelman Archbishop Usher Oldys Ritsou Strutt Grote • PAINTERS :- Holbein Van Dyck Sir Peter Lely The two Vanderveldes Sir Joshua Reynolds Hogarth Gainsborough Stothard Sir Thomas Lawrence J. M. W. Turner SCULPTORS :- Grinling Gibbons Roubiliac Flaxman ARCHITECTS :- Inigo Jones Sir Christopher Wren ENGRAVERS :- Hollar Woollett Strange William Sharp ENGINEERS :- John Rennie EMINENT FOREIGNERS : Casaubon St. Evremont General Paoli Ugo Foscolo MISCELLANEOUS :- Will Somers, Henry VIII.'s jester Old Parr Hakluyt • Capt. John Smith, author of "History of Virginia" Westminster Abbey. Temple Church. Ditto. St. Giles's, Cripplegate. Westminster Abbey. St. Andrew Undershaft, Lead- enhall- street. Westminster Abbey. Ditto. . St. Bennet, Paul's-wharf. . Bunhill-fields. St.Andrew's-in-the-Wardrobe. Westminster Abbey. St. Catherine Cree, Leaden- hall-street. Site of St. Paul's. St. Paul's, Covent- garden. St. James's, Piccadilly. St. Paul's. Chiswick Churchyard. Kew Churchyard. Bunhill-fields. . St. Paul's. St Paul's. St. Paul's, Covent- garden. St. Martin's- in- the- Fields . St. Giles's Burial-ground, St. Pancras. St. Bennet, Paul's-wharf. St. Paul's. St. Margaret's, Westminster. Old St. Pancras Churchyard. St. Paul's , Covent- garden. Chiswick Churchyard . St. Paul's. Westminster Abbey. Ditto. Old St. Pancras Churchyard . Chiswick Churchyard. St. Leonard's. Westminster Abbey. Ditto. . St. Sepulchre's, Snow-hill. XXVII.-BURIAL PLACES OF GREAT PERSONS. 255 MISCELLANEOUS, continued :- Heminge and Cundall Roger Ascham Andrew Marvell Pepys Dr. Busby La Belle Stuart Nell Gwynne Duchess of Cleveland . Judge Jefferies Colonel Blood Trusty Dick Penderell Dr. Sacheverel Ludowick Muggleton Jack Sheppard Joe Miller Cocker . Hoyle Lady Mary Wortley Montagu Jack Wilkes Lord George Gordon Joanna Southcott John Horne Tooke Rev. Sydney Smith • PUBLIC BENEFACTORS :- William Caxton . Sir Thomas Gresham CELEBRATED CHARACTERS 1637-1649 :- Charles I. Lord Clarendon Prince Rupert . Attorney- General Noy Cleveland Alexander Brome Rushworth Cromwell Bradshaw Ireton Earl of Essex Fleetwood Monk Pym Sir John Eliot Selden Blake May Lilburn Richard Baxter Edmund Calamy St. Mary's, Aldermanbury. St. Sepulchre's, Snow-hill. . St. Giles's- in-the-Fields. St. Olave's, Hart- street. Westminster Abbey. Ditto . St. Martin's-in- the-Fields. Chiswick. St. Mary's, Aldermanbury. . New Chapel-yard, Broadway, Westminster. • • St.Giles's-in-the-FieldChurch- yard. St. Andrew's, Holborn. Bethlehem Churchyard, Liver- pool- street, City. St. Martin's-in-the- Fields. St. Clement's Danes Yard, in Portugal- street. St. George's, Southwark. Old Marylebone Churchyard. South Audley-street Chapel. Ditto. St. James's, Hampstead- road. St. John's Chapel Burial ground, St. John's Wood. Ealing. Kensal Green. St. Margaret's , Westminster. St. Helen's, Bishopsgate. DURING THE CIVIL WAR, • • St. George's Chapel, Windsor. Westminster Abbey. Ditto. Brentford Old Church. . St. Michael's, College-hill. Lincoln's-Inn Chapel. St. George's, Southwark. Under Tyburn Gallows, Hyde Park end of Edg- ware-road. Westminster Abbey. . Bunhill-fields . Westminster Abbey. Ditto. St. Peter's-ad- Vincula, Tower. Temple Church. Pit in St. Margaret's Church- yard, Westminster. BethlehemChurchyard, Liver- pool- street. Christ Church, Newgate street. St. Mary Aldermary. 256 XXVIII.-HOUSES OF EMINENT PERSONS. XXVIII.-HOUSES IN WHICH EMINENT PERSONS HAVE LIVED. " THERE is a custom on the Continent well worthy of notice," says the elegant-minded author of the Pleasures of Memory. "In Boulogne, we read as we ramble through it, ' Ici est mort l'Auteur de Gil Blas ; ' in Rouen, ' Ici est né Pierre Corneille ; ' in Geneva, Ici est né Jean Jacques Rousseau ; ' and in Dijon there is the ' Maison Bossuet ;' in Paris, the Quai Voltaire.' Very rare are such memorials among us ; and yet wherever we meet with them, in what- ever country they were, or of whatever age, we should surely say that they were evidences of refinement and sensibility in the people. The house of Pindar was spared When temple and tower Wentto the ground ; and its ruins were held sacred to the last. According to Pausanias they were still to be seen in the second century." Concurring in this sentiment to its fullest extent, I have compiled the following list of eminent persons who have lived in London, and whose houses are known. Duke of Marlborough in Marlborough House, 1, Pall-mall. Duke of Wellington (d. 1852), reconstructed Apsley House, as it now stands, and lived in it 32 years. Duke of Schomberg, in Schomberg House, Pall- mall. Lord Clive died in No. 45, Berkeley- square. Lord Nelson lived at No. 141 , New Bond-street, after the battle off Cape St. Vincent and the Expedition to Teneriffe, where he lost his arm. Sir T. Picton, who fell at Waterloo, at No. 21, Edward-street, Portman-square. Hither his bodywas brought after Waterloo. Lord Hill, the hero of Almarez, in the large house, S.W. corner of Belgrave- square. Lord Lynedoch, the hero of Barossa, died at No. 12, Stratton-street, Piccadilly. Lord Chancellor Shaftesbury, in Shaftesbury House, cast side of Aldersgate-street. Lord Chancellor Somers, in the large house N.W. corner of Lincoln's-Inn-fields. Duke of Newcastle, prime minister in the reign of George II. , in the same house. Lord Mansfield, when Mr. Murray, at No. 5, King'sBench-walk, Temple. Lord Chancellor Cowper, at No. 13, Great George-street, Hanover-square. XXVIII.-HOUSES OF EMINENT PERSONS. 257 The polite Earl of Chesterfield died in Chesterfield House, May Fair. Lord Chancellor Thurlow, at No. 45, Great Ormond- street, where the Great Seal was stolen from him. Lord Chancellor Eldon, at No. 6, Bedford-square, and W. corner of Hamilton-place, Piccadilly, in which he died. Sir Samuel Romilly died at No. 21, Russell-square. Edmund Burke, at No. 37, Gerard-street, Soho. R. Brinsley Sheridan died at No. 7, Saville-row. Sir Robert Peel died at his house in Privy-gardens, Whitehall . Milton lived in a garden-house in Petty France, now No. 19, York-street, Westminster. Dryden died at No. 43, Gerard- street, Soho. Prior lived in Duke- street, Westminster, the house facing Charles- street. Addison died in Holland House, Kensington. Byron, born in No. 16, Holles-street, Cavendish- square, spent his short married life at No. 139, Piccadilly. In the rooms ofthe Albany, 2 A, facing Saville-row, he wrote Lara. Sir WalterScott put up at Miss Dumergue's, corner of White Horse-street, Piccadilly, and at Mr. Lockhart's, 24, Sussex- place, Regent's Park. Shelley lodged at No. 41 , Hans-place, Sloane-street. Keats wrote his magnificent sonnet on Chapman's Homer, &c. , in the second floor of No. 71, Cheapside. The last London residence of Campbell, author of "The Pleasures of Hope, " was at No. 8, Victoria-square, Pimlico. Crabbe lodged at No. 37, Bury-street, St. James's. Tom Moore, in 1806, dedicates his " Odes and Epistles to Lord Moira, from No. 27, Bury-street, St. James's. 99 Johnson completed his Dictionary in the garret of No. 17, Gough-square, Fleet-street, and died at No. 8, Bolt-court, Fleet-street. Boswell died at No. 47, Great Portland-street, Oxford-st. Goldsmith died at No. 2, Brick- court, Temple, up two pair of stairs, and on the right as you ascend the staircase. Gibbon wrote the Defence of his Decline and Fall, at No. 7, Bentinck-street, Manchester-square. Horace Walpole lived at No. 5, Arlington-street, Piccadilly, and died at No. 11 , Berkeley- square, 1797. Garrick died in the centre house of the Adelphi-terrace. Mrs. Siddons lived at No. 49, Great Marlborough- street, and died in Siddons House at the top of Upper Baker- street, Regent's Park ( right hand side). Edmund Kean lived at No. 12, Clarges- street, when at the height ofhis fame. 258 XXVIII.-HOUSES OF EMINENT PERSONS. Archbishop Laud, Archbishop Sancroft, Archbishop Til- lotson, at Lambeth Palace. Archbishop Leighton died in the Bell Inn, Warwick-lane, Newgate-street. Bishop Burnet died in St. John's-square, Clerkenwell. Richardson, author of Clarissa Harlowe, lived in Salisbury- square, Fleet-street. Sterne, author of Tristram Shandy, died at No. 41, Old Bond-street. Charles Lamb, at No. 4, Inner-Temple-lane. Sir Isaac Newton lived in St. Martin's-street, S. side of Leicester-square. Sir Joseph Banks lived and held his parties at No. 32, Soho-square, afterwards the Linnean Society. Linacre lived on the site of No. 5, Knightrider-street, Doctors' Commons-the house was bequeathed by him to the College of Physicians, and is still possessed by them. Dr. Arbuthnot, in Dover-street, Piccadilly, 2nd door,W.side. Dr. Mead, at No. 49, Great Ormond- street. Dr. Jenner, at No. 14, Hertford-street, May Fair. Dr. Baillie died at No. 25, Cavendish-square. Mr. Abernethy died at No. 14, Bedford- row. Sir Astley Cooper died at No. 2, New-street, Spring-gardens. Grinling Gibbons, W. side of Bow-street, Covent-garden, N. corner of King's-court. Hogarth, in Leicester-square, afterwards of Sablonnière Hotel, pulled down in 1871. Sir Joshua Reynolds, centre of W. side of Leicester-square, now Puttick and Simpson's Auction Rooms. Gainsborough, in western halfof SchombergHouse,Pall- mall. Flaxman died at No. 7, Buckingham-street, Fitzroy-square. His studio still remains. Chantrey died in Eccleston-street, Pimlico, corner of Lower Belgrave- place. Wilkie painted his Rent Day at No. 84, Upper Portland-st. , and his Chelsea Pensioners at No. 24, Lower Phillimore- place, Kensington. Stothard died at No. 28, Newman-street, Oxford-street. Sir Thomas Lawrence died at No. 65, Russell-square. J. M. W. Turnerlived at 47, Queen Anne-street, Cavendish- sq . Penn, founder of Pennsylvania, lived in Norfolk-street, Strand, last house on left hand side. "Honest Shippen," E. side of Norfolk- street, Strand. Jonathan Wild, No. 68, Old Bailey. Jeremy Bentham, No. 2, Queen-square place, Westminster. XXVIII.-HOUSES OF EMINENT PERSONS. 259 Rev. Sydney Smith died at No. 56, Green-st. , Grosvenor-sq. Daniel O'Connell lodged at No. 29, Bury-street, during the struggle (1829) for Catholic Emancipation. Handel lived in Burlington House, Piccadilly, with the Earl of Burlington, the architect, and died in Brook- street, Hanover- square. Carl Maria Von Weber died at No. 91 , Upper Portland- st. Watteau lived with Dr. Mead at No. 49, Great Ormond- st. Orléans Égalité, at No. 31, South-street, Grosvenor-square. Madame de Staël, at No. 30, Argyll-street, Regent- street. Blucher, when in England in 1814, in St. James's Palace, in the dark brick house, on your right as you pass the opening from St. James's (Ambassador's Court) to Stafford House. Charles X. of France at No. 72, South-Audley- street. Talleyrand, at the house of the French Embassy, N. side of Manchester-square. Joseph and Lucien Buonaparte, at No. 23, Park-crescent, Portland-place. Louis Philippe's last London lodging was at Cox's Hotel, in Jermyn-street. M. Guizot, at No. 21 , Pelham-crescent, Brompton. Don Carlos, in 1834, at No. 5, Welbeck-street. Here he had his hair dyed, and here he shaved his moustache preparatory to his journey to Spain through France in disguise. Louis Napoleon Buonaparte, Emperor ofthe French, lodged at No. 3, King-street, St. James's-square. Canaletti, on site of corner house of Richmond-terrace, in a garret over a small shop. Samuel Rogers (from 1806 to 1855, when he died), at No. 22, St. James's-place, overlooking the Green-park. Charles Dickens lived many years at Tavistock House, Tavistock- square, previously the residence of James Perry, Editor of the Morning Chronicle. Sam. T. Coleridge lived and died in Pemberton Row, High- gate, July25 1884, the house of his friend Mr. Gillman. 8 2 200 XXIX -STREETS AND EMINENT PERSONS. XXIX. STREETS (HOUSES UNKNOWN OR NOT STANDING) IN WHICH EMINENT PERSONS HAVE LIVED. Sir Thomas More lived at Chelsea, in a house immediately facing the present Battersea Bridge. He is buried in Chelsea old Church. Charles V. of Spain was lodged in the Blackfriars. Shakspeare is said to have lived on the Bankside, in South- wark, near the Globe Theatre. He was possessed of a house in Ireland-yard, Blackfriars. Spenser diedfor lack of bread in King-street, Westminster, and was buried in Westminster Abbey. Izaak Walton lived in Chancery-lane, in the 7th house on the left hand as you walk from Fleet-street to Holborn. Harvey, the discoverer ofthe circulation of the blood, lived with his brother, in Cockaine House, in the City. Oliver Cromwell lived in Long-acre ; in King-street, Westminster ; in the Cockpit, now the site of the Treasury ; and at Whitehall, of which the Banqueting-house only remains. Van Dyck died in the Blackfriars, and was buried in St. Paul's Cathedral. Vandervelde the younger lived in Piccadilly, over against the church of St. James, in which he is buried. Peter the Great lived in a house (Pepys's) on the site of the last house on the W. side of Buckingham-street, Strand, and frequented the Czar of Muscovy Public House, 48, Great Tower-street. Voltaire, when in London, in 1726, lodged at the White Peruke in Maiden-lane. Andrew Marvell was living in Maiden-lane when he refused a bribe from the Lord Treasurer Danby. Nell Gwynnedied in a house on the site of No. 79, Pall-mall. Locke dates the dedication of his " Essay on Human Understanding " from Dorset- court, Fleet-street. Addison lived, when a bachelor, in St. James's-place, St. James's-street, where it is said Mr. Rogers, the poet, followed. Fielding lived in Bow-street, Covent-garden, in a house on the site of the present Police-office. Butler, author of Hudibras, died in Rose-street, Coventgarden, and was buried in the churchyard of St. Paul's, Covent-garden. Benjamin Franklin worked as a journeyman printer in XXX.-SITES AND REMARKABLE EVENTS. 261 Bartholomew-close, West Smithfield. He lived also at No. 7, Craven-street, Strand. John Wilkes (Wilkes and Liberty) lived in Prince's- court, Great George-street, Westminster, and was buried in South- Audley-street Chapel. Lady Mary Wortley Montagu died in George-street, Han- over-square, and was buried in South-Audley-street Chapel. General Paoli died (1807) "at his house near the Edgewareroad," and was buried in old St. Pancras Churchyard. XXX.- PLACES AND SITES CONNECTED WITH REMARKABLE EVENTS, OR OTHERWISE DISTINGUISHED. London Wall: remains to be seen off Ludgate-hill, Tower- hill, and in the churchyard of St. Giles's, Cripplegate, and St. Alphage. London Stone : which Jack Cade struck with his staff, in outer wall of the church of St. Swithin, Cannon- street, Wat- ling- street. (See Index. ) Smithfield scene of Wat Tyler's death ; of Wallace's execution at the Elms ; of Bartholomew Fair ; and of the burnings of Protestants in the reigns of Henry VIII. and Mary. (See Index. ) Charing- cross Statue of Charles I. by Le Sœur ; site ofthe last cross erected by Edward I. to Queen Eleanor, as the last place at which the coffin rested on its way to Westminster Abbey. Site also of the execution of the Regicides. St. John's Gate, Clerkenwell, originally belonged to the Knights of St. John. Here Dr. Johnson met Cave, and here was printed The Gentleman's Magazine. Tabard Inn, Southwark : the starting-place of Chaucer's Canterbury Pilgrims. North- East corner of St. Paul's Churchyard : site of Paul's Cross, where the Paul's Cross Sermons were preached. The Tower Green, near the chapel of St. Peter- ad-Vincula : place of execution of Anne Boleyn, Lady Jane Grey, &c. , and Lord Lovat (1747). (See Tower.) Westminster Abbey : place of coronation of our kings and queens, and sepulchre of many of them. Westminster Hall : place of trial of Earl of Strafford, of Charles I., and of Warren Hastings. 262 XXX.-SITES AND REMARKABLE EVENTS. The Houses of Parliament, Westminster : site of Star- Chamber, Painted Chamber, and Guy Fawkes' Cellar. Aldgate (pulled down) : was granted as a dwelling to Geof- frey Chaucer, with cellar beneath, 1374.—Riley. Almonry, Westminster, in which Caxton erected his printing-press. Sir Thomas More's chapel on south side of chancel of Chelsea old church. Bridewell, Bridge-street, Blackfriars : scene of Queen Katherine's Trial. Ludgate-hill, over against Saracen's Head, where Wyat, in the reign of Queen Mary, was stayed in his rebellion . Palace Yard, Westminster, in which Sir Walter Raleigh was executed. Street facing the Banqueting-house at Whitehall, in which Charles I. was executed. Centre of Lincoln's-Inn-fields, in which William Lord Russell was executed. Pall- mall end of Haymarket : scene of the murder of Mr. Thynne by assassins hired by Count Köningsmarck. Corner of Suffolk-street, Pall-mall : scene of the barbarous revenge on Sir John Coventry, which led to the famous Coventry Act against cutting and maiming. Maiden-lane, Covent-garden, where, in a garret, and with only cold mutton before him for his dinner, Andrew Marvell refused the bribe of Lord Treasurer Danby. Gray's- Inn-lane, where Hampden and Pym lived, and where they held their consultations for resisting the impost of shipmoney. Middle Temple Gate, Fleet-street, occupying site of former gate built by Sir Amias Paulet, as a fine laid upon him by Cardinal Wolsey. Coleman-street, in the city, whither the five members accused by Charles I. of high treason fled for concealment. Ground between Dover-street and Bond-street, facing St. James's-street : site of Clarendon House. In Hyde Park (probably near the Ring), Oliver Crom- well when driving the six horses presented to him bythe Earl of Oldenburgh, was thrown from his seat, when a pistol went off in his pocket. Black Jack Public-house, Portsmouth- street, Clare Market : favourite resort of Joe Miller, and celebrated for the jump which Jack Sheppard made from one of its first-floor windows to escape the emissaries of Jonathan Wild. Roman Catholic Chapel, Duke-street, Lincoln's- Inn-fields, the first building destroyed in the riots of 1780. XXX.-SITES AND REMARKABLE EVENTS. 263 N. E. corner of Bloomsbury- square : site of Lord Mansfield's house, destroyed in the riots of 1780. Barclay's Brewhouse, Bankside, Southwark : site of Globe Theatre, in which Shakspeare played. Statue ofWilliam IV. , facing London Bridge : site of Boar's Head Tavern, immortalised by Shakspeare. Bread-street, Cheapside, in which the Mermaid Tavern of Sir Walter Raleigh and Shakspeare stood. Child's Banking- house, No. 1 , Fleet- street : site of Devil Tavern, favourite resort of Ben Jonson and of Dr. Johnson. Ham and Beef-shop, corner of Bow-street : site of Will's Coffee-house. Centre house on S. side of Great Russell- street, Covent- garden site of Button's Coffee- house. Essex Head, in Essex-street, Strand, kept in Johnson's last years by a servant of Thrale's, and where the Doctor established his last club. Essex-street, Strand, in the house of Lady Primrose (now unknown), where the young Pretender was concealed when in London (Sept. 1750) for the first and last time. Pudding- lane, Monument-yard, in which the Fire of London began. Pie-corner, in Giltspur-street, in which it ended. Cock-lane, Giltspur-street, famous for its ghost. Mitre Tavern, Fleet-street, where Johnson and Boswell determined on making a tour to the Hebrides. Grub-street, Cripplegate, now Milton- street, long cele- brated as the resort of poor and distressed authors. Alsatia, or Whitefriars, immortalised by Sir Walter Scott in "The Fortunes of Nigel." Picthatch, nearly opposite the Charter- House- end of Old- street-road, called by Falstaff, Pistol's " manor of Picthatch." St. James's-square, round which Johnson and Savage walked a whole night for want of a bed. House at the top of Crane-court, Fleet-street, now Royal Scottish Hospital, with its handsome room built by Wren, in which Sir Isaac Newton sat as President of the Royal Society. W. end of Serpentine : scene of the fatal duel between Duke of Hamilton and Lord Mohun. W. side of Gateway of Inner Temple Lane, Fleet-street, where, in the shop of Robinson the bookseller, Pope and Warburton met for the first time. No. 8, Great Russell- street, Covent-garden: the shop ofTom Davies, where Johnson and Boswell met for the first time. Jew's-row, Chelsea : scene of Wilkie's Chelsea Pensioners reading the Gazette of the Battle of Waterloo. 264 XXX.-SITES AND REMARKABLE EVENTS. Fox-court, Gray's-Inn-road : birth-place of Richard Savage. Brook-street, Holborn, where Chatterton poisoned himself. Foot of Primrose-hill , where the body of Sir Edmundsbury Godfrey was found. Nonconformists' Memorial Hall, on E. side of Farringdon- street site of the Fleet Prison. Barracks of the Foot Guards, and road leading to Pimlico Suspension Bridge, W. of Chelsea Hospital : site of Ranelagh Gardens. House in Arlington- street, Piccadilly, in which Lord Nelson and his wife quarrelled, and saw one another for the last time. Lansdowne House, Berkeley Square, in which Priestley was living when he discovered oxygen. At 37, Tavistock-place, Tavistock-square, an isolated house in a garden, Francis Baily weighed the earth. Homer-street, facing Cato-street, Edgware-road : scene of the Cato Conspiracy of Thistlewood and his associates. No. 39, Grosvenor-square (Lord Harrowby's), where his Majesty's ministers were to have been murdered as they sat at dinner, by Thistlewood and his gang (see Lord de Ros's "Memorials of the Tower"). No. 7, Connaught-place, Edgware-road, whither the Princess Charlotte hurried in a hackney coach from Warwick House to the residence of her mother, in a fit of anger against her father, July 12th, 1814, and she returned next night. No. 49, Connaught- square, Edgware-road: supposed site of Tyburn Gallows. No. 77, South Audley-street (then Alderman Wood's) , where Queen Caroline lodged in 1820, and in the balcony of which shewouldappear and bowto the mob assembled in the street. No. 50, Albemarle-street (Mr. Murray's), where Sir Walter Scott and Lord Byron met for the first time. No. 80, Piccadilly, from whence Sir Francis Burdett was taken to the Tower. Hall of Chelsea Hospital : scene of Whitelocke's trial, and of the Court of Inquiry into the Convention of Cintra. At the bar of Somerset Coffee-house, Strand, E. corner of entrance to King's College, Junius directed many of his letters to be left for Woodfall. Near the upper end of Constitution-hill, Sir Robert Peel was thrown from his horse and killed. High-street, Borough : the house No. 119 occupies the site of the Marshalsea, where many of the Martyrs who suffered for their religion in the bloody reign of Mary were imprisoned. XXXI.-OUT-DOOR MONUMENTS. 265 XXXI.-OUT- DOOR MONUMENTS AND PUBLIC STATUES. THE MONUMENT, already described. YORK COLUMN, CARLTON- HOUSE GARDENS. Of Scotch granite, 124 feet high, designed by B. Wyatt, erected (1830-33) by public subscription, with a bronze statue 14 ft. high by Sir Richard Westmacott, of the Duke of York, second son of George III. , upon the top. There is a staircase, and gallery affording a fine view of the W. end of London and the Surrey Hills. It is open from 12 to 4, from May to Sept. 24th. NELSON COLUMN, TRAFALGAR SQUARE. Of Portland stone, 145 feet high, designed by Railton, and erected 1840- 43. It is surmounted by a statue of Nelson, 17 feet high, by E. H. Baily, R.A., formed of two stones from the Gran- ton quarry ; it has been styled " the beau- ideal of a Green- wich Pensioner." The capital of the column is of bronze furnished from cannon taken from the French. The bronze bas-relief of the Death of Nelson is by Carew ; of the Nile, by Woodington ; of Copenhagen, by Ternouth ; and of St. Vincent, by Watson. Four grand colossal lions in bronze, modelled by Sir Edwin Landseer, RA., very original studies from nature, crouch upon the four salient pedestals at the base. The total cost of the column has been about 46,000l. The largest individual subscription was contributed by Nicolas, Emp. of Russia (5007.). CHARLES I. , Bronze Equestrian Statue of, at Charing Cross, by Hubert Le Sœur, a Frenchman and pupil of John of Bologna, cast in 1633, near the church in Covent Garden, and not being erected before the commencement of the Civil War, sold by the Parliament to John Rivet, a brazier living at the Dial, near Holborn Conduit, with strict orders to break it to pieces. But the man produced some fragments of old brass, and concealed the statue under ground till the Resto- ration. The statue was set up in its present situation at the expense of the Crown, in 1676. The pedestal, generally attributed to Grinling Gibbons, was the work of Joshua Marshall, Master Mason to the Crown. CHARLES II., at Chelsea Hospital, by Grinling Gibbons. JAMES II. , bronze, by Grinling Gibbons, behind White- hall. 266 XXXI.-OUT- DOOR MONUMENTS. Bronze Equestrian Statue of WILLIAM III. , in St. James's- square, by Bacon, junior. QUEEN ANNE, before the W. door of St. Paul's, by F. Bird. Bronze Equestrian Statue of GEORGE III. , Cockspur- street, Charing Cross, by M. C. Wyatt. Bronze Equestrian Statue of GEORGE IV. , in Trafalgar square, by Sir F. Chantrey. Marble Statue of QUEEN VICTORIA, in the Royal Ex- change, by Lough. Equestrian Statue of DUKE OF CUMBERLAND, the victor at Culloden, in Cavendish-square. DUKE OF BEDFORD, Russell-sq. , by Sir R. Westmacott . PITT, in Hanover-square, by Sir Francis Chantrey. FOX, in Bloomsbury-square, by Sir R. Westmacott. LORD GEORGE BENTINCK, in Cavendish-square . MEMORIAL to the Officers and Men of the three Regts. of FOOT GUARDS, who fell in the Crimea ; at the bottom of Regent-street in Waterloo- place ; design by Bell : three statues of Guardsmen on a pedestal of granite, surmounted by a Victory of marble. The cannon are Russian, taken at Sebastopol. MEMORIAL to the Officers educated at WESTMINSTER SCHOOL, who fell in the Crimea ; a granite column, surmounted by a statue of St. George and the Dragon, designed by Sir G. G. Scott, architect, in the Broad Sanctuary, West- minster, W. end of W. Abbey. Bronze Statue of CANNING, in Palace-yard, by Sir R. Westmacott. Equestrian Statue of RICHARD CŒUR DE LION, by Marochetti, Palace- yard, close to H. of Lords. Bronze Statue of ACHILLES, in Hyde Park, erected 1822, and " Inscribed by the Women of England to Arthur Duke of Wellington and his brave Companions in arms ; " by Sir Richard Westmacott. See Hyde Park. Bronze Equestrian Statue of DUKE OF WELLINGTON in front of the Royal Exchange, by Sir Francis Chantrey. Ditto on Triumphal Arch, at Hyde- Park-corner, by M. C. Wyatt. SIR CHARLES NAPIER, by G. G. Adams, GEN. SIR HENRY HAVELOCK, by Behnes, 1861, in Trafalgar-square. XXXII.-PRINCIPAL THOROUGHFARES. 267 Dr. JENNER, sitting figure, by Marshall, in Kensington Gardens. SIR HUGH MYDDELTON, founder of the New River Company, Islington Green, N. NATIONAL MONUMENT to the Prince Consort in Hyde Park, with colossal statue, &c. , &c. See Index. XXXII .-PRINCIPAL THOROUGHFARES, SQUARES, LANES, &c. THE landmarks, or central situations of London, are the Bank of England, the Royal Exchange, and the Mansion House, all three lying together in the very heart of the city ; -St. Paul's Cathedral and the General Post Office, both in the City, and within a stone's throw of one another ;-Temple Bar and Somerset House, the very central points of modern London ; - - Charing Cross ; Regent Circus, in Piccadilly ; the Piccadilly end of Albemarle-street, and Apsley House at Hyde- Park- corner, the leading points of the southern side of modern London;-Tottenham Court Road, the Regent Circus in Oxford-street, and the corner of Edgware Road, the leading points ofthe northern line of London. (See Clue Map. ) The principal thoroughfares, or main arteries, are Regentst. , Piccadilly, Park-lane, Oxford- st. , Holborn, the Strand, Fleet- st. , Cheapside, Queen Victoria- st. , Cannon-st. , K. William-st. , Cornhill, the Euston-road, the City-road, Chancery-lane, Gray's-Inn-road. The Thames Embankments from Blackfriars to Westminster, Vauxhall, and Chelsea. These are all traversed bya continuous stream of omnibuses, and are best seen from the top of an omnibus. What Johnson called " the full tide ofhuman existence," is to be seen at the Bank and Royal Exchange ; at Charing Cross ; and the Regent Circus in Oxford- street. Euston and Marylebone Roads conjointly are in length Oxford-street Regent-street Piccadilly City Road Strand 5115 yards. 2304 27 1730 19 1694 77 1690 "7 1369 "" The streets of London are about 2800 in number ; the longest street of consequence without a turning, is Sackville- street, Piccadilly. Cannon Street West (running from St. Paul's to London Bridge) was formed at a cost of 200,000%. , and opened 22nd May, 1854. 268 XXXII.-PRINCIPAL THOROUGHFARES. PALL MALL. A spacious street extending from the foot of ST. JAMES'S STREET to the foot of the HAYMARKET, and so called from a game of that name introduced into England in the reign of Charles I., perhaps earlier. James I., in his "Basilicon Doron," recommends it as a game that Prince Henry should use. The name (from Palla a ball, and Maglia a mallet) is given to avenues and walks in other countries, as at Utrecht in Holland. The Malls at Blois, Tours, and Lyons are mentioned by Evelyn in his " Memoirs," under the year 1644. Pepys mentions " Pell Mell " for the first time under the 26th of July, 1660, where he says, "We went to Wood's at the Pell Mell (our old house for clubbing), and there we spent till ten at night." This is not only one of the earliest references to Pall Mall, as an inhabited locality, but one of the earliest uses of the word " clubbing " in its modern sig- nification of a Club ; and additionally interesting, seeing that the street still maintains what Johnson would have called its "clubbable" character. Eminent Inhabitants. -Dr. Sydenham, the physician, was living in Pall Mall from 1664 to 1689, when he died. He is buried in St. James's Church. Mr. Fox told Mr. Rogers that Sydenham was sitting at his window looking on the Mall, with his pipe in his mouth and a silver tankard before him, when a fellow made a snatch at the tankard and ran off with it. "Nor was he overtaken," said Fox, " before he got among the bushes in Bond- street, and there they lost him."-Nell Gwynne, from 1670 to her death in 1687, in a house on the " south side," with a garden towards the Park- now No. 79, Legal Insurance Company. The house, how- ever, has been rebuilt since Nell inhabited it. The great Duke of Marlborough, in Marlborough House.-George Psal- manazar had lodgings here on his first arrival, and here he was visited as an inhabitant of Formosa. -William, Duke of Cumberland, the hero of Culloden, in Schom- berg House, in 1760. - Robert Dodsley, the bookseller, originally a footman. He opened a shop here in 1735, with the sign of " Tully's Head. "-Gainsborough, the painter, in the western wing of Schomberg House, from 1777 to 1783. -At the Star andGarter Tavern, William, fifth Lord Byron (d. 1798), killed (1765) his neighbour and friend, Mr. Chaworth, in what was rather a broil than a duel. The quarrel was a very foolish one-a dispute between the combatants, whether Lord Byron, who took no care of his game, or Mr. Chaworth, who did, had most game on his manor. Lord Byron was tried and acquitted. XXXII.- PRINCIPAL THOROUGHFARES. 269 PALL MALL. Regent- street. Waterloo-place. Pall-Mall was lighted with gas 28th Jan., 1807, and was the first street in London so lighted. The introducer of gas into Pall- Mallwas Frederick Albert Winsor, a German (d. 1830) . Pall Mll -East . United Service Club. 11 York Site of Carlton House. Column. Athenæum Club. Travellers' Club, by Barry.- The garden-front fine.. Reform Club, St. James's Square. Junior Carlton Club. Army and Navy Club. Marlborough Club.- Gymnastic Club : on site of British Institution. New Society of Painters in Water Colours. Carlton Club. Buckingham House. Office of Secretary of State for War. Schomberg House. In the W. wing lived Gainsborough, the painter. - 79, Legal Insurance Company. Site of Nell Gwynne's house. Oxford and Cambridge Club. Guards' Club. - Marlborough House . Built by the great Duke of Marl- borough. Residence of H.R.H. the Prince of Wales. St. James's Palace. St. James's-street. 270 XXXII.-PRINCIPAL THOROUGHFARES. PICCADILLY, a street consisting of shops and fashionable dwelling- houses running E. and W. from the top of the Haymarket to Hyde-park Corner. The origin of the name is somewhat uncertain, but the most likely solution is, that it was so called after pickadilles, a kind of stiff collar, much worn in England from 1605 to 1620, which were made by one Higgins, a tailor, who built it temp. James I. , and who got most of his estate by them. 66 The first Piccadilly, taking the word in its modern accep- tation of a street, was a very short line of road, running no further W. than the foot of Sackville-street, and the name Piccadilly-street occurs for the first time in the rate-books of St. Martin's, under the year 1673. Sir Thomas Clarges's house, on the site of the present Albany, is described in 1675 as near Burlington House, above Piccadilly." From Sackvillestreet to Albemarle- street was originally called Portugal- street, after Catherine of Braganza, Queen of Charles II. , and all beyond was the great Bath-road, or, as Agas calls it (1560), "the way to Reding." The Piccadilly of 1708 is described as "avery considerable and publick street, between Coventry- street and Portugal-street ; " and the Piccadilly of 1720 as 66 a large street and great thoroughfare, between Coventry- street and Albemarle- street." Portugal- street gave way to Piccadilly in the reign of George I. That part of the present street, between Devonshire House and Hyde-park Corner, was taken up, as Ralph tells us, in 1734, by the shops and stone-yards of statuaries, just as the Euston-road is now. We may read the history of the street in the names of several of the surrounding thoroughfares and buildings. Albemarle- street was so called after Christopher Monk, second Duke of Albemarle, to whom Clarendon House was sold in 1675, by Laurence Hyde, Earl of Rochester, son of the great Lord Clarendon. Bond-street was so called after Sir Thomas Bond, of Peckham, to whom Clarendon House was sold by the Duke of Albemarle when in difficulties, a little before his death. Jermyn- street was so called after Henry Jermyn, Earl of St. Alban, who died 1683-4 ; Burlington House after Boyle, Earl of Burlington ; Dover-street, after Henry Jermyn, Lord Dover (d . 1708) , the little Jermyn of De Grammont's Memoirs ; Berkeley-street and Stratton-street, after John, Lord Berkeley of Stratton, Lord Deputy of Ireland in the reign of Charles II.; Clarges-street, after Sir Walter Clarges, the nephew of Ann Clarges, wife of General Monk ; and Arlington-street and Bennet-street after Henry Bennet, Earl of Arlington, one of the Cabal. Air-street was built in 1659, Stratton-street in 1693, and Bolton-street was, in 1708, the XXXII.-PRINCIPAL THOROUGHFARES. 271 most westerly street in London. Devonshire House occupies the site of Berkeley House, in which the first Duke of Devonshire died (1707) . Hamilton-place derives its name from James Hamilton, ranger of Hyde-park in the reign of Charles II., and brother of La Belle Hamilton. Halfmoonstreet was so called from the Halfmoon Tavern. Coventry House, No. 106, was built on the site of an old inn, called the Greyhound. Apsley House was called after Apsley, Earl of Bathurst, who built it late in the last century ; and the Albany, from the Duke of York and Albany, brother of George IV. St. James's Church (by Wren) was consecrated on Sunday, the 13th of July, 1684. The sexton's book of St. Martin's informs us that the White Bear Inn was in existence in 1685 ; and Strype, in his new edition of Stow, that there was a White Horse Cellar in Piccadilly in 1720. The two Corinthian pilasters, one on each side of the Three Kings Inn gateway in Piccadilly, belonged to Clarendon House, and are, it is thought, the only remains of that edifice. Sir William Petty, our first writer of authority on political arithmetic, died in a house over against St. James's Church (1687). Next but one to Sir William Petty, Verrio, the painter, was living in 1675. In the dark-red - brick rectory house, at the N. side of the church, pulled down 1848, and immediately rebuilt (now No. 197), lived and died Dr. Samuel Clarke, rector of St. James's, from 1709 till his death in 1729. Here he edited Cæsar and Homer ; here he wrote his Scripture Doctrine of the Trinity, and his Treatise on the Being and Attributes of God. In Coventry House, facing the Green Park, corner of Engine- street (now the Ambassadors' Club) , died, in 1809, William, sixth Earl of Coventry, married, in 1752, to the eldest of the three beautiful Miss Gunnings. In what was then No. 23, now the first house E. of Hertford House, died ( 1803) Sir William Hamilton, collector of the Hamiltonian gems, but more generally known as the husband of Nelson's Lady Hamilton. From No. 80 Sir Francis Burdett was taken to the Tower, April 6th, 1810 ; the officer, armed with an arrest-warrant, scaling the house with a ladder, and entering the window of the drawing-room, where Sir Francis was found instructing his son in Magna Charta, the street being occupied by the Horse Guards. No. 105, now Sir Richard Wallace's, Bart. , was the old Pulteney Hotel ; here the Emperor of Russia put up during the memorable visit ofthe allied sovereigns in 1814 : and here the Duchess of Oldenburgh (the Emperor Alexander's sister) introduced Prince Leopold to the Princess Charlotte. Lord Eldon's house, at the corner of Hamilton- place, was built by Lord Chancel- 272 XXXII.- PRINCIPAL THOROUGHFARES. lor Eldon, who died in it. Nos. 138 and 139 were all one house in the old Duke of Queensberry's time. Here, in the balcony, on fine days in summer, he used to sit, a thin, withered old figure, with one eye, looking on all the females that passed him, and not displeased if they returned him double winks. He had been Prince of the Jockeys of his time, and was a voluptuary and millionnaire. " Old Q." was his popular appellation. Duke of Cambridge's, at the corner of Park- lane, once Lord Elgin's ; here the Elgin marbles were placed on their first arrival in this country, No. 94 was formerly Egremont House, then Cholmondeley House, next Cambridge House, property of Sir T. Sutton, the ground landlord of half of Piccadilly, occupied by Lord Palmerston, 1863-65. The Duke of Cambridge, youngest son of George III. , died in this house. The bay-fronted house at the W. corner of Whitehorse-street was the residence of M. Charles Dumergue, the friend of Sir Walter Scott, and was Scott's head- quarters when in town. The London season of Lord Byron's married life was passed in that half of the Duke of Queensberry's house, now No. 139. (See Moore's Life of Byron. ) On the pavement opposite Lord Willoughby d'Eresby's, next but one W. to Hamilton-place, stood the Hercules Pillars public- house, where Squire Western put his horses up when in pursuit of Tom Jones, and where that bluff brave soldier, the Marquis of Granby (d. 1770), spent many a happy hour. On the south side, facing Old Bond-street, was the shop of Wright, the bookseller, where Gifford, assaulted by Peter Pindar, got the better of his huge antagonist, and gave him a drubbing. The house two doors E. of the Duke of Wellington's was long the London residence of Beckford, author of Vathek. XXXII.-PRINCIPAL THOROUGHFARES. 273 PICCADILLY. St. George's Hyde Park Corner. W. Hospital. Grosvenor-place. Entrance Archway, surmounted by Equestrian Statue of Duke of Wellington. Constitution Hill .

    • In 1866 a house in the ter- race was sold for 25,0007. The Green Park.

TT Apsley House. Duke of Wellington. Terrace. Baron Lionel Roths- child. Lord Chancellor Eldon d. (1838) in corner house. Lord Byron lived at No. 139 called in his time 13, Piccadilly- ter- race. Hamilton Place opened for public traffic 1871 , previously a cul-de-sac. - Park-lane, leading to Oxford- street. Down-street. Engine- street. Hertford House. Whitehorse-street. At west corner Sir Walter Scott lived when in town. Half Moon-street. East corner houseMadamed'Arblaylived . Clarges-street. Bolton-street. Bath House. Stratton-street. Corner house, Baroness Burdett Coutts. Devonshire House. Berkeley-street. Dover-street. At Three Kings' stables, re- mains of Clarendon House. Albemarle-street. Bond-street. In No. 41 , died Sterne. Burlington Arcade. Burlington House, Royal Academy and Royal and other Scientific Societies. Albany (let in chambers.) Sackville-street. Swallow-street. Scottish Church. Air-street. Swan & Edgar, drapers. Viewsof Green Park, St. James's Housesof Parliament Offices Public Buckingham Palace Lady Burdett Coutts' Church, in Rochester- row Westminster.. Crystal Palaceat Sydenham. Arlington- street. No. 5, H. Walpole's house. St. James's-street. Egyptian Hall. Ludlam, hosier. Toovey, old Bookseller. Duke-street. Fortnum & Mason's. Hatchard, Bookseller. Maull, photographer Chapman & Hall, publishers.-111111+ St. James's Church. + Quadrant . 274 XXXII.-PRINCIPAL THOROUGHFARES. ST. JAMES'S STREET commences at St. James's Palace and extends to Albemarle- street. "The Campus Martius of St. James's-street Where the beaus' cavalry pace to and fro, Before they take the field in Rotten Row." R. B. Sheridan. · Observe. -East side, White's Club-house, Nos. 37 and 38 ; Boodle's Club- house, No. 28 ; and on the west side, Crock- ford's, converted into the Western Auction Mart, 1873 ; New University ; Brooks's Club-house, No. 60 ; Ar- thur's, No. 69 ; Conservative Club, No. 74 ; Thatched House Club Eminent Inhabitants. - Waller, the poet, from 1660 till the period of his death (1687), in a house on the west side. Pope, in " lodgings at Mr. Digby's, next door to ye Golden Ball, on ye Second Terras in St. James's-street." Gibbon, the historian, died, 1794, in No. 76 (S. corner of Little St. James's- street), then Elmsley the bookseller's, now the site of the Conservative Club. Lord Byron, in lodgings, at No 8, in 1811. "When we were on the point of setting out from his lodging in St. James's-street [ to go to Sydenham to Tom Campbell's], it being then about mid- day, he said to the servant, who was shutting the door of the vis-à-vis, ' Have you put in the pistols ? ' and was answered in the affirmative." -Moore's Life of Byron. Gillray, the caricaturist ( d . 1815) , in No. 29, over what was then the shop of Messrs. Humphrey, the print- sellers and publishers. He threw himself out of an upstairs window, and died of the injuries he received. In this street Blood made his desperate attack on the great Duke of Ormond, when on his way home between 6 and 7 in the evening (Tuesday, Dec. 6th, 1670), to Clarendon House, at the top of St. James's Street, where he then resided. The six footmen who invariably attended the duke, walking on both sides of the street, over against the coach, were by some contrivance stopped, or by some mismanagement were not in the way, and the duke was dragged out of his carriage, buckled to a person of great strength, and actually carried past Berkeley House (now Devonshire House) in Piccadilly, on the road to Tyburn, where they intended to have hanged him. The coachman drove to Clarendon House, told the porter that his master had been seized by two men, who had carried him down Piccadilly. A chase was immediately made, and the duke discovered in a violent struggle in the mud with the villain he was tied to, who regained his horse, fired a pistol at the duke, and made his escape. XXXII. PRINCIPAL THOROUGHFARES. 275 ST. JAMES'S STREET. Piccadilly. 22, Duke of Hamilton. 20, Marq. of Salisbury. Arlington -street . At No. 5, HoraceCrockford's Walpole lived. Auction Mart. 17, Earl ofYarborough. Pictures. N. New University - Club. W.--E. 22, House of the late Mr. Rogers ( Poet ) . S. Brooks's Club St. James's place -. Scene Blood's ofattempt onDukefOrmond . Piccadilly . White's Club House. Jermyn-street. Site of Sir Richard Steele's house. Bury -street . Gillray, the caricaturist, threw himselffrom window of No.29. Ryder-street. Fenton's Hotel. Old Cocoa-tree Club.- St. James's- place . IL King-street. Willis's Rooms. Spencer House. No. 69, Arthur's Club. No. 74, Conservative Club. In a house on this site died Gibbon, the historian. No.86, Thatched House Club. Telegraph Office. No. 8, Lord Byron's lodgings in 1811. Pall Mall, St. James's Palace. T 2 276 XXXII.-PRINCIPAL THOROUGHFARES. The REGENT STREET. One of the most handsome streets in the metropolis, was designed and carried out by Mr. John Nash, architect, under an Act of Parliament obtained in 1813, partly at his own cost. It was intended as a communication from Carlton House to the Regent's Park, and cut through St. Alban's-street, facing Carlton House, thence through St. James's Market across Piccadilly to Castle- street, where it forms a Quadrant, intersecting Swallow-street, and then, taking the line of Swallow- street (the site of which is about the centre of Regent- street), it crosses Oxford- street to Foley House, where it joins Portland-place. reason for adopting this line was that great part of the property belonged to the Crown. Langham-place Church was built by Nash as a termination to the view up Regent- street from Oxford- street. For this purpose the tower and spire are advanced forward to the centre line of the street, and appear almost isolated from the church. In his designs for Regent- street, Mr. Nash adopted the idea of uniting several dwellings into a single façade, so as to preserve a degree of continuity essential to architectural importance ; and, however open to criticism many of these designs may be, when considered separately, it cannot be denied that he has produced a varied succession of architectural scenery, the effect of which is picturesque and imposing, certainly superior to that of any other portion of the metropolis, and far preferable to the naked brick walls then universally forming the sides of our streets. The perishable nature of the brick and composition of which the houses in this street are built gave rise to the following epigram :- "Augustus at Rome was for building renown'd, And ofmarble he left what of brick he had found ; But is not our Nash, too, a very great master ?— He finds us all brick and he leaves us all plaster." Quarterly Review for June. 1826 REGENT STREET AND WATERLOO PLACE. All Souls' , Langham- place. Nash , architect. Polytechnic Institution.- National Institute of Fine Arts. Oxford-st. Oxford- st. Hanover Chapel. C. R.Cockerell, + architect. Verrey, confectioner and restaurant ; good. Hanover- street. Lewis and Allonby, drapers. Argyll-street. Marlbro' - street, Williams, photographer. Mayall, photographer. N W -- E S Conduit-street. New Burlington- street. The house of Rt. Hon. Fredk.- Robinson, Chancellor of Ex- chequer, in Old Burlington-street, was more than once attacked by the mobduring the Corn Riots of 1815, the railings torn up, win- dows and doors split open ; and on March 6 one of the assailants was shot by soldiers posted within. Newman's stables, horses on the first, second, and third floors. Vigo- street, leading to Albany and Bond- street. - Archbishop Tenison's Chapel . Nicoll, tailor. - Mechi, razors. Glasshouse-street. St.James's Hall and Restaurant.- Telegraph Office. . Quadrant The Swan and Edgar, first-rate mercers, &c. , long established house. Piccadilly. Jermyn- street. Carlton Club Chambers. Regent- street Chapel. Repton, arch. Howell and James, mercers & jewellers. Pall-Mall. Piccadilly. -Jermyn-street. Raleigh Club. Gallery of Illustration, formerly house of Na the architect. -Junior Unit. Ser. Club. Charles-street. Pall-Mall. 278 XXXII.-PRINCIPAL THOROUGHFARES. HOLBORN, OR OLDBOURNE. A main thoroughfare running east and west, between Drury-lane and Farringdon- street. From Drury-lane to Brook-street is called " High Holborn ; " from Brook-street to Fetter- lane, " Holborn ;" and from Fetter-lane to Farringdon-street, "Holborn Hill." At Brook-street stood " Holborn Bars," a block of houses projecting from the S. side, so as to narrow the street to one-third of its original width, marking the termination of the City Liberties in that direction ; and at Farringdon- street stood a stone bridge over the Fleet, called " Oldbourne Bridge. " It derives its name from Oldbourne, or Hilbourne, a burn or rivulet that broke out near Holborn Bars, and ran down the whole street to Oldbourne Bridge, and into the river of the Wells and Fleet Ditch. This was the old road from Newgate and the Tower to the gallows at Tyburn. Up the " heavy hill " went William, Lord Russell, on his way to the scaffold in Lincoln's- Inn-fields. The same line of road from Aldgate to Tyburn was chosen for the whippings which Titus Oates, Dangerfield, and Johnson endured in the reign of James II. Gerard, who dates his Herbal (fol. 1597) " From my house in Holborne, within the suburbs of London, this first of December, 1597," had a good garden behind his house, and mentions in his Herbal many ofthe rarer plants which grew well in it. To avoid the dangerous descent of Holborn-hill, a Viaduct and High-level Bridge over Farringdon-street was commenced from Newgate- street, Old Bailey, to Ely-place, 1867. William Heywood, engineer. The bridge is a skew of cast iron, in three spans, resting on granite piers. It extends from Hatton Garden to Newgate-street, a distance of 1400 ft. , with a width of 80 ft. , passing over Shoe-lane, close to St. Andrew's Churchyard, from which near 1000 bodies were removed to Ilford Cemetery to make way for it. At the Holborn end a handsome Circus has been opened out, from which branches Hatton Garden, and a fine broad new street leading to Far- ringdon Road and Smithfield Meat Market. Under the roadway are vaults and sub-chambers for sewers, telegraphwires, gas and water-pipes. XXXII.-PRINCIPAL THOROUGHFARES. 279 . HOLBORN. Skinner-street. E. Snowhill. Farringdon- road.— Viaduct over the valley, 1867-69.— Ely-place. See Ely Chapel. Hatton- garden.- . Leather-lane.- Furnival's-Inn. Brook-street. Gray's-Inn-lane. Fox-court, ( on right hand), birth- place of Savage, the poet. Fulwood's-rents . Holborn Bridge -hill . Farringdon- street, covering the Fleet Ditch. Shoe-lane. + St. Andrew's, Holborn. Wren. Dr. Sacheverel's Church. - Savage the poet, baptised in this church . Fetter-lane. Castle-street. -Site of Holborn Bars, and limit of City Liberty without the walls ; pulled down 1867, -Chancery-lane. Red-Lion-street. Great Turnstile. Holborn . Whetstone .Park Lincoln's-Inn- fields. Kingsgate-street. Southampton-row. - Southampton-street. Little Turnstile. New Turnstile. Little Queen- street. Down this street Lord Russell was led to the scaffold in Lin- coln's Inn Fields. Oxford -street , .Holborn High Museum-street, leading to British Museum. W.Drury- lane . Leading to Oxford- street. 280 XXXII.-PRINCIPAL THOROUGHFARES. STRAND. Temple Bar. The Strand was not paved until 1532. Asmany as nine Bishops possessed inns or hostels on the water side of the Strand, at the Reformation. No traces of their houses but the names remain. (See Scott's " For- tunes of Nigel ." ) Site ofthe New Law Courts. Clement's Inn. Wych-st., leading to Drury-lane.- Holywell- street. Full of Jew.clothesmen and book-stalls. E. Child's Bank. Site ofEssex House. Devereux-court. Here was the Grecian Coffee-house. + St. Clement's Danes Church de- sigued by Wren, named from Danes buried here (Harold Harefoot, Son of Canute). In a pew near the pulpit, close to a pillar, Dr. Sam. Johnson wor- shipped for 20 years. Joe Miller was buried in the parish burial ground, now occupied by King's College Hospital. First of 50 Churches erected in Q + Anne's reign, Jas. Gibbs, archt. Catherine- street, leading to Brydges-street. Wellington- street, leading to Bow-street. Lyceum Theatre. - Burleigh-street . Site of Exeter ' Change. Southampton-street. Site of Bedford House. Adelphi Theatre. Behind this Theatre is Maiden Lane, in which Andrew Marvell lived andVoltaire lodged. King William-street. Electric Telegraph Office. - Site of Arundel House. St. Mary-le- Strand Church. Site of Maypole. King's College. Somerset House. Public offices. 141, Site ofJacob Tonson's shop . Wellington-street, leading to Waterloo Bridge. The Savoy was granted to Peter of Savoy, uncle of Henry III. , 1245 . 66 Savoy Chapel, down Savoy Steps." Worth seeing. Beaufort Buildings. Site of Worcester House. Cecil-street. Site of Salisbury House and New Exchange. Adam-st.:-leading to Adelphi Terrace, facing the River, in the centre house of which Garrick died. Coutts & Co., Bankers. Site of Durham House, where Sir Walter Raleigh lived. Go down Buckingham- street and see the Water Gate, all that remains of York House, built for Villiers , Duke of Buckingham. Site ofYork House. Lord Bacon born here. Charing-cross Railway Station . Queen Eleanor's Cross restored. Nor.humberland House. Golden Cross Inn. Morley's Hotel. W - Charing Cross. XXXII.-PRINCIPAL THOROUGHFARES. 281 FLEET STREET. Viaduct of London, Chatham and Dover Railway. over Ludgate Hill. Fleet ditch, now a sewer, under Farringdon- street. Fleet- st. is named from the Fleet, a stream which became a ditch and open sewer-nowcovered. It entered the Thames near Blackfriars bridge. On its banks stood the Fleet prison, now the Nonconformists' Me- morial Hall. Shoe-lane, leading to Holborn. Bolt-court. Dr. Johnson died here. E. -Bridge-street, Blackfriars. Bride-lane, leading to site of Bridewell Hospital. + St. Bride's Church. Built by Wren. To Salisbury- square, In which Richardson, the novelist lived. Crane-court-Scottish Hospital; - Old Meeting Room of Royal Society, when Sir Isaac Newton was President. Fetter-lane, leading to Holborn. Peele's Coffee House ; Newspapers filed here. Church of St. Dunstan's in + the West. Shaw, architect. Crown Life Insurance. Here the Fire of London stopped. Chancery-lane. Seven doors up, on the left, lived Izaak Walton. Cock Tavern. Famous for Stout. Site for New Law Courts. Bouverie - street, leading to Whitefriars and Alsatia. -Serjeants' Inn. Site of Mitre Tavern. Resort ofDr. Johnson and Boswell. Hoare's Banking House. Es- tablished 1680. Inner- Temple - gate, leading to Temple Church: at W. corner house, Pope and War- burton first met. Rainbow Tavern. Famous for Stout. Middle-Temple- gate. Child's Banking House. Oldest Banking House in London, founded by Fraucis Child, Gold- smith , 1620. Site also of Devil Tavern. Temple Bar. 282 XXXII-PRINCIPAL THOROUGHFARES. CHEAPSIDE, or CHEAP. A street between the Poultry (E.) and St. Paul's (W.) , a continuation of the line from Charing Cross to the Royal Exchange, from Holborn to the Bank of England. This street, one of the most frequented thoroughfares in London, was famous in former times for its " Ridings," its "Cross, " its " Conduit," and its " Standard, " and, still later, for its silk-mercers, linen-drapers, and hosiers. The last Lord Mayor's pageant devised by the City poet, and publicly performed (Elkanah Settle was this last City poet), was seen by Queen Anne in the first year of her reign (1702) "from a balcony in Cheapside." The concluding plate of Hogarth's " Industry and Idleness " represents the City procession entering Cheapside-the seats erected on the occasion and the canopied balcony, hung with tapestry, containing Frederick, Prince of Wales, father of George III. , and his Princess, as spectators of the scene. Observe. -Church of St. Mary- le-Bow (see Sect. xiv.) ; Saddlers' Hall, next No. 142 : here Sir Richard Blackmore, the poet, followed the profession of a physician. No. 90, corner ofIronmonger-lane, was the shop of Alderman Boydell (d. 1804). Before he removed here, he lived " at the Unicorn, the corner of Queen- street, in Cheapside, London. " Before the present Mansion-house was built in 1737, No. 73 was used occasionally as the Lord Mayor's Mansion-house. XXXII.-PRINCIPAL THOROUGHFARES, 283 CHEAPSIDE AND POULTRY. E.Poultry . Mansion House. Queen Victoria- street, leading to Blackfriars Bridge and Thames Quay. Site of Poultry Compter. Grocers' Hall. Old Jewry. Mercers' Hall, behind which Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, was born. King-street, leading to the Guild-Hall. Laurence-lane. Queen-street, leading to South- wark Bridge. St. Mary-le- Bow Church. The spire is one of Wren's great masterpieces (see Sect. xiv). Milk-street. Sir Thomas More born in. - -Bread-street. Milton born in. Here stood the Mermaid Tavern, frequented by Shakspeare, Raleigh, Ben Jonson, Wood-street. Friday- street. Gutter-lane. Old Change. General Post Office. W. St. Paul's Church-yard. Near St. Paul's was Bishop Bonner's Coal Hole, one of the worst prisons in which the victims of the Popish Persecution under Queen Mary were shut up. 284 XXXII.-PRINCIPAL THOROUGHFARES. 66 CORNHILL. Near the junction of Cornhill and Leadenhall-street stood the Standard," built 1582, for distributing water brought from the Thames by a forcer, invented by Peter Morris, a Dutchman. Distances along many of the high roads out of London were measured from it. Leadenhall -st. Bishopsgate-st., leading to Shoreditch. Cornhill, so called, from a corn market "time out of mind there holden." Finch-lane. Joe's Chop-house, good. Ned's Chop-house, excellent. E. Gracechurch- st. , leading to London Bridge. St. Peter's Church. St. Michael's Church. St. Michael's-alley. No. 41, Gray the poet was born, 1716, in a house on this site. Birchin-lane. Site of Freeman's- court, in which De Foe lived . Change-alley. Royal Exchange. - Pope's Head-alley. Bank of England. Lombard-street. St. Mary Woolnoth Ch. Princes-street. W. Mansion House, XXXII.-PRINCIPAL THOROUGHFARES. 285 DRURY LANE. O may thy virtue guard thee through the roads Of Drury's mazy courts and dark abodes ! The harlots' guileful paths, who nightly stand Where Catherine- street descends in- to the Strand."-Gay's " Trivia." Broad- street, St. Giles's. Drury-lane, so called from the town house of the Drury family. It lost its aristo- cratic character early in the reign ofWm. III. Long Acre, leading to Leicester-square. Little Russell-street, leading to Covent-garden, Drury-lane Theatre, &c. ToBritish Museum . Drury Lane -once Aldwych street . Holborn. Coal-yard, birth-place of Nell Gwyn. Charles-street alias Lewknor's- lane, long a notoriously bad part of London. Great Queen-street, leading to Lincoln's-inn-fields. Pit-place, properly Cockpit- place, site of Cockpit Theatre (the first Drury-lane Theatre) . Prince's- street, leading to Lincoln's-Inn-fields. Russell-court, footway from City to Covent- garden. Craven-buildings, site of Craven House, in which the Queen of Bohemia died, 1662. Site of Nell Gwyn's lodging, - where Pepys saw her " stand- ing at her lodgings' door, in her smock- sleeves and bodice," watching the milkmaids on May-day, 1667. Maypole -alley . Wychstreet - to Strand Strand. St. Mary-le-Strand Church. · 286 XXXII -PRINCIPAL THOROUGHFARES. CHANCERY LANE. Gray's -Inn -lane . Holborn. Holborn. N W- -E S Wentworth, Lord Strafford , was born, 1593, in the house of his mother's father, Mr. Robert Atkinson, a bencher of Lin- coln's Inn . -Southampton- buildings . Gateway to Lincoln's- Inn , of- the age of Henry VIII. ( 1518). Union BankCarey-street.- Law Institution and Club.- -Cursitor- street. -Rolls House and Chapel. In Rolls chapel is a very fine monu- ment, Italian work, XVIth century, perhaps by Torregiano, to Dr. Young, whose recumbent effigy is finely modelled in terra cotta, while at the back appears the head ofthe Saviour, with a cherub on each side. The Rolls ofthe Court of Chancery were formerly kept in iron presses round this chapel, extending even behind the altar. Adjoining is the residence of the Master ofthe Rolls. -New Record office. -Serjeants' Inn. Izaak Walton lived in the 7th house from Fleet- st ., 1627-44. Jacob Tonson the bookseller' first shop, 1694. Temple Bar, Fleet-street. Fleet-street. XXXII.-PRINCIPAL THOROUGHFARES. 287 OXFORD STREET. A line of thoroughfare, one mile and a half long, between St. Giles's Pound and old Tyburn (now Cumberland Gate) , so called from its being the highway from London to Oxford. In 1708 it was known as Tyburnroad. It is, however, somewhat uncertain when it was first formed into a continuous line of street, and in what year it was first called Oxford- street. New Oxford- street, opened for carriages March 6th, 1847, occupies the site of the "Rookery" of St. Giles, through which it was driven at a cost of 290,2271. 4s. 10d. , of which 113,9637. was paid to the Duke of Bedford alone for freehold purchases. All that remained, in the autumn of 1849, of this infamous Rookery (so called as a place of resort for sharpers and quarrelsome people) was included and condensed in ninety -five wretched houses in Church-lane and Carrier- street, wherein, incredible as the fact may appear, no less than 2850 persons were crammed into a space of ground between 1 and 1 acre in In these noisome abodes nightly shelter, at 3d. per head, might be obtained. area. The long avenue of street, formerly called NEW ROAD (now Pentonville-road, Euston-road, and Marylebone- road) is a continuation of the City-road, leading to the Regent's Park, St. John's-wood, and the Edgware-road. It was planned in 1754, and opened about 1758. Observe. -St. James's Chapel, Pentonville (on the north side) ; here R. P. Bonington, the painter, is buried. -St. Pancras New Church, -Holy Trinity Church, Marylebone. -St. Marylebone New Church. CITY ROAD. A crowded thoroughfare-a continuation ofthe Pentonville-road, running fromthe Angel at Islington to Finsbury-square ; opened 1761 ; Mr. Dingley, the projector, who gave it the name of the City-road, modestly declining to have it called after his own name. Observe. John Wesley's chapel and grave, immediately opposite Bunhill- fields Burial-ground. "Great multitudes assembled to see the ceremony oflaying the founda- tion, so that Wesley could not, without much difficulty, get through the press to lay the first stone, on which his name and the date were inserted on a plate of brass. This was laid by John Wesley, on April 1 , 1777. Probably, says he, this will be seen no more by any human eye, but will remain there till the earth , and the works thereof are burnt up."- Southey's Life of Wesley, ii. 385. 288 XXXII.-PRINCIPAL THOROUGHFARES. BOW STREET, COVENT GARDEN, So called from running in the shape of a bent bow. Long Acre. Covent Garden Theatre, or Royal Italian Opera. On the site of this theatre lived Dr. Radcliffe, Wycherley, and many other wits, from 1646 to 1735. Bow-street Police Office. Here Fielding wrote his Tom Jones. 1 Long Acre. Upper house, corner of King's Arms-court, lived Grinling Gibbons. W N S --- E Site ofWill's Coffee-house. Great Russell- street. Great Russell-street. GREAT QUEEN STREET, LINCOLN'S- INN - FIELDS. So called in compliment to Hen- rietta Maria, Queen ofChas. I. Little Queen- street, leading to Holborn. Down this street Lord Russell was led to the scaffold in Lincoln's- Inn-fields. The whole of the north side was built a century later than the south. E N S W Drury-lane. Lincoln's-Inn-fields . House of Lord Chancellor Somers and the Minister Duke of New- castle, temp. George II. The whole of the south side was originally built by Inigo Jones, and from 1630 to 1730 was one of the most fashionable localities in London - the houses com manding a fine view of Holborn- fields. Great Marlborough-st., a century later, was similarly situated with respect to Oxford- street. In one of these houses Lord Herbert of Cherbury died. In another Sir Godfrey Kneller lived for the last twenty years of his life. The large red-brick house, with an arch-way under it (now Nos. 55 and 56) was the house of Hudson, the portrait- painter, and masterofSir Joshua Reynolds. Freemasons' Hall and Tavera. Drury-lane. XXXII.-PRINCIPAL THOROUGHFARES. 289 CHARING CROSS TO WESTMINSTER ABBEY Drummond's Bank. Admiralty. Horse Guards. Treasury.-― Office of the Prime Minister Site of Cockpit, in which Oliver Cromwell lived. Chancel. of the Scene ofExecution ofCharles I. N. Statue ofCharles I. Scene ofthe Excution Z ofthe Regicides . Strand . Northumberland House. Craig's- court. Cox and Co. Scotland Yard. Metropolitan Police- station. Whitehall Banqueting-house, built by Inigo Jones. -- Privy Gardens. Sir R. Peel's house. -Montague House. Duke of Buccleuch. Exchequer. Colonial Office. New Public Offices . Foreign Office. India Office . Downing-st. King -street . In King-street died, for lack ofbread, Spenser, author of the "Faerie Queene." Richmond-terr.-Site of Duchess ofPortsmouth's lodgings. . street - Parliament -Westminster Club. Cannon- rw. Great George-street. S. ToWestminsterBridg U 290 XXXII.-PRINCIPAL THOROUGHFARES. PARK LANE. The S.W. corner of Edgeware Road, close to Arklow House, is the site of Tyburn Gallows, and burial-place of Oliver Cromwell. Gt.Cumberland -st • Marble Arch, brought from Buckingham Palace. Grosvenor Gate. HYDE PARK. The whole of the railings of Hyde Park were torn down by a lawless mob, led on by the Reform League, on July 23, 1866, under pretence of holding a reform meeting in the Park. Mob law prevailed. The police stationed inside were brutally beaten with stones and brick- bats, and more than 40 were in- jured for life. The Conserve- tive Government were cowed. Yet a previous Whig Govern- ment through Sir George Grey had forbad a reform meeting to be held on this very ground ; they stopped Garibaldi meet- ings there. On the 10th April, 1848, Lord Russell's Govern- ment closed the gates, and kept them with guards of cavalry. Stanhope Gate.- Duke of Cambridge. Gloucester House. - Oxford-street. Camelford House. Where the Princess Charlotte and Prince Leopold lived. Green-street : at No. 56, died Rev. Sydney Smith. Upper Brook- street. Brook Honse. Sir D. Coutts Mar- joribanks. - Dudley House ( Earl of Dudley) : paintings by Raphael, &c. - Upper Grosvenor-street. Mount-street. South-street, Stanhope-street. Dorchester House. Valliamy, Architect. Built for Mr. Holford. Pictures and Library. Fine -Holdernesse House, Earl Vane. Piccadilly. XXXII.-PRINCIPAL THOROUGHFARES. 291 NEWGATE STREET. General Post Office. St. Martin's- le- Grand. Bath-street ( Old Bagnio) , in time ofCharles II. E. Cheapside. Panyer-alley. (Curious sculp- ture in. ) Bull- Head-court. Bas-relief of William Evans and Sir Jeffrey Hudson. King-Edward- street, formerly Butcher-hall-lane. Passage leading to Christ's Hospital. -Queen's- Head-passage. (Dolly's Chop-house in. ) Ivy-lane. ( Site ofDr. Johnson's Ivy-lane Club. ) Newgate Market (site of). Christ's Hospital, New Hall. Site of Giltspur- street Compter, pulled down 1855 . Pye-corner. Here Fire of Lon- don stopped. Giltspur-street. St. X Sepulchre's Church. In Bell-inn, died, 1684, Archbishop Leighton. Warwick-lane. ( Site of Old College of Physicians, built by Wren. Observe.-Effigy of Guy on W. wall of lane.) Newgate Prison. Old Bailey. Cock- lane( sceof ghost.) Holborn Viaduct. W. U 2 292 XXXII.-PRINCIPAL THOROUGHFARES. ALDERSGATE STREET. N. Wilderness-row. Old-street. -Site of Pistol's " Manor of Pict- hatch." Smithfield Metropol. Meat Market. Long-lane.- Barbican. Albion Tavern, famous for good dinners. London House, formerly residence ofBishops of London. Westmoreland-buildings, - marking site of town-house of the Nevilles, Earls of West- moreland. Little Britain. St. Botolph, Aldersgate.- Bull and Mouth street. Money Order OfficeTelegraph Office- St. Martin's -leGrand .x Lauderdale-buildings, marking site of Lauderdale House, town-house of Duke of Lauder- dale, temp. Chas. II. Shaftesbury House, built by Inigo Jones for the Earl of Thanet. Here lived Lord Chancellor Shaftesbury , temp. Chas. II. Here stood Aldersgate-one of the gates in the old city walls. General Post-office. Newgate-street. St. Paul's. X S. Cheapside. XXXII.-PRINCIPAL THOROUGHFARES. 293 FISH - STREET HILL, GRACECHURCH- STREET, AND BISHOPSGATE- STREET. St. Botolph, Bishopsgate. .within -street Bishopsgate Houndsditch. Here stood Bishopsgate, one of the gates in London-wall. St. Helen's, Bishopsgate. Crosby Hall. Good perpendi- cular building, temp. Hen. VIII. Wesleyan Centenary Hall. Bull Inn, used as a stage (before theatres were erected) by Tarl- ton and Burbage; here Hob- son, the carrier, put up. South Sea House. Threadneedle- st. St. Martin's Outwich. London Tavern, celebrated for good dinners. N W E S Cornhill. Omnibusesfor Sur-- reyand Kent start from both sides of street. At the Cross Keys, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, Bankes exhibited his horse, Morocco. Lombard- st. White-Hart-court. Fox, founder- ofthe Quakers, died in. Nag's-Head-court. M. Green, the poet, died in. King William- street. Statue of William IV. marks the site of Boar's Head Ta- vern in Eastcheap. Gracechurch -street . Leadenhall-street. -Fenchurch-street. St. Bennet, Gracechurch (site of) . Eastcheap. Arthur-street. Here stood a stone house in which Edward the Black Prince was lodged. street Fish -hill . The Monument-202 feet from which the Fire of London began. St. Magnus, by Sir C. Wren, The Thames. Site of old London Bridge, 294 XXXII. PRINCIPAL THOROUGHFARES. UPPER AND LOWER THAMES STREET. The Tower. St. Dunstan's-hill. St. Dunstan's, by Wren. St. Mary-at- Hill. Coal Exchange. - Pudding-lane. Fire of London began. Fish-street-hill. King William-street. E S W Suffolk-lane. Merchant Taylors' School. Dowgate. S. E. Railway Bridge.- College-hill. St. Michael's, College-hill, by Wren. St. James's Garlickhithe, by Wren. St. Michael's, Queenhithe, by Wren. Bread-street-hill, leading to Cheapside. Old Fish- street-hill. St. Mary Somerset. St. Bennet's, Paul's - wharf, burial-place of Inigo Jones, near Heralds' College, and Doctors' Commons. London, Chatham, & Do .-street Thames Lower .-street Thames Upper TT Earl -street . Custom-house. Billingsgate Market. Steamboats down river for Greenwich, Woolwich, Black- wall, &c. Site of Old London Bridge. St. Magnus, by Wren. London Bridge. Fishmongers' Hall. Old Shades, famous for its wines. Steamboats up river to Black- friars, Chelsea, &c. All Hallows the More; hand- some screen, presented by Hans merchants. Cannon-street Terminus of S.E. Railway, occupies the site of the Steel-yard, or Hall of the Hans Merchants, 1250-1550. Three Cranes in the Vintry. Southwark Bridge. Vintners' Hall. Queenhithe, a quay or market, long the rival of Billingsgate. Site of Baynard Castle. The castle of Bainardus, the Nor- man associate of William the Conqueror, whose name survives also in Bayswater, i. e., Baynard's water. - Puddle Dock. ver Railway and Bridge. - Blackfriars Bridge. New Bridge- street, Blackfriars. XXXII.-PRINCIPAL THOROUGHFARES . 295 HIGH-STREET, SOUTHWARK. London Bridge . River Thames. St. Saviour's, Southwark. Site of Bishop of Winchester's Palace, near to which stood the Globe Theatre, in which Shakspeare acted. River Thames. London Bridge Railway Stats. of 5 separate lines ; of Dover, Brighton, Greenwich, & c . Line of junction from London bridge to Charing-cross. Former site of St. Thomas's Hospital. St. Thomas's Church. Guy's Hospital. St. argaret's- hill. N W E Site of Talbot Inn, the Tabardof Chaucer's " Canterbury Tales." Union-street. King-street. Site of Marshalsea Prison, marked by house No. 119 . Here many Protestant mar- tyrs suffered in the days of Queen Mary. The Mint; the Alsatia of Southwark. St. George's Church, Southwark, burial-place of Bishop Bonner, Rushworth, and Cocker. 296 XXXII.-PRINCIPAL THOROUGHFARES. THE THAMES (see Introduction). From Battersea to Vauxhall Bridge. Battersea Church. Burial-place ofLord Bolingbroke. Cremorne Gardens. In the central cottage of three, near Cremorne Pier, J. M. W. Turner, the landscape painter, d. 1851. Battersea Bridge. Site of Sir Thomas More's house. Chelsea Albert BridgeBattersea Park. 346 acres; 16 acres ofwater; walks and drives, with planta- tions. Cost £336,000. Sub Tropical Gardens, July to September. Steam Boat PierCheyne Chelsea Old Church. Grave and Monument of Sir T. More and Sir Hans Sloane. Site of Chelsea Botanic Gardens. Terraced . Cedar planted 1683. Chelsea Hospital. Battersea Suspension Battersea Park Railway Station anddouble Railway for Chatham and Dover, Brighton, and other Lines leading to Victoria Station. - Bridge. Guards Barracks. Gardens. Site of Ranelagh Gardens. Bridge. Grosvenor Canal Entrance. St. Barnabas Church. T. Cubitt's House-building Factory. Church of Holy Trinity, built at the expense of a Preben- dary of Westminster. Vauxhall Bridge, XXXII.-PRINCIPAL THOROUGHFARES. 297 THE THAMES. From Vauxhall Bridge to Hungerford Bridge. Vauxhall Bridge. Site ofVauxhall Gardens. Vauxhall Sta. of S. W. RailwayTile and Pipe Furnaces, Doulton's, &c. Penitentiary. Millbank. Lambeth Old Church. Burial-place of Tradescant and Ashmole. Iron Wire Suspension Bridge. Lambeth Palace. Lollards' Tower. St. John's Church, West- minster. Albert Embankment . Westminster Abbey St. Thomas's Hospital. Timber Yards. Government Stores.- Victoria Embankment . Houses of Parliament. Westminster Iron Bridge. Victoria Embankment and Quay begin here. Metropolitan District Rail- way Station. Richmond-terrace. Montague House. -Privy Gardens, Whitehall. Here Sir R. Peel died. - Whitehall Stairs. Scotland Yard. Northumberland House. Charing Cross Terminus of S. E. Railway. At the river side under Bridge, Charing Cross station of Metropolitan Railway, Hungerford Rail and Foot Bridge. 298 XXXII. PRINCIPAL THOROUGHFARES. THE THAMES. From Hungerford Bridge to Blackfriars Bridge. Charing Cross or Hungerford Bridge. Lion Brewery.- Shot Tower.- Victoria Embankment, continued. Site of York House. Timber Yard.- - Iron Foundries.- Water-gate, built by Nic. Stone, for Villiers, D. of Buckingham . Adelphi-terrace - in centre house Garrick died. Savoy. South-Western Railway or Waterloo Station. Waterloo Old Lambeth Marsh, now tra versed by Stamford- street. Christ Church. Site ofParis Garden. Duchy of Lancaster Office. Bridge. Somerset House. King's College. Tower of St. Mary- le- Strand. Site of Arundel House. Tower of St. Clements' Danes. Temple Pier near site of Essex House. Middle Temple Hall. Temple Church. Temple Gardens. Paper Buildings (red) , Temple. Whitefriars, or Alsatia. Site of Salisbury House and Dorset House. Fine spire of St. Bride's, Wren. Fleet Ditch or Sewer runs into the Thames. New Blackfriars Bridge. Alexandra Bridge før London, Chatham, and Dover Railway. XXXII.-PRINCIPAL THOROUGHFARES. 299 THE THAMES. From Blackfriars Bridge to London Bridge. Blackfriars Bridge. Times Newspaper Office. Site of Blackfriars Theatre. Site of Castle Baynard. Large Flour Mill. St. Paul's. Church of St. Bennet, Paul's- wharf. Inigo Jones buried here. Paul's-wharf Pier. Fine view from river of the spires and towers of churches by Wren. The tallest and handsomest is Bow Church. Church of St. Michael's, Queen- hithe. The ship at the top of the vane is capable of holding a bushel of grain, the great article of traffic still Queenhithe. - Queenhithe. at Bankside-site ofthe old Theatres, the Bear Garden, &c. Vintners' Hall. Southwark Bridge. Three Cranes in the Vintry Barclay's Brewhouse Site of Globe Theatre. Remains of Winchester Palace. St. Saviour's Church (see Sect. xiv). S.E.R. Iron Railway Bridge. -Site of Guild of the Steelyard. Now Cannon- street Terminus of S.E.R. Steamboat Pier. Shades, famous for its wine. Fishmongers' Hall, London Bridge. 300 XXXII.- PRINCIPAL THOROUGHFARES. THE THAMES. From London Bridge to Blackwall. London Bridge. Thames See also p. 42, for further account of the River below London Bridge. Rotherhithe Church. Surrey Docks. Commercial Docks. Pier. Deptford. bridge "Below . Pool cmmences The . Site of Old London Bridge. The Monument. Fine Tower of St. Magnus. Steam-boat Pier to Gravesend, Margate, and boats too large for "above bridge." Billingsgate. Coal Exchange. Custom House. Subway. Tower of London, surmounted by the keep or "White Tower." Traitor's Gate. St. Katherine's Docks, London Docks. Wapping. Site of Thames Tunnel, now East Loudon Railway, con- nectingWapping with Rother- hithe. Tunnel Pier. Limehouse Church, with flag staff on top of tower. West India Docks. Greenwich Hospital. Greenwich Observatory on hill. Famous for Trafalgar Tavern. fish dinners Crownand Sceptre. Red Tower of Charlton Church Isle of Dogs New Docks. Here the River is very serpentine. Millwall Iron Shipbuilding Yards. Blackwall Railway Station. East India Docks. Victoria Docks. North Woolwich Railway. Gen, Ld. Hill lived here. Audley N.st-. Walker-st. N. E. Brownlow , 12. D Burling- ofE.,10 .ton C.Dowager ,Z9 Essex . .Bedford ofD.,6 W. BELGRAVE SQUARE. Built 1826-1833. Geo. Basevi, architect. S.10. E.ofCraw- ford &Bal- carres . Upper Brook-st . 24,E. ofShaftesbury. 23, Dowager Dss. of Cleveland. Grosvenor-st. W. N. GROSVENOR SQUARE. Built 1720-1730. Both the Marquis of Rock- ingham and Lord North lived in this square when Prime Ministers. S. Sir G. Beaumont lived . S.Audley -st. 36,M.ofExeter . 37,Countess Mornington . of Maynard 38,Vis .39,E.ofHarrow- Scene ofby. Cato -st.con- spiracy . 1,M.Ayles of-7 bury . Lady Herbert of Lee. Grosvenor Crescent . Halkin-st. E. 45, D. ofMontrose. Earl of Sefton , 37 . 7, Earl of Wilton. E. 301 302 XXXII. PRINCIPAL SQUARES. street Davies -. N. Hill-street. BERKELEY SQUARE. 43, Earl ofHadding- W. ton. Built 1730-1740. 44, Fine staircase by Kent. 45, Earl of Powis. The great Lord Clive died in this house. Observe: the large and vigorous Planes. S. Lansdowne House. Gloucester -street . Kenyon 9,Lord . Baker street -. Γ E. Bruton-street. Horace Walpole died at No. 11. Gunter, celebrated for Ices. Hay Hill. Upper Berkeley- st. Berkeley-street. The detached house inthe N.W. corner was Mrs. Montagu's. Here she held her blue-stocking parties, and gave her chim- ney-sweeps' entertainment to the poor boys on May Day. N. PORTMAN Upper Seymour- st. SQUARE. W. E. Built 1790-1800. Portman street -. 30,Lordeigh . S. Cardigan Earl of. rchard street -. Seymour-street. II. PRINCIPAL SQUARES. 303 The freehold ofNo. 9sold in1866 for Wynda 11, 35,000 £, York street -. Bristol .of,Marq 6 London Library. Statistical Society. Lichfield House. Lord Castlereagh lived in corner house. King-street. 17, D. ofCleveland. 18, Sir W. Wynn, 19, B. ofWinchstr. Army and Navy Club. N. ST. JAMES'S SQUARE. W. Built 1674 -1690. E. Statue of William III. S. 4, Lady Cowper. Fine Pictures. 2, E. ofFalmouth. Lon.&West, Bank . Charles-street. 23, Earl of Derby. 22, Bp. of London. 21, Dk. ofNorfolk. Geo.III. born here. .Harewood ofE.,13 12,Royal Agricult . England Socy .of Zoological Socy 11,. Royal Academy of Music. Tenterden-street. Oriental Club. N. HANOVER SQUARE. Built 1720-1730. W. 20, Earl of Lucan. Statue ofWilliam Pitt, by Chantrey. Brook-street. S. 1. George -street .House Lady Mry Wortley Montagu died in. E. Prince's-street. Hanover-sq. rooms. Hire of Great Room , 10 guineas morn., 15guineas evening. OfLit tleRoom, 5& 6 gs., -gasand attend ance included. Hanover-street. 304 XXXII.-PRINCIPAL SQUARES. W. side, Harcourt House, residence of Duke of Portland. .-street Harley old Formerly .Amelia's Pr Thewhole N. side wastohave been occupied bythe entrance to the town house of the magnificent D. ofChandos. L N. CAVENDISH SQUARE. Chandos street -. Built 1730-1760. Equestrian Statue of Duke ofCumberland, Victor at Culloden, 1746. Statue ofLord G. Bentinck. S. Cavendish -st. Holles-street. In No. 16, Lord Byron was born. Rom- ,Huse of3ney the painter , M.Sir ofand Shee .Archer E. Site of Leicester House. The "Pouting-place " of two Princes To Piccadilly. Sir Joshua Rey- nolds's house, now Messrs. Put- tick & Simpson's auction rooms. Up to Haymarket. of Wales. L L N. LEICESTER SQUARE. W. Built 1670-1690. E. S. St. Martin's-court. Sir Isaac Newton's house and observatory. To Covent-garden. H. Sablonnière and Provence. Alhambra Theatre. Site of John Hun- ter's house and museum. Site of Hogarth's house. Green-street. In No. 11 lived Woollett the en- graver. XXXII.-PRINCIPAL SQUARES. 305 -.street Oxford ToZ N. Soho Bazaar, es- tablished by Mr. Trotter. House of Sir Jos. Banks and of Robert Brown, botanist. SOHO SQUARE. W. Built 1670-1690. E. Statue of Charles II. S. Burroughes & Watts, Billiard- table makers. Crosse and Blackwell. Marion's Photographs. 0.6 was Isaac Disraeli's, the author. Whole south side originally occupied by Monmouth House. Site of Bedford House, -sq.Russell ToZ N. pulled down in 1800. Statue of C.J. Fox, by Sir R. Westmacott. W. E. BLOOMSBURY SQUARE. Built 1690-1710. S. Site of Lord Mansfield's house destroyed in riots of 1780. X 306 King-street. ChurchofSt. Paul's, Covent Garden, RichardsoHotel ,famousor its wines . Tavistock Hotel . Opera, Covent Garden. Floral Hall. Bedford Hotel. Built by Inigo Jones N. COVENT GARDEN MARKET. E. .-stBow Great Russell-st. L built by Inigo Jones. W. Built 1630-1642. Henrietta-street. Great Queen- st. Newcastle House at corner. Here lived Lord Chancellors Somers, Cowper, and Harcourt, and the Minister Duke of Newcastle. Lindsey House, (with 2 vases), built by Inigo Jones. W.ToHlborn . .Museum Soane's S. Southampton -st.,..Strand toleading Whetstone ! Park. N. LINCOLN'S- INN FIELDS. E. Lord Wm. Russell beheaded in centre. Built 1619-1636. ToHolborn . But- ofSite Coffee tn's At.House 8(Tom No. ,)Davies's Johnsonand Boswell met forirst time . New Flower Market. Stone buildings. Lincoln's Inn Hall, P.Hardwick, Archt. Duke-street. ] 7 S. Royal College of Surgeons. J To Lincoln's Inn. Here stood Sir William Davenant's Theatre. XXXII.-PRINCIPAL SQUARES. 307 ational Gallery of Paintings. Wilkins,archt. Pall-mall East. ㅁ College of Physicians. Union Club. Statue of George IV., byChantrey,St. Martin's Lane . TRAFALGAR SQUARE. Built 1829-1850. The Fountains, of Peterhead Granite. Church of St. Martin's-in-the Fields. Gibbs, archt. To the Strand. Morley's Hotel. Cockspur-street. Nelson Column. Landseer's Lions. Statue. General Havelock's Char. Cross branch ofGen. Post Office. Letters received later than at other offices. Northumberland House, to be pulled down to open an approach to Thames Embankment. Sir Chas. Napier's Statue. Statue of Charles I. by Le Soeur. Site ofQueen Eleanor's Cross. Place of execution of Regicides. 1 Whitehall. x 2 308 XXXIII.-ENVIRONS OF LONDON. XXXIII -ENVIRONS OF LONDON. Slight Hints about Places near London which a Stranger should see. WINDSOR CASTLE, by Great Western Railway from Paddington, or by South Western Railway from Waterloo Station. Time- 1 hr. 5 or 10 min. The state apartments are open gratis to the public on Mondays, Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Fridays, by the Lord Chamber- lain's tickets, to be obtained in London (gratis) of Messrs. Colnaghi, 14, Pall-mall East ; and of Mr. Mitchell, 33, Old Bond- street ; of whom also Guide-books may be obtained, for one penny each, and at the Lord Chamberlain's office, Windsor, from 1 to 3. The hours of admission are-from 1st April to 31st October, between 11 and 4; and from 1st November to 31st March, between 11 and 3. They are not shown when the Queen is in residence. Observe, The Armoury full of valuable arinour and interesting historic relics ; St. George's Hall ; the Waterloo Hall with portraits of Sovereigns, Statesmen, and Generals concerned in the great war against Bona- parte-the unrivalled Vandyks and superb Rubens' , &c., & c. Within the Castle walls is the Chapel Royal, open 12 to 4 gratis -one of the most elegant Perp. Gothic edifices in the world. Nothing can surpass the grandeur of the choir, hung round with the banners, helmets, and insignia of the Knights of the Garter . It is lighted by a modern E. window of good painted glass, beneath which is a carved marble reredos . -a memorial to the Prince Consort. See also the monument of Princess Charlotte (an inferior work of Wyatt) , of Edward IV. , in Gothic iron- work, wrought by Quintin Matsys-more probably by an English smith. Many of the wall paintings of chantries and chapels are old and curious. Here is the grave of Henry VI. See also the view from the Castle Terrace -the Long Walk and Windsor Park. The Inns at Windsor are the White Hart ( good) and the Crown. When the state apartments are closed owing to H. M.'s occupation and residence, the stranger will yet find much to admire in the gran- deur ofthe exterior of the Castle, the views from the Terrace, and the superb Chapel. Half-a-day may be pleasantly spent in a drive or walk along the Long Walk through the park and forest to the beau- tiful artificial lake called Virginia Water, 7 miles from Windsor. The Wheatsheaf is agood little inn and its garden opens directly on the lake. The walk along it to the Ruins brought from the neighbourhood of Carthage ; and the view of the Queen's Frigate ; of the Swiss Cottage, &c., on the opposite bank, are very pleasing. There is a shorter road to return by Bishopsgate, 4 miles. Strangers should not neglect to visit also :- ETON COLLEGE, CHAPEL, AND PLAYING FIELDS, mile from Windsor, connected with it by a bridge over the Thames, the nursery of the statesmen, warriors, and gentlemen of England for two centuries. HAMPTON COURT, PALACE, AND GARDENS, by South-Western Railway, three-quarters of an hour distant from Waterloo Station . The state apartments, Gallery of Paintings, Mantegna's Cartoons, and Wolsey's noble Gothic Hall hung with tapestries, are open gratuitously to the public every day except Friday(when they are closed to be cleaned) , XXXIII.-ENVIRONS OF LONDON. 309 The from 10 a.m. until 6 (Sundays from 2 to 6), from the 1st of April to the 1st of October, and the remainder of the year from 10 until 4. See the Gardens, Avenues, and Terrace walk by the Thames. Vine, in the Private Garden, and the Maze, in the Wilderness, are open every day until sunset ; for these a small fee is required bythe gardeners who show them. The chestnut avenue in Bushey Park in the month of May is an attractive sight. Inns.--The King's Arms, the Mitre, and the Greyhound. Catalogues of the pictures may be had in the Palace. CRYSTAL PALACE, at Sydenham, erected 1853-4, at a cost of £1,450,000. The expenses have been £60,000 a year. Trains from London Bridge and Victoria Station, Pimlico, and from Ludgate Hill and Victoria Stations of the London, Chatham, and Dover Railway, to the High Level Station of the Crystal Palace, every hour. The inspection of the interior will furnish occupation for 3 or 4 hours. Concert every day. The exterior, gardens and waterworks, alone will repay a visit. Open daily, 1s.; Saturdays, 2s. 6d.; Children, 1s. Queen's Hotel, Upper Norwood, is a quiet and comfortable family residence. HAMPSTEAD AND HIGHGATE, the two companion bills north of London, are pleasant places in themselves, and afford excellent views of London. Hampstead Heath was purchased, 1870, for 47,000l . from the lord of the manor, to be devoted entirely to the use of the public, Near Hampstead is Caen Wood, seat f Lord Mansfield. At High- gate is Holly Lodge ( Baroness Burdett Coutts). Highgate Ceme- tery deserves a visit. Coleridge is buried under the Grammar School Chapel, a modern red brick building. There is a plea- sant field path by the Ponds between Hampstead and Highgate. See Cemeteries. WIMBLEDON COMMON, 1 mile from Putney or Wimbledon Stations of South Western Railway. Early in July the Meetings of the National Rifle Association and the Volunteer Reviews take place here. HARROW-ON-THE- HILL, 10 miles N.W. of London, by London and N.W. Railway, 11 miles, trains in half an hour. Station 1 mile from the Church. Harrow is one of the most beautiful spots near London. Seated on the top of an isolated hill, its spire is a landmark far and wide, it enjoys a wonderfully extensive panorama, the only defect of which is the absence of water from the prospect. Harrow is chiefly remarkable as the seat of the 2nd great Public School of England. The chief houses are the residences ofthe masters, clus- tering round the school buildings. These are partly modern, but the old schoolroom is preserved, on whose panels are cut the names ofByron, Robert Peel, Sheridan, and 100 other distinguished names. Seethe Chapel, an elegant gothic edifice by Sir G. G. Scott ; windows with modern glass ; the school Library next it, decorated with por- traits of Vaughan, Longley, and other distinguished masters ; of Byron (by West, not good), Peel, Palmerston, &c. Besides books, it contains the collections of Egyptian antiquities given by Sir Gardner Wilkinson, of minerals, presented by Mr. Ruskin. Visit the Churchyard, from which the view is best seen. Observe the flat tomb under the elms ( Peachey's) on which Byron used to lie and muse. The church, in the entrance of which his natural daughter Allegra is buried. ST. ALBAN'S ABBEY, 21 miles north of London (trains from Euston- square, L. and N. W. Railway,and Midland Railway, St. Pancras, in 14hour), a very fine Early Norman church, of great length. Tower, perhaps Saxon; shrine ofDuke Humphrey. In St. Michael's Church, about 1 mile from the abbey, the great Lord Bacon is buried. Here is a statue of him sitting. See also the Roman walls of Verulam. 310 XXXIII.- ENVIRONS OF LONDON. At CHISWICK, 5 miles W. of Hyde Park Corner, is the Villa of the Duke of Devonshire, and the Experimental Garden of the Horti- cultural Society. Pope lived in Mawson's-buildings 1716-17, where he worked on his Homer, &c. Here his father died. Hogarth's residence on the terrace, and the grave of his dog Pompey in the garden. DULWICH GALLERY, 5 m. from Waterloo Bridge, is open every day except Sundays. Hours from 10 to 5. You can reach it by omnibus from Charing Cross ; also from Ludgate Hill or Victoria Stations, by Chatham and Dover Railway. This collection was formed by Mons. Desenfans for Stanislas Augustus, K. of Poland ; but the king dying before the pictures could be delivered, they were thrown upon Desenfans' hands, who sold some of them, but left the greater part, at his death (1807), to Sir Francis Bourgeois, R.A. He, acting on the advice of John P. Kemble, be queathed (1811) the Pictures, 354 in number, to the College, 10,000l. to erect and keep in repair a building for their re- ception, and 2000l. to provide for the care of the pictures. God's Gift College, at Dulwich, was erected, 1619, by letters patent of James I. , by Edward Alleyn, keeper of the bears to the King, actor, and rival of Richard Burbadge. The present Gallery attached to the College was built in 1812, from the designs of Sir John Soane. The Murillos and Cuyps, and Dutch paintings in general, are especially fine. ObserveMURILLO the Flower Girl, No. 248 ; Spanish Boys, Nos. 283 and 284 ; the Madonna del Rosario, No. 341 ; Meeting of Jacob and Rachel, No. 294.-CUYP (in all 19) : a Landscape, No. 68 ; Banks of a Canal, No. 76 ; a Landscape, No. 169, the finest of the 19 ; Ditto, No. 192 ; Ditto, No. 239; Ditto, No. 163.-TENIERS ( in all 21 ) : a Landscape, No. 139 ; a Land- scape, with Gipsies, No. 155 ; the Chaff Cutter, No. 185 (fine).-HOBBEMA : the Mill, No. 131.-REMBRANDT : Jacob's Dream, No. 179 ; a Girl leaning out of a Window, No. 206.-RUBENS : Samson and Dalilah, No. 168; Mars, Venus, and Cupid, No. 351 ( the Mars a portrait of Rubens himself when young) ; Maria Pypeling, the Mother of Rubens, No. 355. -VAN DYCK: Charity, No. 124 ; Virgin and Child, No. 135 ; Philip, 5th Earl of Pembroke (half- length) , No. 214 ; "The head is very delicate ; the hand effaced by cleaning." -Waagen ; Susan, Countess of Pembroke, No. 134 ; "quite ruined by cleaning." -Waagen. - WOUVERMANS : View on the Sea Shore, No. 93; a Landscape, No. 173 ; Ditto, No. 228.-BERGHEM : a Land- scape, No. 200 ; Ditto, No. 209.-BOTH: a Landscape, No. 36.-VELAS- QUEZ: Prince of Spain on Horseback, No. 194 ; Philip IV. of Spain (three-quarters), No. 309 ; Head of a Boy, No. 222.-ADRIAN BROUWER: Interior of a Cabaret, No. 54.-A. OSTADE : Boors Merry-making, No. 190 ; "ofastonishing depth, clearness, and warmth of colour." -Waagen. -KAREL DU JARDYN : the Farrier's Shop, No. 229 -Vander WerFF : the Judgment of Paris, No. 191.-VAN HUYSUM : Flowers in a Vase, No. 121 ; Flowers, No. 140.-PYNAKER : a Landscape, No. 150.—WAT- TEAU : le Bal Champêtre, No. 210.-TITIAN : Europa, a Study, No. 230. -P. VERONESE : St. Catherine of Alexandria, No. 268 ; a Cardinal, No. 333.- GUERCINO : the Woman taken in Adultery, No. 348.-ANNIBAL → XXXIII. -ENVIRONS OF LONDON. 311 CARRACCI : the Adoration of the Shepherds, No. 349. -GUIDO : Europa, No. 259 ; Martyrdom of St. Sebastian, No. 339 ; St. John the Baptist Preaching in the Wilderness, No. 331 ( fine) .- CARAVAGGIO . the Lock- smith, No. 299. -CLAUDE : Embarkation of Sa. Paula from the Port of Ostia, No. 270.-S. Rosa : a Landscape, No. 220 ; Soldiers Gambling, No. 271.-G. POUSSIN : a Landscape, No. 257.-N. POUSSIN : the Inspi- ration of the Poet, No. 295 ; the Nursing of Jupiter, No. 300 ; the Triumph of David, No. 305 ; the Adoration of the Magi, No. 291 ; Rinaldo and Armida, No. 315 (fine).-FRANCESCO MOLA : St. Sebastian, No. 261.-GAINSBOROUGH : Mrs. Sheridan and Mrs. Tickell (full- lengths, very fine) . Mrs. Sheridan was Maria Linley, the first wife of R. B. She- ridan, the dramatist, No. 1. - OPIE : Portrait of Himself, No. 3. - SIR T. LAWRENCE : Portrait of William Linley ( near No. 222). The Mrs. Siddons and his own Portrait, by Sir Joshua, are indifferent duplicates of the well- known originals in the Grosvenor Gallery and the Queen's Gallery at Windsor. In the College and Master's apartments are the following interesting portraits, partly bequests of Cartwright, an actor, 1687 :- Edward Alleyn, the founder, full-length, black dress, but much in- jured. Richard Burbadge, master, "a small closet-piece." Nat Field, the poet and actor, " in his shirt, on a board." Tom Bond, the actor, Richard Perkins, the actor, three-quarters, long white hair. Cartwright (senior) , one of the Prince Palatine's players. Cartwright ( junior), an actor, in a black dress, with a great dog. Michael Drayton, the poet, "in a black frame." Lovelace, the poet, by Dobson (fine) . Lovelace's Althea, with her hair dishevelled . John Greenhill, " the most promising of Lely's scholars " ( Walpole) , by himself. In the College is preserved Philip Henslowe's Diary and Account-book, a valuable document in illustration of the drama and stage in the time of Queen Elizabeth. The Revenue of Dulwich College has increased to about 15,000l. a-year, of which two-thirds go to the support of the School, and the rest in eleemosynary dispositions. The New College on Dulwich Common, 4 m. from the old College, is a very handsome edifice of red brick and terracotta, with much enrichment, in the ornamental Italian style of the 13th century, erected 1866-70, from designs of Charles Barry, Jun. , at a cost of more than 100,000l. It consists of 3 blocks ; in the centre, the Common Hall, Lecture Room, &c.; the S. wing the Upper School ; the N. wing the Lower, connected by a cloister. It will receive 700 Boys. GREENWICH PARK AND HOSPITAL (5 miles from Charing Cross), by Greenwich Railway from Charing Cross or London Bridge Stations, or by steamer, one hour, from Hungerford or London Bridge ; by omnibus from Charing Cross. GREENWICH HOSPITAL AND HALL are described in Section xxiii. This ancient royal park, of 174 acres, extends from the high 312 XXXIII.-ENVIRONS OF LONDON. ground of Blackheath down to Greenwich Hospital, agree- ably diversified with hill and dale. "One Tree Hill" and another eminence on which the Royal Observatory is erected , command a noble view of London and the river Thames. The Park of the Royal manor of Greenwich was planted, much as we now see it, in the reign of Charles II. Le Nôtre, it is said, was the artist employed ; but his name does not occur in the accounts. The Observatory was established in the reign of Charles II.: Flamsteed, Halley, and Bradley, were the first three Astronomers Royal. The older portion of the building was erected from the designs of Wren. The lower portion of the tower is the residence of Sir G. B. Airy, the present Astronomer Royal. "Greenwich Time,” known all over the world , is marked every day at 1 o'clock, by the dropping of a black ball about six feet in diameter, sur- mounting the easternmost turret of the old building, and acting in instantaneous communication by the electric tele- graph with London and other great centres. Strangers are not admitted to the Observatory, the Astronomical, Magnetical, and Meteorological observations conducted in the rooms requiring silence and quiet. The scientific instruments and apparatus are the most perfect the world has produced ; such are the Transit Circle, Sheepshanks' and Shuckburgh's Equatorials, Reflex Zenith tube, Altazimuth, &c. Here chronometers are tested by baking in an oven and by freez- ing in ice. Departments are also devoted to magnetic expe- riments ; testing the terrestrial galvanic currents ; to Meteo- rology, &c. The salary of the Astronomer Royal is 800l. a year, and the whole Observatory is maintained at about 40007. a year. Atrip down the river to Greenwich, a visit to Green- wich Hospital, a stroll in Greenwich Park, and a dinner afterwards of fish, not forgetting white bait, the special pro- duction of the Thames between this and Blackwall, at the Trafalgar or Ship Hotel, will be found a delightful way of passing an afternoon. WOOLWICH ARSENAL, by North Kent Railway from London Bridge or by Blackwall Railway to Blackwall Pier, and thence bySteamer; orby Steamer from Hungerford or London Bridge, direct to Woolwich. The Arsenal is close to Woolwich Arsenal Station . It is shown by tickets only-on Tuesday and Thursday 10 to 11½ a.m., and 2 to 4 p.m. , to be obtained from the War Office, Pall Mall. This is, perhaps, the largest depôt of military stores in the world, including all things necessary to equip armies and fortresses. Here are also the most extensive workshops, furnaces, forges, for theweld- ing of cannon, casting and filling of shells, preparation of bullets (Schneider), cartridge ( Boxer's), fuses, rockets, torpedos, chilled fron shells ( Palliser's), &c. The machinery of the Laboratory and the workshops excels, in extent and perfection, any existing in the XXXIII.- ENVIRONS OF LONDON. 313 world beside. The Arsenal is 4 miles in circuit , contains 20 steam- engines, 12 furnaces, 20 steam-hammers, and employs 10,000 persons, at times 14,000. On Woolwich Common, near the Royal Artillery Barracks and Military Academy, is the Rotunda, or Royal Military Repository (open daily to the public, 10 a.m. to 5 p.m.), containing a museum of ancient arms and armour, models of Batteries, Artillery, Vessels, Barracks, various Forts, Towns, Rock of Gibraltar, Lines of Torres Vedras, &c. In front of the Artillery Barracks is the Trophy Gun (16 ft. 4 in. long), taken at Buurtpoor. Made for the Emperor Aurengzebe, 1677. Also 4 Florentine cannon, 1750. The best way of seeing Woolwich and its curiosities is to obtain the escort of an Artillery officer. The Ordnance Stores are valued at six millions, and of this, the chief part is deposited at Woolwich. Everything necessary to equip an army is here provided in readiness : a siege train of 105 guns, and 750 rounds for each. KEW BOTANICAL GARDENS, 5 miles W. from Hyde Park Corner, on the road to Richmond. KEW ROYAL BOTANIC GARDENS are open to the public every day from 1 till dark; Sundays 2 to 6. They may be reached by S.W. Rail, 1st , from Waterloo-to Kew Bridge Station , whence it is mile walk over the Bridge to the Chief Entrance on Kew Green ; 2nd, by S.W. Railway, Richmond branch : -to Kew Gardens Station, oppo- site New Entrance to Gardens, on the road from Kew to Richmond. Another way of reaching Kew is by one of the Richmond or Kew Bridge omnibuses that leave Piccadilly every 4 hour-fare 1s. The Gardens, containing in the open air or under glass the plants, flowers, and vegetable curiosities of all countries, were laid out under the direction of the late Sir W. J. Hooker, the Botanist, and are now under the management of his accomplished son, Dr. Jos. Hooker. Sir W. Hooker's Handbook may be purchased at the Gardens, price 6d. The entrances are on Kew Green, by very handsome gates, de- signed by Decimus Burton, or by the New Cumberland Gate, close to the S. W. Railway Station. Visitors are obliged to leave baskets and parcels with the porter at the gate. The gardens are 75 acres in extent. They are beautifully laid out with fine and rare trees, flower-beds, a pinetum, &c. A new Range of Hothouses replaces the old Stoves, ex- pressly designed for tender Palms, with a tank for the Victoria lily; one wing is devoted to tropical plants, orchids, pitcher- plants, and is filled with the rarest exotics. The Palm House is 362 ft. long, 100 ft. wide, 64 ft. high, and cost nearly 30,000l. Some of the Palms have already reached the highest span of the roof. The Cocoa-nut, Mango, and the Banana readily bear their fruit, and the requisite moisture is distributed through six well-arranged spray jets, dis- 314 XXXIII.-ENVIRONS OF LONDON. tributing a shower 12 ft. diameter. The Fern-houses contain 600 species, including Tree and Tropical Ferns. Among the hothouses-those devoted to Cactuses are unrivalled for the rarity and variety of their contents. The Winter Garden, or Temperate House, is a Great Conservatory, 583 feet long, covering 1 acre, and is twice the size of the Palm House. It forms an era in Horticulture ; near it a lake of 5 acres expands. The Arboretum now extends from the Temperate House to the Pagoda. The Rockery is planted with 600 Alpine plants. Improve- ments are made every year, and the Gardens are receiving yearly extensions. The Pinetum has been augmented. At Kew Cinchona plants have been reared in large quantities for India, to furnish quinine, which has hitherto been brought from Peru and cost the East India Government 40,000l. a year ! The visitors to the Gardens in one year amount to five or six hundred thousand, chiefly for recreation and fresh air, but many botanical students take lodgings in Kew to prosecute their studies. The Museum of Economic Botany, formed by Sir W. Hooker, is filled with vegetable products, useful in the arts and manufactures, most instructive and interesting. The Herbaria or dried plants from all quarters of the world, are more extensive than any yet brought together ; they include those of the old East India Company. The Arboretum and Pleasure Grounds are beautifully kept, and most creditable to the present Director. In short, London and its neigh- bourhood affords no more pleasing sight. The Gardens are open daily. The salary of the Director is 8001. a year. RICHMOND PARK, 9 miles from London, 3 miles from Kew, and 1 from the Richmond Station of the London and South Western Railway, 15 or 20 trains daily from Waterloo. The Park of the Royal manor of Richmond owes much of its present beauty to King Charles I. and King George II. The principal entrance is close to the Star and Garter Hotel. Enter by this gate, keep to the right for about a mile along the terrace and past Pembroke Lodge, the residence of Earl Russell. The view begins a few yards within the gate, is stopped by the enclosure of Pembroke Lodge, but soon re- appears. The view overlooking the Thames is not to be surpassed, and the forest scenery of the Park itself is charming. An hour or two also may be agreeably spent in a walk along either bank of the Thames, to Twickenham. There are agreeable foot- paths on both banks, crossing the river by XXXIII.-ENVIRONS OF LONDON. 315 Richmond bridge or the ferry, from Twickenham to Ham. Many will prefer to make the excursion by water. Rowing boats abound. At Twickenham see Orleans House, residence formerly ofLouis Philippe, now of his son the Duc d'Aumale ; the church, in which Pope, the poet, is buried-of Pope's villa nothing remains but the site and grotto. Half-mile higher up is the far-famed Strawberry Hill, now the residence of Countess Waldegrave. The Thames below Richmond to Kew, presents attractive scenery ; the descent may be made in steamer or row-boat. An afternoon at Richmond and Twickenham, and a dinner afterwards at the huge hotel, the Star and Garter (rebuilt 1866, at a cost of 190,0007. ) , or at the Castle, near the bridge, will make a capital pendant to a like entertainment at Greenwich. r 1 INDEX.

      • The figures followed by an asterisk (*) refer to the pages of "Intro- ductory Information " at the commencement of the volume.

A ABNEY PARK CEMETERY, 134 Academy, Royal, 195 of Music, 197 " Achilles," Statue, 26 ; 266 Addison, Joseph, last moments of, 20 Adelphi, 201 Adelphi Theatre, 188 Admiralty, the, 54 Agricultural Show, 72 Hall, and Cattle Alban's ( St. ) Abbey, 309 Alban's ( St.) , 129 Albert Hall of Arts, 178 Albert Memorial, 28 Aldersgate-street, Plan of, 292 Aliens, 50*, 51 All Saint's, Margaret Street, 129 Almack's, 191 Alsatia, 263 Amphitheatre, Albert, 178 Andrews, Bp. Lancelot, where born, 251. Anne, Queen, 4; and her hus- band, 7 Antiquaries, Societyof, 194; library and museum 194, 195 Antiquities in London, 48* Apostolic Church ( Irvingite), 129 Apothecaries' Hall, 247 Apsley House, pictures, &c., 10, 11 Archæological and antiquarian ob- jects, 48* Architects, Institute and Museum, 200 Architects' Works in London, list of, 47* Arlington-street, 273 Armourers' Company, 248 Army, British, &c. , 54 Army and Navy Club, 228 BEGGING Artillery Company &Ground, 249 Art (Galleries of) , 45* Arts, Society of, Adelphi, 201 Artists' Studios, 51* Ashburnham House, Westmin- ster, 109 Asiatic Society, 202 Astley's Theatre, 189 Astronomical Society, 195 Athenæum Club, 231 Audit Office, 55 Austin Friars-Dutch Church, 132 B. BACON (Lord), where born, 250 Bank of England, 60 ; weighing and printing machines, 61 , 62 Bank Parlour, 61 Bancroft, Francis ; glazed coffin of, 121 Barber Surgeons' Hall, 248 Barclay and Perkins's brewery, 76 Baring picture gallery, 24 Barnard's Inn, 145 Bartholomew the Great (St.) church of, 117 ; Fair, 74 Bartholomew's (St.) Hospital, 215 ; lecturers, &c., 215, 216 Bath House, its fine collection of pictures, 21 Baths and Wash-houses, 225 Battersea Park, 34 Bavarian Chapel, 131 Baynard Castle, 294 Bayswater, origin of name, 294 Becket (St. Thomas) where born, 250 Bedlam , 216 Begging impostors, 226 318 INDEX. BELGRAVE Belgrave-square, Plan of, 301 Belgravia, 13* Berkeley-square Plan of, 302 Bermondsey, 17* Bethlehem Hospital, 216 Bethnal Green Museum, 179 Bible Society, 226 Billingsgate Market, 74 Birth-places of eminent persons, 250 Bishopsgate- street, Plan of, 293 Blackfriars Bridges, 44, 45 Blind, Schools and Asylums for the, 225 Bloomsbury-square, Plan of, 305 Blucher, 4 Blue Coat School, 209-211 Boar's Head in EastCheap, 21,263 Bonner's, Bp., Coal Hole, 283 Botanical Gardens, Regent's-park, 32; Kew, 313 Bow-street, Covent- garden, 288 Bow Church, and Bow bells, 123, 124 Breweries, 76 Bride's (St.) Church, Fleet-street, 124; source of Wren's idea of its construction, 124 Bridewell, 147 Bridges over theThames; London 43 ; South-Eastern Railway Bridge, 44 ; Southwark, 44; Blackfriars, 44 ; Alexandra Bridge, 45; Hungerford, or Charing Cross, 45; Waterloo, 45; Westminster, 45; Lam- beth, 46; Vauxhall, 46; Bat- tersea Railway Bridge, 46 ; Battersea Suspension Bridge, 46 Bridgewater House and Picture Gallery, 17, 18 British Museum, admission to the Reading Room, 149 ; ground plan, 151 ; origin and progress of the Museum, 150; antiqui- ties, 152; Townley collection, 152 ; Lycian Room, 152 ; Egyp- tian antiquities, 152 ; the Rosetta Stone, 153 ; Assy- rian antiquities, 153 ; Elgin marbles, 154 ; Phigalian marbles, 156 ; Ægina marbles, 156 ; Bodroum marbles, 156 ; Farnese marbles, 156 ; Minor Egyptian antiquities, 156; vases and Etruscan Rooms , 157; ronze Room, 157 ; Coins and CHARING CROSS gems, 158 ; Portland Vase, 158 ; Medal Room, 158 ; British and Medieval Room, 158 ; the Library, 159 ; Book rarities , 159 ; reading room regulations, 160 ; manuscripts, 161 ; plan of Reading-Room, 162 ; Print Room, 163 ; natural historycollections, 163; zoology 164; mineralogy and geology, 165; fossil organic remains, 165 ; northern zoological gal- lery, 166; insects and crustacea, 166 ; botanical collection, 167 ; portraits, 167 ; miscellaneous curiosities, 167 Brompton Cemetery, 134 Brooks's Club, 229 Brunel, Sir I.K., 47 Buckingham Palace, 1; pictures, 2 Budge Row, 245 Bunhill Fields Burial Ground, 134 ; its chief tenants, 135 Bunyan, 135 Burial places of eminent persons, 2522-55 Burials in London, 132, 133 Burlington House, 58 Byron (Lord), where born, 251 Byron, Wm., 5th Lord; his duel with Mr. Chaworth, 268 C. CABS, regulations andfares, 34* Calendar of Events, 261-264 Camden (William), born, 250 Camelford House, 290 Cannon Street Railway Terminus, 71 Canova, anecdote of, 45 Canterbury, Archbishop, residence of at Lambeth Palace, 9 Carlton Club, 229 ; Junior, 230 Carpenters' Hall, 249 Cartoons of Raphael, 177 Cattle Market, 72 Cavendish-square, Plan of, 304 Cæsar, Sir Julius ; his curious monument and epitaph, 120 Cemeteries and Burial Grounds, 132-135 Chancery, Inns of, 145 Chancery-lane, Plan of, 286 Chapel Royal, St. James's, 5 Chapels, Foreign, 131, 132 Chapter House, Westminster, 109 Charing Cross, 261 ; to West- minster Abbey, Plan of, 289 INDEX. 319 CHARING CROSS Charing Cross Bridge, 45 Charing Cross Hospital, 222 Charing Cross Railway Station, 71 Charitable Institutions and Hospi- tals, 214-226 Charles I.'s last night at St. James's Palace, 4; execution, 6; the Charing Cross statue, 265 Charles II., born, 4 ; statue, 265 Charter- House School and Hospi- tal, 207 Chatham (Earl of) , born, 250 Chaucer, where born, 250 Cheapside, 282 ; Plan of, 283 Chelsea Hospital, 219 Chesterfield House, 19 Chiswick, 310 Christ's Hospital, 209 ; eminent scholars, 210 ; mode of admis- sion, 211 Churches and Places of Worship, Cathedral and Episcopal, 94- 129; Dissenting, 129, 130; Ro- man Catholic, 130 ; Foreign, 131, 132 ; Jews' , 132 Churches of London, 94-132 " City," The, 12*, 15 *, 16* City of London Cemetery, 134 City of London School, 213 City Hallsand Companies,234-250 City Prison, Holloway, 149 City Road, 287 Clement s Danes, St., Cnurch, 280 Clement's Inn, 145 Clerkenwell 17 ; Sessions House, 139 ; Prison, 148 Clifford's Inn, 145 Clothworkers' Hall, 247 Clubs and Club Houses, 23 , 227 -234 Coal Exchange, 70 ; number of Seamen mployed. 70 Cockney, origin of the word, 235 Cold Bath Fields House of Correc- tion, 148 College, Heralds' , 198 College f Physicians, 198 College of Surgeons, 179-182, 198 Colleg s and Schools, 203-214 Colliers, Regulations of the port of London relative to, 43 Colney Hatch C metery, 134 Colonial Office, 4+ Columbia-square and Market, 226 Commerce of Lon on, 28*, 50 Commercial buildings, banks, &c. , 60-71 DRAWING ROOMS Commercial Docks, 69 Companies of London, and their Halls, 240-250 Concerts and Music, 44* Conservative Club, 230 Constitution Hill, 31 Copenhagen Fields, 72 Corn Exchange, 69 Cornhill, description of, 284 ; Plan of, 284 Cornwallis(Lord), where born, 251° Corporation of London, 234-238 County Courts, 138 Court (Presentation at), 4 Courts of Law and Justice, 136- 140 Coutts's Fountain, 32 ; Model Lodging houses, 226 Covent Garden Market, 75 ; Plan of, 306 . Covent Garden Opera House, 187 Cowley, where born, 250 Cremorne Gardens, 30*, 44* Cricket, 33* Crimean Memorials, 266 Cromwell, Oliver, last moments of, 135; his inauguration, 137 Crosby Hall, 249 Crystal Palace, site of first, 26 Crystal Palace at Sydenham, 309 Custom House, 50 D. DE FOE, where born, 251 , buried, 135 Deaf and Dumb Asylum, 225 Debtors' Prison, 148 Deptford, 27* Design, Government School of, 178, 213 Devonshire House, 13 Diningand Supper places, 42* —43* Dissenters' Chapels, 129-132 Dividends, payment at Bank, 62 Docks; West India, East India, St. Katherine's, London, Com- mercial, Victoria, Surrey, Millwall, 65-69 Doctors' Commons Will Office, 56 Dogs, Isle of 27 *, 300 Domesday Book, 59 Dorchester House, 24 Downing-street. 48 Drainage, Main. 79 Drapers' Hall and Gardens, 242 Drawing rooms ( Presentation at) 4,5 320 INDEX. DREADNOUGHT Dreadnought, Seamen's Hospital- ship, 224 Drury-lane, Plan of, 285 Drury- lane Theatre, 188 Dulwich College and Gallery, 310 Dwellings for the Poor, 225 E.

  • EAST INDIA DOCKS, 66 East IndianMuseum, 184; Library,

185 East London Railway, 47 Eastern Railway, Great, Termi- nus, 71 Electric Telegraph, 34* Ellesmere mansion and gallery, 18 Embankment, 20*, 41 , 42 Eminent persons ; London birth- places of, 250 ; burial-places , 252-255 ; dwelling-places, 256-261 Engineers, Civil, Institution of, 200 Environs of London, 50* ; 308- 315 Epsom Races, 32* Eton College, 308 Events, remarkable, 261-265 Exchange, Royal, 62 Exchequer, office of the, 49 Excise Office , 56 Excursions, 308 Executions , 147 Exeter Hall, 190 Exhibitions, Free, 149-187 Exhibition of Royal Academy of Old Masters, 196 Exhibitions in general, 44* ; of pictures, 45 , 46* . (See Mu- seums. ) F. GREENWICH Foe, De, 135, 251 Fogs in London, 10* Foreign Churches and Chapels, 131 , 132 Foreign Office, 48 ; Money, 31 * Foreigners, Hints to, 30* ; Hotels for, 40* Foundling Hospital, 223 ; the Chapel, 223 Fox (C. J.) , where born, 251 Franklin Relics, 186 Fox, Geo., 135 Free Exhibitions. ( See Museums. ) Free Hospital, 222 French Hospice, 222 French Protestant Churches, 131, 132 French Roman Catholic Chapel, 131 Furnival's Inn 145 G. GARRICK CLUB, 232 ; its pictures, 232, 233 Geographical Society, 202 Geological Society, 192 Geology (Practical), Museum of, 186, 187 George's (St.), Church, Hanover- square, 128 George's (St.) , Hospital, 219 George's ( St.), Roman Catholic Cathedral, 130, 131 George II. and his Queen, 4, 7; junction of their remains, 98 George III., statue of, 266 George IV. born, 4 ; statue of, 266 German Lutheran and Evangeli- cal Chapels, 131 ; Hospital, 226 Giles, St. , Cripplegate, 121 Globe Theatre, site of, 263 Goldsmiths' Hall, 243 Government Offices and Establish- ments, 47-60 FARADAY, MICHAEL, where born, Gracechurch-street, Plan of, 293 251, buried, 134 Farringdon Market, 75 Finsbury Park, 34 Fire Brigade, 140 75, 226 Fishmongers' Hall, 243 Flaxman Museum, 205 Gray's Inn and Gardens, 144 Gray, where born, 251 , 284 Great Queen- street, Lincoln's-inn- fields, Plan of, 288 Fish Market, Columbia Square, Greek Chapel, 132 Fish-street-hill, Plan of, 293 Fleet Prison, the late, 148 Fleet-street, Plan of, 281 Flower Market, Covent Garden, 75 Greek Church, 132 Green Park, 31 ; objects to be ob- served, ib. Greenwich Hospital ( Royal Naval College) , 220, 311 ; Chapel, &c., 221 Greenwich Park, and Observatory INDEX. 321 GRESHAM 311 , 312 ; Whitebait and Fish Dinner, 312 Gresham, Sir Thomas, 62, 64, 120, 241 . Grocers' Hall, 241 Grosvenor House, pictures, &c., 15 16 Grosvenor-square, Plan of, 301 Guards' Club, 226 Guildhall, 237 "Guildhall Library," 238 Guy's Hospital, 218 Guy of Warwick, effigy of, 291 Gymnasium, German, 192 H. HABERDASHERS' HALL, 246 Halicarnassian Marbles, 156 Hallowell, Capt., his present to Lord Nelson, 114 Hamilton Place, 272, 273 Hampstead and Highgate, 309 Hampton Court, 308 Hanover-square, Plan of, 303 Harcourt House, 22 Harrow-on-the-Hill, 309 Haymarket Theatre, 188 JEWS. Hospitals and Charitable InstituHospitals for Consumption, 222 tions, 214-226 Hotels, 38* Houses and dwelling-places of eminent persons, 256-259 House of Commons, 39 House of Correction, 148 Houses ofthe Nobility, 9-25 Houses of Parliament, 35-41 ; mode of admission to hear debates, 40 Humane Society, Royal, 225 Hungerford Bridge, 45 Hunterian Museum, 180 Hunting, 33* Hyde Park, 25 ; its attractions , 25, 26 ; plan of, 27 ; mob in, 28 1. IMPROVEMENTS, 52* India Office, 49 ; Museum, ib. Inland Revenue Office, 56 Inns, 38* Inns of Court and Chancery, 140 -146 ; their yearly rental, 146 Institute of Architects, 200 Helen's (St.) , Bishopsgate, and its Institution of Civil Engineers, 200 monuments, 120, 121 Heralds' College, 198 Hertford House, 22 Hervey, John, Lord ; scene of his duel with Pulteney, 31 Hicks's Hall, 139 Highgate Cemetery, 134 High- street, Southwark, Plan of, 295 Highwayman, exploit of a, 17 Hill's (Rowland) Chapel, 130 Hogarth, where born, 251 Holborn, 278 ; Plan of, 279 Holborn Viaduct, 278 Holdernesse House, 22 Holford, R. S., Esq., pictures of, 24 Holland 20 House, Home Office, 48 Kensington, Hon. Artillery Company, 249 Holloway City Prison, 149 Hope picture gallery, 23 Horse Guards, 53 Horsemonger-lane Gaol, 147 Horsleydown, 27* Horticultural Gardens and So- ciety, 34, 202 ; Plan, 203 Institutions and Societies, 192- 203 International Exhibitions, 179 ; plan of building, 203 Intramural burials, horrors of, 133 Ironmongers' Hall, 246 Irvingite Church, 129 Italian Opera Houses : Her Ma- jesty's Theatre, 187 ; Covent Garden Opera, ib. Lyceum, 188 J. JAMES'S ( ST.) CHURCH, Piccadilly 126 ; its font by Gibbons, ib. James (St. ) Garden- street, 129 James's (St. ) Hall, 42* ; 191 James's (St.) Theatre, 190 James's (St.) Palace, 3 ; drawing- rooms, levees, mode of pre- sentation, 4 ; Chapel, 5 James's (St.) Park, 28 ; Plan of, 30 James's ( St.) Square, Plan of, 303 James's (St.) Street and its nota- bilities, 274 ; Plan of, 275 Synagogue, Great Saint Helens, 132 ; GreatCen- tral Synagogue, Great Port- land-street, 132 Jews, 16* ; 322 INDEX. JOE MILLER Joe Miller, 105, 262, 230 Joe's, 41*, 284 Johnson, Dr., at Thrale's Brewery 77; Buildings , 142 John's (St. )Gate, Clerkenwell, 261 Jones (Inigo), where born, 251 ; his Works, 47* Jonson ( Ben.), where born, 250 ; where buried, 103 Junior United Service Club, 228 Judges, salaries ofthe, 136 K. KATHERINE'S (ST.) DOCKS, 66 Katherine's (St.) Hospital, 32 Kensal Green Cemetery and its tenants, 133, 134 Kensington Palace, 7 Kensington, South, Museum, 172 ; Plan , 173 ; Government School of Design at, 178 Kensington Gardens and the Ser- pentine, 34 Kew Botanical Gardens, 313 King's College and School, 205 King's College Hospital, 222 Kneller, ( Sir Godfrey, ) his place of abode, 288 L. LAMB, Charles, " true works," 185 ; where he lived, 258 Lambeth, 17* ; Bridge, 46 Lambeth Palace and Library, 9, 10 Langham Place and Church, 277 Lansdowne House, 16 Law Courts. (See Westminster Hall ; Inns of Court, 140) Law Courts, New, 136 Laws relating to Foreigners, 50* Leadenhall Market, 75 Learned Societies and Institu- tions, 58, 192-203 Leicester- square, Plan of, 304 Letters, postage of, 38*. (See Post Office. ) Levees, 5 Libraries-Brit. Museum, 159 Art Library of Reference, 178 City of London, 239 Indian Library, 185 Lambeth, 10 London Library, St. James's Square, 203 Patent Office Library, 203 Sion College, 202 Lincoln's Inn, 143 ; its chapel, hall, and library, 143, 144 LONDON HOUSE Lincoln's-Inn- fields , Plan of, 306 Linnæan Society, 195 Livings, value of, 94 Lloyd's Rooms, 63 ; Lloyd's Re- gister, 63 Lock Hospital, Chapel, and Asy- lum, 224 Lodgings, 38*-41* "Lollards' Tower," 9 London, geographical position of, its population, 9* ; statistics of its supplies offood , sewerage, &c. , 10 ; its boundaries- Westminster, 12 * ; Tyburnia and Belgravia, 13* ; Regent's Park, Marylebone and Blooms- bury, 14* ; " The City," 15* ; Spitalfields , Bethnal Green, Shadwell, 16* ; Clerk- enwell, Islington, the Surrey side, Rotherhithe, 17* ; bear- ings of the streets, its rail- ways, &c., 18* ; how to see the Metropolis, and objects of interest on the various routes, 19* ; the Thames, and objects on its banks, 25* ; general hints to strangers , 30*; foreign money, opera, races, public dinners, sports ; trial by jury, 31 *-33 * ; tele- graph, cab fares and regu- lations, luggage, 34* ; omni- buses, 36* ; hotels and lodg- ings, 38* ; restaurants and dining houses, 41-43* ; sup- per houses, 43* ; amusements and objects of interest, 43-48* ; revenue of City, 236; eminent persons born in, 250. (See also Post Office, Ex- hibitions, Remarkable Places, &c. ) London and North-Western Rail- way Station, 70 London and Suburban Railways, 52*, 53*, 70, 71 London, Bishop of, 10 London Bridge, 20*, 43 ; passenger traffic on, 20* London Bridge Railway Station, 70 London, Chatham, and Dover Termini, 71 London Docks, 67; the Wine Stores, 68 London Hospital, 222 London House, 10 INDEX. 323 LONDON INSTITUTION London Institution , 201 London Library, 203 London Stone, 48*, 261 London University, 203 London Wall, 202, 261 Lord's Cricket Ground, 33* Lord Mayor's Show, 235 ; dinner, bill of fare, 237, 238 Lyceum Theatre, 183 Lyon's Inn, 145 M. MAGDALEN HOSPITAL, 224 Magnus (St. ) Church, Bridge, 125 Main Drainage, 79 London Manchester House, and pictures, 22 Mansion House, the, 235 Marble Arch, 26 Markets, 72-76 Marlborough House, 7 Marshalsea, site of, 264 Martin-in-the- Fields ( St.) Church, 127 ; eminent persons buried in, 128 Martin (John) , the painter, 42 Martin's ( St. ) Hall, 190 Marylebone ( St. ) Church, 128 Mary-le- Bow ( St.) Church, Cheap- side, 123 Mary-le- Strand, ( St.) , 280 Mary Woolnoth ( St.) Church, 127 Mary's ( St.) Hospital, 222 Mary's (St.) Roman Catholic Chapel, 131 Mendicity Society, 226 Mercers' Hall and Chapel, 241 Merchant Taylors' Hall, 245 Merchant Taylors' School, 211 ; charge for education , 212 ; eminent scholars, 213 Metropolitan Board of Works, 52* Metropolitan Cattle Market, 72 Metropolitan Improvements, 52* Metropolitan Railway, 52* Meyrick Collection of Armour, 177 Michael's, St. , Cornhill, 125 Midland Railway Station, 71 Millbank Prison, 147 Millwall Docks, 28*, 69 Milton, where born, 250 ; lived, 257; buried, 253 Mint, the Royal, 57 Miscellaneous Exhibitions, 44* NEW INN Missionary Society's Museum, 187 Model of St. Paul's , 174 Model Prison, Pentonville, 148 Model Lodging Houses, 225 Money, foreign, 31 * Money Orders, 51 Montagu, ( Lady Mary W.) , born 251 Montague House, its portraits and miniatures, 15 Monument, Fish- street Hill , 239 Monuments, Public, 265 to the Prince Consort, 27, 28 More, ( Sir Thomas), where born, 250; where executed, 92 Munro Collection, 24 Museums and Galleries of Art, to which admission is free, 149-187; Bethnal Green , 179 ; British Museum, 149; South Kensington, 172 ; Dul- wich Gallery, 310; Geological, 185; Missionaries' , 187 ; Na- tional Gallery, 167 ; National Portrait Gallery, 177 ; Soane Museum, 182 ; Surgeons' Col- lege, 179 ; United Service, 185; Vernon Gallery, 176 ; Sheep- shanks Collection, 176 ; Tur- ner Gallery, 170, 171 ; Asiatic, 202 ; Architectural, 200 ; East Indian, 184 ; of Economic Bo- tany, 314; Patents' Museum, 178. Musical Performances, 44* N. NAPOLEON'S WILL, 56, 57 National Gallery, square, 167-172 Trafalgar National Life Boat Institution (Royal), 225 National Portrait Gallery, 177 National Standard Theatre, 190 Naval College, Royal, 222 Naval School, Royal, Greenwich, 220 Ned's, 41 *, 284 Nell Gwynne, 29, 220, 232, 285 Nelson, Lord, his only interview with Wellington, 49 ; Capt. Hallowell's present to him, 114 ; column to his memory, 265; dress worn by him at the Battle of Trafalgar, 221 ; place ofburial, 114 New Inn, 115 324 INDEX. NEW PUBLIC OFFICES New Public Offices, 48 New River, 78 New Road, 287 Newgate Prison, 146 Newgate-street, Plan of, 291 Newspapers, 51* Norfolk House, and its historical records and pictures, 14, 15 Northern Railway, Great, Ter- minus, 70 North London and London and North-Western City Termi- Dus, 71 Northumberland House, 12 ; pic- tures and objects of interest, 12, 13 Norwood Cemetery, 134 Nunhead Cemetery, 134 0. PRACTICAL ART Patents' Museum, 178 Paul's (St.) Cathedral, 111 ; fees, 112; history, 112; spoliation of Wren's design by James II., 113 ; completion of, 113 ; mo- numents, 114 ; plan, 115 ; dome, 116 ; whispering gal- lery, &c., 116 Paul's (St. ) Churchyard, 117 Paul's ( St.) School, 206 ; eminent scholars, ib. Paul's (St.), Covent Garden, church and parish register, 123 Paymaster General's Office, 53 Peabody Gift, 225 ; Statue, 64 Peel, Sir Robert, pictures of, 171 ; death, 31 Penitentiary Prisons, 148and Penn, where born, 251 Pentonville OLD BAILEY SESSIONS HOUSE, 138 Permanent Free Exhibitions, 149 Olympic Theatre, 190 Omnibus Routes, 36*, 37* Opera Houses, 187, 188 Overy, St. Mary, 117, 118 Oxford and Cambridge Club, 232 Oxford- street, description of, 287 P. PAINTER STAINERS' HALL, 249 Paintings, collections of, 45*, 46* 9-25 Palaces ofthe Sovereign :-Buck- ingham, 1-3; St. James's 3-5; Whitehall, 5-7 ; Kens- ington, 7 Pall Mall, 268 ; Plan of, 269 Pancras-in-the- Fields, St., Old Church and monuments, 121, 122 ; New Church, 128 Park Lane, Plan of, 290 Parks, Palaces, and Public Build- ings, Office of, 51 Parks, Gardens, &c., 24* : -Hyde, 25-28 ; St. James's, 28-31 ; Green, 31 ; Plan of, 30 ; Re- gent's, 31 ; Plan of, 33 ; Vic- toria, 32; Battersea, 34; Fins- bury, 34; Southwark, 34 ; Greenwich, 311 ; Richmond, 314; Kensington, 34 ; Kew, 313; Zoological, 191 Parliament, opening and proroga- tion of, 38 Parliament Houses, 35-41 Passports, 49 -187 Peter the Great's Mulberry Tree, 70; lived, 260 Peter's ( St. ) ad Vincula, 89 Physicians, College of, 198 Piccadilly, 270-272 ; Plan of, 273 Picton, 114 Pictures, collections of, public and private, 45 , 46*, 9-25 Piers, steamboat, 25* Pimlico (or Battersea) Bridges, 46 Places which visitors ought to see, 48*-308-315 99 connected with remarkable events, 261-264 Pleasure Seeker's List, 43* -308- 315 Poets' Corner, 105 Police Courts, 139 Police of London, 139-140 Polytechnic Institution, 44* Pool (The) , 20* , 27* Pope, where born, 251 ; where buried, 253 Popular preachers, 51* Population of London, 10*, 12* Port of London, 28*, 42 Portland, Duke of, mansion, 22 Portman-square, Plan of, 302 Portrait Gallery, National, 177 Post Office, 51 ; income and extent ofthe office, ib.; money orders, ib.; general directions, 52 ; postal regulations, 38* Poultry, Plan of the, 283 Practical Art (Department of), 214 INDEX. 325 PREROGATIVE Prerogative Will Office, 56 Presentation at Court, 4 Prince Consort Memorial, 28 Prince of Wales' residence, 7 Princess's Theatre, 189 Principal London Newspapers, 51* Principal Thorougefares, 17*, 18*, 267-307 Prisons, Gaols, &c., 146-149 Private Collections of Paintings, &c., list of, 25 Privy Council Office, 48 Probate Office, 56, 57 Property-Tax Office, 56 Public Offices, 48 Pulteney, scene of his duel with Lord Hervey, 31 Q. QUEEN's opening Parliament, 38 Queen, statues of, 37, 266 Queen-street (Great), Lincoln's- inn- fields , Plan of, 288 Queenhithe, 294, 299 R. RACES, Eprom and Ascot, 32* Railway Stations, 18* , 53*-55* , 70,71 Reading Room, British Museum, 160-163 Record Office, 59 Reform Club, 231 Regent's Park, 31 ; Plan, 33 Regent- st., 24 , 276 ; Plan of, 277 Remarkable Events, places and sites connected with, 261-264 Residences of Eminent Persons, 256-259 Restaurants, 41*-43* SPENSER ROYAL ACADEMY OF ARTS, 58, 195 -197 Royal Academy of Music, 197 Royal and eminent Personages, statues of, 265-266 Royal Exchange, 62 ; Lloyd's Rooms and Register, 63, 64 Royal Humane Society, 225 Royal Institution of Great Britain, 200 Royal Naval College, 222 Royal Society, 56, 192 ; its por- traits, &c., 193, 194 Royal Society of Literature, 201 S. SADDLERS' HALL, 249 Sadler's Wells Theatre, 189 Salters' Hall, 246 Sardinian Chapel, 131 Saviour's (St.) Church, 117 ; ac- tors and poets buried in, 118 Savoy, 280, Chapel, 122 ; Savoy Conference, ib. School of Design, 213 Schools and Colleges, 203-214 Scientific Societies, 192 Scottish Churches, 130 Sculpture to be seen, 46*, 47* Seamen's Hospital, 224 Season in London, 30* Selwyn, George, 229; anecdote of,20 Serpentine River, 26 Sewerage of London, 79 Shakspeare's Will, 56; his signa- ture, 238 Sheepshanks' pictures, 176 Sights of London, 43*-50* Sion College, 202 Skinners' Hall, 244 Richard Coeur de Lion, statue by Smithfield, 73, 261 Marochetti, 266 Richmond Park, 314 Smoke of London, 10* Soane Museum, 182 Rides round London, 50* Societies and Institutions, 192 Rolls Chapel, 59, 286 203 ; Benevolent, 214 Roman Catholic Cathedral and Society of Arts, Adelphi, 201 Chapels, 130, 131 Roman London, 70 Rookery, 287 Rotherhithe, 17* Rothschild, Baron Lionel de, Pic- tures and articles of vertu, 24 Rothschilds' Pillar, Royal Ex- change, 62 Rotten-row, 26 Rotunda, Woolwich, 313 Roubiliac, the Sculptor, 102 Rowland Hill's Chapel, 130 Soho-square, Plan of, 305 Somerset House, 55 South Kensington Museum, 172 ; ground plan of, 173 ; Govern- ment School of Design at, 178, 213 South Sea House, 293 Southwark, 17*; Bridge, 44 ; Park , 34 Spanish Chapel, 131 Spenser, where born, 250 ; where died, 289 326 INDEX. SPURGEON Spurgeon's Tabernacle, 51 * Stables, Royal, 3 Stafford House, 13, 14 Stamps and Taxes, office of, 56 Standard, Cornhill, 284 Staple Inn, 144 State Papers, access to, 6) Stationers' Hall, 248 Statistical Society, 202 Statues, Public, of Royal and eminent personages, 265, 266 Steamboats on the Thames, 25* Steel Yard, site of, 294, 299 Stephen's ( St. ) Church, Walbrook, 125 ; Chapel, Westminster, 39 Stephen's ( St.) Church, West- minster, 129 St. John's Gate, Clerkenwell, 261 Stock Exchange, 64 ; mode of elec- tion, & c., 65 Stow (John), where born, 250 Strafford ( Earl of), where born, 250; where executed, 93 Strand, Plan of, 280 Strand Inn, 145 Strangers (Hints to), 30* 33* Streets and thoroughfares of Lon- don ; 11 *-30* ; plans and de- scriptions of the principal, 267 -307 ; number of streets, 267 ; lengths ofprincipal streets, ib. in which eminent persons have lived, 260 Studios of Artists, 51* Subway, Thames, 47 Sunday Services, 51 * Supper Houses, 43* Surgeons, Royal College of, 198 ; anatomical museum, 180 Surrey Chapel (late Rowland Hill's), 130 Surrey Theatre, 190 Sussex, Duke of( the late) ; library and residence, 7 Sutherland, Duke of, mansion, 13 Swans on the Thames, 30* Swedish Church, 132 UNIVERSITY Temple Church, 118-120 ; Gar- dens, 142 Temple, Inner and Middle, 140 ; their Halls, 141 , 142 Temple, Sir William, where born, 251 Termini of Railways, 70, 71 Thames Embankment, 20 , 41, 42 Thames, River ; and objects of interest on its banks,25-30, * 41-43; plan of the river, 296 -300; Conservancy, 236 Thames-street, Plan of, 294 Thames Frozen over, 44 Thames Subway, 47 Thames Tunnel, 49*, 47 Thavies Inn, 145 Theatres, and Places of Amuse- ment, 43*, 187-192 Thomas's ( St.) Hospital, 217, 218 Thoroughfares, principal, 17*, 18*, 267-307 Times newspaper office, 49* TowerofLondon, 80 ; ground- plan, 83; horse armoury, 84-86, Queen Elizabeth's armoury, 86; jewel-house, 87 ; Wel- lington Barracks, 89 ; St. Peter's ad Vincula, 89 ; inter- ments, 89, 90 ; eminent per- sons confined there, 90-92 ; persons murdered, 92 ; persons born, ib.; executions, 92, 93 Tower Hamlets Cemetery, 134 Toxophilite Society, 32 Trafalgar-square, Plan of, 307 Traffic of London Bridge, 20* , 43, 44 Train-bands, 249, 250 Tramways, 37* Treasury, the, 47 Trinity House, 64 ; High Water Mark, Low Water Mark, 43,44 Tunnel under the Thames, 27* ; its construction, 47 Turner Gallery of Pictures, 170, 171 Sydenham ( Crystal Palace at), 309 Tussaud's Wax Works, 44* Sydenham, Dr. 268 Synagogues, 132 T. TABARD Inn, site of, 261, 295 Tattersall'sand the Jockey Club, 76 Telegraph, Electric, 34*, 280 Telegraph, General, Office, 53 Temple Bar, 238 ; traitors' heads exposed on, 239 Tyburn Gallows, 147, 264, 290 Tyburnia, 13* U. UNION CLUB, 232 United Service Club, 228 ; Junior ditto, ib. United Service Museum, 185 University of London, 203 INDEX . 327 UNIVERSITY University Club, 232 University College, 204 ; school terms and fees, ib. University College Hospital, 222 V. VALUE of Land in London, 10* Vauxhall Bridge, 46 Vernon Gallery, 176 Victoria Cemetery, 134 Victoria Docks, 69 Victoria Embankment or Thames Quay , 41 , 42 Victoria Park, 32 Victoria Railway Station, 71 Victoria Theatre, 190 Victoria Tower, 35 Vintners' Hall, 246 W. WALKER's eulogy of club- life , 231 Walks through London, 19* , 20* Walpole (Horace) where born, 251 ; his blazon of arms for White's Club, 229 ZOOLOGICAL the 95-109; monuments in the transepts, choir, and nave, 101-105 ; Poets' Coruer, 105 -107; cloisters, 109 ; Chapter House, 109 ; eminent persons buried in the Abbey, 110, 111 Westminster Bridge, 25*, 45, 46 Westminster Hall, 36 ; Law Courts, 136 Westminster Hospital, 222 Westminster, Marquis of ; his mansion, 15 Westminster School and its cele- brities, 206 White's Club, 228 Whitebait, 312 Whitecross-street Prison, 148 Whitefield's Chapel, Tottenham- court-road, 130 Whitehall Palace : its origin and destruction, 5 ; King Charles's execution, 6; paintings, sculp- ture, &c., 6, 7 White Tower, 82 Whittington Club, 234 Will Office, 56 War (Secretary of State for), Willis's Rooms, 191 Offices of, 50 Wash- houses and Baths, 225 Water Companies, 77 Water Gate ( by Nic. Stone), 26* Waterloo, model of the Battle of, 186 Waterloo Bridge, 26*, 45 Weavers' Hall, 249 Wellington, Duke of; his mansion, 10 ; interview with Nelson, 49; grave, 114 ; statues, 266 Wesleyan Chapel, City-road, 130, 287 ; Normal College, 214 West India Docks, 65 Wimbledon Common, 309 Windows, number of, in Somerset House, 57 Windsor Castle, 308 Woking Cemetery, 134 Woods' Office, 50 Woolwich Arsenal, 312 Workmen's Dwellings, 225, 226 Works, Office of, 51 Wren's Plan for rebuilding Lon- don, 15* ; his monument, 113 Y. Western Railway, Great, Termi- YORK COLUMN, 265 nus, 70 Westminster (City of), 12 * Westminster Abbey, 94 ; hours of admission, 95 ; ground. plan, 99 ; chapels and tombs, Z. ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS, Regent's- park, 31, 191 BRADBURY, AGNEW, AND CO., PRINTERS, WHITEFRIARS.


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