From The Art and Popular Culture Encyclopedia
"Scotland has an extremely strong tradition in philosophy (especially for such a small country). Duns Scotus was one of the premier Medieval scholastics. In the Scottish Enlightenment Edinburgh became the home for an astonishing amount of intellectual talent, including Francis Hutcheson, David Hume, and Adam Smith. However other cities also produced major thinkers at this time: Aberdeen for example, produced Thomas Reid. While the Scottish contribution in the 19th and 20th centuries has not been quite so impressive, there has been a steady stream of major philosophers." --Sholem Stein
Scotland is internationally known for its traditional music, which has remained vibrant throughout the 20th century, when many traditional forms worldwide lost popularity to pop music. In spite of emigration and a well-developed connection to music imported from the rest of Europe and the United States, the music of Scotland has kept many of its traditional aspects; indeed, it has itself influenced many forms of music.
Scottish traditional music, although both influencing and being influenced by Irish traditional music, is very much a creature unto itself, and, despite the popularity of various international pop music forms, remains a vital and living tradition.
Many outsiders associate Scottish folk music almost entirely with the Great Highland Bagpipe, which has indeed long played an important part of Scottish music. Although this particular form of bagpipe developed exclusively in Scotland, it is not the only Scottish bagpipe, and other bagpiping traditions remain across Europe. The earliest mention of bagpipes in Scotland dates to the 1400s although they could have been introduced to Scotland as early as the sixth century. The pìob mór, or Great Highland Bagpipe, was originally associated with both hereditary piping families and professional pipers to various clan chiefs; later, pipes were adopted for use in other venues, including military marching.