The September 1835 laws
From The Art and Popular Culture Encyclopedia
The Fieschi attempt on the life of King Louis-Philippe of France in July 1835 shocked the bourgeois and most of France, generally more conservative than the people of Paris. The Republicans were discredited in the country, and the opinion ready for energical measures.
Restriction of the freedom of the press
The third law restricted freedom of press, and provoked passionate debates. It aimed at outlawing discussions concerning the king, the dynasty and constitutional monarchy, accused of having prepared the grounds for the Fieschi attentat. Despite a strong opposition to the draft, the law was voted on 29 August 1835 by 226 voices against 153.
On the hearing of August 29, Thiers declares : « Il n'y a rien de plus dangereux [...] que les caricatures infâmes, les dessins séditieux, il n'y a pas de provocation plus directe aux attentats » (Le Moniteur universel, 30 août 1835).
Law to reinforce the powers of the president of the Cour d'assises
The first law reinforced the powers of the president of the Cour d'assises and of the public prosecutor against those accused of rebellion, detention of prohibited weapons or insurrectionary attempts. It was adopted on 13 August 1835, by 212 voices against 72.
Reform of Jury law
The second law reformed the procedure before the jurys of the Assises. The 4 March 1831 law restricted the declaration of innocence or culpability to the sole juries, excluding the professional magistrates belonging to the Cour d'assises, and requested a 2/3 majority (8 voices against 4) for a culpability sentence. The new law changed that to a simple majority (7 against 5), and was adopted on 20 August 1835 by 224 voices against 149.